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Presented by
BESSER
ASSOCIATES
www.BesserAssociates.com

Instructor:
Al Scott

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COURSE OUTLINE

• Measurement of target range and velocity
• Measurement of angle
• Antennas
• Electronically Steered Array antennas (ESA)
• Synthetic Aperture Antennas (SAR)

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IN RADAR IN THE LAST 15 YEARS

##  Signal processing required for new radar and EW

techniques is rapidly increasing.
 Defined as MOPS = Million operations per second

##  Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) computer chips

meet MOPs needs but won’t meet environmental
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CALCULATION OF VELOCITY FROM
DOPPLER FREQUENCY SHIFT

## Velocity (MPH) = Doppler shift (Hz)____

3.9 x RF frequency (GHz)

Example:
Doppler shift = 1 kHz
RF frequency = 10 GHz
Velocity = 1000 / 3.9 x 10 = 25.6 MPH

CIRCULATOR

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CALCULATION OF RANGE FROM
ECHO DELAY TIME

## Target range (feet) = 500 x Echo delay time (microsec)

Example:
Echo delay time = 10 microsec
Target range = 500 x 10 = 5000 feet

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A SCOPE PRESENTATION

Transmitter

CLUTTER

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CLUTTER SUPPRESSION USING MTI

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VELOCITY AMBIGUITY

RANGE AMBIGUITY

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RANGE-VELOCITY AMBIGUITY

PRF SWITCHING

RANGE RESOLUTION

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SURFACE ACOUSTIC WAVE
DELAY LINE

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REASON FOR POOR ANGULAR
RESOLUTION

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ANTENNA PROPERTIES

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TYPES OF PARABOLIC ANTENNAS

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TECHNIQUES TO IMPROVE
ANGULAR RESOLUTION

 Larger antenna
 Higher frequency
 Tracking mode
 Radar closer to target (in missile)

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BEAM MOVEMENT IN A
PARABOLIC DISH ANTENNA

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COMPARISON OF SEARCH AND
TRACKING ANTENNA BEAMS

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CONICAL SCAN TRACKING

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BEAM MOVEMENT IN A
PHASED ARRAY ANTENNA

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PHASED ARRAY ANTENNA

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ELECTRONICALLY STEERED
ANTENNA ARRAYS (ESA)

T/R MODULE

##  Radar cross section (RCS) reduction

 Extreme Beam Agility
• Beam placed anywhere with +/-60o cone in < 1 millisecond
• Tracking can be established the instant a target is detected
• Single target tracking accuracies obtained against
• multiple targets.
• Targets for missiles controlled by the radar can be tracked
even when they are outside the radar’s search volume.
• Dwell times can be individually optimized to meet detection
and tracking needs.
 High Reliability

RESOLUTION OF

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COMPARISON OF PHOTOGRAPH
TO SAR IMAGE

Aerial
photograph

many times
greater range

Thank You