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You are on page 1of 44

Chemical Quantities

Lesson 1

The Mole: A Measurement of Matter

Measuring Matter

Representative particle: whether a substance commonly exists as an ion,

atom, molecular compound, ionic compound

Formula unit: representative particle of ionic compounds

Molecule: representative particle of molecular compounds

Moles

Mole: amount of substance, abbreviated mol

Avogadros number: 6.02 x 1023

1 mol = 6.02 x 1023 representative particles

Example 1

a) How many moles are in 1.20 x 1025 atoms of Phosphorus?

Example 1 (cont.)

b) How many atoms are in 0.750 mol of Zinc?

Example 1 (cont.)

c) How many molecules are in 0.400 mol N2O5?

Example 1 (cont.)

d) How many atoms are in a mole of a compound?

Example 1 (cont.)

e) A mol of carbon dioxide contains 6.02 x 1023 carbon dioxide molecules. How

many atoms does a mol of carbon dioxide contain?

Example 1 (cont.)

f) How many ammonium ions in 0.036 mol of ammonium phosphate?

Example 1 (cont.)

g) How many carbon atoms in a mixture of 3.00 mol acetylene, C2H2, and 0.700

mol carbon monoxide?

Size of a mole

12 grams of charcoal = 1 mol of

carbon

It would take over a billion years to

spend Avogadros number of

dollars if you spent a billion dollars

per minute!

Lesson 2

Mole-Mass and Mole-Volume Relationships

Gram Atomic Mass (GAM):

The number of grams of an element that is

numerically equal to the atomic mass

For a monatomic element, this contains 1

mol of atoms

Gram Molar Mass (GMM):

The mass of 1 mol of a molecular compound

Gram Formula Mass (GFM):

The mass of 1 mol of an ionic compound

Example 2

What is the mass of 1 mol of each of the following?

a) Sodium?

b) Arsenic?

c) Uranium?

d) What is the mass of a mol of a compound?

Example 3

What is the GMM/GFM of each compound?

a) Carbon tetrachloride?

b) Potassium iodide?

Example 3 (cont.)

c) Strontium chloride?

d) Calcium cyanide?

Molar Mass

GAM = 1 mol of atoms

GMM = 1 mol of molecules

GFM = 1 mol of formula units

Molar Mass:

Equivalent to GFM

The mass of 1 mol of any element or

compound

Used to convert grams into moles or moles

into grams

Example 4

Find the mass in grams of each quantity:

a) 10.0 mol Chromium?

Example 4 (cont.)

b) 5.08 mol Calcium nitrate?

Example 4 (cont.)

c) Find the number of moles in 0.000264 grams Lithium hydrogen phosphate.

STP (standard temperature and

pressure): 0 Celsius, 1 atmosphere

Molar volume of a gas:

At STP, 1 mol of any gas occupies

22.4 L which contains 6.02 x 1023

representative particles of that gas

1 mol of gas at STP has mass equal

to its GFM

Example 5

a) What is the volume, at STP, of 3.20 x 10-2 mol of carbon dioxide?

Example 5 (cont.)

b) Assuming STP, how many moles are in 1.00 x 103 L C2H6 (ethane)?

Density of a gas is generally measured in g/L

Experimentally determined density of a gas at STP is used to calculate

GFM of that gas

Example 6

The densities of gases A, B, and C are 1.25 g/L, 2.86 g/L, and 0.714 g/L

respectively. Calculate the GFM of each substance, then identify the unknown

gases as ammonia (NH3), sulfur dioxide, chlorine, nitrogen, or methane (CH4).

Summary of Conversions

Amadeo Avogadros most famous work is an explanation of Gay-Lussacs

work

Results werent compatible with Daltons Atomic Theory

Avogadro reconciled Gay-Lussacs data and Daltons theory, introduced

the concept of molecules!

Disagreed with Dalton on two major points

Avogadros Hypothesis

temperature and pressure, contain an equal number of

molecules.

Avogadros Work

Gay-Lussac said 1 L of oxygen reacts with 2 L of hydrogen to produce 2 L of

gaseous water.

An oxygen atom cant split in half, therefore Avogadro hypothesized that there

must be 2 atoms of oxygen combined in a single molecule!

Avogadro predicted correct formulas for water, nitrous oxide, ammonia, carbon

monoxide, carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, ethyl alcohol, ether, etc.

Work led to a breakthrough in understanding chemical reactions, but was

generally ignored.

Lesson 3

Percent Composition and Chemical Formulas

Percent Composition

Percent composition:

The percent by mass of each element in a compound

% mass = (grams of element/grams of compound) x 100%

Example 7

Determine the percent composition of each element in

a) methane (CH4)

Example 7 (cont.)

b) potassium chloride

Empirical Formulas

Empirical formula:

The lowest whole number ratio of elements in a compound

When a new compound has been made in lab, we can determine percent

composition then calculate empirical formula

May or may not be the same as the molecular formula

Example 8

Calculate the empirical formula for each compound with following percent

composition:

a) 79.8% C, 20.0% H

Example 8 (cont.)

Calculate the empirical formula for each compound with following percent

composition:

b) 17.6% Na, 39.7% Cr, 42.7% O

Summary of Procedure

1) Assume 100.0 grams of the unknown compound

2) Change the ratio of masses to a ratio of moles

3) Reduce the ratio by dividing each result in Step 2 by the smallest number of

moles

Note: Sometimes Step 3 may not produce a whole number. If the result is very

close to a whole number, you may round. Otherwise, multiply each part of the

ratio by a fraction that will yield whole numbers

Molecular Formulas

Molecular formulas:

Either the same as the experimentally determined empirical formula or a

whole number multiple of it

We can determine molecular formula if we know empirical formula and

GFM

Example 9

a) Calculate the molecular formula of a compound if its GFM is 60 grams and

its empirical formula is CH4N.

Example 9 (cont.)

b) Given C2HCl and GFM = 181.5 grams, calculate the molecular formula.

Summary of Procedure

1) Calculate empirical formula mass (EFM)

2) Divide GFM by EFM

3) Multiply the empirical formula by the whole number calculated in Step 2 to

get the molecular formula

Example 10

a) You find that 7.36 grams of a compound has decomposed to produce 6.93

grams of oxygen. The rest if hydrogen. If the molecular mass of the compound

is 34.0 g/mol, what is the molecular formula?

Example 10 (cont.)

b) The compound methyl butanoate smells like apples. Its percent composition

is 58.8% C, 9.8% H, 31.4% O. If its GMM = 102 h/mol, find its molecular

formula.

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