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CHARPY IMPACT TEST

AIM: To determine the impact energy of given specimen by using charpy impact tester.

APPARATUS: Charpy impact testing machine, specimen, magnifying lens, annealed sample
of steel.

THEORY: This test uses charpy bar specimen with a square cross-section and a notch of
5mm depth. It is simply supported beam and loaded behind the notch by impact of pendulum.
The specimen is forced to bend and fracture at a high strain-rate order. The principle
measurements from impact test in the energy absorbed in fracturing the specimen. After
breaking, the test bar the pendulum is rebounded in a height which decreases as the energy
absorbed in the fracture energy measured by charpy test is only a relative energy and cannot
be used directly in design equation.
Another common measurement obtained from charpy test results from examination
fracture surface to whether the fracture surface is fibrous, granular or a mixture of both. The
different distinguishable zones of fracture surface helps in judging mode of fracture.

A notch is supplied on specimen because it ensures that the specimen will break as a
result of impact load to which is subjected without notch many materials would simply bend
without breaking, so it would therefore impossible to determine their ability energy.

DIFFERENT HEAT TREATMENTS GIVEN TO DIFFERENT SPECIMENS OF


SAME MATERIAL ARE:

ANNEALING: It is one of the most important and widely used heat treatment as it is
restores the ductility to metal that has been severely strain-hardened. It involves heating of
steel to 900 and cooling in furnace.

NORMALISING: It involves heating of steel to 900°c, soaking for one hour and cooling in
still air.

HARDENING (WATER QUENCHED): This operation is applied to all tools and some
important machine parts intended for especially heavy duty services. It involves heating of
steel to 900°c followed by soaking for one hour and quenched in water or any liquid medium.

TEMPERING: Here steel which is quenched component is reheated to a temperature below


the transformation range followed by cooling at a desired rate. It restores the ductility and
reduces brittleness due to quenching. The material can be heated to either 200 °c, 500°c,.

PROCEDURE:

1) Specimen and swinging hammer are fixed in either position.


2) Pendulum is brought up and fixed at a particular position.
3) Centre of specimen notch is aligned to centre of support by means of charpy
setting gauge.
4) Pointer is adjusted to zero.
5) Pendulum is release from top, giving an impact blow to the specimen.
6) Energy absorbed is noted, through a magnifying glass lens to note extent of type
of fracture surface.

ADVANTAGES:

1) It is simple and utilizes simple and cheaper, small specimen.


2) This can be carried out over a range of sub-ambient temperatures.
3) This test can be used for comparing influence of alloy studies and heat treatment
on notch toughness.
4) Used for quality control and material acceptance purpose.

DISADVANTAGES:

1) The results of charpy test are difficult to use in design.


2) There is no correlation of charpy data with below size.
3) The large scatter inherent in test may make it difficult to determine well
defined transition temperature curves.

PRECAUTIONS:

1) Notch configuration should be carefully prepared as it affects notch-toughness


value.
2) Centre of specimen notch should be aligned with centre of support.
3) Impact energy reading should be taken without parallax error.

RESULT:

The impact energy absorbed by annealing specimen is


The impact energy absorbed by normalizing specimen is
The impact energy absorbed by tempering specimen is