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# THERMODYMANICS

## Thermodynamics is the study

of the motion of heat energy
as it is transferred from the
system to the surrounding or
from the surrounding to the
system.
The transfer of heat could be due to a
physical change or a chemical
change.
There are three laws of chemical
thermodynamics.

CHEMICAL
THERMODYMANICS
The first law of thermodynamics:
Energy and matter can be neither created nor destroyed;
only transformed from one form to another. The energy
and matter of the universe is constant.
.

HEAT

## The energy that flows into or out of a

system because of a difference in
temperature between the thermodynamic
system and its surrounding.

Symbolized by "q".

## When heat is evolved by a system, energy

is lost and "q is negative (-).

## When heat is absorbed by the system, the

energy is added and "q" is positive (+).

HEAT FLOW
Heat can flow in one of two directions:

Exothermic
To give off heat; energy is lost from the
system: (-q)

Endothermic
To absorb heat; energy is added to the
system: (+q)

## HEAT CAPACITY &

SPECIFIC HEAT
HEAT CAPACITY: The quantity of heat
needed to raise the temperature of a
substance one degree Celsius (or one
Kelvin).
SPECIFIC HEAT: The quantity of heat
required to raise the temperature of one
gram of a substance by one degree
Celsius (or one Kelvin).

q = m c T

## UNITS for HEAT

ENERGY
Heat energy is usually measured in either
Joules, given by the unit (J), and
kilojoules (kJ) or in calories, written
shorthand as (cal), and kilocalories (kcal).

1 cal = 4.184 J
NOTE: This conversion correlates to the specific heat of water which is 1
cal/g oC or 4.184 J/g oC.

SPECIFIC HEAT

## Determine the energy (in kJ) required to

raise the temperature of 100.0 g of water
from 20.0 oC to 85.0 oC?
m = 100.0 g
q = m x s x T

## T = Tf -Ti = 85.0 - 20.0 oC = 65.0 oC

c (H2O) = 4.184 J/ g - oC

## q = (100.0 g) x (4.184 J/g-oC) x (65.0oC)

q = 27196 J (1 kJ / 1000J) = 27.2 kJ

## Determine the specific heat of an

unknown metal that required 10 kJ of heat
to raise the temperature of 150.00 g from
15.0 oC to 200.0 oC?
c = 0.36 J /g -oC

LAW OF CONSERVATION OF
ENERGY

## The law of conservation of energy (the first law

of thermodynamics), when related to heat
transfer between two objects, can be stated
as:
The heat lost by the hot object = the heat gained
by the cold object

-qhot = qcold
-mh x ch x Th = mc x cc x Tc
where T = Tfinal - Tinitial

## Assuming no heat is lost, what mass of cold

water at 0.00oC is needed to cool 100.0 g of
water at 97.6oC to 12.0 oC?

-mh x ch x Th = mc x cc x Tc
- (100.0g) (4.184 J/goC) (12.0-97.6oC) = m (4.184J/goC) (12.0-0.0 oC)

35 815.04 J = m (50.21/g)
m = 35 815.04 J / (50.21 cal/g)

m = 713.3 g

## Calculate the specific heat of an unknown metal if a 92.00 g piece

at 100.0oC is dropped into 175.0 mL of water at 17.8 oC. The final
temperature of the mixture was 39.4 oC.

## c (metal) = 2.84 J/g oC

PRACTICE PROBLEM #7

1. Iron metal has a specific heat of 0.449 J/g oC. How much heat is
transferred to a 5.00 g piece of iron, initially at 20.0 oC, when it is placed
in a beaker of boiling water at 1 atm?

180. J

2. How many joule of energy are given off to lower the temperature of 100.0
g of iron from 150.0 oC to 35.0 oC?

5146.32 J

3. If 3.47 kJ were absorbed by 75.0 g H 2O at 20.0 oC, what would be the final
temperature of the water?

31.1 oC
4. A 100. g sample of water at 25.3 oC was placed in a calorimeter. 45.0 g of
lead shots (at 100 oC) was added to the calorimeter and the final
temperature of the mixture was 34.4 oC. What is the specific heat of

1.28 J/g oC

5. A 17.9 g sample of unknown metal was heated to 48.31 oC. It was then
added to 28.05 g of water in an insulted cup. The water temperature rose
from 21.04 oC to 23.98oC. What is the specific heat of the metal in J/g oC?

0.792 J/goC

## _____1. A 250.0 g metal bar requires 5.866 kJ to change its

temperature from 22.0oC to 100.0oC. What is the specific heat of the
metal in J/goC?

## _____2. How many joules are required to lower the temperature of

100.0 g of iron from 75.0 oC to 25.0 oC?

## _____ 3. If 40.0 kJ were absorbed by 500.0 g H 2O at 10.0 oC, what

would be the final temperature of the water?

## _____ 4. A 250 g of water at 376.3 oC is mixed with 350.0 mL of water

at 5.0 oC. Calculate the final temperature of the mixture.

## _____5. A 400 g piece of gold at 500.0 oC is dropped into 15.0 L of

water at 22.0oC. The specific heat of gold is 0.131 J/g oC or 0.0312
cal/goC. Calculate the final temperature of the mixture assuming no
heat is lost to the surroundings.