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Structure involved with

movement of cells
Different arrangement of flagella
1. monotrichous
2. amphitrichous
3. lophotrichous
4. peritrichous
Function of flagella

Structure of flagella : consists of 3

parts – basal body embeded in the
cell, hook region, filament

Methods of detecting flagella in

bacteria (wet mount method to
detect motility; inoculation into soft
Structures involved in
1. Fimbriae : not involved in motility; attach bacteria
to solid surfaces.
2. sex pili : larger than fimbriae, determine by sex
factor, required by bacteria mating
3. glycocalyx : a layer of polysaccharides extending
from the surface of bacteria. Capsule- rigid layer
(well organised, not easily wash off)
4. slime layer – zone of diffuse, unorganized material,
removed easily.
Survival through the
production of endospore
Sporulation : an adaptation which
permits the cell to survive a variety of
unfavourable conditions
Germination: occurs under favourable
Each vegetative cell forms only one
spore, each spore germinates to form a
single vegetative cell.