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Chapter 10

Chemical Quantities

Lesson 1
The Mole: A Measurement of Matter

Measuring Matter
Representative particle: whether a substance commonly exists as an ion,
atom, molecular compound, ionic compound
Formula unit: representative particle of ionic compounds
Molecule: representative particle of molecular compounds

Moles
Mole: amount of substance, abbreviated mol
Avogadros number: 6.02 x 1023
1 mol = 6.02 x 1023 representative particles

Example 1
a) How many moles are in 1.20 x 1025 atoms of Phosphorus?

Example 1 (cont.)
b) How many atoms are in 0.750 mol of Zinc?

Example 1 (cont.)
c) How many molecules are in 0.400 mol N2O5?

Example 1 (cont.)
d) How many atoms are in a mole of a compound?

Example 1 (cont.)
e) A mol of carbon dioxide contains 6.02 x 1023 carbon dioxide molecules. How
many atoms does a mol of carbon dioxide contain?

Example 1 (cont.)
f) How many ammonium ions in 0.036 mol of ammonium phosphate?

Example 1 (cont.)
g) How many carbon atoms in a mixture of 3.00 mol acetylene, C2H2, and 0.700
mol carbon monoxide?

Size of a mole
12 grams of charcoal = 1 mol of
carbon
It would take over a billion years to
spend Avogadros number of
dollars if you spent a billion dollars
per minute!

Lesson 2
Mole-Mass and Mole-Volume Relationships

GAM, GMM, GFM


Gram Atomic Mass (GAM):
The number of grams of an element that is
numerically equal to the atomic mass
For a monatomic element, this contains 1
mol of atoms
Gram Molar Mass (GMM):
The mass of 1 mol of a molecular compound
Gram Formula Mass (GFM):
The mass of 1 mol of an ionic compound

Example 2
What is the mass of 1 mol of each of the following?
a) Sodium?
b) Arsenic?
c) Uranium?
d) What is the mass of a mol of a compound?

Example 3
What is the GMM/GFM of each compound?
a) Carbon tetrachloride?

b) Potassium iodide?

Example 3 (cont.)
c) Strontium chloride?

d) Calcium cyanide?

Molar Mass
GAM = 1 mol of atoms
GMM = 1 mol of molecules
GFM = 1 mol of formula units
Molar Mass:
Equivalent to GFM
The mass of 1 mol of any element or
compound
Used to convert grams into moles or moles
into grams

Example 4
Find the mass in grams of each quantity:
a) 10.0 mol Chromium?

Example 4 (cont.)
b) 5.08 mol Calcium nitrate?

Example 4 (cont.)
c) Find the number of moles in 0.000264 grams Lithium hydrogen phosphate.

Volume of a Mole of Gas


STP (standard temperature and
pressure): 0 Celsius, 1 atmosphere
Molar volume of a gas:
At STP, 1 mol of any gas occupies
22.4 L which contains 6.02 x 1023
representative particles of that gas
1 mol of gas at STP has mass equal
to its GFM

Example 5
a) What is the volume, at STP, of 3.20 x 10-2 mol of carbon dioxide?

Example 5 (cont.)
b) Assuming STP, how many moles are in 1.00 x 103 L C2H6 (ethane)?

Gas Density and GMM


Density of a gas is generally measured in g/L
Experimentally determined density of a gas at STP is used to calculate
GFM of that gas

Example 6
The densities of gases A, B, and C are 1.25 g/L, 2.86 g/L, and 0.714 g/L
respectively. Calculate the GFM of each substance, then identify the unknown
gases as ammonia (NH3), sulfur dioxide, chlorine, nitrogen, or methane (CH4).

Summary of Conversions

Law of Combining Volumes


Amadeo Avogadros most famous work is an explanation of Gay-Lussacs
work
Results werent compatible with Daltons Atomic Theory
Avogadro reconciled Gay-Lussacs data and Daltons theory, introduced
the concept of molecules!
Disagreed with Dalton on two major points

Avogadros Hypothesis

Equal volumes of different gases, at the same


temperature and pressure, contain an equal number of
molecules.

Avogadros Work
Gay-Lussac said 1 L of oxygen reacts with 2 L of hydrogen to produce 2 L of
gaseous water.
An oxygen atom cant split in half, therefore Avogadro hypothesized that there
must be 2 atoms of oxygen combined in a single molecule!
Avogadro predicted correct formulas for water, nitrous oxide, ammonia, carbon
monoxide, carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, ethyl alcohol, ether, etc.
Work led to a breakthrough in understanding chemical reactions, but was
generally ignored.

Lesson 3
Percent Composition and Chemical Formulas

Percent Composition
Percent composition:
The percent by mass of each element in a compound
% mass = (grams of element/grams of compound) x 100%

Example 7
Determine the percent composition of each element in
a) methane (CH4)

Example 7 (cont.)
b) potassium chloride

Empirical Formulas
Empirical formula:
The lowest whole number ratio of elements in a compound
When a new compound has been made in lab, we can determine percent
composition then calculate empirical formula
May or may not be the same as the molecular formula

Example 8
Calculate the empirical formula for each compound with following percent
composition:
a) 79.8% C, 20.0% H

Example 8 (cont.)
Calculate the empirical formula for each compound with following percent
composition:
b) 17.6% Na, 39.7% Cr, 42.7% O

Summary of Procedure
1) Assume 100.0 grams of the unknown compound
2) Change the ratio of masses to a ratio of moles
3) Reduce the ratio by dividing each result in Step 2 by the smallest number of
moles
Note: Sometimes Step 3 may not produce a whole number. If the result is very
close to a whole number, you may round. Otherwise, multiply each part of the
ratio by a fraction that will yield whole numbers

Molecular Formulas
Molecular formulas:
Either the same as the experimentally determined empirical formula or a
whole number multiple of it
We can determine molecular formula if we know empirical formula and
GFM

Example 9
a) Calculate the molecular formula of a compound if its GFM is 60 grams and
its empirical formula is CH4N.

Example 9 (cont.)
b) Given C2HCl and GFM = 181.5 grams, calculate the molecular formula.

Summary of Procedure
1) Calculate empirical formula mass (EFM)
2) Divide GFM by EFM
3) Multiply the empirical formula by the whole number calculated in Step 2 to
get the molecular formula

Example 10
a) You find that 7.36 grams of a compound has decomposed to produce 6.93
grams of oxygen. The rest if hydrogen. If the molecular mass of the compound
is 34.0 g/mol, what is the molecular formula?

Example 10 (cont.)
b) The compound methyl butanoate smells like apples. Its percent composition
is 58.8% C, 9.8% H, 31.4% O. If its GMM = 102 h/mol, find its molecular
formula.