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CE-313

**Flexural Analysis and Design of Beams
**

(Ultimate Strength Design of Beams)

**Plain & Reinforced Concrete-1
**

Balanced Steel Ratio, ρb

It is corresponding to that amount of steel which will cause yielding of steel at the same time when concrete crushes At ultimate stage:

εs = ε y

and

fs = f y

cb

εcu = 0.003

ε cu = 0.003

From the internal Force diagram

d- cb ε

Strain y Diagram

C c = 0.85f c '×b × a b

ab = depth of equivalent rectangular stress block when balanced steel ratio is used.

**Plain & Reinforced Concrete-1
**

Balanced Steel Ratio, ρb (contd…)

T = A sf y = (ρ b × b × d) × f y

For the longitudinal equilibrium

T = Cc (ρ b × b × d) × f y = 0.85f c '×b × a b

fc ' a b ρ b = 0.85 fy d

(1)

**Plain & Reinforced Concrete-1
**

Balanced Steel Ratio, ρb (contd…)

From the strain diagram Δ s ABC & ADE

εy 0.003 = cb d − cb

E D B A εcu = 0.003 C

cb

d- cb εy

Strain Diagram

0.003d cb = 0.003 + ε y

cb = 0.003 f 0.003 + y ×d× Es Es Es

**Plain & Reinforced Concrete-1
**

Balanced Steel Ratio, ρb (contd…)

0.003E s cb = ×d 0.003Es + f y

600 cb = ×d 600 + f y

As we know

a b = β1 × C b

600 a b = β1 × ×d 600 + f y

ρ b = 0.85 fc ' 600 × β1 × fy 600 + f y

(2 )

Put (1)

(2)

in

**Plain & Reinforced Concrete-1
**

Types of Cross Sections w.r.t. Flexure at Ultimate Load Level

1.

Tension Controlled Section

A section in which the net tensile strain in the extreme tension steel is greater than or equal to 0.005 when the corresponding concrete strain at the compression face is 0.003.

0.003 0.005 ≥ c d−c

εcu = 0.003

c d- c

0.003 c≤ d 0.008

3 c≤ d 8

and

3 a ≤ β1 d 8

Strain Diagram

εs=>0.00 5

**Plain & Reinforced Concrete-1
**

Types of Cross Sections w.r.t. Flexure at Ultimate Load Level (contd…)

2.

Transition Section

The section in which net tensile strain in the extreme tension steel is greater than εy but less than 0.005 when corresponding concrete strain is 0.003.

εcu = 0.003

3 a > β1 d 8

c

a < ab

Strain Diagram

d- c εy<εs<0.0 05

**Plain & Reinforced Concrete-1
**

Types of Cross Sections w.r.t. Flexure at Ultimate Load Level (contd…)

2.

Transition Section

(contd…)

To ensure under-reinforced behavior, ACI code establishes a minimum net tensile strain of 0.004 at the ultimate stage.

0.003 0.004 = c d−c

εcu = 0.003

c

3 c= d 7

3 a = β1 d 7

Strain Diagram

d- c 0.004

**Plain & Reinforced Concrete-1
**

Types of Cross Sections w.r.t Flexure at Ultimate Load Level (contd…)

Both the “Tension Controlled Section” and Transition Controlled Section” are “Under-Reinforced Section” In Under-Reinforced Sections steel starts yielding before the crushing of concrete and:

ρ<ρ

b

It is always desirable that the section is under-reinforced otherwise the failure will initiate by the crushing of concrete. As concrete is a brittle material so this type of failure will be sudden which is NOT DESIREABLE.

**Plain & Reinforced Concrete-1
**

Types of Cross Sections w.r.t Flexure at Ultimate Load Level (contd…) 3. Compression Controlled Section (over-reinforced

section)

The section in which net steel strain in the extreme tension steel is lesser than εy when corresponding concrete strain is 0.003. Capacity of steel remain unutilized. It gives brittle failure without warning.

a > ab

C > Cb

**Plain & Reinforced Concrete-1
**

Strength Reduction Factor

(Resistance Factor),

Φ

Tension Controlled Section, Φ = 0.9 Compression Controlled Section Member with lateral ties, Φ = 0.65 Members with spiral reinforcement, Φ = 0.7 Transition Section

For transition section Φ is permitted to be linearly interpolated between 0.65 or 0.7 to 0.9.

**Plain & Reinforced Concrete-1
**

Strength Reduction Factor

(Resistance Factor),

Φ

Transition Section

(contd…)

Φ

0.9

For members with ties 0.25 (εt − ε y ) Φ = 0.65 + 0.005 − ε y For members with Spirals 0.20 (ε t − ε y ) Φ = 0.7 + 0.005 − ε y

Φ

0.65

Compression Controlled

0.2 5

Transition Tension Controlled

εy

εt

0.005

ε

εt = strain in extreme tension steel when concrete crushes.

**Plain & Reinforced Concrete-1
**

Maximum Steel Ratio, ρmax

For T=C

A s × f y = 0.85f c '×b × a ρ × bd × f y = 0.85f c '×b × a fc ' a ρ = 0.85 × fy d

For tension controlled section ε s = 0.005

3 a = β1 d 8

So

ρ max

fc ' 3 = 0.85 × β1 fy 8

**Plain & Reinforced Concrete-1
**

Maximum Steel Ratio, ρmax (contd…)

For transition section

ε s = 0.004

3 a = β1 d 7

ρ max

fc ' 3 = 0.85 × β1 fy 7

**Plain & Reinforced Concrete-1
**

Minimum Reinforcement of Flexural Members

(ACI – 10.5.1)

ρ min

f c ' 1.4 = ≥ 4f y fy

The minimum steel is always provided in structural members because when concrete is cracked then all load comes on steel, so there should be a minimum amount of steel to resist that load to avoid sudden failure. For slabs this formula gives a margin of 1.1 to 1.5. This formula is not used for slabs.

Concluded

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