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of the motion of heat energy

as it is transferred from the

system to the surrounding or

from the surrounding to the

system.

The transfer of heat could be due to a

physical change or a chemical

change.

There are three laws of chemical

thermodynamics.

CHEMICAL

THERMODYMANICS

The first law of thermodynamics:

Energy and matter can be neither created nor destroyed;

only transformed from one form to another. The energy

and matter of the universe is constant.

.

HEAT

system because of a difference in

temperature between the thermodynamic

system and its surrounding.

Symbolized by "q".

is lost and "q is negative (-).

energy is added and "q" is positive (+).

HEAT FLOW

Heat can flow in one of two directions:

Exothermic

To give off heat; energy is lost from the

system: (-q)

Endothermic

To absorb heat; energy is added to the

system: (+q)

SPECIFIC HEAT

HEAT CAPACITY: The quantity of heat

needed to raise the temperature of a

substance one degree Celsius (or one

Kelvin).

SPECIFIC HEAT: The quantity of heat

required to raise the temperature of one

gram of a substance by one degree

Celsius (or one Kelvin).

q = m c T

ENERGY

Heat energy is usually measured in either

Joules, given by the unit (J), and

kilojoules (kJ) or in calories, written

shorthand as (cal), and kilocalories (kcal).

1 cal = 4.184 J

NOTE: This conversion correlates to the specific heat of water which is 1

cal/g oC or 4.184 J/g oC.

SPECIFIC HEAT

raise the temperature of 100.0 g of water

from 20.0 oC to 85.0 oC?

m = 100.0 g

q = m x s x T

c (H2O) = 4.184 J/ g - oC

q = 27196 J (1 kJ / 1000J) = 27.2 kJ

unknown metal that required 10 kJ of heat

to raise the temperature of 150.00 g from

15.0 oC to 200.0 oC?

c = 0.36 J /g -oC

LAW OF CONSERVATION OF

ENERGY

of thermodynamics), when related to heat

transfer between two objects, can be stated

as:

The heat lost by the hot object = the heat gained

by the cold object

-qhot = qcold

-mh x ch x Th = mc x cc x Tc

where T = Tfinal - Tinitial

water at 0.00oC is needed to cool 100.0 g of

water at 97.6oC to 12.0 oC?

-mh x ch x Th = mc x cc x Tc

- (100.0g) (4.184 J/goC) (12.0-97.6oC) = m (4.184J/goC) (12.0-0.0 oC)

35 815.04 J = m (50.21/g)

m = 35 815.04 J / (50.21 cal/g)

m = 713.3 g

at 100.0oC is dropped into 175.0 mL of water at 17.8 oC. The final

temperature of the mixture was 39.4 oC.

PRACTICE PROBLEM #7

1. Iron metal has a specific heat of 0.449 J/g oC. How much heat is

transferred to a 5.00 g piece of iron, initially at 20.0 oC, when it is placed

in a beaker of boiling water at 1 atm?

180. J

2. How many joule of energy are given off to lower the temperature of 100.0

g of iron from 150.0 oC to 35.0 oC?

5146.32 J

3. If 3.47 kJ were absorbed by 75.0 g H 2O at 20.0 oC, what would be the final

temperature of the water?

31.1 oC

4. A 100. g sample of water at 25.3 oC was placed in a calorimeter. 45.0 g of

lead shots (at 100 oC) was added to the calorimeter and the final

temperature of the mixture was 34.4 oC. What is the specific heat of

lead?

1.28 J/g oC

5. A 17.9 g sample of unknown metal was heated to 48.31 oC. It was then

added to 28.05 g of water in an insulted cup. The water temperature rose

from 21.04 oC to 23.98oC. What is the specific heat of the metal in J/g oC?

0.792 J/goC

temperature from 22.0oC to 100.0oC. What is the specific heat of the

metal in J/goC?

100.0 g of iron from 75.0 oC to 25.0 oC?

would be the final temperature of the water?

at 5.0 oC. Calculate the final temperature of the mixture.

water at 22.0oC. The specific heat of gold is 0.131 J/g oC or 0.0312

cal/goC. Calculate the final temperature of the mixture assuming no

heat is lost to the surroundings.

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