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North and South

By:Jungyeon Park, Kayla

Erpenbeck, Eduardo Lopez,
Dimitrius Knowles, Justin

Economy of the North

Economy in the North was mainly based on industrialism and


It used to be that people had to make everything by hand, but soon

people started to come up with ideas for machines that would do the
work for them faster and with more ease
This was called the industrial revolution
Started by people called industrialists
INDUSTRIALIST-a person whose wealth comes from the ownership of industrial
businesses and who favors government policies that support industry

In 1815, Francis Cabot Lowell started Americas very first textile

He had recently been to England and saw how machines were
being used to efficiently make cotton balls into thread

Machinery had a huge positive impact on the Northern economy and it

also helped to improve the Southern economy for agricultural needs

Economy of the South

Economy in the South was based on agriculture
In the South, several cash crops were grown such as: rice, indigo, sugar
cane, and tobacco
Slaves were an important part in maintaining the southern economy.
Most worked on large farms for white people
Cotton was a plant that was very hard to maintain hence the reason
why not very many farmers wanted to grow it.
Eli Whitney invented a machine that would efficiently clean
cotton balls of their seeds
This machine was called the Cotton gin
This machine made cotton King in the South
Caused slave usage to go back up
Cotton became the Souths most important plant
had earned more money than all U.S. exports combined

Geography: South

The South was from Maryland South to Florida, as well as the Atlantic Coast west to Louisiana and
o The South had mild winters
o The South had hot, humid summers
o There was lots of rain and a long growing season, making it a perfect place to grow crops
Natural Features
Wide coastal plains on the Southern shoreline from Chesapeake Bay to the Gulf of Mexico
Fertile lowlands stretched 300 miles inland in the South
Marshes and swamps dotted the plains on the coats, making this area ideal from planting rice
and sugarcanes
On the dry lands of the South, Indigo was grown
Farther inland, tobacco and corn were grown
On the Appalachians Mountains, orchards were raised
Pine Forest were harvested for lumber
Fish, oysters, and crabs were gathered in Chesapeake Bay and Maryland.
The broad, flat rivers led to many of the earliest towns being built near it. This allowed easier
transportation, which also made business easier

Geography: North

With Main and its rocky shores and Iowa's gently rolling plains the north has a very diverse land all across.
The North's climate changes from frozen cold winters to hot humid summers.
In different places like in Main and Minnesota they have much colder winters and short summers.
The jagged coasts of New England.
There were hundreds of inlets and bays.
In this region they specialized in ship building, fishing, and commerce.
Also, towns like boston were very busy seaports.
Inland from sea are flat plains with rocky soil.
They had hard farming but compensated with trade but because of these farming conditions many of
the people ended up moving west.
They had sharp hills and v shaped valleys shaped by steep streams.
They had very little land in hillside that was covered with forests of spruce and fir.
With this forest, they sold timber.
New york, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey had broad rivers like the hudson and Delaware deposited rich soil.
The people supported themselves by farming.
across the appalations were the central plains, a large forest region that was drowned by the mississippi
In this area they had the best soil on earth and got this by clearing the forest in the area.
Deforestation started to happen.
By 1850 americans had cleared about 177,000 square miles of dense forest.
There was an increase of mining in 1820 due to the demand of coal [especially in Pennsylvania].

Society: South

Southerners believed wealth was defined in land and slaves.

o The structure of it was Rich plantation owners at the top, white farmers/workers in the middles,
and African Americans on the bottom.
Wealthy Southerners
o Wealthy and dominated the economy and politics
o Lived leisurely( had many parties and social visits)
o Sons went to college
o Daughters were raised to be wives and hostess, they received no education
White Working Southerners
o Most families owned land but not many owned a slave.
o Most families worked in the field and made what they needed.
o According to the textbook, About 10% of the white were too poor to own any land. They rented
rugged mountain or forest land and paid the rent with the crops they raised
o Most children were illiterate because there were few public schools and they werent good
Free African Americans
o Didnt like the White southerners.
o Were forced to wear special badges, pay extra taxes, and live separately from the White people.
o Worked as cooks, carpenters, blacksmiths, house servants, or nursemaids. Most worked in the
field from dawn to dusk

Society: North

Most people werent wealthy or powerful in the North. They believed that hard work could lead to
wealth and influence.
In the 1860s, 7 in 10 people lived on farms.
o More and more people moved to cities and towns
This caused population of towns and cities to increase rapidly
o By 1860, millions of people lived in New York
o Cities lacked sewage and paved street
dirty, crowded neighborhood led to disease spreading quickly
African American Northerners
o There were no slaves in the North
o They were not treated as equals to White northerners
o They couldnt vote, hold office, serve on juries, attend white schools or churches
o 4 million immigrants came to the North from 1845-1860
o Irish- potato famine led to thousands to come to the North
o German- failed revolution led to people coming south
o Some immigrants had enough money to buy land while most worked in mills or factories
o Some Northerners didnt like immigrants
This sometimes led to riots while they were usually just discriminated in everyday life

Transportation: North

Factory owners needed fast, inexpensive ways to deliver their goods to distant customers.
John C. Calhoun said, Let us bind the republic together, he also said, with a perfect system of
roads and canals.
Calhoun called such projects internal improvements.
In 1806, Congress funded the construction of a National Road across the Appalachian Mountains.
The purpose of the highway was to tie the new western states with the East.
In 1816, President James Monroe vetoed a bill that would have given money to build more roads.
River travel was still faster and cheaper.
By 1820s smoke-belching steamboats were chugging up and down major rivers and across the Great
in 1817, the state of New York hired engineers and workers to build a 363 mile canal from the Hudson
River to Lake Erie.
The Erie Canal provided the first all-water link between farms on the central Plains and East
Coast cities.

Sailing ships sometimes took so long to cross the Pacific Ocean that the goods they carried spoiled.
In 1840s, sleek clipper ships were introduced that cut ocean travel time in half.
Clipper ships spurred northern trade with foreign ports around the world.
Inspired by the success of steamboats, inventors developed steam-powered locomotives.
Steam-powered trains traveled faster than steamboats, and they could go wherever tracks could be
laid-even cross mountains.
So many railroad companies were laying tracks by the 1840s that railroads had become the Norths
biggest business.
By 1860, more than 20,000 miles of rails linked northern factories in cities hundreds of miles away.

Transportation: South

People and goods continued to move on river.

The slow current and broad channels of southern rivers made water travel easy and relatively.
The most important southern product shipped by water was cotton.
The riverboats then traveled hundreds of miles downstream to ports.
West of the Appalachians, most cotton moved down the Mississippi River.
Because river travel was the Souths main form of transportation, most southern towns and cities
spang up along waterways.
With little need for roads or canals to connect these settlements, southerners opposed bills in
Congress that would use federal funds to build internal improvements.
Some railroads were built in the South, including lines that helped southern farmers ship their
products to the North.
In 1860 the South had just 10,000 miles of rail compared with over 20,000 miles in the North.

Works Cited

Hart, Diane. "Chapter 19." History Alive!: The United States through Industrialism. Palo Alto, CA: Teachers'
Curriculum Institute, 2005. 254-65. Print.
Beck, and Pauli. Digital image. N.p.,n.d. Web. 14 May 2015. <>
Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 May 2015. <,_New_York_(1784%E2%80%931860)#/media/File:Albany_Steamer.jpg>
Cotton Gin. Digital image. N.p., 27 Aug. 2006. Web. 14 May 2015. <>
The 19th Century Interior of Marshall's Flax Mill, Holbeck, Leeds. Digital image. Wikipedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 May 2015. <,_Holbeck,_Leeds_-_interior_-_c.1800.jpg>