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*Arsemic Meseum*

20th Century and

Modern World
1914 CE-Present

1750 CE- 1914 CE

1750 CE- 1914 CE

20th Century and

Modern World
1914 CE-Present

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French and Indian War

It is also known as the seven years war.
It lasted from 1756 to 1763, forming a chapter in the imperial struggle between Britain and
France called the Second Hundred Years War.

When Frances expansion into the Ohio River valley brought repeated conflict with the claims
of the British colonies, a series of battles led to the official British declaration of war in 1756.

Boosted by the financing of future Prime Minister William Pitt, the British turned the tide with
victories at Louisburg, Fort Frontenac and the French-Canadian stronghold of Quebec.

British forces defeated French forces in India, and in 1759 British armies invaded and
conquered Canada.

At the 1763 peace conference, the British received the territories of Canada from France and
Florida from Spain, opening the Mississippi Valley to westward expansion.

The main firearm of both the French, English and Indians was the flintlock, smoothbore

musket. The English used the 'Brown Bess' so called for its brown color. Accuracy of the Brown
Bess was fair, as with most other muskets. The flintlocks replaced the heavier matchlocks and
arquebuses by about 1670.

Treaty of Kanagawa
In Tokyo, Commodore Matthew Calbraith Perry, representing the U.S. government,
signs the Treaty of Kanagawa with the Japanese government, opening the ports of
Shimoda and Hakodate to American trade and permitting the establishment of a U.S.
consulate in Japan.

In July 1853, Commodore Perry sailed into Tokyo Bay with a squadron of four U.S.
vessels. For a time, Japanese officials refused to speak with Perry, but eventually they
accepted letters from U.S. President Millard Fillmore, making the United States the first
Western nation to establish relations with Japan since it was declared closed to
foreigners in 1683.

After giving Japan time to consider the establishment of external relations, Perry
returned to Tokyo in March 1854, and on March 31 signed the Treaty of Kanagawa,
which opened Japan to trade with the United States, and thus the West.

American Revolution War

The American Revolution (1775-83) is also known as the American Revolutionary War and the U.S. War of

The conflict arose from growing tensions between residents of Great Britains 13 North American colonies and
the colonial government, which represented the British crown.

Skirmishes between British troops and colonial militiamen in Lexington and Concord in April 1775 kicked off the
armed conflict, and by the following summer, the rebels were waging a full-scale war for their independence.

France entered the American Revolution on the side of the colonists in 1778, turning what had essentially been a
civil war into an international conflict.

After French assistance helped the Continental Army force the British surrender at Yorktown, Virginia, in 1781,
the Americans had effectively won their independence, though fighting would not formally end until 1783.

Those who served in militias in that earlier war had furnished their own weapons. The guns would have been
muskets, fowling pieces or no weapon at all. They brought and carried their own provisions. Although the
musket would be carried over to the new war, some weapons had seen its zenith in the old conflict. The
matchlock musket was obsolete by 1775, but still retained by some families as a useful, but cumbersome to fire,

Muslim League
Muslim League,political organization of India and Pakistan, founded 1906 as the AllIndia Muslim League byAga KhanIII.

Its original purpose was to safeguard the political rights of Muslims in India.
At first the league was encouraged by the British and was generally favorable to their
rule, but theorganizationadopted self-government for India as its goal in 1913.

For several decades the league and its leaders, notablyMohammed Ali Jinnah, called for
Hindu-Muslim unity in a united and independent India.

It was not until 1940 that the league called for the formation of a Muslim state that
would be separate from the projected independent country ofIndia.

The league wanted a separate nation for Indias Muslims because it feared that an
independent India would be dominated by Hindus.

Reign of Terror
Reign of Terror lasted from September 1793 until thefall of Robespierrein 1794.
Its purpose was to purge France of enemies of the Revolution and protect the country
from foreign invaders.

From January 1793-July 1794, France was governed by the Committee of Public Safety,
in whichDanton and Robespierrewere influential members. In the course of nine
months, 16, 000 people were guillotined, but executions of those labeled "internal
enemies" of France took place throughout the country.

During this time there was a shift in power within the committee from Danton to

In 1794, the armies of France were very successful against their enemies, which meant
that the Terror was no longer necessary. But Robespierre continued the Terror because
he wanted to purge France of everyone who was corrupt. The killing ended
whenRobespierre was executed on July 28, 1794.

Chinese Civil War

The long Chinese Civil War began in April of 1927 and was a conflict in China between the Chinese
Communists and Chinese Nationalists.

The force that was loyal to the Chinese government was called theKuomintang(KMT), and they fought
with theCommunist Party of China(CPC).

This war was an ideological separation between the KMT and CPC .
The war ended in 1950 and resulted in the establishment of the Peoples Republic of China in
mainland China and the Republic of China in Taiwan.

At that time, both sides claimed to be Chinas legitimate governing power.

TheType Zhongzheng rifle: was in full scale production as early as late 1935. It was designated the
Type 79 by theChinese Communists and would often have the ideograph of Chiang defaced by
them.Although theHanyang 88rifle was produced in greater numbers than the Type Zhongzheng, the
full standardization of the Type Zhongzheng rifle only started during theSecond Sino-Japanese war.

Korean War
On June 25, 1950, the Korean War began when some 75,000 soldiers from the North Korean
Peoples Army poured across the 38th parallel, the boundary between the Soviet-backed
Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea to the north and the pro-Western Republic of Korea to
the south.

This invasion was the first military action of the Cold War.
By July, American troops had entered the war on South Koreas behalf.
As far as American officials were concerned, it was a war against the forces of international
communism itself. After some early back-and-forth across the 38th parallel, the fighting
stalled and casualties mounted with nothing to show for them. Meanwhile, American officials
worked anxiously to fashion some sort of armistice with the North Koreans.

Finally, in July 1953, the Korean War came to an end. In all, some 5 million soldiers and
civilians lost their lives during the war. The Korean peninsula is still divided today.

Russian Revolution
In 1917, two revolutions swept through Russia, ending centuries of imperial rule and setting in
motion political and social changes that would lead to the formation of the Soviet Union.

In March, growing civil unrest, coupled with chronic food shortages, erupted into open revolt,
forcing the abdication of Nicholas II (1868-1918), the last Russian czar.

Most Russians had lost faith in the leadership ability of Czar Nicholas II. Government corruption
was rampant, the Russian economy remained backward, and Nicholas repeatedly dissolved the
Duma, the Russian parliament established after the 1905 revolution, when it opposed his will.

However, the immediate cause of the February Revolutionthe first phase of the Russian
Revolution of 1917was Russias disastrous involvement inWorld War I(1914-18).

Militarily, imperial Russia was no match for industrialized Germany, and Russian casualties were
greater than those sustained by any nation in any previous war.

The economy was hopelessly disrupted by the costly war effort, and moderates joined Russian
radical elements in calling for the overthrow of the czar..

Iranian Revolution
Also called the Islamic Revolution.
The Iranian Revolution of 1977-79 was the first in a series of mass popular civil insurrections
which would result in the overthrow of authoritarian regimes in dozens of countries over the
next three decades.

Unlike most of the other uprisings that would topple dictators in Latin America, Eastern
Europe, and parts of Asia and Africa, the result of the Iranian struggle was not the
establishment of liberal democracy but of a new form of authoritarianism.

Despite severe repression against protestors, a series of demonstrations and strikes over the
previous two years came to a peak in the fall of 1978, as millions of opponents of the Shahs
regime clogged the streets of Irans cities and work stoppages paralyzed the country.

He Shah fled into exile in January 1979 and exiled cleric Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini
returned from exile to lead the new Islamic Republic.

Vietnam War
The Vietnam War was a long, costly armed conflict that pitted the communist regime of North Vietnam and
its southern allies, known as the Viet Cong, against South Vietnam and its principal ally, the United States.

The divisive war, increasingly unpopular at home, ended with the withdrawal of U.S. forces in 1973 and the
unification of Vietnam under Communist control two years later.

More than 3 million people, including 58,000 Americans, were killed in the conflict.
Vietnam War (196075): Causes Most American wars have obvious starting points or precipitating causes:
theBattles of Lexington and Concordin 1775, thecapture of Fort Sumterin 1861, theattack on Pearl
Harborin 1941, and the North Korean invasion of South Korea in June 1950, for example.

There was no fixed beginning for the U.S. war in Vietnam. The United States entered that war incrementally,
in a series of steps between 1950 and 1965.

In addition to artillery and infantry weapons, both sides utilized a variety of tools to further their war aims,
including highly toxic chemical defoliants or herbicides (on the U.S. side) and inventive booby traps using
sharpened bamboo sticks or crossbows triggered by tripwires (on the North Vietnamese-Viet Cong side).

Hitler rise to power

In the early 1930s, the worldwide economic depression had hit the country especially hard, and
millions of people were out of work. Still fresh in the minds of many was Germany's humiliating
defeat fifteen years earlier during World War I, and Germans lacked confidence in their weak
government, known as the Weimar Republic.

These conditions provided the chance for the rise of a new leader, Adolf Hitler, and his party, the
National Socialist German Workers' Party, or Nazi party for short.

Hitler was a powerful and spellbinding speaker who attracted a wide following of Germans
desperate for change. He promised the disenchanted a better life and a new and glorious
Germany. The Nazis appealed especially to the unemployed, young people, and members of the
lower middle class (small store owners, office employees, craftsmen, and farmers).

. In the 1932 elections, the Nazis won 33 percent of the votes, more than any other party.
In January 1933 Hitler was appointed chancellor, the head of the German government, and
many Germans believed that they had found a savior for their nation.