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# Chapter 10

Chemical Quantities

Lesson 1
The Mole: A Measurement of Matter

Measuring Matter
Representative particle: whether a substance commonly exists as an ion,
atom, molecular compound, ionic compound
Formula unit: representative particle of ionic compounds
Molecule: representative particle of molecular compounds

Moles
Mole: amount of substance, abbreviated mol
Avogadros number: 6.02 x 1023
1 mol = 6.02 x 1023 representative particles

Example 1
a) How many moles are in 1.20 x 1025 atoms of Phosphorus?

Example 1 (cont.)
b) How many atoms are in 0.750 mol of Zinc?

Example 1 (cont.)
c) How many molecules are in 0.400 mol N2O5?

Example 1 (cont.)
d) How many atoms are in a mole of a compound?

Example 1 (cont.)
e) A mol of carbon dioxide contains 6.02 x 1023 carbon dioxide molecules. How
many atoms does a mol of carbon dioxide contain?

Example 1 (cont.)
f) How many ammonium ions in 0.036 mol of ammonium phosphate?

Example 1 (cont.)
g) How many carbon atoms in a mixture of 3.00 mol acetylene, C2H2, and 0.700
mol carbon monoxide?

Size of a mole
12 grams of charcoal = 1 mol of
carbon
It would take over a billion years to
spend Avogadros number of
dollars if you spent a billion dollars
per minute!

Lesson 2
Mole-Mass and Mole-Volume Relationships

## GAM, GMM, GFM

Gram Atomic Mass (GAM):
The number of grams of an element that is
numerically equal to the atomic mass
For a monatomic element, this contains 1
mol of atoms
Gram Molar Mass (GMM):
The mass of 1 mol of a molecular compound
Gram Formula Mass (GFM):
The mass of 1 mol of an ionic compound

Example 2
What is the mass of 1 mol of each of the following?
a) Sodium?
b) Arsenic?
c) Uranium?
d) What is the mass of a mol of a compound?

Example 3
What is the GMM/GFM of each compound?
a) Carbon tetrachloride?

b) Potassium iodide?

Example 3 (cont.)
c) Strontium chloride?

d) Calcium cyanide?

Molar Mass
GAM = 1 mol of atoms
GMM = 1 mol of molecules
GFM = 1 mol of formula units
Molar Mass:
Equivalent to GFM
The mass of 1 mol of any element or
compound
Used to convert grams into moles or moles
into grams

Example 4
Find the mass in grams of each quantity:
a) 10.0 mol Chromium?

Example 4 (cont.)
b) 5.08 mol Calcium nitrate?

Example 4 (cont.)
c) Find the number of moles in 0.000264 grams Lithium hydrogen phosphate.

## Volume of a Mole of Gas

STP (standard temperature and
pressure): 0 Celsius, 1 atmosphere
Molar volume of a gas:
At STP, 1 mol of any gas occupies
22.4 L which contains 6.02 x 1023
representative particles of that gas
1 mol of gas at STP has mass equal
to its GFM

Example 5
a) What is the volume, at STP, of 3.20 x 10-2 mol of carbon dioxide?

Example 5 (cont.)
b) Assuming STP, how many moles are in 1.00 x 103 L C2H6 (ethane)?

## Gas Density and GMM

Density of a gas is generally measured in g/L
Experimentally determined density of a gas at STP is used to calculate
GFM of that gas

Example 6
The densities of gases A, B, and C are 1.25 g/L, 2.86 g/L, and 0.714 g/L
respectively. Calculate the GFM of each substance, then identify the unknown
gases as ammonia (NH3), sulfur dioxide, chlorine, nitrogen, or methane (CH4).

Summary of Conversions

## Law of Combining Volumes

Amadeo Avogadros most famous work is an explanation of Gay-Lussacs
work
Results werent compatible with Daltons Atomic Theory
Avogadro reconciled Gay-Lussacs data and Daltons theory, introduced
the concept of molecules!
Disagreed with Dalton on two major points

## Equal volumes of different gases, at the same

temperature and pressure, contain an equal number of
molecules.

Gay-Lussac said 1 L of oxygen reacts with 2 L of hydrogen to produce 2 L of
gaseous water.
An oxygen atom cant split in half, therefore Avogadro hypothesized that there
must be 2 atoms of oxygen combined in a single molecule!
Avogadro predicted correct formulas for water, nitrous oxide, ammonia, carbon
monoxide, carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, ethyl alcohol, ether, etc.
Work led to a breakthrough in understanding chemical reactions, but was
generally ignored.

Lesson 3
Percent Composition and Chemical Formulas

Percent Composition
Percent composition:
The percent by mass of each element in a compound
% mass = (grams of element/grams of compound) x 100%

Example 7
Determine the percent composition of each element in
a) methane (CH4)

Example 7 (cont.)
b) potassium chloride

Empirical Formulas
Empirical formula:
The lowest whole number ratio of elements in a compound
When a new compound has been made in lab, we can determine percent
composition then calculate empirical formula
May or may not be the same as the molecular formula

Example 8
Calculate the empirical formula for each compound with following percent
composition:
a) 79.8% C, 20.0% H

Example 8 (cont.)
Calculate the empirical formula for each compound with following percent
composition:
b) 17.6% Na, 39.7% Cr, 42.7% O

Summary of Procedure
1) Assume 100.0 grams of the unknown compound
2) Change the ratio of masses to a ratio of moles
3) Reduce the ratio by dividing each result in Step 2 by the smallest number of
moles
Note: Sometimes Step 3 may not produce a whole number. If the result is very
close to a whole number, you may round. Otherwise, multiply each part of the
ratio by a fraction that will yield whole numbers

Molecular Formulas
Molecular formulas:
Either the same as the experimentally determined empirical formula or a
whole number multiple of it
We can determine molecular formula if we know empirical formula and
GFM

Example 9
a) Calculate the molecular formula of a compound if its GFM is 60 grams and
its empirical formula is CH4N.

Example 9 (cont.)
b) Given C2HCl and GFM = 181.5 grams, calculate the molecular formula.

Summary of Procedure
1) Calculate empirical formula mass (EFM)
2) Divide GFM by EFM
3) Multiply the empirical formula by the whole number calculated in Step 2 to
get the molecular formula

Example 10
a) You find that 7.36 grams of a compound has decomposed to produce 6.93
grams of oxygen. The rest if hydrogen. If the molecular mass of the compound
is 34.0 g/mol, what is the molecular formula?

Example 10 (cont.)
b) The compound methyl butanoate smells like apples. Its percent composition
is 58.8% C, 9.8% H, 31.4% O. If its GMM = 102 h/mol, find its molecular
formula.