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Overview to Subsea System

Overview to Subsea System


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Published by: bhanumech on Feb 07, 2010
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Overview to Subsea System

Sandeep S Rangapure R 160206025 M.Tech – Pipeline Engineering

Subsea Pipelines are used for the transportation of offshore Hydrocarbons from one Platform to another and or Platform to Shore


Pipelines are used for a number of purposes in the development of offshore hydrocarbon resources These include e.g.:  Export (transportation) pipelines  Pipeline bundles.  Flowlines to transfer product from a platform to export lines  Water injection or chemical injection Flowlines  Flowlines to transfer product between platforms  Subsea manifolds and satellite wells;


PIPELINE  Pipeline is defined as the part of a pipeline system which is located below the water surface at maximum tide (except for pipeline risers)  Pipeline may be resting wholly or intermittently on, or buried below, the sea bottom PIPELINE COMPONENTS  Any items which are integral part of pipeline system such as flanges, tees, bends, reducers and valves PIPELINE SYSTEM  An inter connected system of submarine pipelines, their risers, supports, isolation valves, all integrated piping components, associated piping system and the corrosion protection system

Risers A Riser is a conducting pipe connecting sub-sea wellheads, templates or pipelines to equipment located on a buoyant or fixed offshore structure.

Types of riser

Rigid riser - for shallow water Catenary steel riser - for deep water Flexible riser - for deep and shallow water Riser clamp Riser are supported/guided from the jacket members through clamps Types of Clamp Hanger clamp Fixed clamp Adjustable clamp

Riser Clamp (Welding to Jacket member)

estrained lines Pipelines which cannot expand or contract in the longitudinal irection due to fixed supports or friction between the pipe and soil

nrestrained lines Pipelines without substantial axial restraint. (Maximum one fixed upport and no substantial friction).

Platform FL 1


 Pipeline Sizing  Pipeline Material Selection  Pipeline Mechanical Design  Pipeline Stability Analysis  Pipeline Span Analysis  Pipeline Crossing Design  Pipeline Cathodic Protection System Design

In general it means fixing up the pipeline nominal diameter (6”,10” etc.,) which deals with the important aspects like...

MAXIMUM FLOW RATE CONDITION CHECK FOR THE FLOW CONDITION (pressure drop & flow velocity) CHECK FOR SECONDARY CRITERIA like …. # Flow regime (mix of hydro carbon, single/multi phase flow) # Temperature profile

# Erosion velocity



PIPELINE MATERIAL SELECTION The governing parameters for the particular type of material to be used are
⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒

Temperature Pressure Surrounding Environment. Corrosive elements (CO2 and H2 S) API - 5L of Grade Ranges From X - 42 to X - 80 > X-80 - Toughness and Weldability are limitations API - 5L X- 52 ,60 & 65 Grades are commonly used.

Carbon steel (Carbon - Manganese Steel) C.S.Nace, C.R.A.
→ → →

PIPELINE MECHANICAL DESIGN The mechanical design of the pipeline is carried to with stand factors like Internal pressure External Pressure Hydrostatic Collapse Buckle initiation Buckle Propagation

PIPELINE SPAN ANALYSIS Causes of the Pipeline Spans are  Uneven Seabed on Selected route  Pipeline Crossing seabed rock outcrop  Sand Waves  Scour All these result in spanning and cause  Excessive yielding (Results in High Bending Moments)  Buckle Initiation and there by Propagation

Longitudinal loads Longitudinal loads Unsupported length

Pipeline once installed at the sea bed should be sufficiently stable to avoid any overstressing, deterioration of coating etc., due to wave and current generated movements


Vertical stability Vertical stability

Lateral stability Lateral stability

Vertical stability
   

Sinking in to the sea bed during maximum fluid density condition. Floating of Buried Pipeline during Empty condition & Soil Liquefaction. The Pipe sinkage is determined as the depth at which the applied pipe pressure equals the soil bearing resistance. Soil deformation(pipe sinkage)δ ,is given by: δ = D/2-[(D/2)2 – (B/2)2]1/2

Where, D = Overall pipe outside diameter including pipe coatings B = Projected contact area between pipe and soil =P/qu Where, qu = CNC +1/2Bγ N γ qu = Ultimate bearing capacity of soil P = Pipe submerged weight including pipe coatings and in water filled condition per unit length.

Lateral stability

It is the capacity to resist the lateral forces due to Environmental loads. Forces to be considered for Lateral stability analysis  Submerged weight WS  Lateral resistance R  Friction µ  Drag force FD  Lift force FL

The stability criterion is expressed as (Ws - FL) µ ≥ (FD + FI) S

Where, S = safety factor (1.1) W s= submerged weight of pipeline/unit length, for nominal wall thickness (t), N/m FL = hydrodynamic lift force, N/m FD = hydrodynamic drag force, N/m FI = hydrodynamic inertia force, N/m µ = lateral coefficient of friction between pipe and seabed.

Methods of Pipeline stabilization
     

Increase Pipeline wall thickness Provide Concrete Weight Coating Lay the Pipeline in Open trench Trench and bury the Pipeline Provide Concrete Mattress over Pipeline Stabilize Pipeline by Rock dumping

Increase in Increase in Pipewall thickness Pipewall thickness

Providing Providing Concrete coating Concrete coating

Sea bed Trench wall

Jetted in pipe
Armor rock

Natural fill Buried pipe- Natural Fill
Tremie concrete

Back fill Bedding Bedding

Buried pipe- Armor Cover

Buried pipe- Concrete Cover

Stabilization Methods for buried Submarine pipeline


Concrete Mattress

Rock dumping


Crossings are designed to Give a Physical separation Between The Proposed Line & Existing Line. To Avoid Interfacing Of Cathodic Protection Between The Two Lines
A min of 300mm gap is Provided b/w the lines as per the DNV-Code.

Crossing analysis methodology
» » » » »

Pipeline Crossing Span Calculation. Pipeline Dynamic Span Calculation Number of Supports to be Provided. Pipeline Crossing Flexibility analysis Pipeline Crossing Support design against,
> > > >

Bearing capacity Over turning Sliding Settlement

The Subsea pipelines are provided with sacrificial anodes made of Aluminum or Zinc to protect against marine corrosion Important parameters for Anode Design * * * * * * * * Surface area of the Pipeline Surface area of the Pipeline Fluid and Anode temperature Fluid and Anode temperature Break down Break down Design service life of Anodes Design service life of Anodes

    

DNV 1981 DNV 2000 API 5L BS 8010

- Rules for submarine pipeline system - Submarine pipeline system - Specification for line pipe - Code of practice for pipeline

NACE RP 0169 - Recommended practice,control of external corrosion on underground or submerged metallic piping. OISD 141 - Design and construction requirements for country hydrocarbon pipeline. ASME B 31.8 -Gas transmission and distribution piping system. ASME B 31.4 - Pipeline transportation systems for liquid hydrocarbon and other liquids cross

 

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