What are the effects of colonialism?

Answer One of the main objectives of imperialism and colonialism was to exploit the colonies and their inhabitants to generate economic wealth for the mother country and her corporations. As a result, large numbers of people were forced into slavery or the system of indentured laborers, and vast areas of natural habitats were cleared and converted to monocultural plantations. Another impact of imperialism was the export of Western values - resource exploitation, consumerism and materialism to the colonies. In the meantime, the Enlightenment began to shift West societies towards values such as democracy, independent judiciary, free press and escape from religious tyranny. These, when well developed offer checks and balances against excessive concentration of power and corruption, and some safeguards against environmental predation. After the colonies gained independence, the newly independent citizens uncritically embraced most of the negative values and have vigorously continued the practices of their early colonial masters. One man who fought against the blind adoption of materialistic values was of course Gandhi. Alas, no one can be a prophet in his own land. As a result, in the former colonies, the environment, especially natural habitats and their species, is being destroyed at a scale that is unprecedented in history.

What was the impact of colonialism in west Africa?
History of Colonialism Colonialism is the practice of creating settlements in lands geographically distant from the parent land. Historically, this has often involved killing or subjugating the indigenous population. With the spread of Hellenic and Roman culture and technology by the Roman Empire, the Renaissance and the Enlightenment of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries and the Industrial Revolution of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, most of the world has at some point been colonized by a European country. The most notable

colonial powers were Rome, Greece, Britain, France, Spain, Portugal, the Netherlands, and Denmark. The ascension of the colonialism ideology was based on the belief that colonies were an essential attribute of any great nation. Whether the reason was economic, political, or diplomatic the quest for overseas possessions was of paramount concern for European nations. Thus more explorations took place, and these events took on a new meaning. In the decade preceding the Berlin Conference in which fourteen western nations attended the three-month session was(is) considered to be the crux of European colonialism. Europeans needed to satisfy the material necessities of Europe; therefore, the dream of an African empire developed as an avenue for the investment of surplus capital, and as a boost to national prestige. In essence, the Berlin Conference was very important in African history because of the way it sought to minimize competition among the European colonial powers in their haste to acquire mineral rich lands in Africa. Debate about the perceived positive and negative aspects of colonialism has occurred for centuries, amongst both colonizer and colonized, and continues to the present day. Political impact The Africa of a century ago consisted of a large number number of independent states. Some of these states were large and powerful; others were smaller and weaker. When the Europeans finished drawing their lines of partition, these states had been condensed into about 50 pieces of territory all of which came under European colonial rule. The systematic, indiscriminate partition (scramble) drawn without any well defined, regional criteria in full cognizance of the ethno cultural, geographical and ecological realities of Africa brought different ethnic groups (tribes) having different historical traditions, cultures and speaking different languages under one or more colonial power. This situation disrupted the political development of these social groups; furthermore, ethnic groups were cleaved into fragments. These lines of partition also run-across pre- existing nations, ethnicities, states, kingdoms and empires. The Ewes for instance are divided by the boundary between Ghana and Togo while akan are found in the ivory coast and in Ghana. The Senufo now live in Mali, the Ivory Coast and in Burkina Faso. This explains the border disputes between Burkina Faso and Mali ect. These lines also brought about The uneven sizes and unequal distribution of natural resources and economic potentialities of these states. Some of the states emerged from the partition as giants e.g. Nigeria with an approximated area of 357,000 square miles, whiles others came out as midgets e.g. Gambia with an approximated area of 4000 square miles. Some states have few boarders e.g. Gambia with one boarder whiles others had many boarders e.g. Mali with seven boarders. This makes it difficult to check the problems of security and smuggling. Even though the partition has negative impacts it also contributed to The appearance of independent African states of today. The partition of Africa by imperial colonial powers boundaries, in place of the innumerable lineage and clan groups, city states, kingdoms and empires without any fixed boundaries. It is significant that the boundaries of these states have been maintained ever since independence.

Colonialism caused the loss of sovereignty which is the loss of the right of a state to control its own destiny, to play in its own development, to conduct its own diplomacy and internal relations, to decide which outside nations to associate with or to emulate and above all to manage or even mismanage its own affairs, derive pride and pleasure from its success and derive lessons, frustration and experience from its failures. Many African nationalists and critics of colonialism see the independence gained from the withdrawing colonial powers as only partial liberation. Some call it 'false independence'. Full or real freedom, they believe, will come with economic independence. African nations are said to be currently in a phase of neo-colonialism - a new form of imperial rule stage managed by the colonial powers to give the colonized the illusion of freedom. At the 1961 AllAfrican People's Conference held in Cairo neo-colonialism was defined as "the survival of the colonial system in spite of the formal recognition of political independence in emerging countries which become the victims of an indirect and subtle form of domination by political, economic, social, military or technical means." The implication is that western powers still control African nations whose rulers are either willing puppets or involuntary subordinate of these powers. The other type of subjugation that emerged in Africa which was, in effect, an economic extension of colonialism was settlerism. It has been established by a number of historians and political theorists that white settlers in Africa, or in other areas for that matter, took land for themselves, and in the process exacted political control over its indigenous inhabitants. Settler communities ignored and opposed all pleas for African education, promotion of Africans to responsible jobs, or the exercise of political rights such as the freedom to express political ideas or form political organizations. Colonialism bred political crisis. In disrupting pre-colonial political systems that worked for Africans and imposing alien models, colonialism laid the seeds of political crisis, say its critics. By redrawing of the map of Africa, throwing diverse people together without consideration for established borders, ethnic conflicts were created that are destabilizing the continent. The new nation-states were artificial and many were too small to be viable. Less than a third of the countries in Africa have populations of more than 10 million. Nigeria, the major exception to this, was imbued with ingredients for its selfdestruction. Western multi-party democracy imposed by colonial powers polarized African societies. "It was the introduction of party politics by colonial administration that set off the fire of ethnic conflicts in Nigeria," wrote one Itodo Ojobo in the New Nigerian newspaper in 1986. One of the most important social impact colonialism had on west Africa is The introduction of new bureaucracy of civil servants and a new judiciary system. These institutions especially the judicial system have not undergone any fundamental changes in any of the independent states. SOCIO - CULTRAL IMPACT Urbanization: Not only did pre-existing towns expand, but completely new urban centers emerged following the establishment of the colonial system e.g. Abidjan in ivory coast, takoradi in Ghana, port Harcourt and enugu in Nigeria. All these new urban centers were created either as ports or harbors, mining centers, administration center ect. The

population of Accra jumped from 17,892 in 1901 to 135,926 in 1948. There is no doubt the quality of life for West Africa's population was improved through the provision of piped water, hospitality, better housing and sanitary facilities. Christian and Islam and expansion of western education during the colonial period. Christianity gained far more converts and penetrated further. Islam also gained a lot of grounds . the spread of western education was mainly due to the action of the Christian missionaries. by 1930s there were very few areas in West Africa where elementary education wasn't common. By 1940 universities also became common in almost all the colonies except in the Portuguese and Belgium colonies. Every modern West African state is thankful to its colonial master for introducing western education. Only reactionary aristocrats in northern Nigeria would today thank the British for keeping out western education in their region. It is clear to most northerners that they were placed at a disadvantage to the south by the educational gap between the two regions. Provision of lingua franca for each colony. Almost all the colonies adopted a colonial language for communication which broke the ethnic language barrier between tribes. Colonialism have, in many respects, distorted and abrogated the essence of West African cultural norms and institutions. The systematic approach that the European invaders utilized to usurp land in Africa has contributed greatly to the disunity and dysfunction of indigenous West Africans; coups take place in Africa not because Africans cannot govern themselves, but because West African leaders have inherited a colonial legacy that tends to pit African against African, or brother against brother. This schism can be traced directly to the different types of colonial masters that held sway on the continent. Each colonial power pursued a cultural policy that it believed would give it efficacious results, and a policy that was in tune with his philosophy of colonial administration. Economic impact The prime legacy of colonialism was the integration of colonies into the international capitalist economy. It enables African elites to consume products of western civilization without having to go through the difficult and long-term process of building the productive base of their societies. It is far easier to shop in the global market than try to build industries yourself. One important economic benefit was the provision of infrastructure of roads, railways, harbors and ports, the telegraph and telephone. the basic infrastructure of every modern African state was completed during its colonial period. Some states have not improved upon the colonial infrastructures even after impendence. Development of the primary sector of Africa's economy happened during the colonial period. It was during this period that the mineral potential of many African states were discovered and modern scientific mining introduced. above all, it was during this period that the productions of such cash crops like cotton, peanuts, palm, cocoa ect. Became the main feature of the political economy of many African states. The transportation and communication infrastructure that was provided was not only inadequate but was also very unevenly distributed in nearly all the colonies. The roads

and railways were built in areas with the potential for cash crops and with mineral deposits. They were actually meant to facilitate the exploitation of African resources but not to promote the accessibility and the development of all the regions in the economy. Colonialism saddled the most colonies with monocrop economies. During the colonial period, each colony was made to produce a single cash crop or two and no attempts were made to diversify the agricultural economy. The habit of producing these single cash crops appears to have become so ingrained that it has not been changed to any appreciable degree since independence. Africans were encouraged to produce what they don't consume and to consume what they don't produce. It is lamentable that the legacy ahs not changed materially in most of the African states. To this day they have to rely on the importation of edible oil, rice, maize and other food stuff to survive. West Africa's poor states gained little or nothing from colonialism. But its elites bloomed as a result of it. They were given a ladder to climb the global pyramid. West African wealthy states e.g. Nigeria who today lives on the upper layers of the pyramid, certainly owe their fortune to colonialism. Without opportunities created by the linking of Africa to the western world, it is unlikely that indigenous ruling classes would have catapulted themselves from pre-capitalist levels of wealth to modern bourgeoisie affluence. So the answer to the often posed question, 'did Africans benefit from colonialism' is, the elites definitely gained while the poor majority did not. As there is no basis to assume that Africans would have independently developed electricity, the motor engine and other products of advanced technologies, it is fair to suppose that if Africa had not been colonized it would today still have to grapple with problems of economic development. Africa would have needed to import western technology and therefore would have had to export something to pay for it. Like other pre-industrial societies, African nations would invariably have had to trade minerals and agricultural commodities for western manufactures. So Africa's position in the international economy, particularly as a producer of primary products for industrialized countries, should not be blamed solely on colonialism. It is largely a function of unequal development. However, had Africa not been colonized, the likelihood is that its elites would still have wanted to consume the products and services of western industrial nations. It is unlikely that African chiefs and traders would have been content with the simplicity of communal life to shut off their communities from Western advances. If during the slave trade, rulers and traders happily waged wars and sold fellow humans to buy beads, guns and secondhand hats, one can only imagine what they would have done if faced with offers of cars, televisions, MacDonald's etc. Undoubtedly, without colonization African societies would still have sought industrialization and western type modernization, as have peoples in virtually every other region in the world.

Impacts of colonialism in africa? colonialism brought about 1. Education ie the building of schools. 2. Religion ie the spreading of the gospel. 3. Through colonialism some traditional practice were eliminated. 4. Through colonialism, our chiefs were left with no option than to accept orders from the white men. 5. Through colonialism our minerals were taken away. 6. our fore fathers were force against their will to fight for them(the white men)

Impact of Colonialism: (Dependency Theory) A. Who were the colonizers? England, France, Holland, Portugal, Italy, Germany, Japan, United States B. Who was colonized? Latin America: All countries Africa: All countries except Ethiopia Asia: All countries except Thailand, Japan, China (affected) Mid East: All countries colonized or influenced except Turkey C. Impact of colonial rule: 1. boundaries, inclusion and division of cultural groups. Africa: Berlin Conference 1885 Africa map 1913 | World Map 1948 Afghanistan Pakistan Durand Line/Treaty, 1893 How many Somalia/Somalilands?
2. demography: nature of mix between indigenous peoples and European

3. culture: language, religion, culture of modernization, science secularism emulate colonizers, Psychology: cultural self hate linked to victimization of colonialism, violence as a way to recover self-confidence 4. colonial government, detached from traditional political and social order, linked to colonial culture:

Political culture of rulers: conquest, exploit, repress, tax, build infrastructure, prevent autonomous political organization. Political culture of ruled: subject culture, withdraw, resist traditional "subject" culture (not "participant"). 5. economy: urbanization, transportation infrastructure export primary materials gold -- from Latin America. Spanish treasure fleet Much gold lost in shipwrecks links | Florida - 2 | Key West Ag: beverages: coffee, tea, cocoa edible oils: peanuts, palm fibers: cotton, jute, sisal, kenef, manila spices: sugar, other spices rubber Minerals: metal ores, diamonds, petroleum import manufactured goods Transport vehicles, power generation, machinery 6. global influences: health (population growth), mass media (films, music, clothing)