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RADAR SYSTEMS

Presented by
BESSER
ASSOCIATES
www.BesserAssociates.com

Instructor:
Al Scott

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COURSE OUTLINE

• How radar works


• Measurement of target range and velocity
• Measurement of angle
• Antennas
• Electronically Steered Array antennas (ESA)
• Synthetic Aperture Antennas (SAR)

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HOW RADAR WORKS

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RADAR FREQUENCY BANDS

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MAJOR TECHNOLOGY ADVANCE
IN RADAR IN THE LAST 15 YEARS

 Signal processing required for new radar and EW


techniques is rapidly increasing.
 Defined as MOPS = Million operations per second

 Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) computer chips


meet MOPs needs but won’t meet environmental
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RADAR VELOCITY MEASUREMENT

Reflected signal is shifted in frequency by velocity of target

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CALCULATION OF VELOCITY FROM
DOPPLER FREQUENCY SHIFT

Velocity (MPH) = Doppler shift (Hz)____


3.9 x RF frequency (GHz)

Example:
Doppler shift = 1 kHz
RF frequency = 10 GHz
Velocity = 1000 / 3.9 x 10 = 25.6 MPH

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SIMPLE DOPPLER RADAR

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CIRCULATOR

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RADAR RANGE MEASUREMENT

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CALCULATION OF RANGE FROM
ECHO DELAY TIME

Target range (feet) = 500 x Echo delay time (microsec)

Example:
Echo delay time = 10 microsec
Target range = 500 x 10 = 5000 feet

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A SCOPE PRESENTATION

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PULSE RADAR BLOCK DIAGRAM

Transmitter
Receiver

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CLUTTER

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CLUTTER SUPPRESSION USING MTI

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PULSE DOPPLER RADAR

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VELOCITY AMBIGUITY

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RANGE AMBIGUITY

PRF for unambiguous range = 92 miles/PRF (kHz)

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RANGE-VELOCITY AMBIGUITY
TRADE OFF

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PRF SWITCHING

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RANGE RESOLUTION

Range resolution (feet) = 500 x pulse length (msec)

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PULSE COMPRESSION RADAR

Time length of compressed pulse (msec) = 1/RF frequency sweep (MHz)

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SURFACE ACOUSTIC WAVE
DELAY LINE

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RADAR ANGULAR MEASUREMENT

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REASON FOR POOR ANGULAR
RESOLUTION

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ANTENNA PROPERTIES

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TYPES OF PARABOLIC ANTENNAS

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TECHNIQUES TO IMPROVE
ANGULAR RESOLUTION

 Larger antenna
 Higher frequency
 Tracking mode
 Radar closer to target (in missile)
 Phased array radar
 Synthetic aperture radar (SAR)

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BEAM MOVEMENT IN A
PARABOLIC DISH ANTENNA

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RADAR TRACKING MODE

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COMPARISON OF SEARCH AND
TRACKING ANTENNA BEAMS

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CONICAL SCAN TRACKING

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BEAM MOVEMENT IN A
PHASED ARRAY ANTENNA

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PHASED ARRAY ANTENNA

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ELECTRONICALLY STEERED
ANTENNA ARRAYS (ESA)

Single power source Active array

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T/R MODULE

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ADVANTAGES OF ESAs

 Radar cross section (RCS) reduction


 Extreme Beam Agility
• Beam placed anywhere with +/-60o cone in < 1 millisecond
• Tracking can be established the instant a target is detected
• Single target tracking accuracies obtained against
• multiple targets.
• Targets for missiles controlled by the radar can be tracked
even when they are outside the radar’s search volume.
• Dwell times can be individually optimized to meet detection
and tracking needs.
 High Reliability

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SYNTHETIC APERTURE RADAR (SAR)

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RESOLUTION OF
SYNTHETIC APERTURE RADAR

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COMPARISON OF PHOTOGRAPH
TO SAR IMAGE

Aerial
photograph

SAR image from


many times
greater range

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Thank You

 For more information on our


courses, please contact Besser
Associates at
info@besserassociates.com or
visit us at
www.BesserAssociates.com

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