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Table 1.

2 The effect of heat on solid materials (Haines, 1995)

Effect Conclusion Example


Colour effect
Charred, burned with Organic, polymer Combustion of
little residues papers
Blackened with plenty Metal oxide is formed CuCO3 
residues CuO + CO2
Metal changed into Oxidation 2 Mg + O2 
powder 2 MgO

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Lecture 1 Table 1.2 1


Table 1.2 The effect of heat on solid materials (Haines, 1995) Cont’d.

Effect Conclusion Example


Melting Materials
Melt at low Covalent ? Organic
temperature
Melt at high Ionic salts NaCl
temperature

Sublime Materials
White sublimation The solid is easily NH4Cl
evaporated
Ammonium salts
Violet sublimation Iodine I2 Next

Lecture 1 Table 1.2 2


Table 1.2 The effect of heat on solid materials (Haines, 1995) Cont’d.

Effect Conclusion Example

Released Vapours
(characterised by other
tests)
Water droplets Hidrate CuSO4.5H2O
Oksigen Nitrate, chlorate 2KNO3 
2KNO2 + O2
Nitrogen oxide (brown Nitrate 2AgNO3 
fume) 2Ag + 2NO2 +
O2
Carbon dioxide Carbonate ZnCO3  ZnO
+ CO2

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Lecture 1 Table 1.2 3
Table 1.2 The effect of heat on solid materials (Haines, 1995) Cont’d.

Effect Conclusion Example


Physical change
Maleable Plastic at greater than Tg
Expansion Normal expansion
(a) gradual Phase change
(b) abrupt
Swelling Some swelling materials Polyphosphate
Shrinkage Some strained polymers Fibres
No effect Oxide that is stable towards MgO, Al2O3
heat or very low temperature

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Lecture 1 Table 1.2 4