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World Cultures 11

Unit III: Latin America

Name: ______________________________


Directions: After reading the document below, please answer the following questions completely and
thoroughly in complete sentence format.
Background Question:
1. What three factors motivated the people of Latin America to rebel against their European

The American Revolution, the French Revolution, and Enlightenment gave the Latin people new ideas
about who should really be in control of their government.

Haitian Independence
1. Who controlled the colony of Haiti and what two leaders where responsible for their

Toussaint LOuverture was in control over the colony of Haiti. He and Jean-Jacques
Dessalines were the ones responsible for their independence.

2. Why were they able to win their independence so quickly and easily?

Toussaint led a revolt against the French that freed all enslaved Africans, which turned the colony
into the new nation of Haiti.

3. How was this movement for independence different from revolutions in the rest of Latin
America? [You will have to answer this question after reading the entire document.]

Unlike all of the other Latin American revolutions, this movement had slaves revolting and
fighting for their rights.

Viceroyalty of Peru
1. Identify and explain the specific events on the European continent effected the movement for
independence in Peru.

Napoleons conquest of Spain caused revolts in the Spanish colonies. The nations knew they wanted to
be independent so they were able to do something about this. With the help of the creoles, this
became very possible.

2. The movement from independence was spearheaded by what two creoles. Who were they and
explain how they were able to gain it.

One was Simon Bolvar and he was a wealthy Venezuelan creole. The other was Jos
de San Martn an Argentinian. Bolivar went through a lot of rough patches trying to
get their independence, but when he did he went to go meet San Martin and they
would decide what is happening with the future of the Latin America revolutionary

3. What name did they give to the independent viceroyalty?

The name they gave to the independent viceroyalty was Gran Colombia, which was made of Venezuela,
Colombia, Panama, and Ecuador.
Viceroyalty of New Spain
1. How did the movement for independence differ from that of Peru?

In Latin American countries, creoles took the lead role in independence movements. The mestizos as
well as the Indians played the lead role.

2. The movement began with the leadership of what two leaders? Explain their rebellion and its

Father Miguel Hidalgo and Father Jose Maria Morelos were the first two leaders of New
Spain. Hidalgo took the first step towards independence. At first he issued a call for rebellion
against the Spanish, called Grito de Dolores. Morelos led the revolution for four years,
and he was a strong leader.

3. Ironically, a creole DID eventually was successful in gaining freedom from Spain. Who was he,
and whey did favor independence in 1820 when he did not earlier?

Agustn de Iturbide defeated Padre Morelos. He proclaimed independence in 1821

Because Mexicos creoles were scared of the loss of their privileges in the Spanish
controlled colony.

4. What government/title did this liberator give the newly independent viceroyalty?
What happened to his government?

Iturbide called himself Emperor, and refused to recognize the declarations of

independence. His government became a dictatorship, instead of the democracy, which
everyone was expecting.

1. Why was this colony governed differently than the Spanish colonies just prior to indepence?

This colony was governed differently compared to the other Spanish colonies before they got
independence, it had been governed by the Spanish from the seat of colonial government in

2. How did the movement for independence differ in this Portuguese colony than those of the
Spanish colonies?

Brazils movement towards independence was different than those of the Spanish
colonies because no violence or bloodshed was involved.