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American Civil War

Sectionalism
Industrialized
Textiles, Farm equipment, guns
Railroad (Ran by Gov. when war started)

Telegraph wires
Immigrants
some antislavery

David Wilmot
1846
No slavery in new territories from Mexican war.
o Cali, Utah, New Mexico.
Balance in congress will be messed with.

Compromise of 1850
Henry clay
California was admitted to the union as a free state.
Revision and stricter fugitive Slave Law.
North had to help capture and return slaves.
Popular sovereignity- the right for the actual residents of the state to vote and
decide to be free or have slaves. ( if state was more agricultural have slaves.)

1833 Britain outlawed slavery


Slave voyage- No shower, stale food, complete darkness, went to bathroom on
themselves. Women were raped.
Resistance of slavery- used songs(done by the water, railroad), Quilts- have
symbols, hung outside fence or on clothing lines.
Determine if slave or not if you could read or not.

Slave Auctions- slaves were treated as chattel- non human property, treated as
cattle or live stock. Light skins went as more money. Dark skin were thought as
good field hands.

Uncle toms cabin- harrriet beecher stowe in 1852, million copies in 1 yr., raised
awareness for how slaves were treated.

Kansas Nebraska Act. Wanted to divide states, would bring a vote on slavery or
popular sovereignty, repeal Missouri compromise(Move from Missouri to Nebraska.,
messes with the vote, people start killing others) . illegal voters came from slave
states and Kansas became a slave state.( named bloody Kansas) , people rebelled.
Bloody Kansas- Abolitionist, believed god wanted him to fight slavery, led raids
against a proslavery settlement.

Violence in the senate,


Preston brooks-SC(gets up and beats sumner in the head.) SC( the first to secede
leave the union), Charles summer- made speech
John Brown- 1859, raid on Harpers Ferry, VA( largest arsenal in the south, almost 7
million today), tired to take over federal arsenal, wanted to go give guns to slaves
for an uprising, no slaves came, Brown was hung for treason. The marines are in
command with Robert E.LEE
Abraham was elected it was the final straw for the south
Plan was to take care of the union and then slavery in the south
5 weeks after Lincoln takes office shots are fired
o Republican candidate
o Slavery would stay as ii is but would not expand
o Republican candidate
o would not directly or indirectly interfere with their slaves or them

Confederacy
o Constitution protected and recognized slavery
States were to be soverigned and independent
Jefferson David president of confederacy.
o West pointe grad. Serves army in Mexican- American war, secretary of
war.
o Champion of southern rights, worked hard to maintain union
o Main concern to get upper south to join CAS (10% pop, 5% industry)

South strengths- only need to fight defensive war. Could fight guerilla war like
revolutionary war, only need to fight to draw
Know the area, fighting for independence and homeland was important for
troop morale and righteousness on home front,
Guerilla- sneaky tactics, hiding.
Southerners were country boys and werent afraid to get their hands dirty,
and nose bloody.
Men could go to the war while stayed home doing vital work
North were city slickers, joining to GB or FR

South weaknesses
Little industry, only agricultural plantations, couldnt own weapons, warships,
etc.
Clothing was scarce, had materials but no means of producing finished goods
Had to trade confiscate union goods or products, : blockade
Poor transportation because little iron to make train tracks.
Weak, central gov.
States rights had bigger role
Harder to have unified strategy, troop movement
Could not tax directly- high inflation

Northern strengthsStrong industrial economy- wealth (3x wealth and RR that of south)
Production capability 9x fight
Larger population- two and a half times size of south (plus immigrants)
South did not allow slaves to fight (property, not citizens, didnt want to give
slaves guns.)
Better soldiers ( 2 million vs. 800,000)
Better equipped soldiers
Larger, better navy(blockade & trade w/ Europe)

Northern Weakness
Most of good commanders went to confederacy since they were loyal to
states (lee) as a result, Lincoln who to trust in military
Northern not used to war- too gentlemanly
War tore men away from industry