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Desire for the Messiah

Tracing the Footsteps of Messiah from Creation to


Revelation
Part 2 Messiah in the O.T.
I

Messiah in the Torah

Introduction:
A.

Interpretation
1.

Panim

Shiv'im Panim l'Torah (


)- "The Torah
has 70 faces." This phrase is sometimes used to indicate
different "levels" of interpretation of the Torah. "There
are seventy faces to the Torah: Turn it around and around,
for everything is in it" (Bamidbar Rabba 13:15). The Torah
is a work of literary art, written by the LORD Himself, and
therefore shares characteristics with all other works of
art.

As the face, so the eye... There are seventy ways of


"looking" at the Torah. The Hebrew word for "eye" is
'Ayin. Ayin is one of the letters of the Aleph-Bet and
has the numerical value of seventy. Also, the Tanakh
indicates that 70 has a sacred significance:
70 Jewish souls that descended to Egypt
70 elders were chosen by Moses
70 sages of the Sanhedrin
70 years of King David
70 years of the Babylonian exile
70 Nations of the World
70 words of Kiddush
2.

Pardes

The Jewish chaz'l (sages) typically allow inference within


four main categories, with several levels of meaning
coexisting sumultaneously within a given pasuk (verse):
P'shat (

)- The plain (historical/grammatical)


meaning of the text.
Remez (
)
- The meaning which is only hinted at by
the text.
D'rash (
)- The implicit meaning of the text.

Sod - ( )The esoteric meaning of the text.


The initials of these four general categories yield
the acronym "PaRDeS" (meaning "orchard" or "garden"),
said to be a reference to the ultimate restoration of
mankind in the restored Garden of Eden or Paradise:

Note that according to some within Rabbinical Judaism,


PaRDes stands for:
P'shat - the 24 Books of the Written Torah.
Remez - the Six Orders of the Mishnah,
the Oral Torah.
D'rash - the Talmud and the Shulkhan
Arukh, the source of Jewish Law.
Sod - the Zohar of the Kabbalah, the secret of
mystical tradition.
B.

What are the Various Types of Messianic Prophecy?

1. There are promises about the First Coming of


JesusDirect Prophecies Note: All these texts must be
studied in context and knowing some Hebrew helps as well.
a. Torah: (Gen 3:15; 22;18; 49:8-12; Deut 18:15-19)
b. Prophets: (Isaiah 7:1-17; 8:9-10; 9:6-7; 11:1-2;
35: 5-6; 40:3-5 42: 1-6; 49:1-13;50:4-9;52:1353:12 Isaiah 61:1-3; Jer: 23:5-6; Micah 5:2; Zech:
11:1-17; 12;10; 13:7; Mal.3:1)

c. Writings:(1 Chron.17:10b-14; Psalm 2:7-12;16:111;22:1-31;110: 1-7; 118: 22; Dan. 7:13-14; 9:1-27)
2. Prophecy that has Typological Fulfillment
a. The word fulfill- the Greek word for fulfill is
pleroo which can mean render full, fill up or
complete- it means something broader than the
completion of a prediction. An example of this is
seen in Matt 5:17- fulfillment is seen in embodying,
bringing to completion, or perfecting.
Some of the features of typology are the
following:
1.
The prophets did not so much make singular
predictions but gave themes or patterns and that these
themes have several manifestations or fulfillments in
the course of human history.
2.
The type and the antitype have a natural
correspondence or resemblance. The initial one is
called the type (e.g., person, thing, event) and the
fulfillment is designated the antitype..
3.
The type has historical reality (e.g., Paul
declares that Adam is a figure (a type) of him that
was to come, i.e., the Messiah).
4.
The type is a prefiguring or foreshadowing
of the antitype. It is predictive/prophetic; it looks
ahead and points to the antitype.

3. Prophecy that shows Prophetic Telescoping:


These Prophecies Bridge the First and Second Coming of the
Messiah
Prophetic Telescoping is prophecy that bridges the
First and Second Comings of the Messiah. In this way,
prophecy telescopes forward to a time. The prophets saw
future events as distant peaks (i.e., events) without an
awareness of the large time gaps between them. Also, the
prophets understood that history had two major periodsthe
present age and the age to comealthough they did not
always make a hard distinction between the two. Prophetic
Telescoping stresses progressive revelation which means
that God does not reveal everything at once.
Example: Psalm 2: Does Jesus have universal dominion
over the nations? We must remember that part of Psalm 2 is
not fulfilled. This is what we call prophetic
telescoping.
3

Psalm 2 is one of several texts in the Hebrew Bible


where part of the text is fulfilled in the first appearance
of Jesus. But there is another part that will be fulfilled
in the future. In this sense, Jesus will return and
establish the earthly, national aspect of the kingdom of
God (Is. 9:6; Amos 9:11; Dan. 2:44; 7:13-14; 27; Is. 11:1112; 24:23; Mic. 4:1-4; Zech.14:1-9; Matt. 26:63-64; Acts
1:6-11; 3:19-26). In other words, one day the Messiah will
be King over His people (Matt. 19:28).
4. Themes That Help in Interpreting Messianic
Prophecy:
a. Promise Theme: The NT uses the word promise to
refer to the message of the Hebrew Bible, but the
Hebrew Bible itself does not have a consistent term to
refer to this concept. A cluster of words is used,
such as oath, word, blessing, promise, and others (See
Kaisers Messiah in the Old Testament).
***Walter Kaiser notes that the substance of this
`promise was most frequently, but not exclusively,
embodied in the content of the various covenants. He
further adds that the promise also includes these concepts:
that the gospel was also for Gentiles the gift of the
Holy Spirit the resurrection from the dead redemption
from sin Jesus the Messiah. (see Walter C. Kaiser, Jr.,
Toward Rediscovering the Old Testament (Grand Rapids,
Michigan: Zondervan, 1987).
that God has fulfilled this promise to our children in
that He raised up Jesus, as it is also written in the
second Psalm, YOU ARE MY SON; TODAY I HAVE BEGOTTEN YOU.
(Acts 13:33)
But according to His promise we are looking for new
heavens and a new earth, in which righteousness dwells.
(2 Peter 3:1

A.

Messiah in Genesis
Class 1.

Genesis 1:1-3, Genesis 1:26 The Power of

Messiah

Genesis 1:1-3

i.
ii.
iii.
iv

a.

Berechit = In the Beginning


Barah = Created
Elohim = God
Hashamyim = Heaven
Ha Eretz =Earth

We can see the Power of Messiah in Creation.


-In the Beginning, God created the heavens and the earth, The earth was formless and
void, and darkness was over the surface of the deep, and the Spirit of God was moving over the
surface of the waters. Then God said, Let there be light; and there was light. God saw that the
light was good; and God separated the light from the darkness. God called the light day, and the
darkness He called night. And there was evening and there was morning, one day.
(Genesis 1:5)
- Then God said, Let Us make man in Our image, according to Our likeness; and let
them rule over the fish of the sea and over the birds of the sky and over the cattle and over all the
earth, and over every creeping thing that creeps on the earth.
( Genesis 1:26)
-In the Beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God and the Word was God,
He was in the beginning with God. All things came into being through Him, and apart from Him
nothing came into being that has come into being. In Him was life, and the life was the Light of
men. The Light shines in the darkness, and the darkness did not comprehend it.
(John 1:5)
- And the Word became flesh, and dwelt among us, and we saw His glory, glory as of
the only begotten from the Father, full of grace and truth.
(John 1:14)
i
ii
iii

iv

We see His Power from the Beginning


We see His Power as Creator
We see His Power as God
-We see Him as the Spirit
-We see Him as The Word
-We see Him as Wisdom
-We see Him as The Light
We see His Power in Heaven

Genesis 1:1, John 1:1


Genesis 1:1, John 1:3, Co:16
Genesis 1:1, John 1:1, John 8:
Genesis 1:2,
Genesis 1:3, John 1:19
Genesis 1:3, John 1:1
Genesis 1:3, John 10
Genesis 1:1, I Cor

v.

b.

We see His Power on Earth

Genesis 1:1, John 1:19

We see His Power in the Words

1. The bet in Bereshit (Gen 1:1) 'in the beginning God created the heaven and the earth.
The very first letter of the Torah is made large and carries 4 taggin as opposed to its
normal one. Indeed, it is noted in Masechet Sofrim that originally all the letters of
Bereshit were a bit larger not just the bet - as shown in this excerpt from a Moroccan
scroll below:

The two letters AYIN and DALET are enlarged in the first sentence of the Shema.
Together, these two letters form the word ED, which means witness, suggesting
that the Shema is a testimony of the sovereignty of God and our primary duty to
love Him with our whole being.
Interesting the word ECHAD means unity

However there is one exception were the scribe is mandated to make the letter
incomplete. The letter in question in the vav in the word shalom in Numbers
25:12.

This must be written with a break in the vertical line according to the Ritva (R.
Yom Tov ben Avraham Ishbili Spain c. 1250-1330), though some think it either a
small vav or a normal vav but a little shorter "in front".
The text concerns a covenant of peace (brit shalom) that is offered to Pinchas the
somewhat over-zealous and fiery priest who skewered Zimri, the leader of the
tribe of Shimon and Kozbi a midianite woman. Pinchas' act stopped both the
Israelite's bout of immoral behaviour and the plague they had been suffering
because of it, and he was rewarded for it.
However even the Massoretes must have been shocked by the violence of
Pinchas' action as they made his blessing only partial through the broken vav
which explains that true peace cannot be brought about through violence and that
the two concepts are incompatible
Many sources explain the need for these markings and it is written as a express
rule for the sofer (scribe).

R. Shimeon ben Gamliel explains that the in the future this section is to be
removed from here and written in its [proper] place) - presumably when the
Messiah comes!
i.

Genesis 1:1

In the Beginning = bereishit =

The Torah's first word, bereishit, is an acronym for Bet reishit -- "two firsts" (in Hebrew,
the second letter of the alphabet, Bet, stands for the number two).
This is to say that the world was created for the sake of two things called "first" (reishit)

1.
the Torah (Proverbs 8:22)
2.
and the people of Israel (Jeremiah 2:3).
(Rashi; Midrash Rabbah)
In the beginning of Gods creation of: Heb. . This verse calls for a midrashic
interpretation [because according to its simple interpretation, the vowelization of the
word , should be different, as Rashi explains further]. It teaches us that the sequence
of the Creation as written is impossible, as is written immediately below] as our Rabbis
stated (Letters of R. Akiva , letter beth ; Gen. Rabbah 1:6; Lev. Rabbah 36:4): [God
created the world] for the sake of the Torah, which is called (Prov. 8:22): the beginning
of His way, and for the sake of Israel, who are called (Jer. 2:3) the first of His grain.

"In the beginning" refers to the beginning of time --the first, indivisible moment, before
which time did not exist.
(Soforno)

Gods Order of Creation


In the beginning God
created the heavens and
the earth.
Genesis 1 :1

N O TE:
In the first three days God shaped the creation.
In the second three days He populated the creation

DAY 1
n
n
n
n

DAY 3

DAY 2

DAY 4

Genesis 1:19-13
Genesis 1:1-5
Genesis 1:6-8
n God divided the waters above n Dry land appeared
Heavens and the Earth
and below the firmament n Seas gathered together
Light
n Grass and treeS
Divided Light from Darkness
Day and Night

DAY 6

DAY 5
n
n

Genesis 1:20-23
Sea animals
Birds

n
n
n

Genesis 1:14-19
Lights in the firmament
to give light on the
earth.

DAY 7

Genesis 1:24-31
Genesis 2:2-3
Land animals
n God rested from all His work
Man
Woman
Barnes Bible Charts

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Why does the Torah begin with a Bet (i.e., the number two)?
Because G-d said: I built two palaces--one above and one below.
I formed the laws of nature, and I established the life of the World to Come.
(Otiyot d'Rabbi Akiva)
The Torah says: "I was the tool of G-d's artistry." An architect who builds a palace does
not do so on his own; he has scrolls and notebooks which he consults regarding how to
place the rooms, where to set the doors. So it was with G-d: He looked into the Torah and
created the world.
(Midrash Rabbah)
G-d looked into the Torah and created the world. Man looks into Torah and sustains the
world.
(Zohar)
With its opening statement, the Torah is establishing that it is not merely a rulebook, a list
of things to do or not to do. It is G-d's blueprint for creation, our guide for realizing
the purpose for which everything in heaven and earth was made. Every creature,
object and element, every force, phenomenon and potential, every moment of time, was
created by G-d toward a purpose.
Our mission in life is to conquer the lands of the seven nations and transform them into a
Holy Land--a world permeated with the goodness and perfection of its Creator.
(The Lubavitcher Rebbe)

1.

Biblical Understanding

Possession
The LORD possessed me at the beginning of His way, Before His works of old.
(Proverbs 8:22)
Declaration
Who has declared this from the beginning, that we might know?
Or from former times, that we may say, He is right!?
Surely there was no one who declared,
Surely there was no one who proclaimed,
Surely there was no one who heard your words.
(Isaiah 41:26)
Declaring the end from the beginning,
And from ancient times things which have not been done,
Saying, My purpose will be established,
And I will accomplish all My good pleasure';

(Isaiah 46:10)

Rabbis Understanding

Biblical Data:
The first book of the Torah, and therefore of the whole Bible, is called by the Jews
"Bereshit," after the initial word; by the Septuagint and by Philo it is called
() = "origin" (of the world), after the contents, and hence "Genesis" has become
the usual non-Hebrew designation for it. According to the Masorah, it is divided into
ninety-one sections ("parashiyyot"), forty-three of which have open or broken lines
("petuot"), and forty-eight closed lines ("setumot"); or into forty-three chapters
("sedarim") and twenty-nine sections ("pisot"); for reading on the Sabbath, into twelve
lessons; according to the division adopted from the Vulgate, into fifty chapters with 1,543
verses.
Nature and Plan:
Genesis is a historical work. Beginning with the creation of the world, it recounts the
primal history of humanity and the early history of the people of Israel as exemplified in
the lives of its patriarchs, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and their families. It contains the
historical presupposition and basis of the national religious ideas and institutions of

Israel, and serves as an introduction to its history and legislation. It is a well-planned and
well-executed composition of a single writer, who has recounted the traditions of his
people with masterly skill, combining them into a uniform work, without contradictions
or useless repetitions, but preserving the textual and formal peculiarities incident to their
difference in origin and mode of transmission.
Generations
The author has treated the story as a series of ten "generations" ("toledot"); namely 1
(1) of heaven and earth, ch. ii. 4-iv.;
(2) of Adam, v.-vi. 8;
(3) of Noah, vi. 9-ix.;
(4) of Noah's sons, x.-xi. 9;
(5) of Shem, xi. 10-26;
(6) of Terah, xi. 27-xxv. 11;
(7) of Ishmael, xxv. 12-18;
(8) of Isaac, xxv. 19-xxxv.;
(9) of Esau, xxxvi.;
(10) of Jacob, xxxvii.-1.
Time
"In the beginning" refers to the beginning of time --the first, indivisible moment,
before which time did not exist.
(Soforno)
Why does the Torah begin with a Bet (i.e., the number two)?
Because G-d said: I built two palaces--one above and one below.
I formed the laws of nature, and I established the life of the World to Come.
(Otiyot d'Rabbi Akiva)
Blueprint
The Torah says: "I was the tool of G-d's artistry." An architect who builds a palace
does not do so on his own; he has scrolls and notebooks which he consults regarding how
to place the rooms, where to set the doors. So it was with G-d: He looked into the Torah
and created the world.
(Midrash Rabbah)

The year of the Creation is the year 3949 before the common era. The ten generations before the Flood attain to ages varying
between 777 years (Lamech) and 969 years (Methuselah), with the exception of Enoch (365 years). Those of the ten generations after
the Flood vary between 600 years (Shem) and 148 (Nahor). All the reasons for the details of this chronology have not yet been
discovered. Oppert has declared (in "R. E. J." 1895, and in Chronology) that the figures are connected with ancient Babylonian
chronological systems. The variations found in the Septuagint and in the Samaritan Pentateuch were introduced for certain purposes
(see Jacob in "J. Q. R." xii. 434 et seq.). The correctness of the Masoretic figures, however, is evident from the context.

10

With its opening statement, the Torah is establishing that it is not merely a rulebook, a
list of things to do or not to do. It is G-d's blueprint for creation, our guide for realizing
the purpose for which everything in heaven and earth was made. Every creature, object
and element, every force, phenomenon and potential, every moment of time, was created
by G-d toward a purpose.
Our mission in life is to conquer the lands of the seven nations and transform them into a
Holy Land--a world permeated with the goodness and perfection of its Creator.
(The Lubavitcher Rebbe)
For the Jews
Said Rabbi Yitzchak: The Torah ought to have started with "This month shall be to
you..." (Exodus 12:2), which is the first mitzvah commanded to the people of Israel.
Why, then, does it begin with "In the beginning [G-d created the heavens and the
earth]"? ... So that if the nations of the world say to Israel, "You are thieves, for having
conquered the lands of the seven nations," they would reply to them: "The entire world is
G-d's; He created it, and He grants it to whoever He desires. It was His will to give it to
them, and it was His will to take it from them and give it to us."
(Rashi, Genesis 1:1)
The Torah's first word, bereishit, is an acronym for Bet reishit -- "two firsts" (in Hebrew,
the second letter of the alphabet, Bet, stands for the number two).
This is to say that the world was created for the sake of two things called "first" (reishit)
1.
the Torah (Proverbs 8:22)
2.
and the people of Israel (Jeremiah 2:3).
(Rashi; Midrash Rabbah)

3.

Messianic Understanding

Judgment
For then there will be a great tribulation, such as has not occurred since the beginning
of the world until now, nor ever will.
(Mat
24:21)
For those days will be a time of tribulation such as has not occurred since the beginning
of the creation which God created until now, and never will.
(Mar 13:9)
the one who practices sin is of the devil; for the devil has sinned from the beginning.
The Son of God appeared for this purpose, to destroy the works of the devil.
(I John 3:8)

11

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God
( John 1:1)
Eternal Power
For since the creation of the world His invisible attributes, His eternal power and
divine nature, have been clearly seen, being understood through what has been made, so
that they are without excuse.
(Romans 10:20)
And,
Creation
YOU, LORD, IN THE BEGINNING LAID THE FOUNDATION OF THE EARTH,
AND THE HEAVENS ARE THE WORKS OF YOUR HANDS;
(Hebrews 1:10)
Healing
Since the beginning of time it has never been heard that anyone opened the eyes of a
person born blind.
( John 9:32)
Resurrection
He is also head of the body, the church; and He is the beginning, the firstborn from the
dead, so that He Himself will come to have first place in everything.
(Col 1:18)
Salvation
But we should always give thanks to God for you, brethren beloved by the Lord, because
God has chosen you from the beginning for salvation through sanctification by the Spirit
and faith in the truth.
( 2 TH 2:13)
and saying, Where is the promise of His coming? For ever since the fathers fell asleep,
all continues just as it was from the beginning of creation.
(II Peter 3:4)
Then He said to me, It is done. I am the Alpha and the Omega, the beginning and the
end. I will give to the one who thirsts from the spring of the water of life without cost.
(Rev 21:6)
Make Known
I am writing to you, fathers, because you know Him who has been from the beginning. I
am writing to you, young men, because you have overcome the evil one. I have written to
you, children, because you know the Father.
(I John 2:13)
To Witness

12

To the angel of the church in Laodicea write: The Amen, the faithful and true Witness,
the Beginning of the creation of God, says this:
( Rev 3:4)
ii.

Genesis 1:1

Creator

The Hebrew word for Create is Bara. =


The Hebrew verb bara ("created") employed by this verse specifically means the
creation of something from nothing.
(Ibn Ezra; Nachmanides)

1.

Biblical Understanding

For Mans Generations


God created man in His own image, in the image of God He created him; male and
female He created them.
(Genesis 1:27)
Indeed, ask now concerning the former days which were before you, since the day that
God created man on the earth, and inquire from one end of the heavens to the other. Has
anything been done like this great thing, or has anything been heard like it?
(Deut 4:2)
For Creation Generations
This is the account of the heavens and the earth when they were created, in the day that
the LORD God made earth and heaven.
(Genesis 2:4)
You send forth Your Spirit, they are created;
And You renew the face of the ground.

(Psalms 104:30)

Thus says God the LORD,


Who created the heavens and stretched them out,
Who spread out the earth and its offspring,
Who gives breath to the people on it
And spirit to those who walk in it,

(Isaiah 42:5)

Drip down, O heavens, from above,


And let the clouds pour down righteousness;
Let the earth open up and salvation bear fruit,
And righteousness spring up with it.
I, the LORD, have created it.

(Isaiah 45:8)

13

For thus says the LORD, who created the heavens (He is the God who formed the earth
and made it, He established it and did not create it a waste place, but formed it to be
inhabited), I am the LORD, and there is none else.
(Isaiah 45:18)
For Blessings
Everyone who is called by My name,
And whom I have created for My glory,
Whom I have formed, even whom I have made.
It is I who made the earth, and created man upon it.

(Isaiah 43:27)

It is I who made the earth, and created man upon it.


I stretched out the heavens with My hands
And I ordained all their host.

(Isaiah 45:12)

Let them praise the name of the LORD,


For He commanded and they were created.

(Psalms 148:5)

You were in Eden, the garden of God;


Every precious stone was your covering:
The ruby, the topaz and the diamond;
The beryl, the onyx and the jasper;
The lapis lazuli, the turquoise and the emerald;
And the gold, the workmanship of your settings and sockets,
Was in you.
On the day that you were created
They were prepared.

(Ezekiel 28:13)

For a Witness
That they may see and recognize,
And consider and gain insight as well,
That the hand of the LORD has done this,
And the Holy One of Israel has created it.

2.

(Isaiah 41:20)

Rabbis Understanding

For Israel

14

"The entire earth belongs to the Holy One, blessed be He; He created it (this we learn
from the story of the Creation) and gave it to whomever He deemed proper When He
wished, He gave it to them, and when He wished, He took it away from them and gave it
to us.
With its opening statement, the Torah is establishing that it is not merely a rulebook, a list
of things to do or not to do. It is G-d's blueprint for creation, our guide for realizing the
purpose for which everything in heaven and earth was made. Every creature, object and
element, every force, phenomenon and potential, every moment of time, was created by
G-d toward a purpose. Our mission in life is to conquer the lands of the seven nations and
transform them into a Holy Land--a world permeated with the goodness and perfection of
its Creator.
(The Lubavitcher Rebbe)
For Torah
the vowelization of the word , should be different, as Rashi explains further].
It teaches us that the sequence of the Creation as written is impossible, as is written
immediately below] as our Rabbis stated (Letters of R. Akiva , letter beth ; Gen.
Rabbah 1:6; Lev. Rabbah 36:4): [God created the world] for the sake of the Torah, which
is called (Prov. 8:22): the beginning of His way, and for the sake of Israel, who are
called (Jer. 2:3) the first of His grain.
But if you wish to explain it according to its simple meaning, explain it thus: At the
beginning of the creation of heaven and earth, the earth was astonishing with emptiness,
and But Scripture did not come to teach the sequence of the Creation, to say that
these came first, for if it came to teach this, it should have written2
(Rashi)
For Torah
Rashi said that that the text would have been written slightly differently if its primary
purpose had been to teach the order in which creation took place. Later authors used the
translation "In the beginning" as proof that God created out of nothing (ex nihilo), but it
is not likely that the biblical author was concerned with this problem
(The Lubavitcher Rebbe)
For Justice
Gods creation of the heavens and the earth: But it does not say of the Lords creation
of (i.e., it should say of the Lord Gods creation of as below 2:4 on the day that the
2

Rashi said that that the text would have been written slightly differently if its primary purpose had been to teach the order in which
creation took place. Later authors used the translation "In the beginning" as proof that God created out of nothing (ex nihilo), but it is
not likely that the biblical author was concerned with this problem

15

Lord God made earth and heaven) for in the beginning it was His intention to create it
with the Divine Standard of Justice, but he perceived that the world would not endure; so
He preceded it with the Divine Standard of Mercy, allying it with the Divine Standard of
Justice, and that is the reason it is written:on the day the Lord God made earth and
heaven.
(Rashi)
To Sustain the World
G-d looked into the Torah and created the world. Man looks into Torah and sustains the
world.
(Rashi)
Time was the first creation; thus the first mitzvah is kiddush hachodesh--the
sanctification of time by setting the months and seasons of the Jewish calendar.
(The Lubavitcher Rebbe)
3.

Messianic Understanding

Through Him
In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God, He
was in the beginning with God. All things came into being through Him, and apart from
Him nothing came into being that has come into being
(John 1:1-3)
With Order
And He answered and said, Have you not read that He who created them from the
beginning MADE THEM MALE AND FEMALE,
(Mat 19:4)
For Him
nor height, nor depth, nor any other created thing, will be able to separate us from the
love of God, which is in Christ Jesus our Lord.
(Romans 8:39)
16 For by him were all things created, that are in heaven, and that are in earth, visible
and invisible, whether they be thrones, or dominions, or principalities, or powers: all
things were created by him, and for him:
(Colossians 1:16)
11 Thou art worthy, O Lord, to receive glory and honour and power: for thou hast
created all things, and for thy pleasure they are and were created.
(Revelation 4:11)

16

And every created thing which is in heaven and on the earth and under the earth and on
the sea, and all things in them, I heard saying, To Him who sits on the throne, and to the
Lamb, be blessing and honor and glory and dominion forever and ever.
(Rev 5:13)
and swore by Him who lives forever and ever, WHO CREATED HEAVEN AND
THE THINGS IN IT, AND THE EARTH AND THE THINGS IN IT, AND THE SEA
AND THE THINGS IN IT, that there will be delay no longer
(Rev 10:6)
For Good Works
For we are His workmanship, created in Christ Jesus for good works, which God
prepared beforehand so that we would walk in them
(Eph 2:10)
To Make Known
and to bring to light what is the administration of the mystery which for ages has been
hidden in God who created all things;
(Eph 3:9)
For Honor
Worthy are You, our Lord and our God, to receive glory and honor and power; for You
created all things, and because of Your will they existed, and were created.
(Rev 4:11)
And every created thing which is in heaven and on the earth and under the earth and on
the sea, and all things in them, I heard saying, To Him who sits on the throne, and to the
Lamb, be blessing and honor and glory and dominion forever and ever.
(Rev 5:13)

iii.

Genesis 1:1

Elohim

The Hebrew word for God is El. From the beginning of Gods creating, He wants us to
know he is One, yet His Oneness is unique.

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1.

Biblical Understanding

The generic term Elohim refers to the true "God" (2507x), as well as to "gods,"
"goddesses," and things divine or mighty. In total, it occurs 2602 times in the HB.
In the Bible, El is often combined in proper names: Isra-El; Shmu-El (Samuel); El-ijah;
Immanu-El; Jo-El; Dani-El; Beth-El. It's also found in compounds: El Shaddai, El Elyon,
El Roi, El Olam.3
i.

Jewish idea of Elohim can be found on http://www.hebrewstreams.org/works/monotheism/context-elohim.html


1.

"Elohim" is found 2602 times in the Hebrew Bible


(Tanakh, Old Testament).

2.

The word is used for: the true God, false gods, supernatural
spirits (angels), and human leaders (kings, judges, the
messiah).

3.

The "im" ending denotes a plural masculine noun. Most of


the time, however, when the noun is used for the true God
it has singular masculine verbs. This is contrary to rules of
Hebrew grammar.

4.

When used of the true God, "Elohim" denotes what is


called by linguists a plural of majesty, honor, or fullness.
That is, he is GOD in the fullest sense of the word. He is
"GOD of gods" or literally, "ELOHIM of elohim" (Deut
10:17; Ps 136:2)

The most important point of the theology of Genesis, after this fundamental fact, is the
intentional variation in the name of God. It is the most striking point of the book that the
same God is now called "Elohim" and now "Yhwh." In this variation is found the key to
the whole book and even to the whole Pentateuch. It is not accidental; nor are the names
used indifferently by the author, though the principle he follows can not be reduced to a
simple formula, nor the special intention in each case be made evident.
3

http://www.hebrew-streams.org/works/monotheism/context-elohim.html

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2.

Rabbis Understanding

And the spirit of G-d hovered above the surface of the waters (1:2)
"The spirit of G-d hovered" -- this is the spirit of Moshiach
(Midrash Rabbah)
In the Hebrew Bible there are four words translated "God": El, Elah, Elo'ah, Elohim.
The oldest Semitic word meaning "God" is El. Linguists believe its base meaning is
strength or power. "El" is the Strong One, or the Deity (God). It occurs 238x in the
Bible, and is first used in Genesis 14:18 in the phrase "God Most High" [El Elyon].
The Canaanites called their chief deity El, the Mighty Bull. After the Israelites entered
Canaan, they adopted this generic word "El" for their God, though "Elohim" took
precedence. In some Canaanite myths, one of El's sons was the notorious Ba'al, the
nemesis of the true God throughout much of Israel's history.
Ashtoreth (goddess) 1 Kgs 11:5, 33
Baal 1 Kgs 18:24
Baal-Zebub 2 Kgs 1:2
Chemosh Judg 11:24; 1 Kgs 11:33
Dagon 1 Sam 5:7
Marduk (?) "his god" Dan 1:2
Milcom 1 Kgs 11:33
In the Bible, El is often combined in proper names: Isra-El; Shmu-El (Samuel); El-ijah;
Immanu-El; Jo-El; Dani-El; Beth-El. It's also found in compounds: El Shaddai, El Elyon,
El Roi, El Olam.
Elah is the Aramaic word for "God" used in the Aramaic portions of Daniel and Ezra and
one verse in Jeremiah (10:11). Its plural form Elahin is used at least once for the true God
(Dan 5:23).
Most English Bibles do not distinguish between the four words for "God." But Joseph
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (1902) used different font faces for each.
The word Elo'ah is used some 57 times, mostly in the book of Job. It is likely the singular
form behind Elohim.

Who Are Elohim in the Bible?


the true GodGen 1:1; Isa 2:3; Ps 50:1
false or foreign gods and goddessesExod 20:3; 32:1

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angels (supernatural spirits)Ps 8:6; 97:7; 138:1


Samuel's afterlife "shade" or hologram1 Sam 28:13
Moses (as God's agent rep)Exod 4:16; 7:1
the shoftim (judges-governors)Exod 21:6; 22:7, 8, 27
the Messianic kingPs 45:74
3.

Messianic idea of Elohim

Spirit5 = Ruach
the Spirit of Mashiach and the Spirit of the Eternal ever since the beginning of creation.
The midrash (rabbinic commentary) Bereshit Rabbah 2:4 says that Rabbi Shimon ben
Lakish actually teaches: And Elohims Spirit rested[Gen. 1:2], referring to
Mashiachs spirit which was moving over the surface of the waters.
Bereshit Rabbah 2:4
The Rabbis are not, it must be said, unanimous in their doctrine of the Messianic times,
but the plan of salvation does, for them, begin right back at creation. When the Bible
speaks of how "the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters", they see a reference
to the Messiah. The Midrash Rabbah says in this context that, "this was the "spirit of the
Messiah", as it is written in Is. 11:2, "And the spirit of the LORD shall rest upon him6
(Midrash Bereshith Rabbath 1:2 and Yalqut, Mechiri to Psalm 139:12)
and you will testify also, because you have been with Me from the beginning.
( John 15:27)
Wisdom = Hochma
From everlasting I was established,
From the beginning, from the earliest times of the earth.

(Proverbs 8:23)

Word = Memre
There is only one God, who has created heaven and earth (that is, the world), and has
called all objects and living beings into existence by His word.7
Psalm 45:7 "Your throne, O Elohim, is forever and ever."
This royal wedding psalm is addressed to the Davidic King in Jerusalem and (many
believe) to the future Messianic King. Can the Hebrew David-Messiah rightly be called
"God"?
4

http://www.hebrew-streams.org/works/monotheism/context-elohim.html. Isaiah seems to use the word El in two messianic titles:


Immanu-El ("with us is El"; 7:14, 8:8) and El Gibbor ("El is a warrior" or a "Divine warrior"; 9:5).
5
(The deep) echoes the Mesopotamian creation story where it is told that heaven and earth were formed from the carcass of the sea
dragon, Tiamat. (wind from God) (ruach) can mean both wind and spirit. Wind provides a closer parallel to Babylonian texts than the
traditional "spirit of God."
6
Midrash Bereshith Rabbath 1:2 and Yalqut, Mechiri to psalm 139:12
7
http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/jewgenes.htm

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It's not unthinkable for the anointed king to "be God" to the nation. He sits on "the throne
of Yahveh" (1 Chron 29:23), at Yahveh's "right hand" (Ps 110:1) as his "Son" (Ps 2:7).
Light = OR
The Rabbis considered the Aramaic word Nehora, 'light', to be one of the secret names of
the Messiah, since we read in the Aramaic part of the book of Daniel that, "He knows
what dwells in darkness, and light dwells with him" (2.22). Furthermore, on the strength
of the prophecies of Is.42:6 and 60:1--3 the Messiah is seen as "the light of the Gentiles".
Did not Jesus announce that he was himself the "light of the world", and that,
"Whosoever follows me will never walk in darkness"? The Midrash understands the
words of Daniel chapter 2 Messianically:
And God said Let there be Light

Gen 1:3

Yalkut Shimoni, a commentary on Isaiah 60, identifies the Mashiach even before the
creation: This is Mashiachs lightin order to teach you that the Eternal saw
Mashiachs generation and his avodah (service) before creation and hid him
awayunder his throne of glory. Satan asked him: Lord of the universe: This light that
is under your throne of glory, who is it for? The Eternal answered: It is reserved for he
that will crush you.
Arise, shine, for your light has come, and the glory of the Lord rises upon you. See,
darkness covers the earth and thick darkness is over the peoples, but the Lord rises upon
you and his glory appears over you.
Isaiah 60:1-2 NIV
" 'And Nehora dwells with him.' This is the Messiah-King, for it is written: 'Arise, shine,
for your light has come' "
(Is.60:1).
Two other commentaries, Pesikhta Rabbati 62,1 and Yalkut Shimoni 56, state
respectively: Which is the light that comes down over the congregation of the Eternal? It
is Messiahs light, and This light is Messiah, as it is written: In your light we see light
[Ps. 36:9b].
And God said, Let there be lights in the expanse of the sky to separate the day from the
night, and let them serve as signs to mark seasons and days and years, ... God made two
great lights - the greater light to govern the day and the lesser light to govern the night.
He also made the stars. ... And God said it was good. And there was evening, and there
was morning - the fourth day.
Genesis 1:14-19 NIV
Surely the day is coming; it will burn like a furnace. ... But for you who revere my name,
the sun of righteousness will rise with healing in its wings.
Malachi 4:1-2 NIV

21

The two great lights of Genesis 1:16 are the sun and the moon. The Jewish sages
understood this to be a Messianic allusion and commented on it in the Talmud as follows.
Whose is this light which falls upon the congregation of the Lord? and answers, It is
the light of the Messiah.
Pesikhta Rabbati 62,1
This is the light of the Messiah, as is written in Psalm 36:10, In your light, we see light.
Yalqut Shimoni 56
Or and the Future Redemption
It is also possible to relate or with the future redemption. The prophet Isaiah predicted
that in the future, the sun and the moon will not be needed, because the Lord and the
Mashiach will shine upon His people as an everlasting light: No longer will the sun be
your light by day or the moon be your light by night; I, the LORD, will be your eternal
light; the light of my glory will shine on you (Isa. 60:19, Good News Bible). Gods
redeeming or is eternal!8
iv.

Genesis 1:1

Heavens and Earth

The School of Shammai says: First the heavens were created, and then the earth,
as it is written, "In the beginning G-d created the heavens and the earth."
The School of Hillel says: First the earth was created, and then the heavens, as it
is written, "In the day that G-d made the earth and the heavens"
(Genesis 2:4).

By Teri Riddering, Coordinator, BFP Spanish Resource Center at


http://www.bridgesforpeace.com/il/dispatch/article/light-gods-redeeming-or-or

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1.

Biblical Understanding

Heaven Is Gods Throne 66:1-2


1Thus says the LORD,
Heaven is My throne and the earth is My footstool.
Where then is a house you could build for Me?
And where is a place that I may rest?
For My hand made all these things, Thus all these things came into being, declares the
Lord. But to this one I will look, To him who is humble and contrite of spirit, and who
trembles at My word.
A glorious throne on high from the beginning Is the place of our sanctuary. (JER 17:12)
2.

Rabbis Understanding

The heavens and the earth (1:1)


The School of Shammai says: First the heavens were created, and then the earth, as it
is written, "In the beginning G-d created the heavens and the earth."
The School of Hillel says: First the earth was created, and then the heavens, as it is
written, "In the day that G-d made the earth and the heavens" (Genesis 2:4).
Said the sages of Hillel to the sages of Shammai: According to your interpretation, would
one build a loft before one builds the house? For it is written (Amos 9:6), "Who builds
His upper chambers in the heaven, and has founded His stairway upon the earth." Said
the sages of Shammai to the sages of Hillel: According to your interpretation, would one
make the footstool and then make the chair? For it is written (Isaiah 66:1), "So said G-d:
Heaven is My throne and the earth is My footstool."
The Sages say: Both were created together, as it is written (Isaiah 48:13), "My hand also
founded the earth, and my right hand spanned the heavens; when I call to them, they
stand up together."
(Talmud, Chaggigah 12a)
Why does the Torah begin with a Bet (i.e., the number two)? Because G-d said: I built
two palaces--one above and one below. I formed the laws of nature, and I established
the life of the World to Come.
(Otiyot d'Rabbi Akiva)

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3.

Messianic Understanding

They are made


"Now learn this lesson from the fig tree: As soon as its twigs get tender and its leaves
come out, you know that summer is near. Even so, when you see all these things, you
know that it is near, right at the door. I tell you the truth, this generation will certainly not
pass away until all these things have happened. Heaven and earth will pass away, but
my words will never pass away.
Matityahu (Matthew) 24:32-35
It is where God lives
"This, then, is how you should pray: 'Our Father in heaven, hallowed be your name, Your
kingdom come, your will be done on earth as it is in heaven. Give us today our daily
bread.
Matityahu (Matthew) 6:9-11
After the Lord Yeshua had spoken to them, he was taken up into heaven and he sat at
the right hand of God.
Marqos (Mark) 16:19
They show Gods attributes
18 For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and
unrighteousness of men who suppress the truth in unrighteousness, 19 because that which
is known about God is evident within them; for God made it evident to them. 20 For
since the creation of the world His invisible attributes, His eternal power and divine
nature, have been clearly seen, being understood through what has been made, so that
they are without excuse. 21 For even though they knew God, they did not honor Him as
God or give thanks, but they became futile in their speculations, and their foolish heart
was darkened. 22 Professing to be wise, they became fools, 23 and exchanged the glory
of the incorruptible God for an image in the form of corruptible man and of birds and
four-footed animals and crawling creatures.

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