Industrial safety Definition: Industrial safety is primarily a management activity which is concerned with reducing, controlling and eliminating

hazards from the industries or industrial units. Importance of industrial safety The danger of life of human being is increasing with advancement of scientific development in different fields. The importance of industrial safety was realized because every millions of industrial accidents occur which result in either death or in temporary disablement or permanent disablement of employees and involve large amount of losses resulting from danger to property, wasted man hours and wasted hours. More ever, from managerial perspective the importance of industrial safety in any organization may be concluded by following facilitation: e) Treatment: industrial safety management provides treatment for injuries and illness at the work place. f) Medical Examination: it carries out medical examination of staff joining the organization or returning to work after sickness or accident. g) Hazards identification. h) Provision of protective devices. i) Consultancy: it provides medical advised on other condition potentially affecting health e.g. works canteen etc. j) Education: it provides safety and health training. Objectives of industrial safety: k) to prevent accidents in the plant by reducing the hazard to minimum. l) to eliminate accident caused work stoppage and lost production. m) to achieve lower workmen’s compensation, insurance rates and reduce all other direct and indirect costs of accidents. n) to prevent loss of life, permanent disability and the loss of income of worker by eliminating causes of accidents. o) to evaluate employee’s morale by promoting safe work place and good working condition. p) to educate all members of the organization in continuous state of safety mindness and to make supervision competent and intensely safety ninded. A safety programmed includes mainly following four E’s. • Engineering: i.e safety at the design, equipment installation stage. • Education: i.e. education of employees in safe practices. • Enlistment: it concerns the attitude of the employees and management to wards the programmed and its purpose. Ti is necessary to arouse the interest of employees in accident prevention and safety consciousness. • Encouragement: i.e. to enforce adherence to safe rules and practices.

Safety Organization: Definition: safety organization may be defined as organization taking in the work of accident prevention. It means that it has to remove unsafe physical conditions and substitute safety practices in the place of unsafe practices. Essential Elements: the basic elements regarding the safety organization are as under; q) r) s) t) u) v) w) management leadership assignment of responsibility maintenance of safe working conditions establishment of safety training an accident record system medical and first aid system. acceptance of personal responsibilities by employees.

Management attitude: Top management attitude to wards accident prevention is reflected in the attitude of the supervisory force. Similarly the workers attitude is dependent on the supervisor. Therefore, the success of a program for prevention of accidents will mainly rest on the interest taken by the top management. Assignment of responsibility: It is of a paramount importance that assignment of full responsibility should be given to some one for safety activities. It is usual to entrust this function to general manager, workers manager or personnel manager but if there is full time safety officer then this function is entrusted to him and he is usually answerable to a top ranking officer such as Director or General manager. Supervisor: The supervisor is the key person in any safety program. To the worker, he is the management. It is again the supervisor who has intimated knowledge of the temperament, attitude, sense of responsibility, physical characteristics, skill, training, etc of the workers. In other words he has immediate control over them. Therefore, the supervisor is indispensable ( that is not be set aside ) in any safety scheme and workers success would depend upon the interest and participation of the supervisor. To achieve the results, management should adopt the method of policy of associating safety as part of good production methods and to make it known that bad safety record or poor safety procedure by itself will be as a bad performance by management.

Principles to prevent accident Accident prevention is highly essential in an industry, in order to x) prevent injury to and premature death of employees. y) Reduce operation and production costs. z) Have good employee employer relations. aa) High up the morale of employees. bb) above all the prevention of accidents is a true humanitarian concern. cc) Accident prevention does not occur by itself; there should be consistent of dd) safety measures and safety programmers emphasizing the need for ee) safe workplace layout and working condition ff) safe material handling. gg) Personal protective devices. hh) Safety activities in organization. There are following accident preventations: LEGAL: In the industrially developed countries, there exist very well defined and highly stringent punitive codes and statutes, which are designe to maintain and improve safety, health and welfare of employed persons. Even the developing countries have such laws, albeit still in a some what elementary form which make them anachronistic with the requirements of modern technology and the hazards generated as a consequences there of. These laws at their best only impose a minimum standard of conduct defining them to be the absolute duty of the employer. Traditionally, the safety specialists have been using this legal argument for accident prevention on the basis that by being conscious about the safety or the employees, the employer can avoid attracting prosecution. The economic argument also becomes relevant at this point because of the fines that has been imposed as the result of statutory breaches, or because of the production loss, which may result due to the closure of the enterprise ordered as a punishment for the breach of these statutes. In the same context, employers feel threatened about the image of the company being tarnished and the effect of the adverse publicity received as a consequence of prosecution and subsequent punishment under the safety laws. This indirectly could also impact adversely in the revenues and hence the profits of the company. In the civilized societies it must be remembered, that one of the prime social objectives of any company is to gerarate a safe plan of work for its employees. HUMANITARIAN: The humanitarian argument derives its strength from a universally accepted ethical and moral axiom that it is the duty of every man to ensure the physical well being of his fellow man. This automatically holds the employer responsible, in the eyes of every member of the society to provide a safe and healthy working environment

for this employees. The safety specialist can therefore appeal to the conceive of the management by emphasizing upon them that is immoral for the employer not to give due consideration to the safety and well being of the employees by taking measures which could protect them against pain and suffering as a consequence of unsafe practices and procedures allowed in their enterprise. ECONOMIC: The economic argument very simply, is based on accident costing the company money. It must however be appreciated that in order that this argument may have an effective impact on the management. It is imperative that the costs of the accidents occurring to the company must be accurately quantified. If this is done, accident prevention is then seen by the senior management as good business, which motivate the management to strive more and more to ameliorate their safety system in the interest of maximization of the profit. The safety specialists thus, use the economic argument as the most powerful tool for ensuring a very elaborate and sophisticated accident prevention and safety program. This is the foundation stone upon which the concepts or theories of risk management/accidents prevention are based. These concepts unfortunately are hardly known in our country. It is high time that these most powerful tools may be introduced in our country, both for making its industrial enterprises safer for the workers and for making their operations more cost effective.

SAFETY INSPECTION PROCEDURES Introduction: Across the industry and commerce there are a multiplicity of safety inspection procedures, each developed to identify the and hazard within a particular business. However they do fall into a number of broad categories. Following are various procedures for the safety Safety audit A safety audit subjects each area of a company’s activity to a systematic critical examination with the object of minimizing loss. Every component of the total system is included. For example management policy, attitudes training, features of the process and of the design, layout and construction of the plant, operating procedures, emergency plans, personal protection standards, accident record etc. Safety survey A safety survey is a detailed examination in depth of a narrower field of activity. For example major key areas revealed by safety audits, individual plans and procedures, or specific problems common to a works as a whole. These surveys are

followed by formal report, action plan and subsequent monitoring. Safety inspection A routine scheduled inspection of a unit or department, which may be carried out by someone ( may be a safety representative ) from within the unit, possibly accompanied by the safety advisor. The inspection would check maintenance standards, imployee involvement, working practices, fire precaution, use of guards and adherence to safe working procedures etc, and be more immediate than the wide-reaching or in-depth approach taken by audits and surveys. Safety tours A safety inspection around a predetermined route or area of the work place carried our by any one-of a range of personnel from works directors to safety representatives to ensure that for example standards of housekeeping are at an acceptable level, or that obvious hazards are removed or to ensure that generally safety standards are observed. Typically tours last only fifteen minutes and are conducted at weekly intervals. Safety sampling A particular application of a safety inspection or tour designe to check on one specific pre-selected safety aspect only, within the workplace or an agreed part of it. This focuses attention on the particular safety matter and highlights the observation of possible hazards. The safety sample chosen can be concerned with plant, equipment, guarding, methods of operation, lack of adherence to safe systems of work, non use of permit to work system, forklift truck driving and training or any other. Safety samples should be carried out regularly but with a random selection of the subject each time. Hazard and operability study The application of a formal critical examination to the process and engineering intentions of now facilities to assess the hazard potential from mal operation or multifunction of individual items of equipment and the consequential effects on the facility as a whole. Remedial action cam then be planned at a very early stage of the project with maximum effectiveness and at minimum cost. The techniques can also be applied to existing plants and processes. Whilst unsuspected hazards may be revealed by any of the above techniques, the use of a formal checklist in project engineering design helps to ensure that the plant complies with statutory requirement, and that account is taken of the best current safety techniques and practices. Hearth and safety requirement should also be incorporated at the design stage rather than taken on as an afterthought once the plant or process is in full operation. The safety adviser has a contribution to make and should be a member of both the design and hazard and operability teams.

Fire:

Fire like industrial accident is rarely experienced by most individuals on the other hand fire is likely to affect directly large no: of people. The main causes of fire in industries are ii) Electrical equipment. jj) Smoking. kk) Gas equipments. ll) Gas cutting and welding. mm)Oil and petrol equipments. nn) Rubbish burning. oo) Spontaneous combustion. As per report of fire prevention association (FPA) THE 0.26% of total accidents was caused by the fire. Fire Prevention and Control: To prevent and control the accidents, it is necessary to act upon the following guidelines. pp) Management must accept that a fire prevention policy must be set up and regularly revised. qq) An estimate should be made of possible effects of fire in loosing buildings, plant work in progress, workers, customers, plans and records. rr) Identifying the fire risks, considering sources of ignition, combustion material and means where by fire could spread. ss) Estimate the magnitudes of the risks to establish priorities. tt) Establish dear lines of responsibilities for fire prevention. uu) Appoint a fire officer responsible to the board. vv) set up a fire protection drill for each development ww)Set up a program which will be maintained at appropriate intervals. Common Precautions Following are the common precautions xx) Daily at the start of the business the doors which may be used for escape purposes be unlocked and escape roots unobstructed. yy) Daily at closing, down fire doors and fire shutters should be closed. zz) All out side doors, windows and other means of access secured against intruders and replaced if broken. aaa)Heating apparatus and main switches turned off daily at close down. bbb)Furnaces and boilers safety out daily at close down. ccc)Inspection of whole premises, especially store rooms and other parts rarely visited daily at closedown. ddd)Smoking only is permitted where adequate no: of ash trays available and no smoking during last half hour of working day. eee)Naked lights prohibited daily at closedown. fff) Combustible materials kept well clear from heaters and other burning parts.

ggg)Gluecattles pressing and soldering and similar appliances clear off vombustible material and with non combustible stand holders. hhh)Flame able liquids containers be closed and kept away from sources of ignitions. iii) Waste bins ash trays and waste paper baskets emptied at regular intervals and always at end of working days. jjj) Drip trays implied daily at close down. kkk)Workmen’s clothes and over alls kept in special place. lll) Electric motors kept clear of all accumulations of material daily. mmm)Gangways kept un obstinate daily. nnn)Special care with cutting and welding equipment used by maintenance men or contractors daily. ooo)Fire appliances like fire buckets be filled weekly. ppp)Fire instructions, fire exit and no smoking notices clearly be displayed weekly. qqq)Cods on the factory floor be clearly stored so as not to impede fire at different intervals. rrr) Inspection of fire extinguishers periodically as required. sss)Check of lighting conductors as required. ttt) Machinery and plant maintenance as required. uuu)Maintenance of special extinguishing system e.g. dry powders CO2 daily.

Electrocution and its precautions The term electrocution is used when worker come into electrical shock. The three electrical factors which are come in the categories of the electrocution. i.e. Resistance, Current, Voltage. Electric resistance is opposition to the flow of current and measured in ohms. There is wide degree of variation in body resistance. A shock may fatal to any person may only discomfort to an other. Voltage is the pressure that causes the flow of electric current in a circuit; its unit is v. generally above 30 v is considered dangerous. Electric current I is the rate of flow of electrons in a circuit and its unit is amperes (A). Following precaution must be observed while working on electrical works to protect against shocks. vvv)Before working on the main lines first switch off the supply of electricity. www)If it is not possible to switch off the main see that your hands and feet are not wet. xxx)If a person gets an electric shock rescue him with the help of insulator. If the insulator is not available use your feet not hands to rescue him. yyy)While working on high voltage, stand on bad conducting material. zzz)if any person who is shocked by the electricity is in contact with the electrical machine or an apparatus then one person for saving him should stand on a dry wooden chair while removing the victim other wise pull him with the help of a dry coat , dry rope etc. aaaa)Don’t close any switch unless you are familiar with the circuit that it controls and know the reason for its being open. bbbb)Avoid touching any or working on live circuits as much as possible. cccc)Keep material or equipment at least 10 feet away from high voltage overhead power lines. dddd)Don’t reach into energized equipment while it is being operated. This is particularly important in high voltage circuits. eeee)when installing new machinery, ensure that all metal frame work is efficiently and permanently founded.

Duties of the employer (Training and Education) For a safe and smooth running system an employer may give trainings and education to the worker to work safe and accordingly. Following are the duties on employer: ffff)Provide and maintain plant and system of work that are safe and without risks to health. Plant covers any machinery equipment or appliances including portable power tools and hand tools gggg)insure that the use, handling, storage and transport articles and substances is safe and with out risk hhhh)Provide such information, instruction, training and supervision to ensure that employees can carry out their jobs safety. iiii)Ensure that any work shop under his control is safe and healthy and that proper means of access and egress are maintained. Particularly in respect of high standards of house keeping, cleanliness, disposal of rubbish and the stacking of goods in the proper place. jjjj)Keep the work place environment safe and healthy so that the atmosphere is such as not to give rise to poisoning, gassing or the encourage met of the development of diseases. Adequate welfare facilities should be providing. kkkk)To prepare and keep up to date a written safety policy supported by information on the organization and arrangements for carrying out the policy. The safety policy has to be brought to the notice of employees. llll)To consult with any safety representatives appointed by recognized trade unions to enlist their cooperation in establishing and maintaining high standards of safety. mmmm)To establish a safety committee if required by two or more safety representatives. Safety equipment There are following equipment are use in the industries for the safety purpose. nnnn)Goggles oooo)Glasses pppp)Hand gloves qqqq)Apron rrrr)Safety shoes ssss)Anti fire gas cylinders

Introduction

Millions of industrial accidents occur every year. In these accidents, lacs of workers loss their lives every year in the world. Accidents may cause injury, which sometimes result in death or permanent total displacement. Seriousness of this problem can be judged by the following figures. In Pakistan, casualties per industrial accidents at any yearly average are nearly 50 to 60 thousands, out which nearly 600 causes death, while in UK the average casualties per year nearly 2.5 lacs out which nearly 3000 causes death. The figure is maximum in USA where average casualties are nearly 20 lacks out which nearly 15,000 causes death. Statistics shows that 98% accidents can be avoided; only 2% accidents cannot be prevented. (Ind: Org: & Engg: Eco) tttt)What is an Accidents: (definitions) An accident may be defined as an unplanned event or happening. This is, an accident is something unexpected, not predictable, foreseen or intended. An extension of this theme is that an accident is an outcome of an event that is not desired. Accidents do not just "happen" they are caused. An unsafe act and / or unsafe condition cause the accident event; resulting in interruption to work activities, damage to property or injury to a person. Every accident has one or more identifiable causes. The employer is responsible for ensuring a safe system of work is in place and therefore must take action to prevent accidents from occurring or recurring. For some, this concept still causes difficulty. The term "accident" suggests that an event occurred itself, with some degree of chance and it implies no blame or responsibility. Some people associate or equate an accident An industrial accident may be defined as an event, detrimental (harmful) to the health of man, suddenly occurring and originating from external sources, and which is associated with the performance of a paid job, accompanied by an injury, followed by disability or even death. (O.P.Khana) OR An event that takes place all of a sudden unexpectedly resulting in some thing bad is called an accident. For example a plant catches fire or a person receiving an electric current or any labor cuts his finger in a machine or some bad incidents, which can be called as accidents. (PPC). OR "Any occurrence that interferes with the orderly progress of activity" (Industrial Organization)

Question No: 1 Discuss the events leading up to an accident by considering domino sequence theory

& multiple causation theory.

SEQUENCE OF EVENTS- DOMINO THEORY
The domino theory attributed to Heinrich is based on the theory that: "A chain or sequence of events can be listed in chronological order to show the events leading up to an accident" Event A ----> Event B ----> Event C ----> Accident ---->Effect Each event may have more than one cause i.e. be multicausal. Heinrich states that: "The occurrence of an injury accident invariably results from a completed sequence of factors culminating-in the accident itself” He postulates five factors or stages in the accident sequence, with the injury invariably caused by the accident and the accident in turn the result of the factors that immediately precedes it. The five factors or stages in the sequence of events are: o Ancestry and social environment, leading to noble o Fault of person, constituting the proximate reason for o An unsafe act and/or mechanical hazard, which results in o The accident, which leads to o The injury. Heinrich likens these five stages to five dominoes standing on edge in a line next to each other, so that when the first domino falls it automatically knocks down its neighbor which in turn knocks down its neighbor and so on. Removal of any one of the first four will break the sequence and so prevent the injury. In fact, Heinrich suggested that accident prevention should aim to remove or eliminate the middle or third domino, representing the unsafe act, mechanical or physical hazard, thus preventing the accident. During accident investigation, in addition to asking `what action has been taken to prevent recurrence', the investigator needs to be aware of the chain of events leading up to the accident, and tracing it back. Similarly, on safety audits and inspections, when the risk of an accident has been identified, possible event chain should be investigated and action taken to remove potential cause

AN UPDATED DOMINO SEQUENCE:

Bird and loftus have extended this theory to reflect the influence of management in the cause and effect of all accidents that result in a wastage of the company's assets. The modified sequence of events becomes: uuuu)Lack of control by management, permitting vvvv)Basic causes (personal and job factors), that lead to wwww)Immediate causes (substandard practices/conditions/errors), which are the proximate causes of xxxx)The accident, which results in yyyy)The loss (minor, serious or catastrophic). This modified sequence can be applied to all accidents, and is fundamental to loss control management. MULTIPLE CAUSATION THEORY: Multicausality refers to the fact that there may be more than one cause to any accident. Like cause A can lead to accident, cause B can lead to same accident and in this way Cause C can lead to the same accident. Each of these multicauses is equivalent to the third domino in the Heinrich theory and can represent an unsafe act or condition or situation. Each of these can itself have multicauses and the process during accident investigation of following each branch back to its root is known as `fault tree analysis". The theory of multicausation is that: "The contributing causes combine together in a random fashion to result in an accident. " During accident investigation, there is a need to identify as many of these causes as possible. In reality, the accident model is a combination of both the domino and multicausality theories. Peterson has compared and contrasted both theories and gives an example which illustrates the comparative narrowness of the domino theory in relation to the multicausality theory and concludes that this has severely limited the identification and control of the underlying causes of accident. The theory of multicausality has its basis in epidemiology. Gordon points out that accidental injury could be considered with epidemiological techniques. He believes that if the characteristics of the ‘host’(accident victim), of the agent (the injury deliverer) and of supporting environment5 could be described in details, more understanding of accident causes could be achieved than by following the Domino Technique of looking for a single cause only. Essentially, Gordon’s theory is that the accident is the result of a complex and random interaction between the host, the agent and the environment, and can not be explained by consideration only one of the three.

Causes of accidents: (OPKHANA)
As we know that an accident is an unplanned incident and for each such incident there is usually a specific cause or causes if one could but discover them Mechanical Factors Accidents may be caused due to; 1. Technical causes -------------Unsafe conditions---Environmental Factors.

2. Human causes------------------Unsafe acts----------Personal factors. 1. Technical Causes: Technical causes reflect deficiencies in plant, equipment, tools, materials, handling system, general work environment, etc. (a) Mechanical Causes or factors: i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. Unsafe mechanical design or construction Hazardous arrangement (pilling, over-loading, etc) Improper machine guarding. Unsafe apparel Defective devices Improper material handling zzzz)Leaking acid valve aaaaa)Untested boilers or pressure vessels

2. Human causes: Any unsafe act by the person concerned are due to his ignorance or forgetfulness, carelessness, day-dreaming, etc (a) Personal Factors: bbbbb)Age ccccc)Health ddddd) Lack of knowledge and skill eeeee)Improper attatitude towards work fffff)Fatigue ggggg)Carelessness and recklessness hhhhh)Emotional instability e.g. jealousy, iiiii)Motional instability e.g. jealousy, jjjjj)Mental worries kkkkk)Non-use of safety devices lllll)Working at unsafe speeds mmmmm)Improper use of tools. Means of preventing accidents: As we know that an accident is an unplanned incident but it doesn't means that we should not prepare our self in advance or take any preventive measures to safe guard both machine and man of any industry. Thus, to overcome the accidents generally the following measures are adopted; nnnnn)Safe work place layout ooooo)Reform of the working condition ppppp)Provision in right work methods qqqqq)Training in right methods. rrrrr)Means of removing fatigue sssss)Proper speed of work ttttt)Organization of safety committee uuuuu)Safety campaigns and posters vvvvv)Pay attention to individual differences wwwww)Habit of safety xxxxx)Motivating safety yyyyy)Safe material handling zzzzz)Use of personal protective devices

Safe workplace layout: Although most of the accidents take place because of unsafe act of the employees, the role of the workplace layout cannot be ignored in determining the cause of accident. For preventing accident the layout should be such that; aaaaaa)Every employee has enough space to move and operate. bbbbbb)Passageways between working places, roads, tracks and alleys (narrow passage way), etc must never be obstructed. cccccc)Fire hazards can be reduced by utilizing firewalls to separate manufacturing area into several compartments. dddddd)Worker operating on the machine should have easy access to the safety switches provided on the machine/near workplace. eeeeee)Windows should be of adequate dimensions in order to make full use of natural daylight. Reforms of the working conditions: If accidents are to be prevented then the conditions of work should be improved. The temperature, air purity, humidity of air in the working premises should not be so such that it may lead to discomfort because it has a direct affect on the workers health as well as to some machines also. Not only in enclosed rooms, even otherwise proper ventilation is a must if the manufacturing processes give rise to dust, smoke, fumes, etc. The illumination provided should be installed at correct angle and should be sufficient in amount whether it is natural or artificial; also it should be free from glare. A high level of noise at the workplace impair (damage or weaken) men at work and may endanger them therefore proper measures should be taken to reduce noise level by using silencers to minimize the hissing sounds, etc. Provision of safety methods: Suitable provisions of safety should be made in designing the machines so that minimum accidents will occur. Moreover workers should be trained and encouraged to use these devices. Pay attention to individual differences: It is desirable that before allocating a particular task to a particular worker, information about his age, experience, mental health, sex, intelligence, physical qualities, etc should be collected and then depending on these facts work should be allocated so that right man should be placed at the right job. Training in right work methods: Many accidents occur because the operators using machines have not been trained in the correct use of them. It is always better, therefore to have trained a person in the use of a machine, in its maintenance, before allowing him to handle them.

Means of removing fatigue: It has been established that one important cause of accident is fatigue. Hence one important measure of avoiding accidents is to remove fatigue as much as possible. And one of the best ways of eliminating fatigue is to provide properly timed rest intervals at frequent intervals so that the worker can regain his energy and avoid reaching a stage of complete exhaustion. Besides these proper hours of working and by creating atmosphere of cooperation and happiness, fatigue can be reduced. Proper speed of work: Accidents frequently occur when the work is performed at a speed much greater than that, which is desirable. Therefore the speed of the worker in an office or factory should be controlled. Workers should be encouraged to work at such a speed that they can maintain their efficiency and work throughout the day without unnecessary fatigue. Organization of safety committee: Another measure for preventing accidents suggested by psychologist is the formation of safety committee. Such committees help to train the worker, make him more safety conscious and also help to develop or invent new safety techniques. Safety campaigns and posters: Safety can also be promoted by organizing a safety campaign in factory and office. Posters and slogans can also be used in such a campaign. These will help the worker to control his actions. Habits of safety: Despite all the satiety measures adopted, by far the best and the most successful method is the creation of habits of safety. Such habits can be developed through training and other similar methods. Motivating Safety: Workers should be motivated to work cautiously. One way of doing it is to increase the salary of those workers who follow the safety regulations. Safe Material Handling: The employer should provide mechanical means of conveyance to ensure the safety of the workers engaged in material handling. The transport workers should not be asked to lift more than the permissible load. Proper material handling equipments must be used and should be according to nature of the goods. Use of personal protective devices: For any type of industrial worker it is always advisable to use personal

protective devices such as safety hard hats, ear protector, face mask, welding helmets, goggles gas mask, gloves, safety body belt, apron etc. All and other more safety devices ultimately help the worker to safe guard himself from any sudden mishap. Effects Of an accident: There are three types of effects of any accident; I. Personal Effects. 2. Social Effects. 3. Other Effects. 1. Personal Effects: They include; a death, b disability, c physical suffering, d. Psychological suffering e. Loss of ability for efficient working f. Loss of earning capability. 2. Social Effects: They include; a. An asset in the form of earning hand becomes a liability b. Social status may get lost. c. Family humiliation of disability is prolonged or permanent. 3. Other Effects: a. Loss of man hours. b. Loss of machine hours. c. Loss of material d. Damaged machinery e. Damaged property f. Loss of capital g Loss of capital h. Compensation cost. These include;

Types of Accidents:
These are classified as follows; Lost time accident: In this type of accident compensation is paid by the employer to the worker, because the severity of the accident. Home cases: No compensation is paid, only rest and medical treatment is provided by the employer. First aid cases: In this case, The effect is minor so that the worker can resume duty after getting necessary first aid at the factory dispensary. Traffic accidents: They include; (a) Collision between moving vehicles (b) Collision with fixed objects. Machine Accidents: These accidents may happen due to; (a) Breaking of a steel rape (b) Breaking of fast moving blade (c) Moving or sliding part of machine (d) Loose garments dragging the part of the body of the worker. Non-Machine Accidents: These include, (a) Fall of heavy article from higher level (b) Collapse of roof, wall or shed (c) Electric shock (d) Chemical reaction Nature of injury: They include, (a) Fatal. (b)Burns (c) Fractures (d) Cuts (e) Sprain (sudden pull of wrist causing pain but not dislocation)

Categories of accidents
There are mainly five different categories of accidents; 1. Minor accidents. 2. Reportable accidents. 3. Fatal accidents 4. Dangerous occurrences. 5. Accidents or injuries caused as a result of poising. 1. Minor Accidents: As it is clear from the word "MINOR" that this category of accident includes only those accidents that are less harmful in nature to workers and thus preventing the employee from working for the period less than 48 hours from the time of the accident. !t also means that these accidents are not reported to the higher management and thus are easily controlled by the foremen and supervisor. 2. Reportable Accidents: in this category the nature of accident is little bit complicated then the minor accidents. Here injuries caused to the worker prevent him from working for the period of 48 hours or more. Thus, it is the duty of supervisor to report to the higher management to temporary arrange an other worker so that the production could not be affected. 3. Fatal Accidents: This category includes the highly complicated accidents that could result in the death of the injured worker. The death could occur on the spot of the accident or due to unbearable injuries causes to the worker means when worker could not sustain those injuries. 4. Dangerous Occurrences: (a) Bursting of vessel for containing steam under pressure greater than atmospheric pressure. (b) Collapse or failure of crank or other appliances. (c) Explosion or fire causing damage to any room or place where persons are employed or fire in the room of cotton pressing factories when a cotton opener is in use. (d) Explosion of receiver or container used for storage at a pressure greater than atmospheric pressure of any gas or any liquid including air. (e) Collapse or subsidence of any floor, glary, roof. Bridge, tunnel or chimney, wall or building.

5. Accidents or injuries caused as a result of poising or occupational disease (Textile, Cement, Stone crushing, flourmills, Coalmines, Chimneys, etc) causing disease as Asthma, TB, Heart attack, etc). ffffff)Increasing Rate Of Accidents Creates: 1. Sense of insecurity. 2. Fear among workers. 3. Deterioration in their overall performance. 4. No substitute if worker disable or losses his life. 5. Lost of goodwill of workers.

Cost of Accidents ;( write more detail)
1. Injured person: (i) Suffering and pain (ii) Worry (iii) Absence of recreation (iv) Loss of wages (v) Medical expenses (vi) Loss of limb of life

2, Supervisor: {i) Worry (ii) Loss of prestige (iii) Selecting a training substitute (iv) More supervision required for new man (v) Loss of output (vi) Loss of Moral/confidence. 3. Management: (a) Direct: (1) Compensation (ii) Payments (iii) Medical expenses. (b) Indirect: (i) Last of time of injured person. (ii) Lost time of other employees {iii} Lost time of foremen, supervisor or other executives (iv) Cost of time spend by first aid attendant (v) Cost due to damage to machines, tools, and other properties due to spoilage of material (vi) Incidental cost due to interference with production (whole assembly line could be stopped_) (vii) Cost under employee welfare and benefits schemes. (Company will pay them. (viii) Cost due to continuous of wages of injured worker in full for specified period. (ix) Cost due to less of profit on the injured worker... (x) Overhead cost per injured worker. (xi) Miscellaneous expenses such as for hiring and training new employees, over time wages, renting equipments, etc gggggg)Total society is bearing the cost of accidents.

Accident Investigation:
As we know that we have three different types of accidents and according to these the investigation procedure varies. The three types are; I. Minor Accidents. 2. Reportable Accidents 3. Fatal & Poisons Accidents. I. Minor Accidents: As it is clear from the word "M1NOR" that this category of accident includes only those accidents that are less harmful in nature to workers and thus preventing the employee from working for the period less than 48 hours from the time of the accident. The procedure for investigating such type of accidents is as soon as an accident occurs; first aid shall be administered to the injured. These accidents are not reported to the higher management and they are easily controlled by the foremen and supervisor. 2. Reportable Accidents: In this category the nature of accident is little bit complicated then the minor accidents. Here injuries caused to the worker prevent him from working for the period of 48 hours or more. Procedure: In this type of accident head of the department choose a senior person for inquiry after receiving report of supervisor. Also it is the duty of supervisor to report to the higher management to temporary arrange an other worker so that the production could not be affected 3. Fatal Accidents: This category includes the highly complicated accidents that could result in the death of the injured worker. The death could occur on the spot of the accident or due to unbearable injuries causes to the worker means when worker could not sustain those injuries. Procedure: In case of fatal accident the following officers shall be intimated through messenger; a. Safety officer b. Workers manager c. Labor officer factory The labor officer on receiving intimation shall immediately inform by telephone the authorized listed below; a. Inspector of factory b. Nearest police station c. District Magistrate d. Relatives of the worker.

Further Investigation: The enquiry committee while investigating the accidents will carry out the following; hhhhhh)Ascertain the facts that lead to the Accident by taking statements of witnesses iiiiii)By examining the work spot and machinery jjjjjj)By taking expert advice in the matter kkkkkk)Analyses the causes of the accident in detail. llllll)Contact to the injured person on the spot or in the hospital with the permission of the doctor. mmmmmm)Recommend corrective action for preventing similar accidents in future. Aspects of accident prevention: (Write Detail)

HAZARDOUS IDENTIFICATION, EVOLUTION AND CONTROL The prime objective in accident prevention is to control hazards at work, so as to reduce or eliminate accidents. It can be said that accidents result from the inadequate hazard management. The term hazard is defined as, “The result of a departure from the normal situation, which has the potential of cause injury, damage or loss” Essentially, there are three steps in the management of hazards identification o Evaluation or Assessment o Control (Elimination or Reduction) Within the workplace operational management at all levels has a responsibility to identify, evaluate and control hazards that are likely to result in injury, damage or loss. Part of these responsibilities should be to undertake regular safety audits of areas under their control. They should also examine on a regular basis, job methods and procedures to ensure that safe systems of work are followed Hazard Identification Within an organization, there are several ways by which hazards may be identified. These include: nnnnnn)Workplace inspections oooooo)Management/ workers discussions pppppp)Independent audits. qqqqqq)Job safety analysis. rrrrrr)Hazard and operability studies. Workplace Inspection Workplace inspections are undertaken with the aim of identifying hazards and promoting remedial action. Many different individuals and groups within an organization will at some time be involved in a workplace inspections; directors, line managers, safety advisers, supervisors and safety representatives. The key aspect is that results of all such inspections should be coordinated by one person within the factory, whose responsibility should include; • Monitoring action taken once the hazard has been notified • Informing those persons who reported the hazard as to what action has been taken. Workplace inspections tend to follow the same format but are given many different names including: safety sampling, safety audits, safety inspections, hazard surveys, etc but all have the same aim that is "Hazard Identification" and same format to follow as discussed below;

Management/ Worker Discussions Management/worker discussion can also be useful in the identification of hazards. Formal discussions take place during meetings of the safety committee with informal discussions occurring during on-the-job contact or in conversations between supervisor and worker. The concept of "incident recall" is an example of management/worker discussion. In all cases, however, the feedback element is important from a motivational viewpoint. The hazard spatter must he kept fully informed of any action taken to prevent injury, damage or lass arising from the hazard he has noted. Independent Audit Independent audit can also be used to identity hazards. The term independent here refers to those who are not employed of the organization, but who from time to time undertake either general or specific workplace audit or inspection. Such independent persons may include • Engineer surveyors • Employers' liability surveyors • Claims investigators • Insurance brokers personnel • Outside consultants • Health and safety executive • Job Safety Analysis It is also another method of hazard identification. Hazard and Operability Study It is a technique of hazard identification (and evaluation) that has been developed in the chemical and process industries. The technique essentially involves a multidisciplinary team of chemists engineer, safety advisors, production management, designers etc, critically examine each aspect of a process at the design stage, in order to eliminate hazards from the process at that early stage, rather than to find them later and have to modify the plant to eliminate them. Hazard Assessment And Evaluation Once a list of hazard within a company has been developed, each hazard on the list should be evaluated in order to assess what its impact on the company would be if control action were not taken. This assessment should take account of legal, humanitarian and economic considerations in addition to the frequency (number of times spotted), the potential severity (number of persons at risk) and the maximum or worst possible injury, damage or loss that might occur. Consideration should also be given to the probability that the hazard will result in loss. From these assessments a list of priorities for hazard control can be established and used as the basis of control action.

Simple hazard assessment formula involving the frequency, severity and maximum possible loss (M.P.L,) could be: Hazard rating = frequency X (severity + M.P.L. + probability) Numerical scales for assessing severity, M.P. L and probability will be needed to work out the hazard rating. This then enables priorities to be set, and corrective action to be planned.

HAZARD CONTROL
The control either elimination or reduction of the hazards within an organization requires careful planning and its achievement will involve both short term i.e. temporary and long term i.e. permanent measures. ssssss)Eliminate hazard at source. tttttt)Reduce hazard at source. uuuuuu)Remove employee from hazard. vvvvvv)Contain hazard by enclosure. wwwwww)Reduce employee's exposure to hazard. xxxxxx)Utilize protective equipment. The long-term aim must always be to eliminate the hazard at source, but whilst attempting to achieve this aim, other short term actions e.g; Utilization of the protective equipment will be necessary. This list indicates an 'order-of priority for remedial measures for any hazard situation. Various techniques are available to control hazards within the workplace. Mechanical hazards may be engineered out of the process, or effectively enclosed by means of fixed guarding. Alternative forms of guarding involve the use of interlocked guards, light-sensitive barriers or pressure-sensitive mats. Trip devices and other form of emergency stops may also be incorporated. Hazard from the working environment may be controlled by effective ventilation system, adequate heating and lighting, and general provision of good working conditions. Chemical hazards may also be controlled by effective ventilation, regular monitoring, substitution of material, change of process, purchasing controls and the use of protective equipment. A necessary corollary of hazard assessment is the establishment of safe system of work and training for the work force to make them aware of the hazards in their work areas, and of the methods for the control of such hazards.

Accident Proneness
Introduction: Examination of safety records often show that out of all the workers doing the same job and being subjected to the same physical environments, only few have substantially more accidents than the rest. Such few workers, who are found consistently to experience more accidents than the other workers, are classified as ACCIDENT PRONE workers or employees. Definition Accident proneness is defined as "the continuing tendency of a person to have more accidents as a result of his persisting characteristics". In the above definition of accident proneness, the emphasis is on the word "tendency" because of peculiar psychological and physiological make up of certain person. Laws Accident Proneness: Psychologist has made a study of accidents in order to discover the laws governing accident proneness, which are as follows; 1. He accidents are accidental then some people are only rarely involved in them, while some are involved very frequently, while the majority of the people are at a stage somewhere between the two extremes. It means that there are some people who has high tendency to do accidents. 2. If the accidents are due to circumstances then it will be seen that people who suffer from many accidents in a particular period will be comparatively free of accidents in the following period. 3. If accident proneness increase because of accidents, then the particular individuals found involved in accidents in particular test will also be found to be involved in accidents at any later test 4. If the accidents are due to some particular qualities of the individuals then people obtaining a particular grade in a particular accident will obtain the same grade in future accidents. Psychologist has been able to come to same conclusion about the causes of accidents. Most studies have indicated that some individuals are so contracted that they are involved in more accidents then other and are also the causes of involving other people in accidents Individuals of this kind are called accident-prone; normally there is always some scope for more or less accident proneness in every sphere where human beings work.

Causes of Accident Proneness:
Following are the causes of accident proneness; (I) Inattentiveness and day dreaming: It means that the worker is not paying proper attention towards his work due to various causes from home to job satisfaction. Or he may be habitual of pleasant thoughts that distract his attention from present situation. (2) Visual defects and hearing problems: It means that the worker might be suffering from any eye disease (color blindness) due which he cannot see his job properly and that could be resulted in a fatal accident. This type of causes is not only harmful for the worker himself but It could create problems for other workers. On the other hand if the worker is unable to hear correctly due hearing problem, this could also lead to a major accident. For example in case of emergency, his supervisor asks him to cut the power of the machine and if he could not hear it properly and thus did not cut the power, it will ultimately end with an accident. (3) Lack of stamina Or low degree of muscular condition- This is also major causes of accident proneness because if the worker is not healthy enough or the management have not given him the work according to his physical condition then the chances of accident are high. Thus the worker would not be able to perform his jab well and thus losses his stamina quickly. (4) Improper working conditions: It means that if the worker is not provided with the suitable working condition, it could be resulted in accident. Because poor working condition can causes fatigue, mental stress, deterioration of health, etc to the worker thus he could not be able to given his maximum performance. For example the temperature of the workplace should be maintained to the required temperature the body needs, proper lightning should be there so that worker could easily see his job, etc. (5) Distaste of the job: This factor very much influences the ratio of accident proneness. Because if the worker is not happy with the jab offered to him, the study shows that he will not perform well and causes more accidents. Thus it is very important to give the worker the job he is interested to do, this will reduce his proneness to accidents and helps the organization to increase its productivity. (6) Lack of training, proficiency and skill to do work: It means that the worker after appointed for any job should be trained properly because research shows that people who are not clearly aware of their jab causes more accidents then those who are fully trained in their job means that they should be proficient in their work. It is also necessary to verify the skills of the worker and then accordingly place him to his proper job. For example a worker who is skilled in doing welding then he should be appointed in the welding shop not in paint shop. (7) Unsafe behavior of worker: This is another cause that leads us to accident proneness. Because some time workers intentionally do not use safety devices because of there over confidence that not only cost them their life but also put other workers and management in great trouble.

(8) Insufficient intelligence: It is a natural phenomenon that any technical work needs some degree of intelligence and this degree vary from job to job. Thus if the worker is not enough intelligent to perform his job, he should be moved to the job according to his level of intelligence so to reduce the accident proneness. (9) Immature age: This cause indicates that while appointing the worker for any job, the age factor should be kept in mind. Because asking a teenage boy to perform the worker of some mature man or vice versa, finally results in accident proneness. Thus, it is very important to specify the age requirement of each job to avoid accidents. (10) Sex: Sex is another important cause of accident proneness. As we all know that there are some working categories means there are some jobs that are only for men and other only for women. So to avoid accident proneness it is important to distribute the jobs according to gender (11) Other Causes; The other causes are, yyyyyy)The other causes are, zzzzzz)Lack of proper intervals of rest. aaaaaaa)Lack of maintenance bbbbbbb)Absence of appropriate mood. ccccccc)Characteristics of accident proneness:

Characteristics of accident proneness
PHYSICAL (VISIBLE) l. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6, 7. Poor eyesight Color blindness Sluggishness (Laziness) Too bulky High blood pressure Poor physical condition Poor hearing 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. PSYCHOLOGICAL Short temperament Inferiority complex Over confidence Excessive liabilities. Lack of professionalism Wrong attitude Lack of concentration Depression

9.

Fearfulness and nervousness

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