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PRESENTED BY

n~HE volumes oj the

University of Michigan

Studies are published by authority of the

Executive Board of the Graduate Depart-

ment of

the University of

of the volumes

ranged for

is

Michigan.

thus far published

list

or ar-

given at the end of this volume.

tElnitofrfiitp

of Spicljigan ^tuiJtffl

HUMANISl'IC SERIES

VOLUME

VII

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

THE MACMILLAN COMPANY


DALLAS
BOSTON
CHICAGO
ATLANTA
SAN FRANCISCO

NEW YORK

MACMILLAN &
LONDON

CO., Limited
BOMBAY CALCUTTA
MELBOURNE
-

THE MACMILLAN

CO. OF
TORONTO

CANADA,

Ltd.

ATHENIAN LEKYTHOI
WITH OUTLINE DRAWING
IN MATT COLOR ON
A WHITE GROUND
APPENDIX: ADDITIONAL LEKYTHOI

WITH OUTLINE DRAWING IN GLAZE


VARNISH ON A WHITE GROUND

BY

ARTHUR FAIRBANKS
MUSEUM OF FINE ARTS, BOSTON

Nfto gork

THE MACMILLAN COMPANY


LONDON: MACMILLAN &
I9I4
ylU

rights

reser-ved

CO., Ltd.

Copyright,

By

1914,

ARTHUR FAIRBANKS.

Set up and electrotyped.

Published October, 1914.

%o\\\

Nortuood Press

J.

S.

Cusbing Co.

Berwick & Smith

Nor-wood, Mass., U.S.A.

Co.

PREFACE
In connection with my volume on White Lekythoi with Outline
Drawing in Glaze Varnish (1907; University of Michigan Studies,

Humanistic

Series, Vol.

VI)

my

studies of the lekythoi discussed in

As in
the present volume were begun more than fifteen years ago.
the previous volume my object has been to classify such examples as I
have been able to study, and to indicate the relations of different
classes, in order to lay the foundations for a knowledge of this important branch of vase painting.
than in the case of lekythoi

The problem

has been

more

difficult

drawn
glaze outline, and the classes
I believe, however, that the types are
are not so sharply divided
that the classification serves in the main to bring
fairly definite, and
must be studied together.
together lekythoi which belong together and
in

with its
Furtwangler-Reichold's IVeissgrundige attische Lekythen^
reached me only when the whole book
large and fine reproductions,

For
for the press.
(except the indices) was electrotyped and ready
That my
its careful scholarship I can express only my admiration.
interpretations

sometimes

differ

in

detail

is

to be expected, but a

or to defend my views.
preface gives no opportunity to modify
of
from
I cannot refrain
expressing my thanks to the University

making place for this volume also in the series in which


my other volume appeared, and to John M. Longyear, Esq., whose
its
pubgenerous gift to the University of Michigan made possible
Michigan

lication

9 June,

for

under these auspices.

1914.

ARTHUR

FAIRBANKS.

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CONSPECTUS OF THE CLASSES OF ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI


AS TREATED IN THE PRESENT VOLUME (VOL. VII) AND
THE COMPANION VOLUME (VOL. VI) OF THE SAME
SERIES OF STUDIES.
Introduction:

Class

Lekythoi with drawing


I.

Flesh in silhouette

Scene

Class II.

58-119

pp.

Group B,

Class IV.
slip

Series

red

pi.

iii,

iv.

vi

V,

vii

pi. xxxiii,

Class VI.

23

VI, pp. 36 58

silhouette

VII, p. 244
for

women's

pi.

i,

flesh or

viii

xxxiv

VI,

xxxii, i.

some accessory

v,

pi.

VI, pp. 141 154

2.

VI, pp. 155-178.

thin glaze used for the outlines.

ix,

used.

VI, pp. 120 141

2.

slip

pi.

not

I.

pi. xxxiii,

Both shoulder ornament and scene drawn


pi.

VII,

slip.

accessories.

mostly small

neck,

ii,

245;

p.

Lekythoi with white

V.

for

only

VII, p. 246 ; pi. xxxiii,


Black palmettes on the white shoulder.

iii,

Series 3.

Class

silhouette

Reserved red palmettes on the black shoulder.

Series 2.

Group C.

brown

VI, pp. 2326

Palmettes in black on the red shoulder.

VII,

pi.

accessories in outline.

Lekythoi with enamel-white


brownish.

i.

I.

21.

243.

p.

outline

in

in fine black relief lines in a

Lekythoi with

III.

pp.

I.

i,

pi.

Class

VII,

I.

ii,

VI,

Lekythoi.

1-5.

pp.

Group A.

of Athenian White

Characteristics

xxxv

x,

xi

xxxvi

in glaze.
;

xl

xv.

VI, pp. 183255


VII,

pp.

246253

xli.

Dull color used either tor ornamentation or for outlines of the scene.

Series

Scene drawn

in

maeander or both.

glaze

VI, pp.

dull

color used for shoulder

256-281

pi.

ix,

xii

2;

palmettes or
xiii

VII, pp. 253259; pi. xxxii, 3 ; xxxvii ; xxxviii, 12.


Series 2.
Scene in dull color ; palmettes, and usually the maeander,
VII, pp. 259-261
pi. xxxix.
Small lekythoi with scene and shoulder ornament

VI, pp. 281-291.


Series 3.

maeander

xiv,

2.

in glaze.

in dull, dark red

in glaze.

VI, pp. 291293.


Small lekythoi with red neck and shoulder.
Group D.
Class VII.
Ornament and scene drawn in thin vellow glaze.
Series i.
Maeander both below and above the scene.
pi.

xiv, 3.

VII,

p.

261

pi.

xxxii, 2.

VI, pp. 295302

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

VUI

Series

Maeander above

2.

X,

pi.

VII,

xiv, 4.

not below.

the scene but


p.

Dull color (usually dark red) used

Class VIII.
Series i.

in

Drawing

maeander.
Series 2.

glaze

VII,

VI, pp. 320-326.


color

dull

in

Drawing

of the drawing.

tor part or all

color used

dull

VI, pp. 302-320;

261.

some accessory

for

or for the

261.

p.

glaze occasionally used for the maeander.

\1I, p. 262.

VI, pp. 326-336.

Lekythoi with drawing in matt color only.

Scene drawn

Class IX.

Series i.
ii

iii,

iii,

pi.

41

1-2

vi,

pi.

mion

6-19;

pi.

i,

1-2

VII, pp.

19-33

in fine

brown

lines

figures less

VII, pp. 33-

stiff.

2.

ix,

pink or brown, often slightly glossy

in

anthemion

Stele with
vii,

pi.

slip.

with anthe-

stelae

or triangular top.

Series l.

pp. 55-71
Stele

Series 3.

pp. 71-75

Scene

with

usually
pi. ix,

scene in pink outline.

anthemion
X,

1-2

scene

in

43-55

X, 3

pi.

pink

xi,

brown

in

outline

VII,

I.

xi,

with capital or triangular top


;

VII, pp

1-2.

viii,

Stele

Series 2.

Class XI.

vii,

Scene drawn

Class X.

pp.

and square (not angular).

large

fairly

Scenes usually

Series 3.

\'II,

angular profile.

iv.

Heads

Series 2.

crayon-like lines on a slightly rough

in

small, with

Heads

scene

red outline.

in

\'I1,

xii.

outline

(or violet-black)

with anthemion and

stelae

acanthus leaves, or acanthus leaves only.


Series

Transitional examples.

i.

Series 2.

Larger

VII, pp. 81-93

the grave.

Smaller lekythoi (about 0.30 m. high) with two figures

at

the grave.

pi.

Class XIII.

1-2

pi.

xviii,

i.

16-120;

outline

123-135;

pi.

xvii,

pi.

1-2.

ornament of the
2;

xviii,

xix,

stele
i,

with

2; xx,

edge

1-2;

Later small lekythoi with scene in red outline

mion.

XIV.

red

in

VII, pp.
xxii,

xiv, 2

xvi, 2.

VII, pp.

Scenes ordinarily
reenforced.

XV, 1-2

pi.

Miscellaneous.

xxi,

grave.

at

VII, pp. 107-1 16


Series 5.

the

at

'

-"^^'i'

'>

2.

xiii,

worship

scenes of worship

VII, pp. 93-107


Series 4.

Class

Larger lekythoi with several figures

Series 3.

Class XII.

-''i^'

pi.

than

other

scenes

^"i' 3

p'-

VII, pp. 77-81

with

lekvthoi

VII, pp. 136-161

pi.

xxii, 2,

3;

xxiii,

Later large lekythoi with scene in red outline.

XXV, 1-2; xxvi

xxvii,

I-2

xxviii,

1-2

with

scene

stele
1,

without anthe-

2; xxiv,

1,

2.

VII, pp. 162-191

xxix, 2; xxx,

1,

2,

3;

xxxi, 4, 2.
Class

XV.

Later
pp.

Class

XVI.

lekvthoi

192-202
Very

pi.

(mostly

small)

xxxi,

3.

large lekythoi

I,

elaborate

in

gray

polychrome decoration.

outline.

VII,

CONSPECTUS

ix

SCENES REPRESENTED
Scenes represented on lekythoi o{ Classes I VIII.
VI, pp. 337-341.
(i) Scenes from mythology and religion.

(2)
(3)

Scenes from everyday life.


VI, pp. 341-345.
Scenes connected with the grave.
VI, pp. 346-355.

Scenes represented on lekythoi of Classes IX-XVI.


(i) Scenes with no stele and no direct reference

to burial.

VII, pp. 216-217.

VII, p. 218-223.
(2) The Charon scene.
The
scene.
VII, pp. 223226.
prothesis
(3)
VII, pp. 226228.
(4) The depositio scene.
The scene at the grave.
( 5 )
and offerings associated with the

(a)

Stele

(<^)

Offerings presented at the grave.

(f)

Figures in the grave scene.

(^)

Interpretation of the scene at the grave.

stele.

VII, pp. 228232.

VII, pp. 232-236.

VII, pp. 236-238.


VII, pp. 238-241.

INTRODUCTION
volume on Athenian White
Lekythoi (University of Michigan, Humanistic Series, Vol. VI), the
nature of these vases, their use, and their antecedents (in shape and
In

the Introduction to

my

first

line of
white slip and outline drawing) were briefly discussed.
with
silhouette
between
division was drawn
figures on a
lekythoi
white ground, and lekythoi on which part or all of the scene was drawn

and the discussion was limited to lekythoi of the latter


type.
Again a line was drawn between white lekythoi with scene or
ornament in glaze outline and those on which both scene and ornament

in outline,

were

The

matt color.

in

first

to the

line

drawing, belonging
were discussed in that volume

eight classes of white lekythoi with outformer of these two general divisions,
in the present volume it remains to
;

which are included

second general division, i.e.


lekythoi with outline drawing on which both scene and ornament are
in matt color.
It will appear that at least three classes in this second
treat lekythoi

in the

division overlap in time Classes V-VIII of the division previously


it
treated
may even be the case that some vases in Classes IX and
;

the
by the same hand as certain vases in Classes V and VI
fact remains, however, that a clear line of division in technique may
be drawn between Class VIII and Class IX, and further that vases of
are

Class
the

IX and

first

may be
400

following are in general later in date than the vases of


eight classes.
Roughly speaking, the date of Classes I-VIII

set

The

as

or possibly

B.C.,

volume

down

classification
is

480-430 b.c, the date of Classes IX


somewhat later.

sq. as

450-

of the lekythoi to be treated in the present


in the case of those previously treated, for

not so simple as

the reason that the development of these vases had resulted in a


from which the deviations are not great.
Here we are

definite type

dealing rather with the work of different potteries which brought into
fashion now one variation of the type, now another, not with stages
in a process

of development.

and Classes

XIII-XVI

in height to

about

In general. Classes

IX-XII

are earlier,

represent the last stage of the development


of white lekythoi with outline drawing.
The vases in the present division vary in size from about 0.15 m.
i

m.

far

the greater number, however, are of two

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

either 0.25-0.30

m. (Classes IX,
X, XII, XIII, XV, and part of Class XI), or about 0.40 m. (Class
XIV, part of Class XI, and a few other examples). Except in Class
sizes that

may

be called normal

IX, the shape is quite slender and the shoulder usually sloping.
neck, mouth, handle, lower quarter of the body, and foot (except
the red edge) are covered with the lustrous black glaze found on

The

while the main part of the bodv and


red-figured vases of the period
the shoulder have a chalky white slip which is rarely as creamy or as
;

on the lekythoi with


shoulder ornament is regularly a

smooth

as

outline
series

drawing

in

The

glaze.

of scrolls surrounding three

palmettes commonly these are painted in thin black with alternate


On larger vases and not inleaves of the palmettes in bright red.
;

frequently on smaller ones an egg pattern is drawn in outline above


At the top of the body glaze
the palmettes, at the base of the neck.
lines encircle the entire vase to enclose the

maeander pattern.

This

pattern, which runs only around the front part of the vase, is in the
as the palmettes ; except in Class IX it is usually broken
by dotted oblique crosses, from which it may either reverse or con-

same color

same direction. Oftentimes the maeander pattern was


drawn before the main scene and is covered by any lines of the scene
tinue in the

(top of grave stele) which


stances, however,

added

after the

it is

project into this space; in


interrupted for the top of the stele,

may

main scene was complete.

The

some
i.e.

it

in-

was

scene on more than

of these vases represents worship at the grave, and with very


few exceptions the other scenes have to do with death and burial, for

90%

these are

all

black which

painted

in

It is
lekythoi.
have a violet tinge.

grav^e

may
solid

color,

usually in

drawn

At

red

if

in

red or pink or a thin

one garment is normally


only one color is used, and

least

taeniae in solid red or greenish black decorate the grave monument.


Often two colors are used for garments, two shades of red or red and

and in some cases, especially in Class XIV, four or five


colors are used to produce richly decorated examples.
While the
drawing is rarely as fine as in the best examples of Classes V and VI,
thin black,

the vases of Classes IX, X, and XI are extremely beautiful


even in the hastily drawn or richly decorated vases of later classes,

some of

the sense for fine composition and beautiful line does not disappear.
The peculiarities of each class are discussed in the conclusion

which follows the account of individual vases.

brief statement at

The distinguishing charhowever, may help the reader.


of Class IX is the slightly broken lines of scene and orna-

this point,
acteristic

INTRODUCTION

While
ment, which resemble pencil lines on slightly rough paper.
this kind of line is due in a measure to the surface of the slip, it
seems to be occasioned primarily by a pigment not perfectly soluble
in the vehicle

and the shoulder


of grave

stele

is

taeniae.

many

In shape these lekythoi are rather heavy,

employed.

of the drawing

is

quite

flat.

Color

very simple; but the

The

sparingly used, and the type


is
usually decorated with

is

stele

figures and various


recall certain lekythoi of Class
stiff

other

VI

characteristics

(series i, nos.

11-

16).

The

are the paint used for the


distinguishing marks of Class
a
color
with
a
or
rose
outlines,
slightly glossy surface, and the
pink
type of grave stele which is a slender shaft crowned by an anthemion

The lekythoi are 0.25-0.30 m. in


or sometimes a triangular top.
a whiter, more chalky slip than
height, of slender shape, and with
In this class the scene
Color is sparingly used.
those of Class IX.
almost without exception includes the grave monument it is simply,
almost hastily drawn, in a delicate manner which was anticipated by
;

certain lekythoi of Class VI (series i, nos. 19-25).


In Class XI, for the first time, acanthus leaves are

found either

at

The only vases


the base or on the top of the grave monument.
without acanthus leaf included in this class are a few examples with
Lekythoi about 0.25 m. and
distinctly the same style of drawing.
about 0.40 m. in height are included here the shape is often less slender
than in Class X, and the slip more highly polished; the lines of the
scene are either pink without the gloss noted in Class X or sometimes
;

a violet black,

and on some examples color

is

quite freely used.

The

show more variety than in earlier or later classes and it would


seem that the same inventive impulse which introduced the acanthus
leaf, led to a break with the traditions of Classes VI and IX and X,
and a temporary effort for variety. The result is seen in some of the
but the demand apparently
finest lekythoi with drawing in matt color
three or four different
show
classes
not
and
later
did
justify the effort,

scenes

lines

of stereotyped tradition.

Class

XII

is

a small series

of lekythoi usually about 0.30 m.

The distinin a strong red.


of red (or black) reenforcing the edge
The
of the palmette or of the acanthus leaves at the top of the stele.
stele is ordinarily crowned with an anthemion like that of Class

in height

and with the scene drawn

guishing mark

is

broad

line

or
except for the reenforced edge, and acanthus leaves occur only two
three times.
The paint used for the outlines is very much the same

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

of Class XIII, but the drawing


Solid red is used
different in style.

as that

is

more

and decidedly
garments and earment

for

borders, and red stripes sometimes decorate a


are rarely used.

XIII and

Classes

XIV

careful

garment

other colors

include the smaller and the larger size of

later white lekythoi with drawing in strong red, usually in shaded


In both classes some Charon scenes are found, but
strokes of red.

On the
most examples have the scene of worship at the grave.
smaller examples (Class XIII) this scene includes the grave monument with a figure on each side. The figures repeat certain types
again and again with no effort for variety
chosen for their decorative value, and this

use of color or

by the addition

of,

e.

the types, however, are


is often enhanced
by the

g.,

a scarf over

the arms.

grave stele is much broader than in earlier classes it is crowned


pediment with acroteria, or by a triple plinth, or by a bunch of
by
Several colors are used on the more elaborate exacanthus leaves.

The

Of the larger examples


amples, but the work is always rather hasty.
(Class XIV) a few are drawn in fine lines with great care, and on these
four or five colors

may

be used to enrich

the effect.

Except

for

Charon

scenes, these finer examples have a grave monument with


on the steps, and a standing figure on each side.
In
general, shaded lines are used for the scene and the effort for decorative effect noted in Class XIII is often found. While three
figures occur

the

a figure seated

on more than half the lekythoi included here, a considerable number,


some of them very hastily drawn, have only two figures, one on
each side of the grave monument.
The typical form of grave monument is the broad shaft crowned by a pediment with acroteria less
;

frequently

few

it is

later

broad shaft or heavy pillar crowned by acanthus leaves.


white lekythoi, most of them small and hastily drawn,

have the scene drawn

black (Class XV).


drawing is decidedly different from that of Classes XI
the drawing is more careful but
heavy and weak.
this

for

class

is

the

garments
Class

is

XVI

The

in thin

common

style of the

and XIV; often

peculiarity of
use of a brick red for the hair ; solid color

found occasionally.
includes a few lekythoi which stand quite by themmore or less elaborate scenes and free use

selves, large lekythoi with


of color.

With

reference to the

methods of

classification

that have been

employed desire to repeat the caution given in my former volume.


It is unreasonable to
expect to arrive at a perfect classification with the
I

INTRODUCTION

together the lekythoi which resemand technique, however, we can make a beginning in this direction and determine certain groups of vases which
were produced by the same sets of workmen in the same period.
Often it is possible to attribute a pair of vases or perhaps a series of

data that are extant.

By bringing

ble each other in style

same workman. And on this basis further study


may determine even more definitely the lines of development. I have
included in the discussion all the white lekythoi which I have had the
opportunity to examine, unimportant as many of them are, in order
four or five to the

to lay before the reader as full data as possible for the study of this
class of vases.

CLASS IX

The

LEKYTHOI WITH SCENE DRAWN IN CRAYON-LIKE


LINES ON A SLIGHTLY ROUGH SLIP

of white lekythoi with drawing in a matt color is


of the lines in which the
distinguished primarily by the character
first class

drawn and by the paint used. The slip is not highly


" varnish "
character
as a
polished, and the paint has nothing of the
result the lines are slightly broken like pencil lines on an unglazed

scene

is

The paint used in series i and 2 is either a thin violet-black,


paper.
or a red tending toward purple, but occasionally in series 2 and
thin yellow-brown is emregularly in series 3 a dark brown varying to
The shape of the vase itself, which is rather heavy with nearly
ployed.
flat shoulder,
suggests that this is the earliest class of lekythoi with

drawing in matt color. As to the scene, the stele is simple, without


anthemion or acanthus leaves, and the figures are usually drawn
The class
either en face or in profile and in rather stiff attitudes.
includes three series

Series

i.

The

heads are small and with angular profile;

paint thin violet-black (even pale gray) or violet-red


coarse.

Series
thin

2.

The

heads are quite

brown

black, violet-red, or

large
lines

and square

medium,

or

lines

paint
rarely

coarse.

Series 3.

Heads medium, with small

brown or violet-brown,

lines

rather fine

chin;

paint yellow-

hair often in loose,

fluffy curls.

Series

i.

Heads

small^ with angular -profile

The

distinguishing feature of this series is found in the heads of


the figures, which are small, with angular profile.
The sharp nose and
pointed, often projecting chin vary indeed in degree, but are
found on all the specimens here included.
The lines of the outline
the

tend to be coarse, and often a series of short parallel lines are used
to indicate the end of the hair.
The figures are quite stiff and rather
6

CLASS

SERIES

IX,

1-2

i,

They represent but few types and these with carefully


heavy.
defined meaning as if they had been studied from nature.
The vases
are grouped below according to the scene {a) At the
grave, (i?)
Expositio scenes,

Athens,

1.

[c]

Charon

and

{d) Depositio scenes.

Mus. 2018, Cv.

Nat.

Griech. Sic.

Benndorf,

scenes,

Vas.^

Ornament and scene drawn


and

in

Taf

dark red

and red

xxi,

dark dull green

H. 0.30 m.

Vari.

1693.
i.

used for hair and taeniae,

is

Colors well preserved.


shaft,
yellow
The plain shaft on three steps is decorated with many taeniae, a wreath of foliage,
and a lekythos hanging near the top.
At the left a youth leans forward on a yellow
for petasos

knotted stick and holds out a taenia

shoulder

At

free.

near the top

his

the

for garments.

in

both hands

red himation leaves the right

his

right an ephebos stands nearly en face, grasping his erect spear

red chlamys

all

but covers the short chiton

on

head

his

is

yellow

petasos.

The

typical characteristics of this first series are to be clearly seen


in this vase.
The scene is drawn in even lines of dull paint which

does not adhere evenly to the surface one figure is in full profile, the
other en face^ and both are drawn with a certain stiff realism
the
;

heads are small, the profile decidedly angular, the eye drawn with a
finally the plain shaft of the stele is
single line for the upper eyelid
;

decorated with

many

and a lekythos.^

taeniae, a wreath,

The

four

colors are used effectively and simply, while the scene as a whole is
carefully composed to give a dignified representation of an actual
occurrence
doubtless the meeting of citizen and stranger at one of

The definiteness of the scene,


the
the graves outside the city.^
stele with actual offerings attached, the youthful figure presenting

another taenia, and the stranger standing respectfully near,


marked contrast with the formulary character of later lekythoi.

Athens, Nat. Mus.

2.

2019,

Cv.

Benndorf, Griech. Sic. Vas.^ Taf. xviii,


in dull violet-red.

and yellow

The

for petasos

stele

the

left

and spear.

with moulding

woman

maeander

The

scene

is

Colors well preserved.

at the

top stands on three steps

in profile

approaches and

about

it

and from the top step hangs


is

in the act

of attaching

are green-black
a red wreath.

red taenia to the

in the Burlington Fine Arts Club Catalogue of the 1904 exhibition as


have not been able to examine, should have been discussed at this point.
According to the de-

Perhaps the lekythos described

32, which

scription the plain stele

is

decorated with taeniae and a lekythos

man

at the left a

the figure at the right, wears a red mantle.


2

in black.

Black and red are used for taeniae, brown-red for one garment,

taeniae, an outline lekythos hangs at the top,

At

"^

i.

Palmettes in green-black with alternate leaves red

drawn

H. 0.285

Vari.

1694.

in

is

Cf

Benndorf, S. 40, with reference to Keil,

Syll.

inscr. hoeot., p.

171.

leans

on

his staff,

and he, like

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

a sleeve chiton, undergirded, of

which the

stele.

She wears

At the

with right leg relieved and right


right stands an ephebos en face,

erect spear near the top.

on the lower edge

on

his

He

folds or stripes are

still

visible.

hand grasping an

wears a short striped chiton and a dark red mantle fringed

shoulder hangs a yellow petasos.

The

vigorous composition and graceful drawing are the more


The
noticeable because of the trace of stiffness which still remains.
scene

a variant

is

of that on no.

i,

and presumably

is

drawn by the

same hand, though the profiles are less angular. The details of the
youth's hair, and the realism of the garment folds or stripes, deserve
notice.

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1969, Cv. 1757.

3.

Ornament
black

in black fading

used for taeniae and the

is

toward green.

woman's

hair,

The

scene

H.

Eretria.
is

drawn

while the man's hair

in dull

is

0.26 m.

red

greenish

red like the outlines.

At the left a young woman in


two steps is decorated with taeniae.
red
himation
stands
out
a phiale toward the stele.
At the right an
and)
holding
(chiton
ephebos stands holding two spears erect ; apparently he once had a chlamys.
plain shaft on

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1890, Cv. 1799

4.

H.

(Coll. 667).

0.33 m.

The

Palmettes in black with alternate leaves red, complicated maeander in black.

scene

is

drawn

and yellow

The

in

lines

of

full

dark red.

Red

is

used for garments and taeniae,

for the spear.

plain shaft

lekythos.

At the

taeniae, wreath,

on three steps
a

left

woman

and two lekythoi

is

decorated with red taeniae


profile holds out

in

in

on the upper step

both hands a

flat

grasps his erect

his

raised

his side

right

is

basket with

apparently she once had a striped chiton.

face
(reversed) spear with
hand steadies the shield which rests on the ground by

right a warrior en
his left

medium

At the

hand while

he wears chlamys

and helmet.

same scene, except that an ephebos takes the


place of an older warrior, is found on a vase of series 2 of this class
The same sense for fine composition out of elements simple
(no. 16).
and somewhat stiff is seen here as in the vases previously discussed.
The warrior in panoply, like the ephebos, has already been noted on
Practically

the

lekythoi with drawing in glaze outline [e.g. Class VI, i, no. 6, Athens,
Nat. Mus. 1 76 1 ); perhaps it is a less frequent figure than the
ephebos in scenes at the grave, because less familiar in city life.

These four lekythoi represent variations of the same scene, viz. a


It is a scene
worshipper at the grave met by a traveller or stranger.
that must frequently have occurred when graves lined the main roads
of travel to and from the city, and its "accidental" character emphaof this class represent scenes suggested by
real occurrences rather than merely academic combinations of figures.
sizes the fact that vases

CLASS
London,

5.

Grab, der Hell.,

Mus.

Brit.

SERIES

IX,

H.

Athens.

82.

3-7

i,

0,22 m.

Stackelberg,

i.

pi. xlv,

The scene is drawn


Careful palmettes and maeander in black shading toward violet.
black wash is used for taeniae and dark red for
in rather coarse lines of the same black.

The

taeniae and garments.


stele

Simple

holds a lekythos

on three

preliminary sketch shows white through the garments.

steps

several taeniae are tied about the shaft,

on the upper step

woman

and below

a lekythos,

is

it

hangs

one of which

wreath of leaves.

She wears
approaches holding out a taenia in both hands.
The youth standing stiffly in profile at the right is
a sleeve chiton and red himation.
closely draped in a red mantle which is drawn in thick folds about the neck,

At the

left a

in profile

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1824, Cv. 1797.

6.

Ornament and scene


garments and taeniae

The
At the

stele,

left

ornamented with many black

At the

the end.

right a

to

the hair

his hair

is

drawn with

carefully

drawn

is

like his

at

moulding

the neck in a large mantle

in profile holds out

second youth
;

taeniae, has a profiled

wrapped

on the red mantle

garment has disappeared

The

are used

for

greenish black for the hair.

stands in profile a youth

lines are indicated

his

Dark red and greenish black

dark red.

dull

in

H. 0.26 m.

Eretria.

the top.

black fold

separate curls at

red taenia in both hands

companion's.

neck on these two vases has already


on
with
been noted
VI,
lekythoi
glaze outlines {e.g. Class V, no. 5
I, no. 15); presumably it represents the dead person himself, draped
figure draped to the

as

on the

bier.

the taenia

is

Normally,
a

woman

on no.

as

5,

who

the worshipper

the simple taenia,

however,

in

presents

distinction

from the basket containing wreaths, etc., is occasionally presented by


a man.
The multiplicity of taeniae on the stele, together with the
lekythoi and wreath on no.
it is

5, is characteristic

a touch of reality copied

by the

of this series;

possibly

The

profiled moulding
at the top of the shaft rarely takes the place of a fully indicated
The use of only two colors on these vases and on most of
capital.
the following is a note of simplicity which is lacking on the more

important

later lekythoi.-

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1994, Cv. 1742.

7.

Ornament and scene


At

shaft

the

left a

hand

The

are

drawn

toward green

red

H.
is

0.325 m.

used for taeniae.

red taeniae, stands on three steps.


capital, decorated with many
At the
carries a flat basket of taeniae ; her garment has disappeared.

woman
woman

brings a

her hair

covered with

is

representation of a

literalism here

The

basket

flat

and taking something from


peated.

in black fading

Eretria.

with simple

right a second
right

painter.

from which she

is

taking something with

her

a sakkos.

woman
it

carrying a basket on her left arm,


with her right hand, is perhaps a bit of

later this figure

use of a cloth to

becomes a type not infrequently recover a woman's hair completely (sak-

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

10

kos) was noted occasionally in Class V {e.g. no. 53);


than the present one it is almost never found.

The unbroken maeander and


is

H.

Athens, Private Collection.

8.

0.30 m.

cir.

drawn

the scene are

in classes later

in

now

lines

Shoulder and top missing.


Several red taeniae are attached to the simple shaft of the

dull gray

red

light

used for taeniae and garments.

stands

carrying

stifflv,

sleeve chiton has


f/j

(feet

a red

taenia

each hand

in

At the

but disappeared.

all

face^, holding the back of

his

her hair

stele.

At the

covered with

is

woman

her

youth stands in three-quarter profile

right a

hand out toward the

right

left

a sakkos

He

stele.

wears

himation.

a red

This scene

is

unusual in the present

that

in

series

one figure

is

The gesture of the slightly raised, rerepresented in partial profile.


laxed right hand has already been seen in Class V {e.g. nos. 55 and
on no. 9 the right hand is extended toward the stele (cf V, nos.
i^(i)
;

On no. 9 the fine


gesture perhaps easier to explain.
cracks in the slip are perhaps due to the contraction of some varnish23 and 24),

element

like

where the
of

slip

composition they occur occasionally in Class IX,


in the more chalky
fairly hard and smooth, but not

in its
is

slip

later classes.

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1919, Cv. 1826.

9.

Ornament and scene


shows many

are

drawn

0.27 m.

The

typical coarse lines of dull dark red.

in

parently has disappeared.

His raised

extended toward the

palm down.

stele,

Mus.

Cassel,

Frid.,

Before

left

it

stands an ephebos

hand grasps an

The

erect

second figure

is

H. 0.195

378.

whose garment ap-

spear, his

no longer
"^-

right

hand

is

drawn

in

heavy even

lines

of dull violet

red

is

is

visible.

Plate

I,

i.

The

Palmettes (with alternate leaves red) and unbroken maeander in dull black.

scene

slip

fine cracks.

plain shaft stands on three steps.

10.

H.

Attica.

used for one garment and taeniae,

greenish black for the other garment.

The
file

if

plain stele

leans forward

touching the

stiffly

on three steps is decorated with taeniae.


stick under his left arm and extends

on the

stele

a red

himation covers his

left

At the

arm.

en face holds out his right hand similarlv, palm up

his left

At the
his right

left a

youth

in

pro-

arm horizontally

right

as

youth standing

green-black himation covers

arm.

The gesture of the figure at the left, already noted on no. 9, finds
here a simple explanation.
By itself it might be simply a hand extended to touch the stele
here both figures extend the right hands,
;

evidently with the desire to welcome each other and presumably to


The latter assumption would emphasize the stiffness of
clasp hands.

CLASS

SERIES

IX,

11

8-13

i,

the scene, for the separation of the figures could only be explained by
the tradition which caused each figure to be drawn quite separate and
distinct from the other.

New York,

11.

Metrop. Mus. 06.1021. 132. H. 0.26 m, Plate

Palmettes and unbroken maeander


violet,

The

in dull
gray.

varying in places to light red.

Light

red

scene

is

drawn

I, 2.

now

in a color

used for taeniae and garments, and

is

black for taeniae.


the plain stele on

About

two

appeared, and her hair

and looks back


but no chiton

is

visible

London,

12.

Ath. Vases

The woman

placing her right hand on her hip

her hair

is

in a

Mus.

Brit.

left

woman

(?) at the right turns

in the

long knot or braid.

H.

Eretria.

62.

sketch

may

the

is

wash with

apparently in a

single

The

The

are used for garments.

scene

strokes

is

added

preliminary

be detected.

On

high couch with delicate turned legs and pillows lies the body of
Behind
wrapped in a mantle, and red taeniae are laid across it.
woman in yellow chiton and red scarf drawn up on her head bends over and touches
At the right a youth in partial profile, wearchin of the corpse with her right hand.
Prothesis.

the dead
it

color, while the hair

Brownish yellow and dark red

on the edge.

White

m.

0.33

vii.

pi.

same

away

she wears a red himation,

Palmettes and complicated maeander in black fading toward violet.

drawn

in profile

she wears a red himation, her sleeve chiton has dis-

covered with a sakkos.

at the stele,

is

At the

steps are four taeniae.

holds up a red taenia in both hands

it

is

closely

ing a red himation, places his right hand against his forehead

her right

young woman
She wears
hand.

The

of both

bier (left) a

hair

13.

women

in profile puts

a sleeve chiton

her

left

places

scene

on the garments

is

drawn

in coarse

even

are traces of a color (once red

The body

Prothesis.

foot of

and red himation, both with black

H.

Palmettes in dull gray with traces of alternate leaves

The

at the

the

fold

lines.

short, reaching only to the shoulders.

is

Boston, Mus. Fine Arts, 95.46.

the same gray.

while

hand on top of her head and extends

in

0.35 m.

red

lines ot the
? )

Plate

II.

complicated maeander in
color, in one or two

same

of ^the dead, closely wrapped in

garment marked with hori-

high couch with turned legs, drawn in perspective ; the head is


Behind it are three women mourning, each of them clothed in a
supported by two pillows.
sleeve chiton marked with fine wavy lines, and an himation with slight traces ot color ; the hair

zontal crosses,

lies

on

The figure at the left is in profile looking to


only to the shoulders.
The
hand on top of her head and her right hand extended, palm up.

falls in straight lines

the right, her

left

The righten face looking to the right and tearing her hair with both hands.
on top ot
hand
her
of
the
hand figure is in profile facing the left by the head
couch,
right
second

is

her head,

her

left

hand on the shoulder of the dead.

column with base and Doric

At the extreme

left

is

a fluted

capital.

and 13) so closely resemble each other


that thev mav have come from the same hand, though the second is

These two vases

(nos. 12

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

12

drawn with much more attention to detail and shows little or no trace
On no. 12 the hair of the standing figures shows a
of added color.
a solid color in which no brush strokes
little
fringe of ends added to
are evident, a device

youth with the

in this

employed only

women mourners

is

The

series.

unusual

the brother of the dead, on one of Class VI,

on

figure of a

vase perhaps
(Appendix, no. 16 b),
this

perhaps the father, lends a touch of pathos which is absent when only
This impression is heightened by
the female mourners are depicted.
the attitude of the central figure ; the affectionate
the dead and touches his face, as well as the

way she bends over


more closely drawn

drapery, differentiates her from the more formal figure at the left and
All the figures, particularly the figure of the
the figures on no. 12.

dead, are treated with a realism unusual even for the present series.
It is a new scene for the lekythos painter, too literal to become
popular, and with more indication of pathos in its earliest examples

than was admitted

On

later.

both these vases the marks of this series are

clear, in

particuthe small head, the sharp nose, and the protruding point of the
chin.
The delicate turned legs of the couch are carefully represented, and on no. 13 there is an unusual attempt to show in perlar

The dress, too, is


spective the back leg at the head of the couch.
carefully studied, in particular the differentiation of the material of
chiton and himation on

no. 13.
This care in detail only serves
to call attention to the stiffness of the
figures ; if the faces and the
"
"
hair were not so
the
wooden
character of arms
typically drawn,

and hands might almost raise suspicion as to the genuineness of the


Such a suspicion would be quite unjustified, for the stiffness
vases.
of the figures is as much a characteristic of this series as the careful
composition of the scene and its note of realism.
14.

van Branteghem, Frohner, no. 184.


m.
Benndorf, Griech. Sic. Vas.^ Taf. xvii,
0.32

H.

(Pnyx).

Palmettes in dull black with alternate leaves red.


darker red

is

head on

The body
pillow

at

The

hair

is

is

drawn

in dull

red

of the dead, closely wrapped in a garment, lies on a couch,


over it are laid several red taeniae.
Two women
;
left

hand on her head and the

short, falling loose to the shoulders.

a chiton
(folds indicated)

15.

scene

the right

mourners stand behind the couch, each with the


tended.

The

i.

used for a garment.

Prothesis.
the

Athens

Collection

and

a red

The woman

at

right

hand ex-

the right wears

himation; her companion wears an ungirded (?) chiton.

Berlin, Furtw. 2455.

Athens.

H.

0.31 m.

Plate

III, i.

Palmettes in black with alternate leaves red,


complicated maeander in black.

The

CLASS
scene

is

drawn

lines

and

jects the slender end of Charon's boat

He

hands.

his hip, his left

From

stiff

with

lines,

profile a

youth wrapped

Ill (1879), P- ^77> "^- ^

The

Two

washed

yellow pole in both


and high round cap marked
Before the boat Hermes stands en face, looking to right ; his right hand is
he wears a chlamys, of which only the dull
extended with kerykeion
in the boat

to the

neck

in a light red

H.

Athens, Private Collection.

16.

these pro-

outlined with a double black line and

is

At the

red border remains, high shoes each with a pair of wings, and high round cap.
stands in a

Dark red

violet.

coarsely indicated in thin wash.


it

wears an exomis, dark red with black fold

with black dots.

on

Charon bends over and draws

over in vellow.

13

light red with black lines are used for garments, thick yellow

wood, and brown wash for reeds.


Under the handle is a mass of reeds

for

14-17

i,

of black, sometimes varying toward

in rather coarse lines

with added black

SERIES

IX,

'

mantle with black fold

0.32 m.

right
lines.

Bull. Corr. Hell.

Pettier, Lee. blanes att.^ pi.

palmettes and unbroken maeander, as well as the scene,

iii.

drawn

are

black.

in

shades of red with added black fold lines are used for garments, and yellow for the

boat and pole of Charon.

At

the

Charon,

left

his left foot raised,

bends forward

as

he draws his boat to the shore

He wears a red exomis, leaving the right shoulder free, and a high round cap
with a pole.
In the centre Hermes, bearded, stands en face, holding the
marked with black dots.
kerykeion in his right hand over the end of the boat, and extending his

Traces of

the third figure.

his red

At the

hair falls in loose locks to his shoulders.

wrapped

hand toward

left

chlamvs remain, and he wears winged boots


right a

youth stands in profile,

his

closely

in a red mantle.

these two strikingly similar vases the second is known to me


The small heads, the profiles, and the
only through the publications.
hair are quite characteristic of the present series, as is the use of yellow

Of

The

black lines to indicate folds on a red garment are


often found in series e of Class V, a series of vases which also show

wood.

for

com-

It is interesting to
the stiff figures and small heads here noted.
pare this treatment of the scene with the earlier one in Class

Here Charon

7).

in contrast

as well as

Hermes

(no.

has the dignified look of a god,

with the boatman of the earlier vase.

The

stiffly

drawn

draped youth, the person for whom Charon is waiting, has an oppressed,
strained look in contrast with the other figures, and with the impassive woman on the Munich vase.
Hermes also is more stiffly represented than on that vase.
decidedly
17.

natural, as

is

attitude

Athens, Private Collection.

Palmettes in green-black
scene

The

drawn

in

medium

and the gesture of Charon

is

he draws his boat toward the shore.

lines

H. 0.312 m.

maeander unbroken, brown varying toward


of brown,

the hair in separate

dark red are used for garments and accessories.

Much

injured.

wavy

violet.

lines.

The

Light and

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

14
At the

left

Charon

He

leans forward in

hand on

his hip.

youthful

Hermes (unbearded),

raised knee

wears

his

hand he

in his right

his left hand on the


prow, his right
and
round
of
red.
garment
cap
Facing him stands a
foot
on
a
of
rocks
and
his
right
pile
right arm on the
his hark,

a short

youth (facing

to left)

to the

wrapped

He

carries a kervkeion.

dark red petasos on his shoulder, and dark red

neck

in a

wears

At

boots.

the

a light red

chlamvs,

stands in profile a

right

deep red himation.

Apparently this damaged vase belongs with the two preceding


A youthful, unnumbers, though the Hermes is totally different.
bearded figure, he faces Charon and leans forward with one foot raised

on some rocks;

parently the dead person

of

is

H. 0.373

"^

Palmettes in thin black varying to green with added red leaves

The

scene

boat, and dark red

At

is

drawn

is

used

for

hand toward the

slightly

woman

bowed.

faded

profile

is

much

in

is

in

black,

applied on the

from behind, stands near the end of

Before the boat stands a

left

hand

his

woman

in

profile

with

At the

On

either side

left a
young girl stands in
and carrying an alabastron
Her chiton has disappeared and the red

a casket

her lowered right hand.

rubbed.

somewhat

the profiles

with

legs,

of the central figure

one with arms extended, the other with one hand


in separate curl Hnes

maeander

Traces remain of the mantle which entirelv covers her arms and

holding out on her

hung from cords


mantle

green wash

right hand and bending over, as he extends his left


he wears a red exomis and dotted round cap.
Near the high

the back of her head, but her chiton has disappeared.


partial profile,

his

a slender standard.

is

now

garments.

boat, holding his thick pole in

head

in thin black,

the right Charon, seen in partial

end of the boat

Ap-

background, awaiting the attention


approaching the shore,

Athens.

Berlin, Inv. 3137.

unbroken.

his shoes.

in the

Hermes who watches Charon


i8.

from

further, the wings are lacking

to

its

flies to

the

The

head.

left

a little

i/'v;^r;

ends of the hair are

angular.

Unfortunately the fine drawing of this vase has been much damaged, but enough remains to show its firmness and dignity of line.

The

rude type of Charon

of Class

boatman

(nos. 7

and

Class VI,

8),

not quite as marked as on some vases


but it is distinctly the face of the common
is

no. 7),

and he reaches out

for his

passenger
an eager manner strongly contrasted with the woman's dignity.
The peculiar standard in the front of his boat I am unable to inter(cf.

i,

in

pret.

The dead woman

is

accompanied bv her maid with funeral


Simi-

she were setting out to visit another's grave.


offerings,
an
attendant maid appears on no. 19.
larly
as

19.

Coll.

if

van Branteghem, Frohner, no.

186.

Athens.

H.

0.383 m.
Palmettes (with alternate leaves red) and maeander

red; green

is

in black.

used on Charon's cap, and red for garments.

The

scene

is

drawn

in

CLASS
Hermes, grasping the
toward Charon
Behind the

hand holding

girl

welcome them

if to

hand of

He

young

18-21

i,

down

and looking

girl

15
at

her, conducts her

chlamys and a petasos hangs on his shoulder.


At the right Charon stands en face
nude slave carrying a vase.

little
girl is a

in his bark, his left


as

left

his bark.

in

SERIES

IX,

wears

hand extended toward Hermes and the

his oar, his right

he wears a red exomis and a high cap marked with dull

green.

New

20.

H. 0.317 m.

York, Metrop. Mus. 09.221.44.

Plate

IV.
Palmettes in dark violet with spaces for red leaves

The

scene

drawn

is

even

in

of black

lines

red

unbroken maeander

also in violet.

used for garments and thin yellow for

is

the boat.

At

the

woman

left

with head

red himation with black fold

woman

stands en face looking up at the

the

hand

left

hand

is

His

marking.

the handle of a

Charon stands

at the child,

his left

is

As on

raised
face

bowed

little

erect pole

of the

"noble"

of Class

a vase

and extending
it

go-cart

in his boat

on the

is

stands in profile,

to

wrapped

the neck in a

Before her on a rock a nude child with curly hair

lines.

is

his right

its

right

hand toward her

face

in

two and looking

drawing.

Facing the

hand

on the end of the boat, and

rests

he wears a red exomis and a high cap with black


type.

(no. 8) the figure of a

dead

girl

is

ac-

companied apparently by her mother, so in this scene a child at play


is introduced between Charon and the mother for whom Charon has
This nude boy with his go-cart, stretching out his hand toward
the mother, seems to make even Charon pause and lower his beckonmother looks longingly at her child.
ing hand for a moment, while the
come.

Charon, standing easily in his boat, has a more simply human face
The child is
than on no. 14, but not the rude features of no. 17,
raised on a rock, probably to give it a more important place in the
composition.
troduced with
lekythoi
21.
pi.

{e.g.

On

monuments

not infrequently inits mother, following the tradition of this and earlier
Class IV, 3, no. 7).

London,

grave

Brit.

Mus.

a child

H.

59.

is

0.36 m.

White Ath. Vases,

ix.

Palmettes in dull thin yellow with spaces for red leaves ; the maeander in the same
The scene is drawn in even coarse lines
color has one horizontal cross at the extreme end.

now
is

dull gray, varying to violet

the hair

is

in single strokes

the dead man's

Bright red

of thin dull red.

The

the outline

used for the short chitons and yellow for


show light gray through the red garments, for the paint does not adhere to them.
belt.

lines ot

strokes

Drawing

delicate.

In the centre on three steps

Depositio.
traces of red

taeniae around

of a dead youth

he

still

it.

wears

Before
his cuirass,

it

is

stele

two winged

with plain square top and with


figures

are depositing the

with a yellow ornamented

belt.

body

The winged

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

i6
figure at the left
his

bends

hair flies out in

The

he

is

bearded and

His companion, a beardless vouth, holds the body


former wears a short red chiton, the latter a short chiton

directions.

The

underneath the shoulders.


with broad band of red

more

grasping the body above the knees

far over,

all

top and bottom.

at

presence of

interesting to

makes

the characteristics of this series

all

it

the

lekythos with another in the British


the same scene (Class VI, i, no. 2).

this

Museum on which
On the latter the

compare
is found

is

drawing

more

far

and graceful
on the
the treatment of a dead

free

present vase there is the same literalism in


body, the same successful sense for composition, the same striking
The eflfort to represent the
differentiation of the two winged figures.
left-hand figure as wild and grim with the grimness of Death is so
marked that it may be regarded as a new element contributed by the

Again it is not quite clear whether these winged


The
figures are Thanatos and Hypnos, or Boreas and Zephyros,
on
which
the
surface
of
the
vase
is
considerably
following lekythoi,
painter of this vase.

damaged, indicate that


examples in museums.

scene was not limited to the very few

this

Athens, Private Collection.

22.

The

palmettes have disappeared

Pikrodaphni.

maeander unbroken.

The

H. 0.315 m.
scene

is

drawn

in

thin

dull red.

Depositio.

with leaves

body of

In the centre

in thin

dead person.

slightly as if carrying the

low down

is

green wash.

high slender

Before

stand

it

mound, with taeniae around it, and trees


two winged figures, doubtless holding the

The figure at the left, with wings raised behind him, bends over
head and shoulders of the dead. The figure at the right crouches

The

only the outlines of his wings remain.

head

is

fairly

small but the chin

square than usual.

is less

Athens, Private Collection.

23.

Neck and
drawn

shoulder gone

unbroken maeander

in thin dull red varying to violet.

Much

taeniae.

H.

to shoulder 0.19

in

thin

dull

Dark red and vellow

green.

m.

The

scene

are used for garments

is

and

damaged.

On two high steps is a stele bound with red taeniae. Before it the body
of the dead, closelv wrapped in a red mantle, is held stifl^y in a horizontal position by two
This beardless winged figure at the
winged figures, of which onlv one remains visible.
Depositio.

bends forward

right

wears

a little

with right foot advanced, holding the bodv bv the knees.

chlamys (?) and yellow shoes laced high

He

curly hair hangs looselv to the

his

shoulders.

Series

The
may

lekythoi of scries

well have

i.

form

Conclusion
a fairly

homogeneous group, which

come from some one shop

or set of painters.

The

CLASS
shape
Class

SERIES

i,

CONCLUSION

rather heavy, with flat shoulders,


the slip is less chalky than Class

is

IX,

shows many

fine cracks

due

to

more

17

IV than

like Class

X, and often
the contraction of some element in its
or Class

composition the shoulder ordinarily has palmettes in thin greenish


black with alternate leaves red, as is usual in later classes, while the
;

maeander

is

never broken by ornamented squares

both in Classes

drawn

IV and

and

in

later classes.

either in a gray-black paint

in the

The

which may have

manner usual
scene itself

is

a greenish or a

The lines are coarse and


violet shade, or a red tending toward violet.
As for
on
like
a
line
slightly rough paper.
pencil
slightly broken,
the color of the outline drawing, though the variety of shades is great,
it is
possible that they are all produced by differences in the admixture

much of

the variety may be due


to differences in the soil with which the vase has been in contact.

of a black and a single red

in fact,

The

use of yellow for wooden staves, for the petasos, and for Charon's
It maybe compared with the yelboat is characteristic of this series.

low on several vases of Class V, series e, a series in which the use of


black fold lines on a red garment is more general than in the series

Some

likeness between the drawing on vases of


of the series in Class
just mentioned might be pointed

under discussion.
this series

and

{e.g.
figures with small heads), though the resemblance is
So far as the use of yellow is concerned, we are dealing
not close.
with a different experiment in each series, and its use for wood in the

out

the

stiff

The occasional red


present series is apparently a case of literalism.
for the hair tothe
use
of
black
the
and
on
greenish
stripes
garments
gether with red outlines are not peculiar to this series, but they are
in line with the literalism or concreteness of these scenes.
The
line

scenes include the four subjects found on lekythoi with outIn the common scene at the grave the stele is a rather
drawing.

broad plain

shaft,

on which

are

bound many red and black

taeniae,

The only
together with a hanging lekythos in several instances.
one
variation is the high mound, bound with taeniae on
depositio scene
(no. 21).

The two

figures at the grave are chosen

not unfamiliar types, but the combination

becomes

later;

i.e.

the

is

from

a series ot

not so mechanical as

mourner and the stranger

(nos.

it

1-4), the

mourner and the figure of the dead (nos. 5-6), the youths greeting
each other (no. 10) are put together with an evident reason, as if the

The ephebos
painter were representing what he had actually seen.
with spears (nos. 1-3, 9), the woman with offerings (nos. 2-5, 7, 8),
the bearded warrior with shield (no. 4), the youth draped to the neck.

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

i8

the dead (nos. 5, 6, and cf. 15), are figures


probably representing
on
the
other hand, the woman carrying a flat basket
already familiar
on her left arm, and taking something from it with her right hand,
;

occurs here for the

drawn

regularly are

has been noted that these types


either in full profile, or in full front view with
time.

first

head and one foot toward the


of

stele,

producing

marked impression

stiffness.

The prolhesis
to

It

scene in

its

one example of Class VI,

extreme form

limited to this series and

is

(Appendix, no. i6b), which

is

drawn with

same style as this series. It is a strikglaze outline but in exactly the


which is obtained by reping instance of the effort for something new,
It is not
of burial.
resenting literally a scene from the actual practice
scene
or the
at all relieved by the idealistic suggestion of the Charon
both in its bare literalness and in its pathos, particudepositio scene
;

is
represented, it is out of line
larly where one of the bereaved family
with Greek art of this period, and naturally it did not become popu-

In

lar.

representation of fact

its

student of Greek

When

it

is

extremely important for the

reappears later [e.g. Class XIV),


this literalism has been decidedly modified.
The Charon scene has occurred on lekvthoi which doubtless are
life.

it

(Class V, nos. 7-8), and it appears with variations in other


Its treatment of a
classes from this period as well as in later classes.

earlier

myth connected with death, the Charon myth, is in sharp contrast


with the realism of the prothesis scene.
However, the presence of
an attendant with vase or chest (nos. 18, 19), and in particular the
illustrate the fondness ot
figure of a child with its toy cart (no. 20),
these painters for

The

some touch drawn from

depositio scene, a scene

daily

from actual

life

life.

relieved by the refer-

ence to myth in the winged figures who bring the dead person to the
It is by no means improbable that these
grave, occurs three times.
vases are earlier than the ones in Class VI, i, on which the same scene
is

found.

Still

seems

less

for painters

The

the adaptation of such a scene to the lekythos, for one

was adapted from some monumental painting,


likelv for the realists who made lekythoi of Class IX than

must believe

that

it

who show more

characteristics

traces of imagination.

of the present

series,

the small

heads with

the
angular profile (square chin, sharp nose, and retreating forehead),
caredetail of the hair (often in large distinct locks, or with the ends
fully indicated

ment of

by short

parallel strokes),

the eye (with but

one stroke

and the
for

the

fine

upper

simple treateyelid

and

CLASS

SERIES

IX,

in

19

Just these characteristics occur on sev(nos. 11-16), and these six vases, with

eyelashes) have been noted.


eral lekythoi of Class VI, i

one similar one

CONCLUSION

i,

Appendix

(no.

with the vases just discussed.

They

i6b), must be regarded together


all constitute a group which
prob-

Such a series, with


ably came from a single shop or one set of painters.
its traces of archaism in the drawing, its use of types, and its lack of
Probably it belongs to the
very fine examples, is difficult to date.
middle of the
it is

ably

fifth

more

century and runs parallel to Classes

and VI

limited in time than these classes, and Class

prob-

V includes

specimens earlier than any in the present class and later specimens as
In any case, it represents the first experiment in the use of matt
well.
color for outline drawing. The experiment was continued in the later
series of Class IX, but soon gave way to the more successful use of color
in Classes
and following. The various places where these lekythoi

were found

Series

of

may be proof of

a wide,

though

Heads of the figures fairly

2.

brief, popularity.

and square

large

The second series differs from the


The shape of the vase,
the head.

[not angular)

primarily in the drawing


the character of the slip, and
first

The

the use of color remain practically the same.

difference in the

the head larger and


Not only
drawing, however, is usually clear.
the profile less angular, but the small chin carried well forward and
The typical eye is
the delicately drawn eyes are quite characteristic.
is

for the eye itself, one to


straight lines, two
for
the
and
one
lid,
Except for two
eyebrow.

drawn with four nearly


emphasize the upper

Charon

scenes, these vases

show only mourning

at the

grave or offer-

ings at the grave.

H.

Athens, Nat. Mus. 2020, Cv. 1695.

I.

0.25 m.

Benndorf,

Griech. Sic. Vas.^ Taf. xvi, 2.


Palmettes in green-black with alternate leaves red
is

drawn

for

garments and taeniae.


The plain stele with square top

At the

taeniae.

hand
a

in dull violet-red, but the hair

left a

on two

his
stiffly,

He

goose or duck (reserved white).

woman

in the

same

stiff

steps
left

wears

about

hand on

Her

hair

is

in a

it

At

scene

black are used

are several red

his forehead

a red himation.

sakkos

The

in black.

Red and

wash.

manner holding out both hands

senting something at the stele.


a red

rests

youth stands

maeander

in green-black

is

and

and black

in his right

the right stands

to receive the goose or as if pre-

she wears a striped chiton and

himation over both shoulders.

As compared
the characteristic

with nos.

and

of series i,this vase illustrates

drawing of head and

profile

which

differentiates

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

20

from

series 2

In the stiffness of the figures, the literalism

series i.

of the scene, as well as in the stele bound with many taeniae, the resemblance is close the greenish black hair and the peculiarities of
;

woman's dress may also be noted in vases of series i. The youth,


who has raised one hand in a gesture of grief, has brought to the
grave a goose, and the woman opposite extends her hands to receive
Benndorf (1. c.) presents evidence that the goose was given by
it.
the

voung women

token, and suggests that as such it


The question might be
finds a place among offerings at the grave.
raised whether the young woman represents the dead person receivlovers to

as a love

ing the gift brought by her surviving lover


among these literal
it
is
natural
to
more
assume
that
the woman is a
scenes, however,
;

dead person, who

relative of the

the bird or perhaps

is

is
holding out her hands to receive
out
a
taenia which is no longer visible.
holding

Athens, Nat. Mus. 2021, Cv. 1677.

2.

H. 0.265 m. Benn-

Vari.

dorf, Griech. Sic. Vas.^ Taf. xxi, 2.

Drawn in dull black (gray). Dark red is used for the woman's hair and mantle;
cinnabar red for folds of the chiton, sword scabbard, and taeniae
solid black for the low;

and the old man's cloak.

est taenia

Square

stele

on two high

left

in profile

hand

Taeniae are fastened about the

steps.

points, and from the top hangs

woman

Left side ot the scene damaged.

short

sword

in its

extends her right hand toward the

red scabbard.
stele,

shaft

At the

various

at

left a

At

she wears a sleeve chiton with red fold lines and dark red mantle.

right an old

man with

sad expression stands in profile with head bent forward

head are wrapped in a black cloak, held about him by


is a cane.
His hair and beard are gray.

his

young

and touches her hair with her

right

hand

in

his

the

body and
left hand

Even among
able for

its

the lekythoi of the present class this scene is remarkconcreteness and realism. The scabbard on the stele marks

the grave of a soldier

age and showing


is

at the right the father stands

his grief in his face

tearing her hair with one

a gesture of despair.

by gray dots

hair

is

Such

bent over with

while a wife or sister at the

left

hand and extending the other, perhaps in


a detail as the indication of the man's

unique and would be out of place

in a scene

drawn

less literally.

London,

3.

of Vases in Brit.

Brit.

Mus.

Mus.

Dark red

nary sketch are

The

is

Athens.

H. 0.265 m.

Catalogue

Ill, pi. xxvii.

Palmettes and maeander in black.


black.

67.

The

scene

is

drawn

in fairly coarse lines

used for a garment and light red for taeniae.

of

brown-

Traces of the prelimi-

visible.

plain stele on

two

steps

is

decorated with taeniae.

At

the left a

woman

stands

CLASS
in profile

stiffly

seen

SERIES

holding out in both hands a

from her garment

man

IX,

a red

flat

The

basket of taeniae.

band holds the sakkos about her

three-quarter view from behind,

in

21

2-5

2,

hair.

At

leans forward on

stick

The

shoulder, and puts his right hand on his forehead in attitude of grief
his

body

is

gone

under

his

old
left

red mantle about

supported by the stick under his shoulder.

is

The woman's
vases in Class

man

of a

color

the right a bald

figure is drawn in much the same style as on some


no. 54, Athens Nat. Mus. i960).
The figure
{e.g.

leaning on his staff and seen from behind has been discussed
in this instance the artist is

under Class III, no. 55 (Munich, 199);


instead

reproducing familiar types


this

though

is

type

of working

admirably adapted

from life,
mourner here

directly

the aged

to

The shape of the head is not distinctive of the present


represented.
the
woman's face with its small protruding chin and deliand
series,
cately

The

drawn eye recalls certain lekythoi of Class VI, i [e.g. no. 9).
which the scene is drawn were perhaps originally in glaze;
this lekythos should have been treated in connection with no.

lines in

if so,

15 of Class VI,

I.

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1967, Cv. 1706.

4.

Palmettes in green-black with alternate leaves red.

drawn

in thin

green-black

two shades of red

Eretria.

H.

The maeander and

are used for taeniae,

0.30 m.

the scene are

and brown-red

for

one

garment.

The
about
stele,

hair,

slender stele with Doric capital rests on three steps

many

taeniae are fastened

and near the top hangs a black lekythos.


At the left a woman crouches by the
raises her right hand in grief, and places her left hand on her head as if tearing her
it

which

falls free

on her shoulders.

Her garment

has disappeared.

At the

right stands

an ephebos draped in a red mantle.

The

Here, as on
drawing ot this vase is much rubbed.
several vases which follow, along with the characteristic drawing of
fine

the figures and realism of the scene a striking delicacy may be noted
in the lines of the face.
The kneeling woman at the grave has been

noted twice on the

VIII,

no.

I,

with drawing in glaze (VII, 2, no. 18


probably both these examples are later than the

later lekythoi

10);

now under discussion and repeat a theme which originated


the
with
realistic painters of the present class of lekythoi.
The contrast between the sweet face of the woman and her violent
gestures
vases

adds to the pathos of the scene.


5.

Athens, Private Collection.

Drawn

in a color

now

violet-gray.

H. about

Bright red

is

used for one garment.

In the centre a plain slender stele stands on two steps.


face seen in front view, with both
in

DroHle

his red

mantle

is

hands raised to her

closely

wrapped

0.30 m.

hair.

At

the

At

the right stands a youth

left

so as to cover both hands.

kneels a

woman,

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

22

Athens, Nat. Mus, 1934, Cv. 1750.

6.

The ornament and

drawn

scene are

in

and garments.
slender stele on two steps has

H.

Eretria.

Two

green-black.

0.25 m.

shades ot red and black

are used for taeniae

The

taeniae are tied around


taeniae

on her

with red

the

The
if this is

mande

the

at

top

dark violet-red

stands in profile with

basket of

flat

She wears

taking something in her right hand.

is

right a girl (?) kneels before the stele

hand holds above the shoulder

with black fold

in red

is

left

moulding

profiled

woman

left

At the

stripes.

on her breast, while her

is

behind

At the

arm, from which she

left

a sleeve chiton

hand

it.

mantle that

her right
falls

loose

lines.

a kneeling ephebos ;
figure at the right is called by Couve
correct, it is a unique example of a young man kneeling and

In any case, the mantle held at the


shoulder and falling loose behind is unusual.
Similarly, the woman's
of
taeniae
the
basket
is
unusual apparently,
right hand poised above

making

of

a gesture

grief.

an experiment of the painter

it is

who

The

removing something from the basket.


and heavv even for Class IX.

Club Exhibition,
The
brown

palmettes have

red
(.?); bright

The

is

slender stele on

At the

taeniae.

woman

903-1 904,

left

two high

stands a

39.

The

unbroken.

is

crowned by

holding out a
her

bowed,

as apparently to

scene

drawn

is

in

garment.
steps

woman

stands en face, with head

hand extended so

unusually short

is

Burlington Fine Arts

C^^/^/o^^^, pi. xciii,

disappeared; maeander

used for

vase

H. 0.312 m.

Earl of Elgin Collection.

7.

wishes to denote the act of

flat

and decorated with

capital

At the

basket.

right a second

hand on top of her head and her

left

touch the top of the

Her

stele.

hair

right

loose curls

falls in

about her shoulders, and she wears a red sleeveless chiton.

this

Probably

vase,

which

know only from the publications,


The attitude of the woman, as rigid

belongs in the present series.


below the waist as it is mobile above, should be compared with the
similar figure

on no.

8.

H. 0.32 m.

Berlin, Inv. 3964.

8.

Palmettes, maeander, and scene in even lines

of

There

fire.

are traces of alternate red

Dark red (now almost black

leaves

now
in

dull

the

brown, probably as the result


maeander unbroken.

palmettes

The

used for garment and taeniae.

is

hair

is

drawn

in

single strokes of the outline color.

The

stele

a red taenia.

head.

on two high steps


At the left stands

She wears

is

crowned with simple mouldings

woman

in partial

garment has disappeared.

its

head

hydria

about the shaft

is

both hands raised above her

over over-fold

a red sleeveless chiton, girded

the right a child approaches carrying on

profile,

the

left

her hair

arm

is

is

At

short.

not visible

the

CLASS

H.

Berlin, Inv. 3963.

9.

SERIES

IX,

0.32 m.

Plate

now

Palmettes, maeander, and scene in even lines

of

There

fire.

Dark red

The

right a

hair

drawn

is

23

III, 2.

brown, probably as the result


the palmettes
maeander unbroken.
dull

in single strokes of the outline color.

At the left a
crowned by simple mouldings.
left hand a smegmatotheke, and with her

is

approaches, holding out on her

hand steadying

right

The

on two rather high steps

stele

in profile

girl

are traces of alternate red leaves in

used for a garment.

is

6-1

2,

a flat basket

youth stands in profile,

obliquely under

his

Numbers

covered

left

Her garment

on her head.

wrapped

to the

neck in

In both faces

arm.

may

The

he carries

a staff

be seen an effort to depict sadness.

pair of vases,

and 9 are a
same time by the same hand.
8

At the

has disappeared.

dark red mantle

made apparently

at

the

round

firm deHcate profile with

chin, the severe treatment of the eye, the unsuccessful effort to foreshorten the hand, and the two methods of representing the hair
with short curving strokes, and as a mass with short straight ends

on both.
Moreover, both scenes have a simple dignity not
On number 8 the motion
on
attained
lekythoi of this class.
always
of the upper part of the left figure is balanced by the movement of
are seen

the legs of the right figure, but in both cases the movement
The hydria brought by the girl is decidedly unusual
strained.
been discussed under Class VI, i, no. 25 (Munich, Inv. 2170).

is
it

number
the

flat

re-

has

On

9 also, the girl attendant brings on her head an object, here


on this vase alone it is carried on the
basket of offerings
;

The youth draped


head leaving the left hand free for a toilet vase.
to the neck is already familiar, but here a staff is held obliquely under
his bent left arm.
Usually this figure may be interpreted as the dead
at the grave; if that interpretation be accepted here the staff
an allusion to the soul's journey to its future home.
The
be
might
addition of a staff carried but not in use, is the more noticeable in a

person

figure which the painter


10.

Leyden,

found

as

99/6, 2 (Cat.

I,

an accepted type.

Palmettes and maeander in dull violet-black


red leaves which have disappeared.
for a

fairly slender stele stands

looselv back
is

scene

the side palmettes have spaces for five

is

drawn

in dull red

darker red

is

used

garment.

both hands,

he

The

H. 0.245 m.

Athens.

xvii^, 27).

as if

with a taenia.

and confined

draped to the neck

11.

Leyden,

I,

on three

steps.

Her garment

in a small knot.

in a

99

At the

At the

right a

The

is

woman

in profile holds out


;

youth stands

the hair
stiffly in

is

drawn

profile

dark red mantle.

6, 3 (Cat. xvii^, 29).

Palmettes and unbroken maeander in violet-black.


bright red

left

has entirely disappeared

Athens.
The

scene

is

H.
drawn

0.23 m.
in dull red

used for garment and taeniae.

stele

with simple square top stands on three steps, the upper one higher than the

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

24

About

two combined.

other

it

are tied three

holds out in both hands a red taenia


a

youth stands

12.

stifflv in profile

Leyden,

he

is

Palmettes and complex maeander

above

left

woman

first

the right

H. 0.26 m.

Athens.

the side palmettes have spaces for five

drawn

is

in profile

At

mantle.

a red

with

in dull

red

darker red

is

used

for

stele

it.

Her garment

taenia.

the

sharp point.
two red taeniae are fastened
with simple square top stands on three steps
At the left a woman in profile approaches, holding out in both hands a faded

garment.

The

scene

was sketched

Part of the scene

black

in dull

The

red leaves that have disappeared.


a

neck in

to the

draped

6, i (Cat. xvii"", 20).

99

I,

At

taeniae.

her garment has entirely disappeared.

has entirely disappeared

At the

fined in a small knot.

the stele (touching

it

?)

in his left

the hair

is

drawn

and con-

loosely back

youth stands en face, holding out his right

right a

hand he

carries a lyre.

These three vases which resemble the

He

wears

a red

hand

to

mantle.

pair just discussed, illus-

of the lekythos painter.


On all three the leftin
with
a woman
hands extended in each inprofile

trate the limitations

hand figure is
woman's garment

gone, and on no. 10 the taenia which


has
The right-hand figure on nos.
doubtless she carried
disappeared.
stance the

10 and
on no.

is

again the draped youth who is probably the dead person


the
vouth carrying a Ivre is probably one of the survivors,
12,
is

1 1

music

grave may be regarded as one of the "offerings"


The literal representation of this music
dead
brought
person.
scene is found on no. 22 of the present series.
for

at the

to the

13.

Athens, Private Collection.

Palmettes with green-black

The

scene

taeniae

drawn

is

in

stele,

and

violet-gray

There

and garments.

The

crowned bv

(once red?).

this

scene

H. 0.252 m.

simple maeander

Two

in

green-black.

shades of red are used for

are traces of the preliminary sketch in the soft slip.


slight

on the knee with hand relaxed.

With

red leaves

light

bead moulding, stands on two steps.


At the left a
to the neck in his himation.
At the right a

youth stands in profile, closelv wrapped


youth leans forward with his right foot on
rests

Pikrodaphni.

He

high block beside the

and

stele,

his right

arm

wears a large dark red mantle.

may be compared

the scene on a lekvthos ex-

hibited in the Burlington exhibition in 1904 [Cat.^ pi. xciii,


31, h.
0.28 m.) from the Earl of Elgin Collection.
On that lekythos the
square block is behind the stele and the youth at the right leans for-

ward with
the

left

on the upper step beneath the block the youth at


The type
profile, his left hand on a staff or cane.

his foot

stands in

of figure leaning forward and


supporting himself on his raised knee is
an interesting example of a type developed in painting, doubtless in
monumental painting, before it was utilized on lekythoi, and long
afterward adopted by sculpture {e.g. the Poseidon of the Lateran, and
the youth
adjusting his sandal in the Louvre).

CLASS

IX,

SERIES

12-16

2,

Boston, Mus. Fine Arts, 94.127.

14.

25

H.

Athens.

0.323

m.

Plate V.
Palmettes in green-black with traces of alternate red leaves, the complicated maeander
The scene is drawn in brown-red green-black and dark red are used

also in dull black.

for taeniae.

The

plain stele

on two

steps

on her

left

arm.

Her garment

has

gathered in a low small knot behind

with short hair stands

At

decorated with several taeniae.

is

hand the

stands nearly en face steadying with her right

disappeared

flat

the

hair

is

loosely

At the

she wears earrings.

the

left a

drawn back and

right a

young woman

holding out a black taenia in both hands

in partial profile

woman

basket of blue and red taeniae

the sleeve

chiton has disappeared, but there are traces of red stripes (?).

This vase,

spite of the individual

pecuHarity of the drawing,


with
nos.
in
be
8-12
the
may
compared
simple dignity of the scene.
The eye drawn with nearly straight lines and the round protruding
chin are found on other vases of the present series.
The treatment
in

of the profile and the thick neck may be compared with that in the
case of a woman in the same attitude as the left-hand figure, on another
lekythos in Boston (96.721, Class VI,

where the eye is drawn


The two lekythoi are of about the same period.
very differently.
The attendant mourner, the right-hand figure on the vase now under
Here the treatdiscussion, has short hair as on the other lekythos.
ment of the woman's hair, with heavy loop over the ear and small
9)

i,

knot behind, is like that on many lekythoi of Classes


and VI ; on
the earlier lekythoi of Class IV there is often the same lock over the
ear, but the low knot is round and protruding, while on still later
lekythoi the knot is usually higher.

H. 0.335

Athens, Private Collection.

15.

Palmettes in green-black with spaces for red leaves


is

drawn

in thin dull red.

Bright red, dark red,

'^

maeander unbroken.

and green-black are used

The
for

scene

garments

and accessories.

About

the broad stele are seven bright red taeniae.

At the

left

stands a

voung

woman

with head bowed, holding out a flat basket of dark red and dull green taeniae.
Her hair,
drawn in curved strokes, is rolled in a knot at the back of her head
she wears a sleeve
;

chiton with bright red stripes.

smegmatotheke drawn
headcloth

At the

in outline.

with dark red bands

right a

second young

Her garment
still

remains.

has

now

woman

stands holding out a

disappeared, but the light red

The hands and

eves are very delicately

drawn.
16.

The

woman
taeniae.

Stackelberg, Die Grdber der Hellenen, Taf. xlv,

2.

Athens.

with square top on three steps is adorned with red taeniae.


At the left a
in
out
both
a
hands
flat
basket
with
wreaths, lekythoi, and
approaches, holding
stele

Her garment

has disappeared.

At

the right stands an ephebos in partial profile.

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

26
his right leg, relieved

his right

hand

is

raised as though grasping a spear

he wears a

red chlamys, a petasos on his shoulder, and boots.

The
it

ently

present location of this vase


belongs in the present series.

is

dull
;

known

not

The

me, but apparof


the youth is, I
gesture
to

wrongly interpreted by Stackelberg, who regards it as a gesture of lamentation ; the attitude of the body as well as the drawing
of the hand indicate that he was holding a spear or staff.
believe,

Palmettes in dull black with four leaves

broken maeander
red

is

brown-red.

in

H.

Vari.

Athens, Private Collection.

17.

(five

Scene drawn

0.32 m.

red leaves have disappeared ?)

in thin dull red,

brown

varying to

un-

dark

used for garments.

The

stele

taeniae on

is

fairly

At the

it.

slender and
a

left

woman

crowned bv simple mouldings

She wears an outline chiton and

the stele in her right hand.

there are traces ot

stands in profile holding out an alabastron toward


a dark red himation.

The

hands are carefully drawn


the face seems narrow, as if the head had been sHghtly turned
At the right an ephebos approaches with right hand upon an
toward the spectator.
He wears a chlamvs once red, a petasos on his shoulder (.' ),
erect spear, and head bowed.
;

and high boots

18.

now brown.

Brussels,

Somzee, Cat. de

Mus. Cinq. A

(rose)

dark red

is

H. 0.28 m.

Collections

vente, 1901, no. 103.

Palmettes and unbroken maeander


;

1023.

used

for a

in

dull black.

The

scene

is

drawn

in

dull red

garment, light red for a garment and taeniae, yellow for

and petasos, and black for a taenia.


slender stele on two steps is decorated with many taeniae, and crowned with a
At the left stands a woman in profile, a pitcher in her lowered
block.
triangular
simple

staff

The

left

hand and

phiale in her extended right hand.

but the dark red himation remains.

At the

head leans forward on the high staff in


light red chlamys and yellow petasos.

An

earlier

example of

right

his right

Her

sleeve chiton has disappeared,

an ephebos

hand,

in partial profile

his right leg relieved

this scene, the old

with bowed
he wears a

scene of libation at the

departure of a warrior but transformed by the presence of the stele to an


occurrence at the grave, has been discussed under Class V(no. 28, Athens,

Here the scene is modified by the bowed head of the ephebos


1789).
so as to suggest an act of worship at the grave, at which perhaps a
In this
stranger, perhaps a departing brother or son is present.

The attitude
respect it agrees with the scene on nos. 16 and 17.
of the youth on nos. 16 and 1 8 is much the same, and is less stiff than

it is not, however, an
the ephebos at the grave on lekythoi of Class
invention bv the lekythos painter.
The drawing is more free and

delicate than

on most vases of

meaning of the scene

is

this

introduced.

class,

and a

fine feeling for the

CLASS

IX,

SERIES

17-21

2,

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1941, Cv. 1688.

19.

iq:

H. 0.32 m.

Eretria.

Palmettes in green-black without red leaves

The

scene

drawn

is

in thin dull red,

line color for the hair

;
simple hasty maeander, also in black.
with thin green wash added to a few strokes of out-

dark red and light red are used for garments and taeniae.

Colors

vivid.

The

two shades of

staff in his left

two

slender stele on

fairly

taeniae in

steps has a profiled

At the

red and in black.

hand and extends

his right

a taenia

This treatment of the

at the

man

At

the right a

about the

stele

about are

on the knotted

stele.

young woman

He

wears

(?), whose

gar-

her basket of taeniae has been

has been noted

hair

top

leans

hand, palm down, toward the

dark red himation with black fold lines.

ments have disappeared, is tying


set down on a step of the stele.

moulding
bearded

left a

connection with

in

several lekythoi of the preceding series, but the small heads, the anof that series are not found on the
gular profile, and the simple eyes

present vase.
about the stele

The

definiteness of the

may

be credited

woman's act in tying a taenia


the literalism of the artists who

to

The familiar gesture of the


the lekythoi of this class.
in
act
of worship in progress.
the
his
share
desire to
dicates
made

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1974, Cv. 1753-

20.

Palmettes in dull green with alternate leaves red

drawn

in thin dull

The
in his

and

red

to the stele looking

extended right hand


red cap.

a conical

away from

scene

is

is

is

away from

it

his left

He

the kerykeion.

At the

right a

the stele, a red taenia.

woman

hand grasps

long

wand

or spear,

wears a large chlamys, high red shoes,

stands en face, holding in her

She wears a red chiton with long

left

hand,

sleeves.

Hermes, conductor of souls to the lower world, has been noted


more complete Charon scenes in the scene
the grave his presence is most unusual, but it occurs once on a

as a regular figure in the


at

The

Much effaced.
used for garments and taeniae.
At the left Hermes stands
on three steps shows traces of taeniae.

green

plain stele

with back

in-

H. 0.385 m.

Eretria.

maeander unbroken.

man

In that case the


lekythos of Class VI, 1 (no. 6; Athens, 1940).
stele serves only to indicate that it is an occasion connected with death,

would be complete without it. Here the scene lacks


unity, for on one side we have a worshipper bringing a taenia, on the
To explain the figother side Hermes starting away from the stele.
ure of Hermes we must assume the presence of the soul (not
for the scene

represented) which he
21.

The
taeniae.

woman

is

conducting

to the

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1802, Cv. 1782.


stele

At

lower world.

Athens.

H.

0.21 m.

with moulding at the top rests on two steps and is decorated with black
left a small naked
At the right a young
boy crouches on the lower step.

the

brings a

flat

basket of black taeniae

the color of her garment has


disappeared.

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

28

Unlike many of the smaller lekythoi the present vase preserves


the slender proportions of the normal size.
The realism of the scene
it is the mother who comes to
is
striking
worship, doubtless at her
:

who

husband's grave, and the child,


its father's tombstone.
22.

CA

Paris, Louvre,

6i 2.

has

come with

her, crouches

H. 0.315 m.

Eretria.

Palmettes black with bright red for leaves and centre of palmette

Plate VII,
maeander

in

on

i.

black,

broken only by tip of stele.


The scene is drawn in (greenish) black ; red and black are
used for taeniae, and bright green wash with black fold lines is used for a garment.
The stele with pediment top stands on three steps of unequal height several taeniae are
;

At

tied about the shaft.

playing or tuning his lyre

covered, and

the

left in a

sits

youth bending forward and

green himation has slipped down, leaving the right side un-

his

chair with back

At the

his feet are crossed.

right a

young woman stands

in

partial

profile

with right foot on the second step of the stele ; on her knee is a hare with front feet on
her left hand.
Her hair is gathered in a low knot at the back, the loose curls carefully
indicated

her garment has disappeared.

The rounded

of the profile and the carefully drawn eyes of


the present series are to be noted in this unusual scene
and as on nos.
narrow
of
the
woman
is
head
an
and
the
unsuccessful
14
17
possibly
lines

On several later lekythoi


partly turned.
an
here the hare is a
at
the
offering
brought
grave
household pet, brought, no doubt, with the idea of pleasing the soul of
to

effort

a bird

represent

as

it

as

is

the dead bv the presence of a favorite animal.


The woman supports
it on her knee and touches the stele as if she wished to
bring it as
close as possible to the stele which stood for the dead person.
The
seated youth playing the lyre may represent the dead person himself

X, 2, no. 20 XI, 3, no. 6) engaged in his favorite occupation,


or possibly the
as on some stelae both of earlier and of later date
music
at the grave.
be
a
survivor
who
makes
an
of
youth may
offering
he
to
seems
be turning
While with his right hand he plays the lyre,
Class

(cf.

the upper bar of the instrument as if adjusting the key, or perhaps


touching the upper end of the strings to secure the exact note desired.

The

scene

is

treated

woman's garment,

it

literally
is

and
to

difficult

without the
great care
of
the
composition as a
judge
with

whole.
23.

XXV

pi.

London,

Brit.

Mus.

H.

66.

same red

The

is

used for hair and garment.

preliminary sketch in the soft

The

White Ath. Vases^

a.

Palmettes and maeander in dull violet-black.


the

0.21 m.

stele

on two steps

is

slip

The

scene

is

drawn

in red

outline,

and

Boots and petasos are in a yellow wash.

shows shiny.

crowned by

a careless

broad palmette

on

it

are

traces

of

CLASS
two

his

the

At the

taeniae in red with black tassels.

holding out his right hand,

His hair

shoulders.

SERIES

IX,

He

palm up.

falls in

right

22-25

2,

29

young boy runs toward

the

stele,

wears a chlamys, high boots, and petasos on

curls to his shoulders.

This lekythos does not fall definitely into any


character of the slip and of the colors leads

classification,

me

but

to include

it

The preliminary sketch, the presence of but one figure, and


here.
the unusual proportions of the figure, lead me to regard it as an
experimental vase produced by a painter not accustomed to making
lekythoi.

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1926, Cv. 1668.

24.

Eretria.

Palmettes in black varying to green, with four black and

maeander

The

in black.

scene

is

drawn

medium

in

lines

H.

faded red leaves

five

of thin dull red

0.32 m.
complicated

thick

dark

red and a green-black are used for garments and details.

At

the

He

hands.

Hermes
his left

Charon draws

left

(simply outlined) to shore with a pole in both


Before the boat
green-black and high round cap.

boat

his

wears an exomis in

stands en face, holding a black kerykeion

hand

down

in his right

hand of the woman before him.

to take the

He

hand, and extending

wears a petasos

(in out-

At the right a woman stands


chlamys with tassels at the corners.
her
with
her
her
black
mantle
over
head
right hand and holding out
profile, drawing
her left hand to Hermes.
Her chiton has disappeared. On each side of the central
line), and

a dark red

figure a black y\iv^ flies

25.

Paris, Louvre,

Stackelberg,

The

toward the

Grab,

der

left.

3449, Lee 66.


Hell., Taf. xlviii.

Athens.

in red.

The

scene

is

drawn

in dull red

0.29

but traces remain ot

palmettes on the shoulder have nearly disappeared,

unbroken maeander

H.

m.

the

bright red, thin dull green,

and thin yellow are used for garments and accessories.


At the left Charon bends forward leaning on his pole and steps up as if about to
The boat is yellow with a
he wears a green exomis and high red cap.
leave the boat
A bearded man, entirely wrapped in a
wide red outline, and the pole yellow-brown.
;

red mantle,

She wears

hair of

right

woman

in

three-quarter

chiton, the upper part of

Charon

is

in separate straight strokes

is

that of the others in close, curving strokes.

These two lekythoi with the Charon scene are not very
from those with the same scene in series i, but the drawing
free and sure and the marked characteristics of series i are

On

no. 24 no yellow paint

his left

her

left

which has

drawing up with her right hand. Above,


The
with hands out or one hand on the head, are flying toward the right.

disappeared, and a dull green mantle which she


three vl/vxai,

At the

stands in profile before the boat.

view stands looking toward Charon.

is

different
is

more

lacking.

Hermes stands stiffly, holding


woman, and she starts to give him

used.

hand out to summon the


hand while with a gesture of shrinking she draws her mantle

about her head with her right hand.


Evidently she is dressed for
Hermes is more human than in the earlier
her journey with Charon.

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

scenes in that the wings are not depicted on his ankles, and he wears
The scene is dignified, and the drawthe ordinary traveller's petasos.

On both vases the presence of small flying


ing simple and delicate.
souls suggests the brink of the river which bounds the realm of the
dead.

On

the bearded

no. 25

man

is

supposed
mantle about her
figures

Charon alone supplies the imaginative element;


bent over with age and closely draped like other

to

represent

the dead

the

woman, drawing

her

follow her husband or father,


as
raises her left hand stiffly, perhaps to indicate her connection with
"
The small "souls are depicted in the early manner with
the scene.
if
preparing to

bodies and wings, not in the attenuated form of mere lines as


usual on vases of Class X.
real

Series

2.

is

Conclusion

The

lekythoi included in series 2 for the most part retain the


somewhat heavy shape noted under series i. Occasionally the slip
is

crackled in a similar manner; in

some

cases,

however

no. 22),

{e.g.

The
it
the chalky consistency which later becomes general.
palmettes on the shoulder are regularly drawn in black which
has

shows generally

greenish,

sometimes

violet

tone

alternate

leaves of the palmettes were added in red, and in some instances


(nos. 12, 17, and 24) there were five red leaves and four black ones
(cf.

Class VI,

I,

The maeander,

no. 16).

in the

the palmettes, is unbroken and fairly simple.


For the scene itself a preliminary sketch

same

may be

dull black as

detected

in

one

The color ordinarily used for the outor two instances (nos. 3, 13).
lines varies from a dull red to a violet-black
rarely the lines are
;

As in series i the
black or gray with a trace of green.
lines are rather coarse, not shaded, and slightly uneven like the lines
now

in a thin

On

and 19, as on several vases of series i,


the hair is indicated by the use of a thin green wash over a few
on the rest of the series it is drawn in
strokes of outline color
of a lead pencil.

nos.

outline color, either in a solid black, or applied in close even strokes


with the same brush with which the outlines were drawn (cf. no. 8),

more free manner (cf. no. 22). The solid colors used
and
details include bright red, a thick brown-red, and
garments
black; in two cases (nos. 22, 25) a thin green wash is found on a
or applied in a
for

garment, but the use of yellow has been discarded (except on no. 25).
Further, the use of parallel red strokes to indicate the stripes or folds
of a garment occurs only on nos. i and 2.

CLASS
Except
worship

at

IX,

SERIES

CONCLUSION

2,

31

two Charon scenes, these lekythoi have the scene of


The grave stele rests on one or two steps^
the grave.

for

neither very slender nor yet is it broad, and it is decorated with


many taeniae tied about the shaft; in one instance (no. 2) a sword
The top of the stele is commonly
in its scabbard is attached to it.
it is

may, however, have

top a bead moulding


a capital of two mouldings
(no. 13), a profiled moulding (nos. 6, 19),
block
a
low
(nos. 18, 22), or a caretriangular
(nos, 4, 7, 8, 9, 17),
On each side of the stele is a figure often reless palmette (no. 23).
plain

and square

it

at the

producing some familiar type, like the old man leaning forward on
As in series i the effect
his stick and seen from behind (no. 3).
of stiffness
profile or

is

in

due

to the fact that regularly the figures are in full

front view

full

semble those of Class V,

in

this

in series i, so that the stiffness

is

respect alone these vases re-

The drawing

series e.

here

somewhat

more

is

less

free

than

marked; and

the finer examples (nos. 8, 12) it remains only as a quaint and


The ordinary types of figure here repropleasing bit of archaism.
duced include the woman holding out a taenia, or carrying a basket
in

etc., or holding out a vase, the youth draped closely to the


When the woman is
the ephebos leaning on his spear.
and
neck,
tying a taenia about the stele instead of merely holding it out before
her, or when the draped youth has a staff tucked under his arm, it

of taeniae,

The
interpreted as a touch of realism introduced by the artist.
standing woman with hands raised as if to tear her hair (nos. 2, 7, 8;
a type introduced from the prothesis scene of
cf no. i) is
may be

perhaps

(but cf also Class A, III, 59, and other examples in Class


The woman kneeling and tearing her hair (nos. 4, 5, 6) has
VII).
been noted on lekythoi of Group
VIII, i,
(Class VII, 2, no. 18
series

no.

10), but rarely occurs elsewhere.

Perhaps

the

most pathetic

figure
mourning old man (nos. 2, 3; cf. Class III, no. 59;
on the steps of the stele
no.
VI, I,
15), though the child curled up
These representa(no. 21) makes a similar appeal to the spectator.
is

the

tions of the

mourners indicate the same

the expression
although the scenes in this series
less vivid in their realism
interest

in

of grief which was noted in series i,


are rather more formal and consequently
than the scenes discussed under series

Attention

may

i.

be called to various indications that the scene of

The adaptation of the


the lekythos painter was not yet stereotyped.
old scene of libation at the departure of a warrior to a scene at the
grave (no. 18)

is

a suggestive

experiment;

it

might

refer to the de-

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

32

parture of the warrior to the realm of souls.


Similarly, the presence
of Hermes at the grave (no. 20) is an experiment which was not
repeated, though

the

allusion

to

Hermes' guidance would seem fitting.


on her head a hydria (no. 8) belongs
a lekythos in Class

(series

of the

the journey

2, no.

The
in a

26)

soul

under

figure of a girl carrying


scene like that on

toilet
it

is

combined somewhat

loosely with the figure of a mourner, as a similar attendant with toilet


vase and basket is combined with a draped youth on no. 9.
Whether

the scene

is

intended to represent the offering to the dead of water


whether the figure from a toilet scene is inserted with

for bathing, or

only general reference to worship at the grave, may be an open questhe comparison with two other lekythoi of approximately the

tion

same period (Class VI,

i,

no.

25, and Class

XII, no.

and the

7),

literalism of the present class suggest the former alternative, though


the abbreviated treatment is not usual in this class.
The lyre carried

was frequently noted in earlier classes.


On the
lekythoi with glaze outline we have found persons playing the
i^> 2) "o- i^) ^f^d also the lyre atlyre in domestic scenes (V, no. 23
The youth playing the lyre on no.
tached to the grave monument.
in the

hand

(no. 12)

'>

therefore be regarded as a figure taken from a domestic scene


and placed beside the grave ; here he may be regarded as the dead

22

may

person depicted in a favorite occupation, or as a mourner seeking to


As for the hare brought by a
please by music the spirit of the dead.

woman on

no. 22, and the goose in the boy's hand on no. 2, they are
clearly domestic pets brought to the grave to gratify the dead.
Of the two examples of the Charon scene, it is only necessary to

human interest is perhaps more emphasized than in the


of
the
same scene under series i.
As the imaginative charexamples
acter of the scene diminished, it apparently became less popular and
say that the

immediately following it does not appear.


drawing on vases of the present series is less

in the class

The
series i,

though

a certain precise delicacy still preserves in

stiff

than on

some degree

the severe tendency.


The heads of the figures are no longer small
nor is the profile angular, but the structure of the head tends to be

On the fine vases, nos. 8 ff., the simple lines of the


square.
drawing are sure and graceful, on some other examples they tend to
be clumsy, but in both cases the spirit of the drawing shows the same
somewhat

effort

toward simple strong representation.


is
represented bv a double

the upper eyelid

eye are

still

quite straight.

In contrast with series


line,

but the

Considerable attention

is

lines

of the

paid to the treat-

CLASS
ment of

SERIES

IX,

3,

the hair, as though the artists were

33

studying methods in-

still

stead of working by routine.


The garments also show a study of the
problem of representation, instead of the later conventions. Finally it

may be noted that with all the difference of technique and of scene a
resemblance may be traced between the drawing on these vases and on
red-figured vases of the middle of the fifth century, which is quite
If series i is an innovation by painters of a series of glaze
striking.
outline lekythoi in Class
and related examples in Class VI, series 1

might perhaps be regarded as the trial of this innovation by


were more familiar with the red-figured technique.

Series 3.

Scenes mostly

drawn

brown

in fine

lines

men who

figures less stiff

In the vases classified under this series the general characteristics


of Class IX are evident, but the distinguishing marks of the first two

shaded

The

not found.

series are

scene

is

drawn

medium

in

or fine un-

of yellow-brown varying to black.


Usually
of one figure is drawn in loose curls with a coarse
brush and a thinned outline color.
The attitudes of the figures are
the

lines, ordinarily

hair

often less stiff than on vases of series

The

academic.

chin

is

and

not angular as

though

2,

in series

i,

still

somewhat

nor carried well

small and sometimes almost retreating.


The eyes also are drawn with lines at a greater angle, emphasizing
the fact that thev are wide open.

forward as

in series 2,

but

Athens, Nat. Mus.

I.

Plate IX,

is

1947, Cv.

At
little

The

peared.
a

woman

taeniae.

surface

the right a

bird

H.

0.33

m.

2.

Palmette and simple maeander in thin gray.

brown.

Eretria.

1841.

on her

is

much rubbed and no

woman

The

scene

is

drawn

in fairly fine lines

of

solid color remains.

leans back in her chair, with

left

arm on

its

back, holding out a

^Her chiton and the himation over her knees have disapBefore her a small nude boy with curly hair looks up at the bird.
At the left
approaches, carrying on her left arm a flat basket from which hang dark green
right hand.

Her garment

The

child

also has disappeared.

with

its

mother has been noted on the Dromippos

there the scene


lekythos in Berlin (Furtw. 2443, Class IV, 3, no. 7)
while
here
a
of offerings
the
basket
purely domestic,
figure bringing
;

is

marks a scene that has to do with the grave. Clearlv, the child and
its mother are conceived
by themselves and should be compared with
the type of scene on grave stelae
the mother is the dead person, and
the child is a sort of attribute added to indicate her nature as a
:

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

34

mother

a domestic pet as
I

xlvi,

on two vases

bird she holds out to the child

in Class

is

(no. 5, Stackelberg, Taf.

XI, 4

The meaning

no. 4, Berlin, 2452).

of

this

scene could not be

the outline of a stele were drawn around these figures ;


however, is in line with the practice of the lekvthos

more evident
its

The

series i, no. 20).

(cf.

if

omission,

who draws

the person of the dead as

if
really existing along
with mourner or worshipper.
The type of the seated woman's face, as well as other details of
the drawing, place this vase without question in the present series.

painter,

The

seated

she

woman

Class

in

with arm over the back of her chair has been found

no. 50, London, D 57).


Here
Athens, 1818
elbow
is somewhat awkwardlv drawn behind
but the left

(no. 49,

sits easily,

The child is simply a small figure with


without
attention
to a child's figure; the head and
large head, drawn
face may be compared with that of the youth on no. 6.
her as she bends forward.

Earl

I a.

of

H. 0.24 m,

Elgin Collection.

Arts Club Exhibition, 1903-1904, Cat.^

pi. xciii,

Burlington Fine
33.

In the centre rises a fluted column with square


Palmettes and maeander missing.
a
on
low
broad
At
the left stands a youth.
At the right a young
base.
capital, resting

woman

sits

in

easy attitude, her

small bird on her right hand

arm

left

on the back of her

resting

chair, holding

up

her chiton has disappeared, but the red mantle about her

''

knees remains.

In this scene the fluted column

may be the grave monument, or


where the woman is seated. As on no.

indicate the portico


i
is the dead
in
as
with
her
comlife,
person represented
and
here
the
two
form
the same tvpe
;
panion opposite
again
figures

it

may

she probably

of scene which presently was carved on grave


the seated figure

found

in series

is

in

and

The

About

tearing

scene

drawn

is

H. 0.30 m.

in a dull

Green-black, bright red, and dark violet-red are used

the slender stele on

woman
her

hair.

black fold lines

two

steps are black

brown, some-

for

and violet-red taeniae.

with bowed head, her right hand raised, her

Her garment

holding his right hand out a

3.

Eretria,

taeniae

and

Surface rubbed.

garment.

kneels a

grace of

striking contrast with the stiff figures ordinarily

Palmettes and maeander green-black.

what yellowish.

The

2.

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1930, Cv. 1709.

2.

stelae.

the hair

is

has disappeared.

little

from

his

body.

left

At

the right a

He

wears a

Athens.

H.

vouth stands

violet- red

curly.

Karlsruhe, Winn. 233.

At

the

hand on her head,

0,274.

left

as if

stiffly,

mantle with

CLASS

SERIES

IX,

1-6

3,

35

Palmettes, from_ which red leaves have disappeared, and maeander in dark brown.
No color remains and the
scene also is drawn in quite fine lines of dark brown.

The

figure at the left

On

is

much

defaced.

At the

three steps stands a slender stele with torus mouldings at the top.

arm horizontally
the shoulder.
At the right

youth stands stifHy in profile, holding out his right


appeared

his hair falls in thick locks to

Her
looking up and extending both arms toward the stele.
Her undergirded chiton
and in the usual low knot behind.
Above her

lines, but has no color.

toward the

Ai^s

i/'^xv

hair

kneels a
is

left

garment has dis-

his

fluffy

young woman
about the face

indicated in fine graceful

is

stele

with arms extended.

The

slender stele, the color of the outline, and the drawing differentiate these vases from those with similar scenes in the first two

On

series.

no. 2 the use of red with black fold lines for a

garment is
reminiscent of Class IV and the free treatment of garment folds on the
kneeling figure of no. 3 is unusual, recalling one or two vases of Class
;

{e.g. no. 23i

face of this last figure is delicately


a suggestion of pathos in mouth and eye.
The

drawn, with perhaps

round member

The

Oxford, 266).
at the

top of the stele

is

unusual.

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1931, Cv. 1710.

4.

Palmettes in green-black with alternate leaves red

The

scene

drawn

H.

Eretria.
maeander

brown, somewhat yellowish.

0.29 m.

also in green-black.

Dark red and

thin yellow
with red stripes are used for garments, violet and red for taeniae.
Surface rubbed.
The slender stele is decorated with taeniae. At the left a youth stands stiffly, closely
At the right a young woman stands holding
wrapped to the neck in a dark red m.antle.
is

in a dull

out a small bird and looking at

She wears

it.

yeflow chiton with red

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1933, Cv. 1749.

5.

stripes.

H.

Eretria.

0.32 m.

The scene is drawn in yellow-brown dark


one garment, red and green-black for taeniae.
The slender stele on two steps has a simple moulding at the top and is decorated with
At the left a young woman holds out in both hands toward the stele a taenia
taeniae.
(or
Palmettes and maeander in green-black.

red

is

used

bird?).

Her garment, once apparently

back into

a flat knot.

from

little

for

his

body.

At the

He

right a

red, has disappeared

youth stands

stiffly,

the hair

holding his

is

drawn

loosely

right

hand out

has curly hair falling to his shoulders and wears a dark red

himation.

H.

Athens, Private Collection.

6.

Palmettes with green-black and red leaves


in thin dull red varying to

brown.

maeander unbroken.

it

are

back
in

on two steps
black and red taeniae.

at

it

stele

her right

neck

in a

is

fairly slender

At

the

At the

phiale (up).

dark red himation

scene

is

drawn

left a

Surface rubbed.

and crowned with

woman

she wears a chiton with light red stripes


a

The

Green-black and dull red are used for taeniae, dark

red for one garment, light red stripes for another.

The

0.26 m.

a simple moulding
about
from
the
and
looks
stele
away
her left hand is a pitcher (down ),
;

turns
;

in

right stands in profile a youth closely draped

long curls

fall

to his shoulders

his

head

is

to

rather large.

the

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

36

Even

and

unusual delicacy

no. 6)

and the "fluffy

of this

teristic

care,

woman on

the eye of the


(cf.

youth on no. 5 is drawn with


and the eyelashes are indicated as on

for this series the eye of the

The

series.

no.

"

The

6.

of the

hair

curly

treatment of the woman's hair

youth
charac-

is

square structure of the head, especially on

no. 6, should be noted.

Med. 503

Paris, Cab.

7.

H.

Athens.

(4907).

0.32 m.

Gaz.

arch. 1885, p. 278.


Palmettes in dull black

The

black.

scene

is

(brown) with

drawn

in the

same

ments and taeniae, and the wreaths are

The

Two

maeander

in black.

is

in

about

it

are

many

youth (head and bust gone) stands in partial profile with right
His
His right hand rests on his hip ; in his left hand he holds out a red taenia.
At the right a woman in proa thick dark red, perhaps with black stripes.

At

leg relieved.

in dull violet-

shades of red are used for gar-

slender stele on three steps has a plain moulding at the top

red taeniae.

himation

leaves red

alternate

dull black.

the

left a

in it are two wreaths and from


approaches, carrying in both hands a flat basket
Her garment has disappeared her ' fluffy " hair
hang red taeniae with black ends.
file

in a

gathered

low

it

is

loose knot.

The nude

figure

of a

woman

has been

noted occasionally

{e.g.

Class V, no. 25, Athens, 1797), but it seems reasonable to suppose that
The drawing of this
in each instance a garment has disappeared.

woman

an example in the same collection (no. 502, Class VI,


which
On
on
I,
only the shoulder ornament is in dull color.
that vase the garment of the woman has not quite disappeared, and
recalls

no. 20)

This vase also


the outline of the back of her figure is not complete.
The
is somewhat
curly or fluffy treathastily drawn by a sure hand.
ment of the hair and the delicate drawing of the vase are characteristic
of the present

Both

series.

figures are

mourners who bring offerings

to the grave.

Berlin, Furtw. 2454.

8.

H. 0.235 m.

Athens.

Plate VI,

i.

Palmettes (with alternate leaves red) and complicated maeander


The
green-black.
is drawn in fine lines of dark violet-brown.
Red is used for taeniae and garments,
in

scene

black for twig and taeniae.

The
taeniae.

slender stele on

At

toward the
given

the

left a

stele.

The

two

steps has a profiled

youth

color of his mantle

realisticafly in fine lines.

At the

is

right a

by her side.
knot

9.

Her

hair

is

woman
;

in

the top.

About

it

are

many

holding out his right hand, palm up,

nearly gone

head, holding out a black twig toward the stele

at

moulding

in profile stands stiffly,

the lower edge of the hair

her

left

hand she holds

a black

curlv and loose about the face, and gathered behind in a

is

bowed

stands in partial profile with

taenia

low

flat

apparently her chiton had red fold lines and her mantle was red with dark fold lines.

New

York, Metrop. Mus.

GR 608.

H. 0.294 m.

Plate,

VI

2.

CLASS
The

IX,

SERIES 3,7-11

palmettes are in dull red with only black leaves, while the maeander and the
in thin dull black.
Light red is used for a garment and taeniae, dull

drawn

scene are

The

greenish black for taeniae.

The

two

slender stele on

At the

taeniae.

taenia in both

hands

woman

left

slip

may

profile

stands with

The woman

;|

be detected.

about it are many


bowed head, holding up a black
her hair is loosely drawn back and

at the right stands

en face with head

bowed,

her lowered right hand she carries a kalathos by the handle,


hand she holds up an alabastron.
Her chiton has disappeared, but the red

left

mantle remains

The

in

her sleeve chiton has disappeared

looking toward the stele

and in her

preliminary sketch in the soft

steps has a profiled moulding at the top

gathered in a low small knot.


in

her hair

like

is

her companion's.

rather fine clear Hnes of the outline and the hard drawing of
are unUke the examples previously discussed.
The

vases

these

emphasis on the lower lip is perhaps


other points of likeness, such as the

back

of the head, and the

lines

As

from the same hand.

a trick

The

feet,

perishable

carried

spray
disappeared.
served a lustral purpose.

On

in

worship

by

woman on

no.

has
8

nearly

probably

and the kalathos

though both might serve

at the grave.

Athens, Nat. Mus.

ID.

solid color used

character which

no. 9 the alabastron

properly belong in a domestic scene,

purpose

of the individual painter

of the body, the awkward


suggest that both vases came

lines

so often in this series the

was of

the garments

for

37

1917, Cv.

1828.

H.

Vari.

0.32 m.

Palmettes (without egg pattern above) and maeander in dull red.


The scene also is
in fine lines of dull red ; two shades of deeper red are used for garments and taeniae.

drawn

Much

rubbed.

The

stele

attached to

is

crowned by

At

the

left

scrolls

woman

and palmette, and has several bright red taeniae


a smegmatotheke toward

with head bowed holds out

She wears a sleeve chiton apparently with red

the stele.

her hair

it.

is

At the

held up by a sphendone.

the stele a wreath

or a

form of

the

in

fillet

stripes,

and

a dark red himation

younger woman stands, holding toward


rmg on her left arm she carries a flat

right a
a

basket.

While it is possible that this lekythos belongs in Class X, where


the palmette is regularly found on the stele, the character of red outlines and the delicacy of the drawing have led me to include it here.
Both the smegmatotheke and the ring-fillet or wreath has been
noted frequently
II.

Paris, Louvre,

Pottier, Lee. blancs

same.

scene

is

drawn

Bright red

is

S 1667, Lee.

att., p.

Palmettes complicated,

The

V.

in Class

in fine

13, 8, pi.

brown with
lines

of

used for taeniae

alternate leaves red;

brown varying
;

Athens.

87.

H.

0.25 m.

i.

to

maeander brown, unbroken.

black, the hair in a

dark red for garments.

wash of

the

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOl

38

On

Prothesis.

high couch with delicate turned legs

Behind the couch stand two

one

left

hand

the one

mourners

has her right hand on her hair

at the right

her

women

the

at

left

has her

left

the

lies

The bodv
head toward the right is supported on pillows.
garment over which are laid red taeniae, and about the hair

is

the
body of the dead
in a red ornamented
;

wrapped
a

is

stephane (reserved white).

and between them hangs a mirror.


The
and holds out a basket of red taeniae on

hand on her head and holds her

hand

right

Both stand nearly en face, with one leg relieved, and head bowed
they wear
sleeveless chitons with red stripes, and the hair is represented as a fluffv mass about the
out.

head.

MNB

Athens.

Paris, Louvre,
1147, Lee. 88.
no.
blancs
Lee.
att.^
Pettier,
63, p. 13, 7.
12.

Palmettes in thin black with alternate leaves red

The

black (brown).

scene

hair in curved strokes of

Hminarv sketch

On

stands in profile in

down

at

fairly

simple maeander in thin

is

Surface
lies

much damaged

in places.

dead body closely wrapped

the

in

In the centre a woman


hang red taeniae.
front of the couch, her left hand on her head, her right hand out,

the dead.

the head of the bier

it

it

left

woman

(at the right) a second

hand, while her right hand

Between the two flies


companion.
slender Doric column in outline.
fine, definite

over

She wears an ungirded sleeve chiton with red

and behind

her red himation covers her

The

Red

high couch with pillow

mantle, the head toward the right

looking

and

of black varying toward brown ; the


used for garments and taeniae.
The pre-

be detected.

may

0.25 m.

in fine lines

brown wash.

in the soft slip

Prothesis.

drawn

is

H.

a small
\\iv')(i']

of

in attitude

is

At

stripes.

stands facing the

first

extended toward her

grief.

At the

hnes of the outHne have been noted

left

in

is

con-

the drawing on these vases, however, is


quite different from that on the earlier examples and so decidedly
The careindividual that they may be claimed for the same artist.

nection with nos, 8 and 9

fully

drawn

eyes, the small square chin,

and the

effort for expression

The loose, curly treatment of the


hands are very noticeable.
in
thin
which is added
color over a few strokes like the outlines,

in the
hair,
is

in

but one of the points which connect these examples with others
series 3.
The mirror on no. 1 1 comes from household scenes,

such as were found in Classes

from scenes

IV and V, and

the baskets with taeniae

grave; the small soul on no. t2, which perhaps


belongs with the Charon scene, though it often appears in scenes at
the grave, is new in the prothesis scene.
The inference is that the
at the

painter of these vases

is

not working from

his

memory of

actual

occurrences, but modifying a scene familiar on lekythoi by elements


introduced from other sources.
13.

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1927, Cv. 1667.

Palmettes

(with

added

red

leaves)

and maeander

Eretria.
in

green-black.

H. 0.285
The

'^

scene

is

CLASS
drawn

in rather fine lines

also used for a

is

At

the right

and extending
beard

is

which

of the same color, which

Charon stands

his right

is

indicates the

flat for a

applied

wears

garment

She wears

shore.

woman

in partial profile, her

once red, and

a chiton

her hair

drawn

for

mantle

H.

Eretrla.

also used for a

in fine lines ot the

for a

At the

left

Charon stands

in his boat, his

pole near the top, and his right hand

yellow cap

his

face with

sparse beard

its

stands en face, looking toward Charon.

have nearly disappeared.

hand she holds up


with a taenia.

On

her

left

These two Charon scenes

rock

in her

0.34 m.
The

is

Yellow

garment.

is

scene
used

garment.

right foot raised

very striking.

his

He

extended.

is

Her

left

wears

hand grasps his


red exomis and

Before the boat a

woman

chiton once red and her green himation

arm she

Her

smegmatotheke.

held up by a taenia around the head.

is

same color, which is


the boat, pole, and Charon's cap
dark red

erect

on

foot

left

green

Palmettes (once with alternate leaves red) and maeander in green-black.


is

dark red

forward on the pole in his left hand


dark red exomis and high conical cap ; his

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1946, Cv. 1666.

14.

39

in his boat, leaning

He

hand.

Before the boat stands a

sparse.

12-14

3,

garment.

hand she holds an alabastron

right

SERIES

IX,

carries

hair

in

is

and

casket,

large

a fluffy

in

her right

mass, apparently fastened

from most of the present series


in that the outlines are in the same greenish black as the ornament,
and farther in that the same color is applied flat for a garment.

The
13

drawing, however,

at first recalling

similar figure

awkward

in

on no.
places.

is

differ

closely related to that


8,

9.

The drawing
In

on nos.

and the woman on no.

no.

both

scenes

and

9, no.

14 recalling

is

fairly careful, though quite


Charon bends forward and

extends his right hand as though to assist the woman aboard his bark,
but the gesture is not violent as on no. 18 of series 1.
His face is

boatman type as on the vase just mentioned, nor


the serious dignity of the Charon on no. 20 of series i
the
The rock before
sparse beard recalls one feature of the former type.
neither of the Attic

has

it

the boat on no. 13, on which the woman places her foot, is the one
bit of realism in these scenes.
As in the prothesis scenes just dis"

cussed (nos. II and 12), a " contamination


with elements from other
sources is to be noted here.
The alabastron carried by the woman

on no.
of the

13,

and the smegmatotheke and chest or casket

in

the hands

woman on

no. 14, belong rather with worship at the grave than


of the soul across the Styx.
This contrast with the

with the voyage


definite, consistent character of the scene in series
originality of the artists of series

copied here with variations.

argues for the


in
producing a scene which is
i

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

40

Series 3.

The heavy

Conclusion

shape of the lekythoi

in series

has been modified in

the present series, though the vases are not as slender as in Class X.
The slip also has more often the smooth chalky surface of Class X.

The
red

palmettes and maeander in two instances are in dull brownish


ordinarily they are drawn in green-black fading to gray with

The maeander

alternate leaves of the palmettes in light red.

is

un-

broken.

A
and

preliminary sketch for the scene itself has been noted on nos. 9
The scene is drawn in fairly fine even lines, which have no

12.

gloss as in Class

X, but which have

noted

and

in series

2.

On

nos. 6

of the lead-pencil character

less

and 10 the color of the outline

is

on nos. 7, 13, and 14 it is the same greenish black as the


on
the other vases the outlines are distinctly brown, varyornament;
The
ing sometimes toward yellow, sometimes with a trace of violet.
Often the
use of solid color is more varied than in series i and 2.
reddish, and

surface

is

rubbed and no solid

way we may account

color, or very

little,

remains

in

this

garments on nos, i, 2, 5, and 7, while


Greenish black is
only outlines of the garment remain on no. 3.
used for taeniae and twigs, and on no. 13 for a garment; yellow is
found on the Charon scenes, and on no. 4 a garment is yellow with
for missing

red stripes; the red stripes for a garment appear also on nos. 6 and 10.
The usual colors for taeniae and garments are two shades of red. As
for the hair,

it is

done

in outline color;

only a few strokes of the hair are


a thin wash of the same paint.

on nos.

in full color

11

and

and
this

however,
covered by

12,
is

In the nine scenes at the grave the stele is decidedly more slender
than in similar scenes in series i and 2, and there is not the same
It is crowned ordinarily
taeniae on the stele.
a
or
by simple mouldings,
profiled moulding; in one instance there
a
The
is
palmette, and in another (no. 3) an awkward thick torus.

tendency to very

many

figures at the grave are for the most part of the same types as in series
I
and 2 the kneeling woman with hands raised to her head (nos. 2,
;

youth with one hand extended (nos. 2, 3, 5, and 8) the


youth closely draped to the neck (nos. 4 and 6) the woman with flat
basket of offerings (nos. i, 7, 9, and 10); and the woman holding out
a taenia, or spray of leaves, or vase.
The youth with right hand on

3)

the

stiflf

and holding out a taenia in


transformed
into a worshipper
type
his hip

his left
at the

hand
grave

(no. 7)
;

is

a familiar

and the woman with

CLASS

IX,

SERIES

3,

CONCLUSION

41

a libation or farewell
pitcher and phiale (no. 6) is transferred from
The smegmatotheke on nos.io and 14,
scene to the scene at the grave.
and the alabastron on nos. 9 and 13, are continued from the earlier toilet

for just as the libation is


toilet utensils find a place
so
dead,

transferred to

scenes;

among

offerings

a
in

service for

worship

the

at the

The

small bird also, on nos. i and i^, is a domestic pet, on


grave.
Of
no. 4 a domestic pet brought as an offering to the dead person.
other scenes no. i has a peculiar interest in that it gives so distinctly
the worshipper and the representation of the dead woman in her home.
The characteristic picture of the woman with her child can be com-

As
pared only with scenes on grave stelae of somewhat later date.
the vases of this series are usually so dependent on earlier types, we
should doubtless assume some painting or relief as the prototype
for this conception of mother and child, the most natural prototype
would of course be a grave stele with this scene either carved in relief

As

or painted.

to the pair of vases with the prothesis scene (nos. 11

and 12) and the two with Charon scenes (nos. 13 and 14), it has
been pointed out that the painters followed lines already laid down, but
modified the scene by elements clearly borrowed from other sources.
It can hardly be questioned that this series is distinctly later than
series

and

so

easily

has

all

2,

but

the

characteristics

The

described.

stiffness

but disappeared, and with

it

of

of
the

drawing are not


there noted
figures

the

has gone the touch of reality which


find neither the small heads with

We

lent an interest to those vases.

angular profile of series i nor ordinarily the large heads with square
the structure of the head tends to be quite
structure of series 2
;

the outline, the chin small and well forward, the eyes caredrawn
and often with indication of the eyelashes. As to the hair,
fully
the painters attempted in two or three ways to indicate a loose, fluffy

round

in

treatment which possibly was suggested by a passing fashion

among

Athenian women.

Conclusion

Although the three


type of each
series.

The

is

series

of Class

of Class

IX

IX
are not sharply divided, the

very definite as contrasted with the types of the other


i
over against the traditionalism

fresh realism of series

of series 3, the awkward stiff poses and peculiar treatment of the head
in series i over
against the free drawing of series 3, make it difficult
to discuss the class as a whole.

Nevertheless the structural character of

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

42
the vases in

all

three series remains

be heavier than
in Classes
flat

in

Classes

and following

The

shoulder.

slip

much

the same.

The

shape tends to

V and

is

VI, and is decidedly less slender than


and with the heavier shape goes a rather

less fine

and

white than in Classes V,


fine cracks due to contraction
less

VI, and X, and sometimes shows many


The shoulder ornament consists of the usual palmettes,
in drying.
without the egg pattern above, and the maeander is not broken by

The simple
the dotted cross which soon comes into general use.
character of the stele has been remarked in each of the three series and
multiplicity of taeniae attached to it in series
broken, lead-pencil character of the lines of the

the

marked

always clearly
of the class it
;

The

mixed.

is

in series 3, yet

it is

and

The

i.

outline

is

not

a quite general characteristic

no doubt due to the manner

in

which the paint was

use of solid color in the scene often recalls the use of

color in later lekythoi of Class IV and earlier ones of Class V; in


particular the use of red stripes, the rare use of solid (dull) black for
a 'garment, and the occasional use of yellow are peculiarities which

In general, it seems fair to assume


suggest a relatively early date.
that this type of work began about the middle of the fifth century,
coincident with Class
sents the
series

and some examples of Class VI,

of lekythoi with drawing in dull color probably


slightly antedate the beginnings of the classes which

first class

and

follow, while

It repre-

some examples of

series 3 are considerably later.

LEKYTHOI WITH SCENE DRAWN IN PINK OR BROWN


OUTLINE OFTEN SLIGHTLY GLOSSY; STELE WITH ANTHEMION OR TRIANGULAR TOP

CLASS X:

The
is

of white lekythoi with drawing in a matt color


defined
by the slip and the kind of paint used.
clearly
white and chalky, often more polished than in Class IX or

second

class

somewhat

The

slip

is

XL

The

paint is ordinarily of a pink


often it is almost glossy, as if
tone, and is applied in fine, even lines
The shape
varnish.
it had been
prepared with some admixture of a
in

other classes except Class

slenderer than that which prevails in Class


IX, and approximates the graceful lines of the larger lekythoi of
Most of the vases are about 0.30 m. in
Classes XI and XIV.

of the vases included here

On

height.

is

whole the vases of

the

in type, though three series


character of the drawing

geneous

this

may

class

are

homo-

quite

be distinguished by the

Series
rose)

Lines of the scene ordinarily in pink (violetwith anthemion, and about it traces of taeniae

i.

stele

drawing of good period, but somewhat hasty.


Lines of the scene now ordinarily brown
Series 2.
color

more generally used

distinctly

more

with anthemion

stele

solid

drawing

free.

Lines of the ornament and scene ordinarily dull


stele with
red and often coarser than in the preceding series
Series

3.

triangular cap.

Series

i.

Stele

with anthemion ; scene

in

pink outline

of the
lekythoi of this series are much alike in scene, style
Except for a few smaller examples
drawing, and other characteristics.
The scene is usually drawn in a pink
the height is about 0.30 m.

The

The stele crowned


sparingly used.
it are two
beside
is
figures
regularly present, and
scene
the
classes
with
other
As
occur
twice).
(three figures
compared
The
much
without
is
drawing
meaning.
simple and stereotyped, often

with slight gloss


with anthemion

solid color

is

it is
simple, often graceful,
very similar on the vases here included
the
it
resembles
somewhat
and
drawing on lekythoi of
hasty
slightly

is

Class

IX,

series 1.
43

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

44

The
The

CA

Louvre

Paris,

1.

scene

black.

is

drawn

Plate VII,

thick dark red

2.

the simple maeander also

is

in

the hair in a few strokes of the

of thin red,

lines

same with thin greenish wash added


wash border for another.

The

0.33 m.

with alternate leaves red

even

in

H.

1329.

palmettes are in thin black

used for one garment, and violet

is

on one step shows traces of taeniae and is crowned with a large anthemion
At the left a woman in profile stands
mirror hangs on each side of the anthemion.
stele

bowed

with

head,

holding out in both hands a

chiton undergirded, and her hair

basket

flat

low knot.

loose

in

is

she wears a red sleeveless

At the

woman

right a

kneels

with her body en face ; her right hand is at her breast, her left hand on top of her head
her hair is short and apparently she had a sleeve chiton with violet wash border.

in

The

395, 3

p.

is

two

shows

steps

may

and

traces of taeniae,

boy

stele

is

crowned with simple


arm

stands in profile, holding out his right

no garment remains, but the absence of the


was an himation.
At the right a

indicate that there

arm out horizontally, and her left hand above the back
no clew to her garment
her hair is
Above her, next the stele, hangs a
drawn back and gathered in a small low knot.
kneels, holding her right

The

of her head.
looselv

pis. xii-xiii, fig. 9.

slender stele on

contour line of the body

woman

i.

obliterated

At the left
mouldings and anthemion.
from the shoulder toward the top of the
fi-ont

Plate VIII,

The scene
;
nearly
simple maeander in thin violet-grav.
even lines of red, and the hair drawn with the same brush
no color remains.

Palmettes

drawn

H. 0.265 m.

Boston, Mus. Fine Arts, 93. 64.

2.

Amer. Jour. Arch. 1886,

injured surface of the vase gives

mirror, and behind her a small

\\ivyy]

with arms extended

flies

towards the

Athens.
Boston, Mus. Fine Arts, 86.156.
Amer. Jour. Arch. II, 1886, p. 396.
2.

3.

stele.

H. 0.315 m.

Plate VIII,
Palmettes

in

dull

The

violet-black.

black with alternate

scene

drawn

is

in

and

traces remain of bright red for details,

indications of a preliminary sketch

The

rather slender stele on

steps

no clew

Above her head

flies

\^vx>]

to her

few

also

There

used for the hair.

is

in

dull

violet-black

are

a dull point in the soft slip.

the centre of the palmette


left

a kneeling

woman

hand on top of her head

left

garment

taeniae of which the black ends

her hair

is

extends

the injured

in a loose flat knot.

is

gathered
with arms extended.
At the right a youth
hand
raised
from
his side ; he wore a
right
slightly

toward the

stands en face looking at the stele, his

with

yellow

was decorated with

and places her

surface of the vase gives

himation,

;
simple maeander
of a color now dull

red

is

arm horizontally

her right

dull

drawn with

two

lines

crowned with egg moulding and anthemion


and the leaves also show traces of red.
At the

remain, and
bright red,

leaves

even

stele

His curly hair is drawn


probably red, which entirelv covered his left arm.
strokes of the outline color, and over this with curving strokes of dull yellow.

three vases with the kneeling woman are sufficiently alike


in the drawing so that
The
they may have come from one artist.

These

subtlety of some of the lines suggests a practised hand, though the


scenes are somewhat hastily drawn.
The heads, which are high and

narrow

as seen in profile, the

round chin and

full

lips,

the straight nose

CLASS
and wide-open eyes,
with some variety

X, SERIES

same in
straight and

are the

all

1-5

i,

45

The

three.

hair

treated

is

as
stiff on the
kneeling figure of
on
the
of
2
nos.
and
curly
youths
3
only the straight
hair of the kneeling figure on no. i is an innovation from
types found
in Class V and Class IX.
Even the palmette of the anthemion,

no.

as

with

is

it

small

its

central

leaf, is

different

from the palmettes on the

The mirror hanging


following vases, though drawn with equal care.
in the field and the
on
occur
later
numbers, but not
flying xJjv^tJ
While the

frequently.

the

figures are clearly differentiated

woman

and

the

kneel-

the

interested
bringing offerings,
the scene lacks the concrete meaning noted in lekythoi of
Class IX.
The thin red of the first two vases and the dark violet of

ing

mourner,

no.

3 are not typical of the series, though the three vases clearly
to belong at this point in the classification.
These vases with

youth

seem

possibly no. 4

may

be regarded as predecessors of the more charac-

examples that follow.

teristic

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1900, Cv. 1760.

4.

H.

Cerameicus.

0.29 m.

The

gray palmettes with red leaves are all directed from left to right ; maeander simple,
The scene is drawn in dull pink ; red is used for taeniae, thin green wash
for taeniae ends and a garment, and violet wash for the border of a
garment.
Drawing
in faint gray.

careful.

The

crowned with egg moulding and anthemion ;.it is decorated with


left stands a
youth with right hand extended, palm up, towhe wears a greenish himation which is wrapped over his left arm.
At the

slender stele

taeniae and wreaths.

ard the stele


right a

woman

her head

is

At the

approaches, her right hand before her breast, her

left

hand

at the

back of

she wears a sleeveless chiton (violet border) with short overfold ungirded.

the field behind the youth

is

a mirror,

behind the

woman

In

if/vxV'

with the standing mourner should be grouped


with the three preceding, though the typical pink color is used for

Perhaps

this vase

The peculiar arrangement of the palmettes on the


drawing.
shoulder is rarely found except on small and insignificant lekythoi.
the

The

green wash used for the hair in no. i, and occasionally on other
examples of Classes IX and X, is rarely found on a garment perhaps
it is the stain of a color
nearly black, and it is certainly different from
;

the brighter green wash in Class IX, 2, no. 22.


The violet wash
border which occurs occasionally in the present class becomes usual in
Class XI.
5.

Oxford, Ashm. Mus. 544.

Hell. Studies,

XXV,

The body of the

1905,

Cerameicus.

H. 0.285 m.

Jour.

p. 74.

vase swells as in

some

later lekythoi.

with added leaves from which the color has disappeared

the

Palmettes

maeander

in dull

in the

grayish pink

same color

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

46

broken by oblique crosses, not reversing.


gray ; yellow and red are used for garments.
is

The
on a
his

slender shaft of the stele

under

staff

bowed

his left shoulder,

At

face.

young woman

the right a

palm up,

(chiton and) red himation.

This vase

scene

is

drawn

is crowned
by an anthemion.
and with the right hand raises

stele, holding out her right hand,

wears

The

in

dull pink varying to

At the
his

a youth leans
mantle
to cover
yellow
left

stands with right foot on

the step of the

She

though addressing her companion.

as

Beside her

flies a

if/vxy

with one hand on

head.

its

peculiar in the shape, in the use of yellow for a garment, in the drawing, and in the scene, but possibly it should be in-

cluded

is

The

at this point.

stele

and awkward

stiff

is

in

comparison

The realism of the youth covwith the elegant form usually found.
in grief with his garment, and of the small woman
face
his
ering
stepping forward to comfort him, as well as the use of yellow,
Class IX, though the drawing is quite different in character.
the authenticity of the scene may be questioned.

London,

6.

Brit.

Mus.

The
sits

stele

are used for taeniae.

on two steps

is

facing the right, his right

At the

down

him

at

The

scene

is

drawn

down

in the

same

Black

color.

injured.

crowned by an anthemion.
hand raised to his head, his

an ephebos stands looking

left

also looks

Much

Perhaps

H. 0.325 m.

68.

Palmettes and maeander in dull pink.

and bright red

recall

at

him.

On
left

the upper step a youth

hand extended

The woman

standing

.>')

as if in grief.
at

the right

she carries in both hands a large basket containing wreaths and

taeniae.

On

and on no. 9 a third figure is introduced, here with


of
mourning, sitting on the steps of the stele. The analogy
gestures
of other figures with this gesture of mourning might indicate that
this

is

this vase

young woman

ing offerings,
discussed.
7.

rather than a

Normal palmettes

in

broken by oblique crosses.


stele

is

dull

green with

The

added red leaves

0.42 m.
;

maeander

in

dull

green,

crowned with egg moulding and anthemion. At the left a bearded man
which supports the mantle under his left arm
his left hand is

raised to his forehead,

remains

H.

scene in dull pink has nearly disappeared.

leans forward on a stick

beard are

bring-

and the interested youth are familiar on the vases just

Athens, Nat. Mus. 2037, Cv. 1829.

The

The woman

young man.

indicated

and

by

The hair and


from the body.
No figure
and the eve is carefullv drawn.

his right

hand held out

few

lines,

fine

a little

at the right.

The

vase shows the thin pink lines which are characteristic of the
The lines have nearly faded so that it is hardly
present
possible to say whether a figure once existed on the right of the stele.
series.

CLASS X, SERIES

6-9

i,

47

The bearded man

with gesture of mourning, still visible at the left of


the stele, is drawn with much delicacy
especially the eye shows a
The size of the vase also is very unusual
care unusual in this class.
;

for Class

X.

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1896, Cv. 1761.

8.

Festschrift fiir O. Benndorf S. 90, no.

scene

Normal palmettes and maeander broken by oblique


red is used for a garment, and
is drawn in dull
pink
;

The

and another garment.

The

preliminary sketch in the soft

crosses

in

dull

slip

may be

The

red.

wash

a thin gray

for taeniae

detected.

crowned with egg moulding and anthemion


about
At the left a young woman, whose chiton has disappeared,

slender stele on one step

the shaft are several taeniae.

stands in profile, holding out

in

At the

curls to her shoulder.

H, 0.26 m.

Cerameicus.

6.

is

both hands a mantle rolled

right

holding out his right hand, palm up

a
;

in

a ball

man

stands in profile with head

he

wrapped

is

in a red

her hair

falls in

thrown forward,
showing the

mantle,

fold

of the preliminary sketch.

lines

The

figure of a

cussed under Class

woman

(nos.

carrying a mantle has already been dis-

36,40-43

VI, pp. 219 and 222) and

vol.

occurs on vases of the present class to be discussed later.


On the
is
an
scene
the
mantle
as
naturally explained
present
offering brought
to the grave, though the figure might have been copied without much

it

meaning

in

this

from the lekythoi of Class V.

setting

The

short

hair of the woman suggests that she is here a mourner at the grave,
and the extended hand of the man appears to be the gesture of one
who directs the ceremony of an offering at the grave. The apparent
nudity of the woman is no doubt due to fading of the color used

The man's

for her chiton.

holding a staff {e.g. Class

His bent form,

as

figure may be compared with the man


VI, i, no. 15) and with old men mourning.

compared with the

erect

young woman,

is

signifi-

cant of his age and his grief.

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1813, Cv. 1809.

9.

Ornament and scene


ment and

thick red for

The

slender

stele

H.

Tanagra.

0.31 m.

maeander simple.
Dull green is used for one garis
used
for
another
wash
garment borders.
on one of the
is
crowned with egg moulding and anthemion
in dull pink
;

a violet

she wears a mantle with violet


young woman, facing toward the right
At
left a youth stands e?i face, holding his
and
on
her
knees.
the
holds
some
edge
object
he wears a red mantle.
At the right
right hand down and a little away from his body
steps

is

seated a

a second

youth seems

the edge.

On
woman,

The

faces,

to

stele

and particularly the eyes,

his

mantle

is

green with a violet wash on

are very carefully

drawn.

on no. 6, a figure, perhaps the figure of the dead


The careful delicate
seated on the steps of the stele.

this vase, as
is

be decking the

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

48

Of the violet
drawing and the bright colors deserve special notice.
wash for garment borders on nos. 4, 9, and 13 it has been noted that
is

XI

characteristic of Class

is

it

more

carefully

composed than some others of

10.

London,

Brit.

Mus.

Mus.

Palmettes in dull pink with alternate leaves in a color

now

0.27 m.

The

now
scene

violet-gray
is

drawn

is indicated
by a (ew strokes of outline color and
This same wash is found at the top of one garment.

the hair

Stackel-

Catalogue of Vases

in

Ill, pi. xxvi.

the same color, reversing from the top of the stele.


dull pink

scene

this series.

H.

Athens.

64.

berg, Die Grdber der Hellenen, Taf. xlv, 3


Brit.

The

rather than Class X.

yellowish.

maeander

in fine lines

filled in

The

in

of

with a wash
taeniae are in

maeander.

Other colors have disappeared.


two steps is surmounted by an anthemion which breaks the
is
a high oval tumulus decorated with taeniae and standing on
the
left
At

two

On

dull black.

The

slender stele on

steps.

the upper step of the stele, her back against the tumulus,

down

holding out her relaxed right hand, palm

woman

right a
left

arm

her right hand

for a

11.

is

band of yellowish wash

Cambridge,

0.32 m.

The

is

woman,

leg relieved, carrying a

flat

At

the

basket on her

Fitz.

she wears a sleeveless chiton without color

the top.

at

Mus.

Gardner, Catalogue^

neck

left

held up, palm in, as though beckoning to her companion or

taenia that has disappeared

holding up

except

stands in three-quarter view,

sits

her garments have disappeared.

Athens.

140.

H.

neck

to base of

xxxi.

pi.

Palmettes and maeander (broken by dotted crosses) in dull red;

lost.

the color has disappeared from the alternate leaves of the palmettes, leaving a shiny white.

The

scene

is

drawn

in

sketch in the soft slip

fine lines

now show

of pink, almost

a glaze color.

The

shiny white.

Lines of the preliminary

colors of the garments have faded.

The stele is a square pillar with capital, drawn from a corner in perspective
now gray are fastened around it. On the upper of the two high steps
;

taeniae

vouth

mantle

sits
is

on

his

mantle,

drawn over

his

arms resting on

his left thigh.

At

the

his
left

several

nude

and facing toward the right


the
traces remain of a young girl, carrying a
lap,

woman approaches, nearlv in profile ; she


hand, supports a spear against her left shoulder, and extends
her right hand toward the seated figure.
She wears a chiton girded under a long overfold ;
its color has
faded.
Her hair is loosely drawn back and gathered in a flat knot at the
flat

basket on

carries a

her head (?).

helmet

At the

right a

in her left

back of her head.

These two scenes with

a seated

and a standing figure

in each are

an

interesting variation from the stereotyped scene usually found in this

No. 10

peculiar in the use of a yellowish wash, rarely found


except in Class IX, and in the presence of a high tumulus at the left
on the same base as the stele. It seems natural to interpret the seated
class.

is

figure as that of the dead woman holding out her hand to take some
The surface
object like a taenia from the hand of the standing figure.

CLASS
of the vase

rubbed, and we

is

woman

of the seated

49

10-13

i,

may assume

on the chiton

that a color

has completely faded like the color on her

The

panion's garment.

SERIES

X,

drawing, though somewhat hasty,

is

comgood

characteristic of the present series.^

and

On
stele

no.

more careful and individual, and the


square pillar drawn in perspective with simple

the drawing

1 1

unique

is

is

The figure of the seated youth is very gracefully drawn,


not a repetition of a type common on lekythoi apparently it
represents the dead person to whom the young women are bringing
capital.

and

is

That he died

might be inferred from the spear


and helmet brought by the woman on the right. The presentation
of arms at the stele has been noted in connection with Class VI, i,
This figure also is drawn with great
no. 20 (Paris, Cab. Med. 4893).
offerings.

care

on

and grace

in battle

the treatment of the garment closely resembles that


nos. 23 and 34). While the vase clearly
[e.g.

a few vases of Class

by reason of its technique, the scene was drawn by


belongs in Class
a painter not much influenced by the traditions under which most of
the vases of this class were produced.

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1899, Cv. 1763.

12.

Cerameicus.

H.

0.22 m.

Three palmettes, drawn in red with dull green leaves, are all directed from left to
The scene is drawn
right ; the simple maeander in thin gray is broken by the anthemion.
a violet
in dull pink, with greenish wash over a few strokes of outline color for the hair
;

wash

Draw-

used on the anthemion, and there are traces of thin color on the garments.

is

ing rather hasty.

The
taeniae

slender stele on

behind

At the

ing.

his hip,

woman

left a

which the color

chiton from

on

two

a red

wearing

crowned by an anthemion and decorated with dull red


apparently a tumulus, on the top of which a bush is grow-

steps

at the right

it

is

is

approaching holds out


is

At

nearly gone.

a flat basket

Palmettes in green-black with alternate leaves red

The
for

she wears a

hand

Cerameicus.
;

the

maeander

H.

0.26 m.

also in dull green.

with a thin green wash over a few strokes of outline color


the hair ; one garment has red stripes, another a violet wash border.
The stele is decorated with red taeniae and crowned by an anthemion. At the left a
scene

standing

is

drawn

woman

in dull red,

holds out a basket of taeniae

youth with bowed head approaches,


mantle remains.

No. 12 has

number of

on other vases of the


all

mantle.

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1897, Cv. 1764.

13.

of taeniae

the right a youth approaches, his

turn from

left to
1

For

her chiton has red stripes.

hand on

his hip

(cf.

At the

right a

only the violet border of his

of which appear singly


the use of red for the palmettes which
the use of thin gray for the
nos. 4, 22)

peculiarities, several

series

right

his

the scene cf. Millingen, Peintures des -vases

grea,

pi.

xiv.

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

50

the use of a greenish wash for the hair (cf, nos. i, 13);
the presence of a violet wash on the stele (cf. nos. 3, 9, etc.) ; and the
tumulus beside the stele. The indication of the tumulus with bush

maeander

growing on the top is a realistic touch unusual here; in Class XIII


it becomes usual to add some indication of the tomb with the stele.
with basket
figures of a woman
hip are common types.

The

and of

youth with hand on

his

which was found with no. 12, has practically the same
scene, and shows a similar tendency to experiment with methods not

No.

13,

The usual colors of the palmettes are reversed ;


typical of this series.
the color used for the scene is red rather than pink ; and the stripes
on the woman's garment are a device repeated from earlier classes,
The treatment of the hair, the use of violet wash, and
Class V.
e.g.
the general style of the drawing, as well as the scene, serve to connect
these two vases.
I

No

trace remains of palmettes or

One garment

brown.

quite

H.

Athens, Private Collection.

14.

is

maeander.

now brown

0.31 m.

The

scene

and traces

in color,

is

drawn

ot

in dull pink,

now

obscure color remain on

the taeniae.

The

stele

on two steps

is

surmounted bv

rather large anthemion.

At the

left

stands

In front of his head


youth holding out his left hand, palm down, toward the stele.
flies a
with both hands extended.
At the right a youth leans forward, his right foot
\ljvy(ri

on a stone and

forearm resting on the raised knee, before which his right hand is
The eye is drawn with much

his right

extended, palm up.


Only traces of his garment remain.
Before him in the field hangs a purse.
delicacy.

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1768, Cv. 1722

15.

Ornament and scene


leaves of the palmettes

used for one garment

The
At

the

left

apparently two shades were used for alternate

maeander reverses between oblique crosses.


the hair is in a green wash over a few red lines.
;

the

Deep

red

is

on one step narrows somewhat toward the egg moulding and anthemion.
small nude boy crouches with left foot on a rock (?); in both hands he holds

At

alabastron in her
is

pink

0.25 m.

stele

out a goose.

which

dull

in

H.

(Coll. 661).

the right a
left

ungirded.

hand

woman

approaches with

flat

basket on her right

arm and

she wears a chiton with long red overfold or upper garment

Beside her in the

field are traces

of

hanging taenia.

H. 0.295 m.

16.

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1909, Cv. 1772.

The

palmettes, the reversing maeander with oblique crosses, and the scene are

in dull pink.

Deep

red

is

Cerameicus.

drawn

used for one garment.

The slender stele is crowned by an anthemion on it are traces of taeniae. At


At
left a woman holds out a casket with short legs
her garment has disappeared.
falls
left
arm
her
carries
on
her
an
ornate
flat
basket
right arm
right a second woman
;

the
the
re-

CLASS X, SERIES
She wears

Jaxed.

held

sleeveless chiton,

14-18

51

with wide girdle reserved white


her hair
in a
knot
or
braid
behind.
long

is

wide reserved white band, and hangs

by

a red

i,

These three vases

in fine

present
sure and delicate
his figures

examples of the type represented by the


Hnes of pink is a little hasty, but

are fine

The drawing

series.

the uee of solid color is sparing


and in choosing
;
the artist has not limited himself to types common on
On no. 14 the fine figure of the youth bending forward
;

lekythoi.
bears comparison with the seated youth on no. 1 1 in its sure grace
and poise. The soul and purse in the field, like the taenia on no. 15,

continue a practice of filling in the composition with objects from the


domestic scenes of earlier classes. The goose brought by a boy on
no. 15 and the jewel casket in the hands of the woman on no. 16 are
interesting offerings brought to the dead ; the goose because it is the
household pet of children, the jewel box because it suggests the articles of personal adornment worn by the woman to whose
grave they
are brought.

It

indeed possible to regard the boy with the goose


as representations of the dead

is

and the woman with the jewel box

person beside the grave, for in either case the objects are such as
were associated with the dead person during his lifetime.
The use of
reserved white for taenia and girdle is perhaps the earliest example

on lekythoi with drawing in matt color of


frequently in Classes XI and XIII.

a practice

The ornament and drawing


stele in the centre.

At

in-

H. 0.24 m.

Athens, Nat. Mus. 2034, Cv. 1788.

17.

found not

have almost disappeared.

Traces remain of the slender

the right a youth stands, extending his right hand, palm


up

he

wears a mantle which shows no color.

Earl of Elgin Collection.

18.

Club Exhibition, 1903,


Palmetrcs not visible

The

scene

The

is

drawn

Burlington Fine Arts

38.

maeander broken bv dotted oblique

in rose(?)

slender stele

H. 0.14 m.

Cat., pi. xciii,

on two

; red
steps

is

is

used for

crosses,

not

reversing.

garment.

crowned with anthemion.

At

the

left

woman

in

with bowed head approaches, carrying on her left arm a flat basket, and on her
right hand a smegmatotheke ; she wears a sleeveless chiton and her hair in a small low
profile

knot.

At the

he wears

right a

youth stands en face,

his

right

hand

raised slightly

from

his

side

a red himation.

This small vase, which apparently belongs at this point in the


classification, is strikingly like one already discussed, namely. Class VI,
The woman here lacks an outer
I, no. 22 (Athens, Nat. Mus. 1843).

garment and carries a basket which is not seen on the other vase
the youth here wears a mantle and does not have yellow boots

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

52

otherwise the scene

is

The smegmatotheke

almost identical.

indicates the influence of early domestic scenes, and the


with the vase in Class VI suggests that the two came
atelier

itself

similarity

from one

and very probably from the same hand.


Athens, Nat. Mus. 1901, Cv. 1762.

19.

The

Palmettes and simple maeander in dull pink.

deep red

The

The

used for the garment.

is

slender stele on

two

white

steps has a

slip

is

round top

scene also

unusually
like

H.

Cerameicus.
drawn

in

dull

pink

fine.

tumulus

is

0.25 m.

about

are

it

taeniae.

youth with deep red mantle drawn closely about him holds out an alabastron
At the right is a woman whose garment has disappeared
in his right hand.
her hair
falls loosely on her shoulders.

At

the

left a

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1920, Cv. 1827.

20.

Attica, Velanideza.

H.

0.24 m.
The

The

palmettes and maeander are missing.

scene

is

drawn

in a

now

color

dull

brown.

The

stele

on two

steps has a

round top

like

tumulus.

At the

left

woman

in

At the right a second woman


holds out both hands as if presenting a taenia.
profile
stands en face, carrying a basket on her left arm away from the stele, and extending her
right

hand,

The hands
21.

The

Myconos, Mus.
is

high oval tumulus in

standing figure

lies in

lines

dull

red, through

the centre stands on

the one at the right

The importance of

H. about 0.30 m.

Rheneia.

is drawn in
typical pink
used for one garment.

scene

show white,

The

The garments of both have disappeared.


palm down, toward the stele.
much more carefully drawn than the rest of the scene.
^

are

is

two

steps.

which the sketch

On

either

side

lines

is

decorating the tumulus with a taenia.

this
lekythos, of which I have only
the fact that it was found on the island of

fragmentary notes,
Rheneia with other vases and tomb contents which are supposed to
have been brought to the island when the Athenians purified Delos

by removing all graves in 428 B.C. If this supposition is correct, the


lekythos must have been made some years earlier and placed in a
This date (before 428 b.c.) agrees with other
grave on Delos.

made in the third quarter of


the fifth century.
These three vases are the only ones classified in the present
otherseries which do not have the typical stele with anthemion
indications that vases of this series were

wise nos. 19 and 21 are thoroughly typical and no. 20 varies only in
the brown color of the drawing, a change perhaps due to the action of

On no. 19 the alabastron and the loose hair of the woman are
reminiscent of scenes on earlier lekythoi.
As for the absence of

fire.

CLASS X, SERIES

i,

19-22

53

garments, it is safe to assume that a matt color was used here, as on


other vases of Classes V, VI, IX, X, which did not stand the test of
time.
No. 20 was found with no. 9 of Class IX, i (Athens, Nat.

Mus.

1919).

Bologna, Mus. Civ. 365.

22.

Athens.

H. 0.137 m.

Pellegrini,

Cat.^ fig. 59.

On

the shoulder

space was

two palmettes

in black

The

maeander.

left for a

scene

is

with red leaves run from right to

drawn

in dull red

bright red

is

left

no

used for one

garment.

The
hands

At

color.

with

stele

is

crowned by an anthemion.

as if presenting objects to the stele

the right a youth,

wrapped

On

At the

left a

woman

in a red mantle, touches the

i.

anthemion of the

stele

Conclusion

the vases just discussed the palmettes and

siderable

stands holding out both

she wears a sleeveless chiton, girded and without

hand.

his right

Series
.

in

variety"

style

On

and coloring.

maeander show connos. 4, 12, and 22

otherwise the arrangement is


palmettes run in one direction
normal.
The palmettes are drawn in a red different from the pink
outline of the scene on nos. 8, 11, and 12; the pink of the scene,
the

with sometimes gray or black leaves added to the palmettes, is used


on nos. 5, 6, 9, 10, 15, 16, and 18; while on nos. i, 2, 3, 4, 7,
13,

and 22

a dull

gray varying to green-black

leaves for the palmettes.


on nos. I, 2, 3, 4, and

used, with added red

simple maeander

is

seen

on nos.

9;
5, 7, 8, 11,
15, 16, and
broken by dotted oblique crosses, from which
direction reverses usually, but not always
and in one or two in-

18 the maeander
its

The unbroken

is

is

stances

{e.g.

these data

no, 10)

we may

broken by the top of the anthemion.


From
that maeander and palmettes were usually put

it is

infer

on at the same time, that at least sometimes they were added after
the scene proper was drawn, and that the ornament was not stereoand in Class XIII, but was
typed as in some series of Class

varied at the will of the painter.


The scene is drawn in fine lines of a pink which is
with a few exceptions on no. 14 (cf. no. 20) the color
;

from

fire

and on nos.

on no. 3

it is

somewhat
is

glossy,

brown, perhaps

the violet-black used sometimes in Class

IX

red rather than pink, and not glossy, though


the character of the lines remains the same.
Normally the hair is
i, 2,

13, 22

it is

but on nos, i 12, 13, and 15a thin green


few strokes of outline color, and on nos, 3 and
This color, which is
dull yellow is used for the hair.

like the outlines of the scene,

wash

is

added over

10 a color

now

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

54

IX, is found for a garment border on no. to


on
What now appears as a thin violet wash
no.
5.
garment
used for a garment border on nos. 1,4, 9, and 13, and on the anthemion

characteristic of Class

and
is

for a

of no. 12.

wash

is

used for details occasionally a thin greenish


garment on nos. 4, 8, and 9, and the same color vary-

Bright red

found

for a

is

ing to black is used for taeniae.


dark red which was often applied

The

only color freely used

somewhat

thickly.

is

a rather

While the nor-

mal palette of these painters seems to have included but two colors
(except the outline color), viz. a greenish black and a dark red, of

which only the

latter

is

used

freely, the recurring indications

of faded

Orcolor suggest that it really was not as limited as now appears.


for
no
a
hand
which
the
shows
preliminary
practised
drawing
dinarily
sketch was needed, but such a sketch
no.

detected at least on

may be

1.

The

scenes in this series

types of figures are few in

show almost no effort for originality, the


number, and for the most part they are

The woman with flat basket (canistron), for


types already familiar.
instance, occurs nine times, the man with right hand extended, palm
up, seven times, the man (or woman) with hand slightly raised, palm
These types
the twenty-one vases under discussion.
the
in
IV
Classes
and
established
were already
V, though
gesture of
The kneeling
the slightly raised hand is not common till Class IX.
in, five times, in

or standing mourner also


recurs here in a slightly

is

a figure characteristic

of Class

IX which

more conventionalized form, as though it


had originated with some other group of painters and were simply reThe only figures that show any " originality," if such
peated here.
term

be permitted with reference to these vases, any independence of lekythos tradition, are the seated figures and the figures with
a

may

one foot raised on a stone or

step.

Some of

these are

drawn with

and grace, as though the painter found pleasure in going


outside the lines of his usual practice.
Among the objects brought to the grave, some like the goose on
no. 1 5 appear here for the first time, others like the alabastron or

real freshness

smegmatotheke recur from lekythoi of earlier periods. The question


may fairly be asked whether the garment brought by a woman on no.
an offering to the dead, or whether the type is repeated without
meaning; the former explanation seems to me reasonable. Similarly,
8

is

while the toilet vessels are repeated from earlier toilet scenes not at
the grave, and the presentation of arms by a woman from the scene

of

a warrior

being decked

in

armor

for a

campaign, we can hardly

CLASS

X, SERIES

55

As has
question that here they are offerings brought to the dead.
been pointed out, the same explanation may well apply to the goose
and the jewel casket but inasmuch as the figure of the dead person
;

is

clearly indicated

asmuch

as the

am
woman

been,
the

on no.

goose

is

on nos. 9 and 10, and inwhose pet it might have

11, perhaps also


brought by a child

inclined to the opinion that the child with the


goose and
with the jewel casket represent also the dead person.
The

same explanation might apply to some of the other


usually both persons are mourners at the grave.

On

figures,

though

of the vases objects appear in the field, as in Class IV and


later classes.
The purse and the mirror (nos. i, 2, 4, 14) belong
with the earlier domestic scenes if they have any meaning here, they
six

are offerings brought to the grave but


represented in their old position
as if on the walls of a room instead of
attached to the stele.

being
of
the
small
soul
(nos. 3,4, 5, 14) probably
representation
flying
originated with the Charon scene of Classes V, VI, VII, and IX here,

The

however,
grave.

it

finds a natural place, for souls were believed to

The form

reduced to mere

of the figure

lines

it

is

appears

haunt the

more attenuated than


in

before, being
both forms, with extended arms,

or with one hand raised to the head as

if in

lamentation.

As

in Class IX, i, the


figures are regularly drawn either in full
or
en
in
not
There are many points
px'ofile
face^
three-quarter view.
of similarity with Class IX, with the striking differences that the slip

and the paint are

and the

of drawing distinctly
different.
It is
significant that one little group of vases in Class VI,
I
shows
the style of drawing of Class IX, and another
(nos. 11-16)
totally different,

style

We may
group (nos. 19-25) the style of drawing of Class X.
both Classes IX and X began while vases of Class VI were
being made, and that they come from two ateliers (or groups of atelittle

infer that

liers) in

which the transition was made from the glaze outline drawing

of VI, I to these two types of matt outline drawing.


While painters
of Class IX were often more literal, those of Class
were much more

sure and graceful in their work.

Series

This
several

2.

with anthemion

Stele usually

series, like series i,

types of drawing

about 0.30 m.

in

height a

forms a

fairly

scene in

outline

homogeneous group, though

may be distinguished.
number about 0.40 m.

For the outline of the scene

brown

a red or violet-pink

With

the

vases

high are included.

was apparently used,

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

56
in

though

instances the color

many

now quite brown and with


As compared with series i,

is

of the glaze effect noted in series i.


form of stele is ordinarily the same

less

the

but the drawing is distinctly


more free, sometimes more careful, and often the scene has a more
The use of color is more general than in series i,
specific meaning.
characteristics of Class

and certain
of women's

is

for

XI,

example

in the

treatment

hair, begin to appear.

Mus. Cinq. A

Brussels,

1.

H. 0.295 m.

1168.

Plate X,

i.

Palmettes (with alternate leaves red) and simple maeander in dull black.
The scene
in dull pink with greenish wash over a few pink strokes for the hair.
Bright

drawn

red

used for garments, taeniae, etc., and dark red for the

is

The
the

left a

his

left

stele

high

bearded

man

leans forward as if

Before his head

shoulder.

woman

right a

on three

or slender tumulus)

on

lines

on one garment.

decorated with red taeniae.

At

which holds the red garment under


with gesture of lamentation.
At the

a stick

flies

steps

is

i/'i'x>/

apparently touches the stele with her extended right hand

in partial profile

decorated with perpendicular stripes in dull

she wears a sleeveless chiton with overfold,


red.

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1924, Cv. 1708.

On

the shoulder a triangular palmette with seven spirals on each side in dull green

the simple

maeander

dull green

is

The
it.

H.

2.

At

der his

in the

is

scene

is

drawn

in

slender stele with round top shows the ends of the taeniae

the
left

left

bearded

man

arm, and extends

on her

down behind
3.

The

color.

0.37 m.

(pink) brown

lines

used for twigs and ends of taeniae, dark red for a garment.

leaves his right shoulder free.


carries

same

Eretria.

left

arm

the stele

a flat
;

stands with

his right

bowed head,

hand

toward the

stiffly

stele

the deep red himation

young woman (effaced below the breast)


basket of green twigs and taeniae, and extends her right hand

At

the right a

her garment has disappeared

the hair

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1951, Cv. 1755.

Palmettes and simple maeander

in

brown-red

is

in loose flufFv curls.

H.

Eretria.

0.36 m.

the palmettes have alternate leaves dull

Blue and red-brown with dark brown fold

of (pink) brown.

green.

Scene

lines are

used for garments, red and dufl green for taeniae.

in fine lines

which once decorated

apparently leaning on a staff un-

The stele is decorated with taeniae and crowned by an anthemion. At the left a
bearded man stands in profile, holding out toward the stele his right hand, palm down.
He wears a red-brown mantle with dark brown fold lines. At the right a voung woman
stands en face
right

she carries a

flat

basket of red taeniae on her

hand toward the base of the

The

stele

left

arm and extends her

her dark blue chiton has nearly disappeared.

three vases with a bearded

man and

woman

bringing offer-

No. i has been


ings to the grave show various points of interest.
broken and several pieces are missing but the strong, almost rude,
;

drawing

is

most expressive.

slightly raised stands

The

mourning

bearded

man

at the grave,

with relaxed

while a

left

hand

woman seems

to

CLASS

X, SERIES

1-5

2,

57

"
The lamenting " soul before the man's head
be decking the stele.
is
drawn with the fuller lines of the earlier type of soul, and the
In
on the woman's garment recall Classes IV and V.
stripes of red

man

contrast with the usual practice the individuality of the


out almost as if the painter were making a portrait.

is

On

no. 2 the color used for the man's staff has disappeared.
a bearded
The scenes on nos. 2 and 3 are very similar

woman

man

with

he were directing the woman's task, and a


left arm, and her relaxed
right
No. 1 shows an unpleasing experiment with a

hand extended

right

brought
i
and

no.

as if

en face with a

basket on her

flat

hand

slightly raised.
different type of shoulder

No.

ornament.

peculiar in the use of


blue for one garment and the indication of fold lines in dark brown
blue is occasionally found in
or red-brown for another garment
is

Classes

and VI, and the use of two colors to indicate a garment


was noted in Class IV and Class V (especially series e).

with folds

MNB

Paris, Louvre,

4.

Lee. blancs

ment

is

red-brown, another has

in

The

few strokes of outline color, and

slender stele on

stands in profile,

wrapped

At the

woman

right

carrying a

flat

two

The

5.

is

to the

scene

the hair

One

is

gar-

wash.

crowned by an anthemion.
At the left a youth
neck in a red-brown mantle
his head is slightly bowed.
;

with bowed head stands

She wears

in partial profile, her

left

leg

relieved,

arm and holding up an alabastron tow-

left

with overfold

a girded sleeveless chiton

at

border of violet wash.

Med.

Cab.

Paris,

H.

505.

0.31

m.

Gaz.

arch.

1885,

278.

p.

Palmettes in thin dull red with alternate leaves in bright red

broken bv oblique cross and reversing.


violet.

The

bright red

is

hair

is

in

few

At

drawn

The

mantle over

maeander

in thin

in dull

red,

dull red fading to

wash

hnes of the outline show through the

an anthemion above an egg moulding.


At the left
both hands a flat basket with two wreaths and

she wears a sleeveless chiton girded, and her hair

top, and his right

left

these two vases

is

is

in a loose

hand grasping two

hand out (palm down) toward the


his left arm, and shoes laced high.

The drawing on
ful

is

them.

the right an ephebos stands en face with his

i red

scene

strokes of outline color, covered with a thin red

The stele on two steps is crowned by


woman in partial profile holds out in

four taeniae

The

used for garments and taeniae.

solid color placed over

in dull red

is

is

basket of taeniae behind her on her

Pottier,

with greenish wash.

filled in

a border of violet

steps

ard the stele in her right hand.


the bottom

0.28 m.

149, no. 66.

att.y p.

Palmettes and simple maeander in dull black.

drawn with

H.

3057, Lee. 102.

stele.

He wears

distinctly

than has been the case on vases with outlines

more
in

knot behind.

erect spears near the


a chiton, a petasos,

free

and grace-

matt color thus

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

58

The figures in partial profile, the attitude with one


the
graceful drawing of the extended arm and relaxed hand
leg relieved,
of the ephebos on no. 5, as well as the attention to the delicately drawn
far considered.

mark

features,

While the use of solid color is limited as


change.
the use of a thin wash of green or red for the hair is to be

in series i,

this

On

no. 4 the figure of a youth wrapped to the neck in a


mantle has been discussed before as probably a representation of the

noted.

dead man, receiving the offering presented by the woman.


The same
interpretation is possible, but by no means necessary, for the ephebos
on no. 5. This last figure should be compared with that on a vase
it (no.
The comparison
502, Class VI, i, no. 20).
the
belief
that
vases
of
Class
were
strengthens
contemporaneous
with those of Class VI, and that sometimes they were produced in

exhibited near

the

same

atelier.

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1849, Cv. 1783.

6.

The

slender stele

is

left

arm

and

violet

wash

crowned with an anthemion which extends through


left stands an
ephebos holding two spears erect

At

in

the right a

Paris, Louvre,

The

The
left a

a taenia
profile,

stele

the

MNB

is

is

drawn

fillet

maeander

his

carries a flat basket


;

of

garment
on

fruits

her mantle

covered with a sakkos.

H.

426, Lee. 93.

0.23 m.

hasty palmettes and simple maeander are in dull thin black.

in dull thin violet-red,

the

young woman

her lowered right hand a thick wreath or circular

has a border ot violet wash, and her hair

7.

scene

used on the border of garments.

is

At the

to the shoulder.

has a border of violet wash.

her

The

the palmettes have alternate leaves in brown-red.

of (pink) brown

in fine lines

The

0.29 m.

palmettes and simple maeander, broken by oblique crosses and not reversing, are

in thin dull green

on

H.

The

scene

is

drawn

with no traces of added color remaining.

on two steps is crowned by an anthemion, and shows traces of taeniae.


At
in profile with bowed head
both
hands
as
if
with
out
approaches, holding

woman

At

she wears a sleeveless chiton girded.

holding two

spears

erect

in

his

the right stands an ephebos in

hand

right

partial

he wears chlamys and petasos

now

without color.

New

8.

Palmettes in black with alternate leaves reddish

The

also in black.

brown,

violet, blue,

The

stele

anthemion.

and on her

scene

is

arm

drawn

and green

on two steps

At the
left

left a

is

in reddish

for taeniae

and

dull

details.

careless elongated

black

is

maeander

used for a garment

Partly repainted.

decorated with wreath and taeniae, and crowned with rude

a basket

stands en face, carrying taeniae in her lowered right hand,


She wears a sleeveless chiton unwith wreath and taeniae.

stands in partial profile, his lowered

boots.

brown

brown

0.28 m.

woman

girded, with told lines in the outline color.

mande

H.

York, Metrop. Mus. 06.1021. 131.

fringed on the lower edge,

left

which

At

the

hand holding
is

right
a

an ephebos with bowed head


He wears a black

spear erect.

drawn forward over both

shoulders, and

black

CLASS

X, SERIES

6-10

2,

59

of ephebos with spears and woman bringing


was noted on no. 5, is seen on these three vases. On
offerings, which
the fillet rolled
recall earlier classes of lekythoi
details
no. 6 various

The same grouping

form

to

which was found

a ring

series e,

the basket of

woman's

pletely the

IV and

in Class

and the use of

fruits,

especially in Class V,
sakkos to cover com-

No.

hair as in Class V.

is

included at this

is
very rude and the drawing hardly repoint though the anthemion
The variety of color and
sembles that on other vases of the class.
On these
are probably due to repainting.
some other

peculiarities

three vases there

or nothing to indicate whether the ephebos

is little

or is a youth, perhaps a traveller,


represents the figure of the dead,
who has chanced to meet at the grave a woman bringing offerings.
Brit.

London,

9.

Mus.

91.

Palmettes and scene drawn in dull red


lines

H.

0.24 m.
The

there remains no trace of the maeander.

of the preliminary sketch show through the red of the garments.


stele is crowned with a high anthemion, in which the leaves of the palmette are

The

reserved white on a red foundation.


left

Against the

stands an ephebos, holding a spear erect in

rolled

up on

his left

forearm

stele

his

on the

right

he wears a short chiton.

left

At

At

rests a shield.

hand, and carrying


the right a

the

mantle

his

woman

stands

and on her left arm a flat basket with two taeniae;


nearly en face, her right hand down,
her hair is in a flat knot and she wears an outline chiton with long red overfold or
overgarment.

Coll. A. Barre,

10.

Drawn
for

the

a girl

she wears

wash border

his left leg relieved

of the

draped

which

red

is

H.

0.28 m.

used for taeniae and garments, and violet wash

crowned by an anthemion and bound with red

a sleeve chiton

violet

in front

is

Attica.

stands en face, both hands slightly raised from her side, in her

taenia

is

now brown

in lines

garment border.
The stele on one step
left

Frohner, 357.

her hair

on

left

At

hand

with ungirded overgarment reaching nearly to her knees,

short.

arm

is

At the
a shield,

right stands an ephebos,

and

in his right

in

partial profile,

hand he holds out

a phiale

wears a girded chiton, a Corinthian helmet, and over his arm


mantle with violet wash border. In the field is suspended a wreath, from

stele.

a light

is

his left

taeniae.

He

the leaves have disappeared.

The same
tions.

rolled

scene appears on these two vases with interesting variano. 9 the shield resting against the stele and the mantle
on the youth's arm indicate that he is not the dead, but a

On
up

living person

he carries

moment

is

has stopped beside the grave. Probably the mantle


not an offering, but simply his own cloak which for the

who

he has discarded.

no. 10 takes a

more intimate

The youth

with shield and helmet on

he presents a
part in the scene, in that

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

6o

from

libation

While

the figure on no. 9 may be a chance


no. 10 is a worshipper at the grave.

a phiale.

youth on

traveller, the

peculiar in that the leaves of the palmette on the stele are


similar device was noted on
reserved white on a red foundation.

No.

is

three vases of Class

The

white lines

the garment
should probablv be explained, here as in other cases, as due to the abrasion of the color from lines of a preliminary sketch, either a sketch in
(nos. 20-22).

in

transparent thin glaze or a sketch drawn with a dull point in the slip
while yet soft. No. 10, which I know only from the published description, should doubtless be placed at this point in the classification. On

long free overfold (diplois) on the woman's


somewhat unusual here, though it is often seen in later

both vases the use of


is

garment

The

classes.

4 and

nos.

11.

graceful, easy lines of the figures recall the

5.

London,

Brit.

Mus.

H.

90.

0.27 m.

Palmettes and maeander in dull red varying to dark violet

Apparently the same color

sword
a'

stele

in

vomh,

view

its

is

is

used for

represented.

scabbard

his right

he wears

The

Slip brilliant white.

oblique crosses.

No

drawing on

At

her hair

is

hand holding

scene

is

the

in

maeander

medium

lines

is

broken by

of

dull red.

garment.

the

left a

in a

flat

woman

stands, holding out in her right

knot and she wears a chiton.

a spear erect,

and on

Between the two

short chiton.

drawn

his left

helmet

arm

At the

hand
right

a
is

a shield in three-quarter

rests

on the ground and a

mirror hangs above.

12.

Palmettes and maeander in brown-red

Scene

reverses.

scene

is

H.

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1835, Cv. 1835.

brown-red

in

violet

the

wash

is

0.41 m.

maeander

is broken
by oblique crosses and
used on the border of a garment.
The

nearly effaced.

The

slender stele

is

crowned by an anthemion.

At the

left

young woman

in profile

with bowed head approaches, holding out a sword in its scabbard ; the outlines of the himation are all that remain of her garments ; her hair is partly covered by a sakkos.
At the
an
some
two
sits
on
erect
his
has
a
border
stones,
right
;
holding
ephebos
spears
chlamys
of violet wash, and on his shoulder hangs

a petasos.

These two scenes, one with a


on the typical representation of a

who

for

is

stele,

the other without, are based

woman
No.

bringing arms to a youth


i i
gives the scene with

preparing
campaign.
no indication of the grave, while the hanging mirror would naturally
On no. 12 the normal stele of this class is
place it in the house.
present; the youth

woman's hands
series

seated, not preparing to take the sword in the


the character of the scene as on certain vases of

is

and

(nos. 9-1 1) suggests that the seated

youth represents the dead

CLASS X, SERIES

61

11-15

2,

It
person receiving the sword as an offering brought to the grave.
seems fair to interpret the scene on no. 11, like scenes of the same
character on grave monuments, as a representation of the dead person

a youth about to set forth for


was remembered while living
This type of scene becomes
the campaign in which he met his death.
common in Class XI, and anticipates the similar scenes on grave stelae

as he

of the early fourth century.

The
The

scene
stele

holding a Ivre

drawn

is

in fine lines of dull pink

crowned by an anthemion.

is

his hair falls to the

two

proaches, carrying

down, toward the

He

Palmettes

in

dull

crosses, in dull gray.


line color

The

wears

used for garment border.

youth with head bowed,


right an ephebos ap-

At the

hand and extending his right hand, palm


with
violet wash border.
chlamys
left

H. about 0.30 m.
;

slender stele

one garment has a violet wash border.


surmounted by an anthemion which extends on to the shoulder

is

At the

left a

young woman

basket with smegmatotheke on her

a chiton

is

applied thicker for taeniae

is

sits a

left

maeander, broken by oblique


gray with added leaves in pink
The scene is drawn in medium lines of dull violet-pink the out-

about the shaft are taeniae.


flat

wears

the

shoulder in long curls.

spears erect in his

stele.

wash

violet

At

Athens, Private Collection.

14.

the

H. about 0.30 m.

Athens, Private Collection.

13.

with short sleeves, and her hair

fore her in the field a flat dish

knee

left
is

in a

is

knot supported by a wide cloth.

At

three cords.

is

on a low mound (tumulus)


steadied by her right hand.
She
sits

Be-

the right stands

suspended by
(lamp?)
youth with head bowed, extending his right hand, palm down, toward the stele, and
He wears a chlamys with violet border and a
holding a spear erect in his left hand.

petasos.

Dresden, Albertinum, 368, Z.V. 141 1. Eretria


Jahr. Arch. Inst. 1898, A. A., S. 137, no. 31.
0.233 m.
15.

The
is

drawn

mantle.

At

the

yellow-brown.

Red

The

scene

used for taeniae and brown-red for a

is

stele

with anthemion stands on three steps, the upper one

red taeniae are bound about the shaft and a circular


left a

woman

basket on her knees

brown himation
an ephebos,

The
and

now

Partly repainted.

The
others

palmettes have disappeared and only traces of the maeander remain.


in a color

H.

(?).

sits

in

covers her

his right

profile, taking

across her knees are

hand

left

some

two

much

fillet is laid

object with her right

taeniae.

shoulder and arm as well

She wears
as

her knees.

smaller than the

against the steps.

hand from the

a sleeve chiton,

At

flat

and

the right stands

raised slightly fi-om his side.

scene on these three vases includes an ephebos on the right


on the left. The gesture of the ephebos, as he

a seated figure

extends his right hand or raises

it

from

his side, indicates that

While

he

is

the seated youth with


taking
worship
the lyre on no. 13 (cf the similar figure playing a lyre. Class IX,
2, no. 22, Louvre,
612) may represent either the dead person or a
at the grave.

part in the

CA

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

62

woman on

worshipper, the seated


the

worshipper by

"

grave

apparently defined as a
(canistron) with toilet vase.

no. 14

basket

"

is

Although the toilet vase (smegmatotheke) is characteristic of earlier


classes and is rarely found later, the arrangement of the woman's hair
one which

is

common

not

is

lamp (?)
undoubtedly

is

On

no. 15 the seated

now

worshipper, as the scene

The suspended
woman

Class XI.

before

unique on white lekythoi.

is

stands, for the taeniae

The

to be attached to the stele are lying across her knees.


fillet on the steps of the stele is common only in Class

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1762, Cv. 1680

16.

Plate IX,

Benndorf, Griech.

I.

Sic.

V,

circular

series e.

H. 0.375 "^
cf Pottier, Lee.

(Coll. 650).
S.

Vas.^

67

blancs att.^ p. 64.

drawn

Palmettes, simple maeander, and scene are

were used
for taeniae

garment and

thick red

stick are in

in dull

pink

Thin red and

of the side palmettes.

for alternate leaves

and

a violet

apparently two shades


a

wash

green wash are used

used for garment

is

borders.

The

on two

stele

and anthemion
profile

steps,

bends forward, holding

tending his right hand, palm


small

boy carrying

At the
flat

right a

narrowing toward the top,

several taeniae are tied about the shaft.

he wears

in partial profile,

basket of green wreaths in both hands

girded, a violet stripe


cloth

wound

on the edge

at

her hair

twice about the head.

with arms out

left a

bearded
left

man

in

arm and ex-

Beneath the stick is a


deep red himation.
he is draped in an himation with violet edge.
her head bowed, approaches the stele with a large

a lyre, also facing the stele

woman

crowned with egg moulding


At the

red stick nearly horizontal under his

a large

down

is

In the

she wears a chiton with long overfold underis

in a loose knot, held

field at the left is a

up by

a reserved

bag or purse, then

white
^vyy\

the right a mirror.

This interesting vase, with

unique scene, clearly belongs in


Class X, though the woman's coiffure and dress resemble what is
found in Class XI and later classes. The color used for the outline,
its

the form of the stele, the objects in the field, the sure and delicate
drawing, even the approach toward portraiture in the faces, find their

analogues in the present


stick

which the man

class.

carries.

"baton," an interpretation

man who

carries

it

is

It

is

While

difficult to interpret the large


it

is

too heavy for a cane or a


will serve to connect the

needed which

and the boy with the

lyre, at

whom

he

is

looking.

Those two
might be intended for a torch.
figures together are in contrast with the mourner on the other side of
the stele.
They do not seem to be mourners, but rather a pair of
I

can only suggest that

figures such as

it

might be represented on a grave stele in which case


the boy would probably represent the person of the dead and the
bearded man might be his paidagogos or his music teacher.
;

CLASS X, SERIES

IX,

63

H. 0.475

17.

San Francisco, Mus. Anthrop. 8-37.

3.

Collections Somzee, Cat. de vente, 1901, no. loi.

Ornament and scene


is

16-19

2,

drawn

are

in thin

Plate

"^-

The simple maeander


used for the sword scabbard

brownish red (bistre).

brolcen only by the anthemion of the stele.

Brighter red

is

and the petasos.

The

slender stele on four steps

with bowed head

a figure

At the

without color.

is

of the

left

crowned by

facing the right


stele

it

a rather high
is

draped

neck

in a

the steps

now

mantle

top hangs the ring of a wreath, at the right an

is

At the

left

She wears

an alabastron.
gathered hair

hand on

and an

a short

sword

Berlin, Furtw. 2459.

18.

At

the right an ephebos stands en face, his right

erect spear in his raised

and

his shoulder,

under an overfold, and her loosely

sleeveless chiton girded

held up by a sphendone.

is

his hip

petasos on

in

yellowish

brown

with a thin wash

The

now

yellowish

he wears a short chiton, a

H. 0.30 m.

Athens.

to indicate the hair a

hand

left

scabbard hanging from the girdle.

its

The

Palmettes and simple maeander in dull brown.

now

On

anthemion.

to the

suspended by cords, and on the lower step of the stele at the left stands a
left a woman in
partial profile stands with bowed head, carrying on
hand a flat basket with wreaths, and in her raised right hand, away from the stele,

alabastron

heron.
her

sits

few

scene

Plate X,

is

drawn

in

2.

fine

lines

of the outline color are covered

strokes

dark red and gray-green are used for garments.

on two rather high steps is crowned with egg moulding and anthemion.
On the upper step sits a youth with head bowed, facing the right ; on his knee is perched
a quail, and a snake raises its head from his
His dull green mantle is over his knees,
lap.

and

stele

drawn up behind

is

profile, looking

youth.
a

toward the

in,

background

for his

At

head.

the

At

The

quail.

left

a youth in

down, over the head of the seated

dark red mantle leaves only the right shoulder and arm free.

with arms extended.

i/'v;(7;

palm

down,

to serve as a

holds out his right hand, palm

Before him

flies

the right stands a second youth, holding his right hand,

color of his mantle has disappeared.

Before him hangs

in the field a
purse.

The

palmettes and the maeander, which

dull greenish black

drawn

wash added.

is

broken only by anthemion of

the alternate leaves on the sides are in bright red.

in fine lines of dull

greenish

H. 0.418 m.

Berlin, Inv. 3372.

19.

pink

Violet

the hair

wash

is

is

in a

few

lines

scene

is

of outline color with a thin

used for garment border and

garment, and bright red for spot on centre of anthemion.

stele, are in

The

details,

The drawing

dark red for a


is

careful

and

delicate.

The

slender stele on

the upper step facing the

top of her head

knees

is

two

is crowned with
On
egg moulding and anthemion.
young woman, her body en face, and both hands on
chiton with short sleeves drawn in outline, and over her

steps

left sits

she wears a

mantle with violet wash border.

At

the

left

turning toward the stele, her right hand slightly raised

on top of her head.


is

violet.

stele

her

is

left

The

a sleeveless chiton

young

woman

the stele, her

en face,
left

hand

with overfold, the lower edge of which

women is short. Above and below at the left of the


right a woman stands in three-quarter profile, carrying on

hair of both these

a flying
\pv)(rj.

arm

She wears

stands a

away from

At the

a flat basket

with green twigs, while her right hand adjusts the cloth which

64

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

holds up her hair.

She wears

about the waist and over the

a sleeve

left

shoulder

chiton, and a dark red mantle

her hair

is

in loose curls

which

is

drawn

about the face and

high loose knot supported by a violet sphendone.

hese three vases are related both in the type of scene and the
style of drawing, and also in a certain tendency to go outside the
usual fixed tvpes for lekythoi.

No.

from photographs and description,

17,
is

which

less

is

known

carefully

to

me

only

drawn than the

The figure of the woman at the left


others though in the same style.
at
the
left on no.
woman
the
19, and the seated
closely resembles
figure

on each of the three vases

is

drawn on the same

lines.

easy attitudes, as well as the treatment of hair and garments


and 19, may be compared with vases in Class XI, At the

The

on nos. 17
same time

the wreath and the hanging alabastron in the field on no. 17 are inWith the heron may be comherited from earlier domestic scenes.
'

pared the swan on Class IV, 3, no. 30 (Athens, Nat. Mus. 1983), and
the duck on Class V, no. 45 (Bologna, 362); in each instance it is a
presence on this vase emphasizes the relation of
The drawing on no. 18 is
this grave scene to earlier domestic scenes.
somewhat heavier and more careful than on the two other vases, and

domestic pet, and

its

The presence of the quail, which


apparently not from the same hand.
is decidedly unusual, recalls another vase in Berlin with domestic scene
(2252, Class V, no. 13) in which the quail is perched on a woman's
knee.
The snake in the boy's lap is found only here in lekythos
scenes ; while it may also be explained as a domestic pet, it is difficult
Since the
to overlook the association of the snake with the grave.
figure seated on the stele steps is often to be regarded on other

dead person, we may hold that the snake


The artiin his lap confirms that interpretation on the present vase.
to
form
a
for
the
face is a
ficial use of a
dark
garment
background

grounds

as the figure of the

second indication of

this

painter's

individuality in treating a scene

On no. 19 the drawing combines the freeusually conventionalized.


of
The twisted pose of
no. 17 with the carefulness of no. 18.
dom
woman

at the left, and the gesture of her companion who is adher


hair are decidedly unusual.
Moreover, the fact that the
justing
seated woman tears her hair in mourning is a touch of literalism rare

the

the present class.


In this instance the seated figure is clearly a
mourner; at the same time I would raise the question whether it is
not the figure of the dead person who is mourning her " departure
from life and joy," like the soul of the dying warrior in Homer
in

heron

is

also found

on the lekythos described

in the footnote

on

p.

73, infra.

CLASS

X, SERIES

20-21

2,

65

On nos. 18 and 19 the usual type of soul flies tow(Iliad, XVI, 857).
ard the top of the stele with arms extended. The stele top on nos.
17 and 19 breaks the simple maeander, indicating that the maeander
was added
vases

after the

And on

anthemion was drawn.

each of the three

should be noted that the leaves of the palmette bend down


scroll of the anthemion, instead of radiating directly from

it

toward the

the centre, as
20.

is

often the case in series

Paris, Louvre,
att., pi. iv

Lee. blancs

MNB

i.

H. 0.40 m.

1729, Lee. 90.

Colleetion d' antiquites de

The

Palmettes and simple maeander in thin dull black.


fine

of dull pink

lines

bright red

is

used

for

M.

garment and

Pottier,

Rayet^ no. 145.


drawn

scene

is

violet

wash

for

in

even

garment

borders.

The
step a

stele

On the upper
on three steps is crowned with moulding and anthemion.
and
a
his
the
with
violet wash
toward
right
playing
lyre
garment
facing

sits

youth
behind

is

edge

his

left

shoulder and over his knees.

At

the

left

bearded

man

leans

he holds out his


which supports the red mantle under his left shoulder
in
him
a
sword
its
scabbard
is
Behind
down.
hand, palm
hung by the belt, in
with
it
is a small
arms
extended.
At the right
beside
and
a
^vy^y]
hangs
purse,

forward on a
right

front

staff

an ephebos stands nearly en face, holding two spears erect in his left hand, and carrying
He wears a chlamys, and on his right shoulder
a small bird high up on his right hand.

hangs

a petasos.

The

eyes are very delicately drawn.

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1950, Cv. 1676.

21.

Palmettes and simple maeander in brown-red

Before his head hangs a mirror.

Eretria.

H.

0.38 m.

apparently alternate leaves have dis-

Two shades of red


Scene in fine lines of (pink) brown.
appeared from the palmettes.
and violet wash border are used for garments ; taeniae red, and twigs in dull green.
Drawing dehcate.

The stele is decorated with taeniae and crowned by an anthemion. On the upper
of
the stele sits a youth facing toward the right and playing a lyre ; the garment over
step
At the left a young woman brings a flat basket with
his knees has a violet wash border.
twigs and

taeniae

young woman
less

chiton

she wears

sleeve chiton

and dark red himation.

At

the right a

engaged in fastening taeniae on the stele ; she wears a bright red sleevethe hair of the women is in a flat knot at the back of the head.
is

These two splendid vases

are

drawn with the same

delicate feeling as no. 19, but with perhaps greater care.

on each vase

and
The comskill

carefully studied, while the types


no. 21 it seems clear
effort for originality.

position of the scene

is

On

of figures show no
that the seated youth represents the person of the dead, to whom the
On no. 20, also, the seated youth
two women are bringing offerings.
a youth whose military
playing the lyre represents the dead person,

indicated by the purse and sword hanging in the field, and


the ephebos at the right has brought a little bird as an offering to

service

is

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

66

The

him.

man

bearded

at

might regard him simply

the

left is

his father

probably

while

we

mourner at the grave, a comparison


and the dead son here are adapted
monument
scene
in
which members of the family are
from the grave

with no.

as a

6 suggests that the father

Indeed,
represented together as they had been together while alive.
in
at
the
be
such
a
included
the vouth
right may
family scene,

and we may say that the whole group consists of the figures ordinarily
represented on a grave monument, but here distributed according
to

the formula customary on lekythoi.

of the persons

felt

is

In any case the intimacy


way not often emphasized

by the painter in a

on lekythoi.

No.

22, which

be included here.
series

know only from the publication, should probably


The stele and the tumulus occur also on no. lo of

i.

Collection

22.

Butler.

C.

H. 0.325 m.

Attica.

Fine Arts Club Exhibition, 1888,

Burlington

Cat., no. 83.

Palmettes, maeander, and scene in dull black, the palmettes with alternate leaves red

the maeander

At the

left

red himation.

At the

right.

mound and

The
scene

The
mion

at the

and

slender stele against

is

which

woman

leans a

facing the

Both

left.

decorated with taeniae.

Mus.

H.

Athens.

69.

0.32 m.

Catalogue of Vases

Ill, pi. xxviii.

The

palmettes and maeander (oblique crosses, not reversing) are in thin black.
in

dull pink

slender stele

is

black

is

added

Injured and faded.

for the hair.

decorated with taeniae and crowned with egg moulding and anthe-

the base consists of

base of the shaft.

two

thin blocks, a thick block with concave ends,

At

lyre rests against the base at the left.

the

and mouldings

left

of the

stele

with head bowed, holding out a small bird on the back of


color remains on his himation.
Before him in the field hangs a purse

nearly in profile stands

youth

his left

Mus.

drawn

is

right

stele are

Brit.

23.
in Brit.

broken by oblique crosses.


Red is used for garments and taeniae.
stands a woman, her hands relaxed at her side, wearing a chiton and a
In the centre, before an oval mound on a plinth, sits a youth facing the

is

No

hand.

box suspended by

a shallow

view holds out both hands

a cord.

At

the right

as if presenting a

woman

voung

Her

taenia at the stele.

in three-quarter

chiton has dis-

The hair is loose about her


appeared and only the outline of her himation remains.
and the knot behind is held up bv a cloth wound twice about the head.
24.

Munich,

Plate XI,

Inv. 2269, Cat. 2787.

Fragment of the upper part of the body of the


red, shading toward pink in places

The

stele

is

bends forward, holding out


(sleeveless ?)

vase.

The

i.

scene

garment

is

in

both hands a large

missing

the loose curlv

flat

hair

is

drawn

in

woman

in profile

bright

delicate.

friable.

Drawing
slip very
crowned with mouldings and anthemion.
At the
;

face,

left a

basket with smegmatotheke.


is

in

Her

high knot supported by a

CLASS

to take

^7

bowed, extends

his right

hand

something from the woman's basket.

MNB

Paris, Louvre,

25.

H.

425.

0.25 m.

Pottier, Lee. blancs

147, no. 58.

att., p.

Palmettes and maeander in dull

drawn

22-27

2,

the right a youth en face, his head sHghtly

At

sphendone.

X, SERIES

The

broken by oblique crosses.

black,

The

shading toward violet.

dull black,

in

color

is

much

scene

is

faded.

the left a woman en face


on
her left arm.
At the
steadies with her right hand the flat basket with smegmatotheke
she
if
with
a
taenia
wears
a
sleeve
out
both
hands
as
chiton.
right a woman in profile holds

The

stele

on two

At

crowned bv an anthemion.

is

steps

The

hair of each figure

low knot supported by

in a

is

wide

At the

taenia.

right

of

in the field.

the top of the stele a mirror hangs

The

scene on no. 23 is peculiar in the use of a black for the


hair, and in the shape chosen for the steps of the stele, a shape
The lyre, as well as the small bird in the
that occurs in Class

XL

youth's hand, may be interpreted as an offering brought to the grave.


On this vase, and in no. 24, the small chin recalls the type of profile
in Class

On

series 3.

IX,

24 and 25 the smegmatotheke on the


to be noticed; the toilet vase was often
nos.

basket of offerings is
found in vases of Classes IV and V, but

flat

with outline drawing in dull color and


of offerings brought to the grave.

Griech. Vas., Taf.

Heydemann,
The

The

are used for garments.

woman

sits a

rests

on her knee, and her

Her

a flat basket

Her

hand.

head

is

is

violet

is

bv

down

her hair

great delicacv to give a slight

The

Berlin, Inv. 3138.

Only

traces
is

are used for

On
;

her

the high
left

is

extended

hand

as

left

woman

sphendone, and she wears


at a

girl

hand

nearly in profile, bringing

arm and steadying the vase with her

in

profile,

who

mantle without color.

carries

in curls falling to the neck.

The

Her

her right hand an

in

hydria on top of her head

right

she wears a dark

faces are

drawn with

expression of reserved sadness.

27.

scene

slender than in specimens previously described.

Facing her stands

left

is

Both orna-

wash and dark red

one foot crossed behind the other

left,

0.29 m.

with some object at which she is lookdrawn over the back of her head and across her knees ;

hand

alabastron and steadies with her

red sleeveless chiton

Violet

more

garment

turned back to look

maeander unbroken.
lines.

slender and has a small triangular top.

right

held up

is

held by a taenia.

is

even brown

is

with smegmatotheke on her


hair

H.

(Coll. 637).

right

looking toward the

base

down.

in fine

on the basket

shape

extreme

stele at the

the fluffy hair

drawn

are carefullv

vases

12.

shoulder ornament has practicallv disappeared

ment and scene

The

xii,

common on

rarely seen

is

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1760, Cv. 1683

26.

ing

not so

is

Athens.

H.

0.29 m.

Collection Rayet.

remain of the palmettes on the shoulder and the complicated maeander.


in fine even lines now brown; solid brown (once red ?) and gray-blue
Much damaged.
garments, while the leaves of the tree are now violet.

drawn

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

68

Instead of the stele a tree stands in the centre of the scene.

woman
left

At the

left

young

her head

bowed, steadying with her right hand the flat basket on her
approaches,
arm ; her sleeve chiton has brown fold lines but no color, while her himation is in

brown

solid

her hair

is

in

low

flat

At

knot.

the

right, also

facing the tree,

sits

woman, her body nearly en face, her right hand held out toward her companion ;
the chiton has disappeared, but a gray-blue himation is drawn across her knees ; her hair

second

is

covered by a sakkos.

These two damaged vases


delicate

are

extremely fine

drawing occasionally found on lekythoi.

examples of the

The

seated figure

with bowed head resembles in type the similar figure of nos. 17 and
18, but in general (garments, treatment of the hair, etc.) the scenes

resemble those on earlier vases of Class V.

Aside from the drawing,


which tends toward severity rather than freedom, the scenes are
in the introduction of elements
interesting in their composition,
in
the hint of sadness in the figures.
rarely found on lekythoi, and
three points are due to the influence of monumental
painting, possibly painting on grave stelae, for on extant sculptured
stelae of somewhat later period we find the same indication of

Probably

all

tree
reserved melancholy or grief
on no. 27 the woman at the left
thoi
;

is
is

rarely
a

found on

later

mourner, the seated

leky-

woman

very likely the dead person herself, and the tree may indicate the
On no. 26 there is little doubt that the woman
locality of the grave.
the dead person, while the other two figures
may be regarded as mistress and servant bringing ofi^erings to the
The water jar, which is found on one or two other lekythoi,^
grave.
perhaps indicates a bath brought as an offering to the dead by a
seated before the stele

is

would agree with the presence of smegmatotheke


and alabastron, which are normally found in toilet scenes and in grave
The backward look of the mistress, as she steadies the
scenes.
toilet vase on her basket, connects these two figures
the originality
and grace of the pose is the more striking in view of the simplicity
and almost stiffness of the figure at either side.
servant, as this

Series

2.

In this series, as in series

i,

somewhat

in style,

and there

the exception of the


of the normal type.
6, 7,

20

is

Conclusion

the palmettes and maeander vary


no regularity about the color.
With

awkward experiment on

no. 2, the palmettes are


The color is green varying to black on nos. 2, 4,
dull red on nos. 9,11,12,17,18,21; red with added green
iCf. Class VI,

I, no.

15

Class XII, no. 7.

CLASS

X, SERIES

CONCLUSION

2,

69

on no. 3 dark red with added light leaves on no. 5 (and


the more usual greenish black with added red leaves only
and
?)
on nos. I, 8, 14, 19. The maeander is broken several times by the top
of the stele, and by oblique crosses on nos. 5,6, 11, 12, 14 more comleaves

16

pink-red, or brown-red, or
monly it is quite unbroken;
follows the predominant color of the palmettes.
greenish black

As

in series i,

color

its

we may

maeander and palmette were put on


the main scene was completed, and more or less varied
infer that

together, after
at the will of the decorator.

The

drawn in the rather glossy


on
nos. 15, 18, 26, 27 the
i, 13, 14, 19;
yellowish brown, and on the other numbers they

outlines of the scene itself are

pink of series

on nos.

now

outlines are

are a dull red or reddish

brown

in

kinds of color were used.

different

and

except for taeniae

details.

word, two or perhaps three


Solid color is sparingly used

Bright red (nos.

i, 9,

20, 21)

and dark

red (nos. 2, 4, 11, 15, 16, 18, 19, 20, 21) are frequently used for a
garment; blue occurs on nos. 3, 8, 27, gray-green on no. 18, and
brown stripes over red on no. 3. Violet wash for a garment border

While
quite common (nos. 4, 6, 10, 11, 13, 14, 16, 19, 20, 21).
wash
a few
over
the hair is ordinarily in the outline color, a green

is

19) or a red wash (no. 5) or a yellowish wash (no.


In a word the palette used is more extended than
be used.

lines (nos.

18)

may

in series i,

i, 4,

and color more

freely applied, though still with considerable


a
of
preliminary sketch may be found on no. 9 and

Traces

reserve.

perhaps on no.

Most of

5.

the scenes in this series

terms as the scenes

in series i,

types already familiar.

i.e.

The woman

may

be described in the same

without originality and using


with canistron occurs on twelve

as

vases out of twenty-four, the ephebos with spears on ten vases, the
man or woman with right hand extended on seven, with right hand
slightly raised

on

five.

The

kneeling

woman

does not occur, and

found only on no. 19.


mourning
We may note again the woman touching the stele on no. i and
in
fastening a taenia to it on no. 21, the youth wrapped to the neck
on
on
his crutch
his mantle on no. 4, and the man leaning forward
the

nos.

hand

I,

raised to the head in

2,

20.

Twice

(nos.

is

11,

12) a

woman

brings a sword to a

warrior, an adaptation of the old scene of preparation for a campaign


in which perhaps the youthful warrior represents the dead person
As in series i the drawas seen in life (cf. scenes on grave stelae).

ing of the seated figures (nos.

12,

13,

14,

15,

17,

18,

19,

20, 21)

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

70

shows more freshness than that of the usual standing figures. Vases
with three figures (nos. 17-22, 26) form a fairly large proportion of the

The figure
series, and are much more interesting than the others.
seated before the stele (nos. 1722) is best understood as representing
the dead person (cf. also the draped youth on no. 4 and the ephebos
to

whom

sword

is

brought on nos. 11, 12)

whether playing

a lyre,

believe the interpreor holding serpent or aryballos, or mourning,


The unique scenes on nos. 16, 26, 27
tation should be the same.
I

have already been discussed it is only necessary to refer to them


again as indicating an effort for originality in a class where such effort
;

is

unusual.

Of
said.

the objects carried by the figures at the grave, little need be


The spears, the lyre, the serpent, are used to characterize the

who hold them.

The

basket of taeniae and wreaths,


the alabastron, the small bird, the taenia, the fillet in the form of a
ring, the smegmatotheke, and doubtless also the hydria on no. 26
individuals

flat

are offerings or contain offerings for the dead.


these objects is easily explained by the effort

The

greater variety of
the dead

to denote

person, and by the introduction of scenes like those on grave stelae


which the dead person was included.

in

Objects

in the field

are introduced

more

freely in this series than

The
ordinarily the case on lekythoi with outlines in matt color.
the
stele
occurs
five
times (nos. i, 16, 18-20), the
flying soul by
is

mirror four times (nos. 11, 16, 20, 25)


we find also a purse (nos. 16,
a
wreath
an
alabastron
(no. 17),
(no. 17), a sword hung by the
18),
belt (no. 20), and apparently a lamp (no. 14).
These various
;

objects are hung as on the walls of a room in a domestic scene.


While for the most part they are simply carried over from the domestic

out the design, the sword and the wreath


and the alabastron might be understood as offerings at the grave.
scene and

serve to

fill

Certainly the shield (no. 9), the helmet (no. 11), and the ring fillet
The heron (no. 17) as well as the
(no. 15) may be so interpreted.
bird on a youth's finger (nos. 20, 23) are pets of the dead person,
like the dog or the bird on grave stelae.

This

series

is

closely connected with series

i,

as

is

shown by the

usual type of stele with anthemion, the continued use of slightly


glossy pink for outlines in some cases, the treatment of hair and

garments, the restrained use of color,

etc.

Here

again

some devices

are repeated from earlier classes


the striped garment (no. i), the
fluffy hair (nos. 2, 17, 19) as in Class IX, 3, the sakkos covering the

CLASS

X, SERIES

IV and V,

Classes

1-2

3,

71

and many of

the figures are


familiar types (e.g. the man leaning on his crutch, the woman with
And there are other
canistron, the youth wrapped to the neck).
hair (no. 6)

in

as

common

indications of practices

in

The

later classes.

use of violet

garment border is more frequent than in series i, and so


is the use of a
sphendone to support the hair (nos. 16, 17, 19, 24,
The woman's garment with free overfold is used in the
26).

wash

for a

While the drawing is sure


and sometimes even precise, it often shows more freedom than in
series i.
As a whole the series shows somewhat more connection

manner

later

(nos.

10,

16,

17,

19).

with later classes than does series

Series

3.

1.

Suie with simple capital or triangular top; scene


red outline

in

The

present series includes a few vases with a peculiar form


stele, most of which are not closely enough allied to either of the
two preceding series to be included under either of them. The scene

of

drawn in dull reddish lines, ordinarily coarser than in series i and 2.


With one exception palmettes and maeander are drawn in the same

is

color as the scene itself; the palmettes are quite carefully drawn
the
maeander is broken twice, not by the top of the stele but by dotted
;

crosses.

Palmettes, simple maeander and scene in dull red

two

steps stands a stele

stands in

toward the

phiale

three-quarter
stele

in

thicker red

soft slip

out toward the stele a bird in a cage

woman

0.26 m.

show white through


with simple capital.
At the left

Lines of a preliminary sketch in the

On

H.

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1769, Cv. 1795.

1.

view, her

her right hand

arm relaxed

left

her hair

is

at

used for

youth

garment.

in profile

At the

he wears a red himation.

is

the red garment.

right a

holds

young

her side, holding out

in a flat knot

no

trace of her

garment remains.

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1895, Cv. 1825.

2.

Palmettes, simple maeander, and scene in dull red

The
At

the

basket

stele

left
;

on two

steps

is

young woman

less

slightly

(goose ?) which stands on one leg on

slip,

bear

0.32 m.

no soHd color remains.

slender than usual, and has simple mouldings at the top.

bending forward holds out toward the

her garment has disappeared.

These two

H.

Cerameicus.

At the

his right

right

stele

flat

youth holds out a large bird

hand.

vases, closely related in technique

and

in scene,

have the

the decoration, and the drawing of Class


the faces, however,
some resemblance to the faces on lekythoi of Class IX, series i,

and the

stele

is

of the ordinary type

in Class

IX.

As

is

frequently

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

72
the case in Class

woman

is

has faded, as

woman

IX and sometimes

X, the garment of the


was
visible;
painted in a color which
In both scenes the
evidently the case on no 3.

no longer
is

in Class

no doubt

it

bringing offerings to the grave, while the youth with a bird


may be regarded as the figure of the dead person the bird cage is
unusual on lekythoi (cf. Class XI, 2, no. 9) but is found on a grave
is

stele

series

from Aegina. The extended phiale was noted on no. 10 of


2 in the hands of a
young warrior.
Bologna, Mus. Civ. 366.

3.

Palmettes and maeander in

The

scene

is

drawn

same

the

in

dull

H.

Athens.

Hall. Winck. Progr. Ill, 58, no. 1401


pink,

dull pink

maeander

Heydemann,

from

reversing

the color ot

0.29 m.

Pellegrini, Cat.

Tav.

v.

crosses.

oblique

garments and taeniae has nearly

disappeared.

The

stele

several
crowned with egg moulding and triangular cap
shaft.
At the left a woman bends down and holds out a flat

on two steps
about the

taeniae are tied

basket in a slanting position

peared

the hair

the figure

is

4.

Cassel,

Mus.

Arch.

Inst.

it

At the

knot at the base of her head.

Frid.

Her garments have

are wreaths once green.

nearly effaced, but apparently

profile

on

in a flat

is

is

was draped

H. 0.325 m.

379.

1898, A. A. 190,

it

disap-

right a youth stands in

in a

mantle.

Plate X,

Jahr.

3.

10.

Palmettes and unbroken maeander in dull pink, with traces of alternate bright red leaves
in the palmettes.

of the outline

lines

The

scene

may

be seen through the garments.

and taeniae, dull yellow


wreath and taeniae.

The

slender stele on

for

is

stick

two

steps

gone, but the yellowish himation

the stele

on the

flies

toward her head.

stele step,

the right hand.

and woman's mantle,

with moulding and triangular cap.


hands a
profile, holding out in both
is

in places the
pink with hair in the same paint
Darker red is used for garments

in dull

decorated with wreath and taeniae, and crowned

is

At the

woman

with bowed head stands

fastened about her waist.

At the

right a

and

rests

The

red mantle covers his

on the knee

While the technique of

left

basket with wreath and taeniae

flat
is

blue for taeniae, violet for

light

youth

his right
left

in

the sleeve chiton

\\ivyi]

near the top ot

in partial profile has put his right foot

elbow

a knotted

stick

is

held erect in

arm.

these two vases

is

that of Class

X, the

hard drawing is quite unusual.


Possibly it bears a slight
resemblance to the precise but rather graceful drawing on lekythoi of

stiff

Class IX, series

simple knot of
triangular top

occasionally

is

in

2.

The

treatment of the woman's

earlier classes

of lekythoi.

The

hair, also,

stele

with

its

is

the

small

an experiment which did not find favor; it occurs


VII and VIII. The effort to represent a

Classes

CLASS

New

5.

Plate XI,

3-7

3,

73

on his right knee, and with right


unsuccessful.^
singularly

youth bending forward to


is

foreshortened,

SERIES

X,

rest

Mus.

Metrop.

York,

H.

06.1021. 133.

arm

m.

0.293

2.

Palmettes in black with alternate leaves red

The

dotted crosses and not reversing.

scene

the maeander, also in black, broken

drawn

is

in

by

red (faces partly repainted?)

Apparently the preliminary sketch was drawn with

no color remains on the garments.


a sharp point.

The

slender stele on several

crowned with egg moulding and


hands to her head

At the

knot.

of varying height

steps

triangular top.

At the

decorated with taeniae and

is

left a

kneeling

woman

she wears a chiton girded over overfold, and her hair

bowed head

right an ephebos with

stands nearly

raises

in a

is

both

low

flat

the right hip

en face,

he extends from the elbow his right hand, palm down, and in
thrown out awkwardly
He wears a chiton, high boots, and on
his lowered left hand holds a spear on his shoulder.
;

his

head

high round cap.

6.

Palmettes

scene

is

and maeander

drawn

dull

in

pink

same color

the

in

The

have disappeared.

424, Lee.

94.

H.

0.27 m.

Pettier,

147, no. 57.

L'ec. blancs att.^ p.

The

MNB

Louvre,

Paris,

maeander reversing from oblique

crosses.

red remains on one garment, but other colors

preliminary sketch in the soft

slip

shows

in

white

lines

through

the red garment.

The

slender stele on

two

steps

is

about the shaft are traces of taeniae.

crowned with mouldings and rude


At the left a man leans forward,

as

hand he holds out

though supHis
purse.

profile

holds out a

ported by a crutch under his left shoulder


red mantle is held up under the left arm.
rolled-up garment

in

both hands

no

in his right

At

the right a

trace of her garments

woman

in

triangular

top

remains, but the broken lines

of her figure show that once a garment existed.

The

at
is

technique of no. 6 is distinctly that of Class X, the figure


the left was noted in early numbers of Class X, series 2, a mantle
carried

by an ephebos on

on no. 14 of

field

series

series 2, no. 9,
It

i.

for the

Munich, 1594

The

neck

is

lost.

which seems

soft slip
1

left

her hair.

to shoulder 0.146

earlier series.

m.

many leaves and maeander in dull red, the maeanThe scene is drawn in fairly coarse fines of the same

Palmettes with

have

a slight

show white through

amount of

1888 {Catalogue,

glaze.

Lines of preliminary sketch in the

the red of one garment.

similar figure of a youth bending forward

Exhibition of

the

to

H.

(209c).

der reversing from oblique crosses.


color,

only the awkward acroterion on


for outlines of the scene

ornament, which separate the vase from the

7.

in the

same color

the stele, and the use of the

and

is

and a purse hangs

no. 53,

is

found on a lekythos in the Burlington Fine Arts Club


the stele is of the same type as on no. 4, on the steps at

H. 0.405 m.);

stands a heron, and opposite the youth

is

woman whose

garments are gone,

raising her

hands to

tear

/FHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

74

On

two

left

crowned with egg moulding and

steps stands a stele

which

inner triangle of

woman

now

is

gray

hand

raises his left

Palmettes and unbroken maeander


of red, varying

toward brown

for a wreath.

The

the

bottom

hair

arm and

forward on
is

relieved

left

hand

of

the scene

is

raised

left

in

toward

very fine

with

The

scene

is

drawn

She wears

held up bv

?) about

0.08 m. wide with small

crowned with egg

is

supporting himself on

left,

At the

his chin.

woman

right

hand away from the

a sleeveless chiton, loose at the

the folds are gracefully drawn.

wide

in fine lines

a fine brush.

youth facing the

At the
left

Plate XII.

bearded man leans

left

the right

and

figure,

The

with third and fourth fingers bent.

lines.

on her

right

used for garment and taenia, and dull black

is

sits a

it

At the

At the

chiton.

H. 0.325 m.

band (platform

hand toward

his chin,

waist by an ornamented girdle


is

red

slender stele with curved sides

Before

leg relieved

and wreaths.

and her hair

which supports the red mantle under his left shoulder


right hand he holds out a small bird toward the central

in his

beard are drawn

small triangular top, the

red and grav taeniae.

stele.

dark red.

in dull

in detail

is

The

raising his right

a staff

en face, her
taenia

touch the

to

another red

drawn

is

diamond-shaped ornament.
moulding and triangular top.
his left

she wears

Boston, Mus. Fine Arts, 10.557.

8.

At

shaft are tied

bowed head

approaches, with

naked child kneels and

on the

hair

leg
his

and

with bowed head stands


stele

is

a flat

basket with

neck and confined

She

also

at

the

wears earrings,

cloth.

The drawing on

this vase is so pecuHar that it can only be rein spite of the


an
It is placed in Class
experiment.
garded
fine lines of the drawing, because the technique resembles that of
Class
more than that of any other class and the scene is analogous
to several scenes, especially in series 1
moreover, the presentation

as

of a bird

is

common

in this class,

and the man's figure bears some

resemblance to a similar figure on no.


drawing and the shape of the stele lead
the present series, though
only by the type of stele.

it

is

of series

me

related

to

to place

2.
it

The
at

peculiar
the end of

other vases in the series

While the composition of the scene is


of
the
are
familiar types, little can be said for
and
good,
figures
the drawing.

Series

3.

Conclusion

With

the
reference to the series as a whole, two points are clear
of a peculiar shape, and (except on no. 5) the scene is drawn
in the same
pigment as the maeander and the palmettes of the shoulder.
stele

is

While the stele on nos. i, 2 and the figures on no. 5 recall Class IX,
and there are connections now with the first series, now with the second
of Class X, the two points just mentioned serve to differentiate
the present series.
The second is the more important, in that orna-

series,

ment and scene were drawn not onlv

in the

same pigment but pre-

CONCLUSION OF CLASS X

75

by the same hand. Nos. i, 2 show little or no similarity


The link that conin drawing to nos. 3, 4 or again to no. 5 or no. 8.
is
the
in
one
class
fact
that
nects them
they apparently were not made
in the larger ateliers devoted to the manufacture of white lekythoi or

sumably

also

not in the ordinary course in such ateliers, but rather they


seem to be experiments by men who perhaps were accustomed to other
Too much stress should not be laid on this
kinds of vase painting.
at least

point, as the white slip

of the present

is

of the same character as on other lekythoi

class.

Conclusion of Class

In the present class the division into series is relatively unimportant, though the common use of a glossy color for the outline in
series i, and the more free drawing of series 2, form real distinctions.

The shape

of these lekythoi tends to be slender as compared with

IX and XI, and

it is
The
usually very graceful.
about
m.
The
is
of
fine
0.30
slip
height is ordinarily
consistency,
more chalky than in Class IX but firmer than in some of the later

those of Classes

As

and maeander, the variety of paint used


The egg pattern above the palmettes is rarely present,
has been noted.
and in four or five instances the palmettes vary from the ordinarv
classes.

type.

for the palmettes

The maeander, which was

unbroken

regularly

in Class

IX,

is

not infrequently broken either by oblique crosses or by the anthemion


of the stele.
The scene itself is drawn in rather fine even lines of a
reddish paint, often a glossy pink in series i, sometimes brownish in
series 2
the lines have not the pencil-like character noted in Class
and
often
the color serves to separate this class from later classes.
IX,
;

The

use of solid color

garment, and
later

is

quite restricted

wash now violet

specimens of

this class

for

red

is

often

garment border

is

used for a

common on

there are frequent indications of a color

completely faded, and occasionally several colors are preserved.


The most characteristic mark of the class is a fairly slender

stele

on two (or three) steps, crowned with scrolls and palmette but with
no acanthus ornament. A different type of stele occurs on the few

The
vases of series 3, and in two or three scenes no stele is present.
a
few
familiar
figures beside the stele quite regularly repeat
types.
When a third figure occurs, as on one third of the vases in series 2, the
more carefully considered; and the seated
"
conventional, more
original," than the standing figures.
composition

is

figure

The

is

less

stand-

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

76

ing figures are not so definitely limited to the profile or full-front


view as in Class IX, but (especially in series 2 and 3) compare rather

with the

more

freely

drawn

figures of Classes

and VI.

In genoften rather

the drawing is sure, sometimes precise, but more


In the delicate, sure sense for line the vases of this class
hasty.

eral

compare favorably with the splendid lekythoi of Class V, and the more

XI

they distinctly excel both the simple


I
believe that they
scenes and the elaborate scenes of later classes.
elaborate scenes of Class

were produced within a limited period, coincident with later vases of


Classes V, VI, and IX and earlier vases of Class XI, probably in the
third quarter of the fifth century b.c.

LEKYTHOI WITH SCENE DRAWN USUALLY IN PINK (OR


VIOLET-BLACK) OUTLINE; STELE WITH ANTHEMION AND

CLASS XI

ACANTHUS LEAVES

The third class of white lekythoi with drawing in a matt color may
be defined as including earlier vases with acanthus leaf ornament on the
The slip is white and smooth, but sometimes slightly rougher
stele.
polished) than in Class X, in which case the lines may be slightly
broken by the unevenness of the slip. The scene is drawn in fine,
(less

even

fairly

varying in color from rose to brown-red or violet-

lines

is still somewhat
sparingly used, though more freely
and the drawing is more free than in Classes IX or
slender and usually has an anthemion similar to the

Solid color

black.

than

in Class

X.

The

stele

is

X, though the anthemion varies with the different


For the sake of convenience the vases of
types of acanthus leaves.
type found

in Class

this class are discussed in five series.

Series

i.

Lekythoi resembling those

in

Class

IX

or

X,

base (or at the top) of the stele.


Series 2.
Lekythoi mostly about 0.40 m. high with scenes
other than that of worship at the grave.

but with acanthus leaves

Series 3.
or

more

at the

Lekythoi mostly about 0.40 m. high with three

figures at the grave.

Series

two figures

4.

Lekythoi about 0.30 m. high, ordinarily with

at the grave.

Miscellaneous lekythoi about 0.30 m.


which may best be discussed under Class XI.
Series

5.

This division into

high,

rather arbitrary, but it serves to bring


together for discussion the vases which belong together.
series

Series

The

six vases in this

i.

is

Transitional examples

series are related

to

earlier classes,

but are

grouped here because of the presence of acanthus leaves on the stele.


They are earlier than the vases discussed in the following series and
represent experiments which led up to
characteristic of the present class.
77

the developed style that

is

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

78

Brussels,

1.

Mus.

Cinq.

H.

bis.

396

0.27 m.

Shoulder ornament no longer visible. The maeandcr and the scene are drawn
pink, the lines of which show through the bright red of a garment.

The
ornament

on three steps has acanthus leaves


At the left are traces of a

stele

the base, and

at

woman

the top.

at

stands en face, his right hand on the top of his head

in

perhaps had

At the

profile.

right a

in dull

similar

youth

the red mantle leaves his right

shoulder free.

The drawing on
IX,

At

eye.

shape of the head, the

same time the work

the

The

usual in that series.

head

his

in

mourning,

more

is

delicate

traces

of dull pink

The

and strong than is


raising the hand to
than elsewhere.

in that series

O. Benndorf^

H. 0.415 m.

(Coll. 671).
S.

90, 4.

is

The

thicker.

hair

is

drawn

few

in a

of outline color and covered

lines

brown wash.

stele

crowned with egg moulding and


in solid violet (blue ?).
At

is

heavy acanthus leaves

bowed, holding out

hands a

in both

flat

typical

anthemion

the

back of the head.

left

basket of taeniae

overfold or sleeveless chitonion reaching to her knees

woman

and the

remain of palmettes or maeander.


The scene is drawn in fine even lines
the acanthus leaves, taeniae, and garments are now violet with traces of blue

the color

a thin

profile,

much damaged.

Weisshauepl, Festschrift fur

No

man

also, a

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1799, Cv. 1682

2.

with

is

type of figure

more common

is

Unfortunately the vase

where

resembles that on vases of Class

this vase closely

series i, particularly in the

about the base are

approaches, her head

she wears a chiton, with blue

her hair

Before her hangs a blue taenia in the

approaches, her head bowed, carrying a

woman
is

in a large loose

At

field.

basket of taeniae on her

flat

holding out on her right hand a rolled-up mantle.

Her

dress

is

knot

at the

the right a second

like

left

arm and

her companion's

except that the chitonion has a pattern at the top and bottom ; her hair seems to be
In the field a \pv)(rj flies toward her, one hand on its head.
short and curly.

Wien, Hofmus. 623.

3.

Griech. Sic.

The
and red

palmette ornament

in coarse black

is

maeander

varying in places to red.

The

Benndorf,

Vas.^ Taf. xiv.

the unbroken

black for taeniae

H. about 0.40 m.

Athens.

also

is

with

lines

The

in dull black.

Violet wash

is

many
scene

is

leaves,

drawn

alternately black
in fine lines of

pink

used for garment border, taeniae, and details

dark red-brown for a garment.

stele rests

on

a plinth

from which spring three acanthus leaves, and

is

crowned

with anthemion having a violet spot in the centre. At the left a woman bends down, holding
out in both hands a flat basket of black and violet taeniae ; she wears a sleeveless chiton
girded over overfold with violet edge, and her hair

sphendone with violet edge.


straight out,

palm up, her

sleeve chiton remain, over

wide
the

violet

left

left

At the
hand

right stands a
raised to the

which she wears

border above and below.

On

hangs the cord of a wreath from

is

in a large loose

woman

knot supported by a

nearly en face, her right hand

back of her head

each side of the

which the

stele a

y\ivyf]

leaves are gone.

traces

only

short sleeveless chitonion,

of

her

dark red with

flies

away, and

at

CLASS
No.

drawn

is

SERIES

79

1-5

i,

pink lines which are characfrom typical vases of Class

in the slightly glossy

of Class X, series

teristic

XI,

It differs

i.

not only in the presence of acanthus leaves, but also in the free use
of violet (or blue) in the women's overgarment, and in the remarkable delicacy and vigor of the drawing. Further, the woman at the right,
standing with left leg relieved and in three-quarter profile, is not
The rolled-up garment has been noted on a
typical of Class X.

number of

vases, previously discussed

on

this

vase

would be

it

natural to interpret it as an offering at the grave, though doubtless


presence on these lekythoi is an inheritance from the toilet scenes

its

This lekythos should be reat the grave.


of
like those in Class X, to
vases
an
effort
some
by
painter
garded
produce a more splendid example of his work to such efforts is due
the introduction of the acanthus ornament which soon became a reguwhich preceded scenes
as

lar

is

accessory of the series.


No. 3 deserves to be classed with no. 2, for though the drawing
The
not so fine, the composition is more carefully considered.

garments are more clearly defined than usual in later classes, the
Doric chiton girded over an overfold on the woman at the left, and
"
over a sleeve chiton on the mourner
the colored chitonion or "jacket

The

at the right.

of the

simple suggestion of acanthus leaves at the base


vase like the preceding is an experiment

stele indicates that this

of a new type of ornament.

in the use

Wien, Hofmus. 1970.

4.

Athens.

H.

0.42 m.

Palmettes and maeander in dull black, the maeander broken by dotted oblique crosses

The

and reversing.

scene

is

drawn in

rather fine lines varying from pale red to dull violet-

garments and taeniae.


and
on
two
steps is decorated with red and black taeniae,
fairly
At the
crowned with acanthus leaves at the left of it a taenia is draped in the field.

black

dull red

and black are used

The

wide

for

stele

woman

left a

her

left

with bowed headMn three-quarter view sits on a rough block, holding up in


hand an alabastron and carrying a flat basket on her right arm away from the stele.

She wears

a sleeve chiton

ported by

his

right

wrapped
5.

sphendone.

hand

slightly,

and

mantle over her knees

At the

right a

her hair

is

in

loose knot

approaches, in three-quarter

youth
palm down, toward the

stele

sup-

view, raising

except for the right arm he

is

closely in a long mantle.

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1977, Cv. 1687.

Eretria.

H. 0.465 m.

The scene is drawn in


Ornament and scene (except one figure) are nearly effaced.
solid
red
for another.
and
for
one
brown-red, with violet wash border
garment,
left
are
traces
of a figure with red
At
the
of
stele
the
remains.
Only the lower part

mantle, seated in a chair.


shield

on

his left

arm,

At the

right a warrior stands in

a spear erect in his right

hand, and

partial

profile, a large

a scarf or small

round

mantle over

his

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

8o

He

right arm.

and on

his

head

wears a
a

is

close-fitting short chiton (or

The

helmet.

These two vases

dignified face

is

cuirass

finely

are included in the

"

with violet edge, girded

drawn.

transitional

"

series in spite

of the free drawing, because the tradition of two figures by the stele
still holds good as over against the scenes with several figures on the
2 and 3.
The draped youth with hand slightly
large lekythoi of series
raised on no. 4 may perhaps be regarded as the figure of the dead, acOn no. 5, also,
cepting the offerings brought by the woman opposite.

the warrior should be regarded as representing the dead person


probis not a mourner but a relative of the deceased,
the
seated
person
ably
;

represented with the dead as in a scene on a grave stele, but the vase
is so rubbed as to make the
meaning of this figure doubtful.

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1938, Cv.

6.

Plate XIII,

1707.

Eretria.

H. 0.40 m.

Strena Helbigiana^ P- 4i-

2.

in
The scene is drawn in fine lines
gray-green.
used for the woman's mantle and dull green for twigs.
Drawing

Palmettes and unbroken maeander

of dull red

bright red

is

delicate.

The wide low

from large acanthus leaves in outline, and is crowned by ornacapital on which lies a lion with paw extended toward the flat basket
She stands in profile, with bowed head, holdof wreaths brought by the woman at the left.
she
wears
a
sleeve chiton and bright red himation
basket
in
both
her
out
her
hands
;
ing
stele rises

mented mouldings and

hair

is

field.

Before her a mirror hangs


loosely back and gathered in a flat knot.
At the right are traces of a standing male figure draped in an himation.

drawn

This interesting scene

is

in

the

discussed by Collignon in the Strena Hel-

bigiana^ who points out that the lion occurs on private as well as public
grave monuments of a somewhat earlier period either as a symbol

While it is possibly the


of bravery or as a guardian of the grave.
adaptation of a relief, more probably the painter intended a lion in
The striking pethe round on top of the stele, just as represented.
culiarity of this scene

is

that the lion raises his

paw

as

though

to

touch

the offerings brought by the woman.


This can hardly be pure caprice
of the painter; rather it indicates in a symbolic manner the acceptance

of the offerings presented.


stele,

it

may

As

figure at the right of the


man to whom the tomb was

for the

well represent the dead

erected.

The drawing

of the scene finds

VI, and the acanthus


present class.

is

its

closest parallel in Classes

and

the only distinct point of connection with the

CLASS

SERIES

XI,

Series

i.

series

for

is

ornament on the

No.

stele.

81

Conclusion

termed "transitional,"
would be included under earlier classes if

This

2,

it

it

includes vases which

were not for the acanthus

resembles Class IX, series

nos. 2

and 4 and probably no. 5 recall Class


and no. 6 finds its closest
;
in Class V.
While
vases
use
the acanthus in a simple
these
analogies
experimental form, and probably precede most of the other vases in
the present class, they still may be regarded as evidence that Classes IX

overlap Class XI.


Except for no. i they are larger than is
and represent an effort toward the fine
customary in Classes IX or
V
of
Classes
and
VI.
lekythoi
Though the scene is limited to two

and

figures, the

Series

2.

This

drawing

Larger

is

careful

and the composition

effective.

lekythoi with scenes other than worship at the

grave

of lekythoi, with one or two exceptions, about


0.40 m. high, and decorated with scenes other than the ordinary
These scenes represent the prothesis,
scene of worship at the grave.
series consists

Charon receiving the dead, and a group of figures proceedto


the
the
ing
grave, or preparing to proceed to the grave.
in
the burial scenes and several Charon scenes, it
stele is present as
the burial,

When

has acanthus leaves on either side of the anthemion, or in one instance extra scrolls on the sides of the anthemion.
In examples

acanthus leaves) the style of drawing


are
such as to include the vases in Class
other technical features

without the

stele

(and

its

and

XI.

The

color of the paint used for the outline varies, but on three-quarters
of the examples a violet wash occurs for a garment or a garment

border.
I.

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1925, Cv. 1652.

drawn

Palmettes, unbroken maeander, and scene are

brown.

Dark red

ure at the

left, is

is

her hair

At the
;

left

in a

The

is

The

lines

now

violet-

scene, except for the fig-

laid

to his

raises

At

on

a high

couch

over the body are

en face raises both hands to her head as

she wears an outline chiton and

other toward the head of the corpse.

vase in

mantle

young woman

woman, whose chiton has disappeared,


one hand raised

in rather fine

0.41 m.

nearly effaced.

placed red taeniae.


if tearing

used for a garment and for taeniae.

The dead wrapped

Prothesis.

H.

Eretria.

red mantle.

one hand

the right

to her

In the centre a second


forehead and extends the

stands a youth in a red mantle, with

head.

prothesis scene has been discussed in connection with one


Class VI and five vases in Class IX.
The scene on the

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

82

present vase resembles two vases in Class IX, series 3 (nos. 11, 12),
in the delicacy of the drawing, but differs from them in the fact that
a third figure, the figure of a youth, is present.
It was pointed out
in

connection with IX, i, no. 12, that this brother or relative of the
makes the scene even more realistic than when only the

deceased

mourners

7 hough

are present.

XI among

this

lekythos clearly belongs in Class

the earlier vases with acanthus ornament on the stele,

it

might be contemporaneous with the lekythoi having the same scene


IX, series 3 (nos. 11, 12), in which case the difference of
A simpler treatment
technique would denote simply another atelier.

in Class

of this scene was found in Class IX, series

(nos. 12-14).

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1939, Cv. 1656.

2.

Palmettes, maeander, and scene are

drawn

H. 0.395 m.

Eretria.

in lines

now

pale violet

the palmettes had

maeander broken by oblique crosses.


The colors
the red taeniae on the stele and the red boots of the winged

alternate leaves in another shade of red

have nearly faded, except for


figures.
Drawing sure and delicate.
Depositio.

The

slender stele

reaches into the maeander

crowned with acanthus

is

on either

side

is

leaves

an oblique palmette

Before the stele two winged figures are

in

and anthemion which


the field, enclosed

bodv of

by

dead person as
though to place it in the grave ; apparently the lower part of the body still rests on the
it is
bier, while one winged figure has raised the shoulders and the other holds one hand
a line.

the

lifting

clothed with

a short sleeveless

now

is

a reserved

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1830, Cv. 1654

3.

Dumont

C'eram. de

Chaplain,

la

oblique crosses
Depositio.

I,

0.55 m.

pis. xxvii-xxviii

Rayet Collignon, Ceram. grecque^

85.
Palmettes,

are

H.

(Coll. 631).

Grece propre^

Pottier, Lee. hlanes att.^ p. 24, no. 2

white stephane.
The winged male figures wear short chitons
without color, and dark red boots.

about the hair


girded,

chiton, ornamented at neck and bottom edge, and girded

two

sets

woman,

maeander, and scene

and

reverses.

The

Violet

tapering stele

of acanthus leaves.

is

in

is

is

rose.

The maeander

edge
white sphendone.

The winged

placing his

on an elevation

foot

facing

toward the

Behind him

in a gesture

he wears

garment with

thin

about the hair

is

a reserved

stoops forward, and supports himself by


The figure at
bearded and wears an exomis.

he

is

low and holds the knees of the

the right of the stele an ephebos with

at

of mourning

right.

figure at the left

the right, not bearded but with similar garment, crouches

woman.

broken by dotted

crowned with egg moulding and anthemion, on which


it two
winged figures are supporting the body of

wrapped about her, falling free from her knees

left

is

used for border of garments.

Before

almost in a seated position,

violet

dull

wash

a petasos

and

bowed head

raises his

hands

chlamys with violet border.

H. 0.47 m.
Eretria.
Athens, Nat. Mus. 12783, Nic. 1009.
cf. Amer.
Cat.., Suppl., pi. xvi
Jour. Arch. 1907, pp. 24, 25, 31.
The palmettes are nearly effaced the careful maeander is broken by checker-boaxd
3a.

CLASS
Ornament and scene

squares.

drawn

are

SERIES

XI,

in

2-4

2,

dull black

wash

violet

83
is

used for girdles

and garment borders.

"

Depositio.

Sur un tertre peu eleve, deux Genies

enveloppee d'un chiton


donnee entre leurs bras.

a franges

violettes et

Le Genie de

d'un

masculins, barbus, vetus de

ailes,

chitons a franges pourpres et de ceintures violettes, soulevent

le

corps d'une jeune femme,

La jeune femme

linceul.

est

aban-

de gauche, les jambes.


Au second plan, un arbe ou un buisson dont on
Les ailes des Genies etaient blanches.
A droite de se groupe,
distingue les branches, indique que la scene se passe en plein air.
Hermes psychopompe, sous les traits d'un homme d'age mur et barbu. II a des ailettes

aux talons

et tient

un kerykeion dans

droite tient le buste,

la

main

droite.

11

celui

porte une chlamyde a franges

Ulas."

4.

The

Robert, Than-

i.

palmettes and unbroken maeander are in dull green-black,

added leaves

now brown.

dull violet-red

ornament

triple plain

Before the

stele

wrapped

The winged

scene

is

drawn

in fine lines of

same color applied more

thickly.

the palmettes with

brown which shades


Violet

wash

is

into

used for

details, thin black for details.

The

Depositio.

The

the

hair in

garment borders and

it is

H. 0.495 m.

Athens.

Berlin, Furtw. 2456.

atos, S.I 9, Taf.

slender stele
;

two winged
neck

to the

is

crowned with

figure at the left

is

two

sets

of acanthus leaves, and

enforced with violet wash.

dead body of a youth facing toward the right ;


mantle with violet edge, and about the hair is a violet taenia.
(in profile) bends forward, his left foot on a stone, and holds

drawn

holds the dead body under

is

figures support the

in a

the dead person with his hands under

contour of the wings

scrolls,

the upper edge of the acanthus leaves

its

its

hips.

in dull black.

knees

He

is

At the

bearded and wears no clothing ; the


youth bends low and

right a winged,

he wears a short chiton with

violet

wash border

at

top and bottom.

The

depositio scene has

been discussed in connection with two vases

VI,
(nos. 2-3), on one of which Thanatos and Hypnos (?)
are bringing to the grave the body of a dead warrior, while on the
in Class

other a youthful winged figure supports on a bier the body of a dead

woman and

a second similar figure raises his hand to


These
three lekythoi cannot be much later
mourning.
they have the same strong delicate drawing and the scene

conceived.

head in

in

date, for

is
similarly
are
both
beardless, the bier
winged figures
the arrangement of the figures closely resembles that

On

no. 1 the

present, and
on Class VI, i, no.

is

his

3.

No.

3 resembles Class VI, i, no. 2, in the way


in the fact that one of the winged figures

is
supported and
The drawing both of the winged figures
bearded (Thanatos ?).
and of the dead woman is unusually fine the body of the dead is

the body
is

carefully composed with only the slightest suggestion of the stiffness


of death.
The introduction of the ephebos beside the stele in the

rear of the other figures

is

gracefully conceived both to

make an

effec-

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

84

composition and to fill out the meaning of the scene by the


perhaps the son of the dead woman.
presence of an actual mourner
The poetic significance of the scene is most successfully brought out
tive

in this

It

example.

may

me

be compared with no. ja (known to

only

by the publication) with somewhat stiffer drawing. On this vase a


tree takes the place of the stele, instead of an ephebos Hermes is
present at the right of the winged figures, and the effort of carrying
On the Berlin
the dead woman is much more clearly defined.
vase no. 4, which has no fourth figure introduced, we find the

same firm and

delicate

as

drawing

on no. 3

here also one of the

winged figures is bearded. These three vases with the two in Class
VI, I, are closely related in spite of the difference in technique. We
may well believe that the presence of this scene on lekythoi was due
to the popularity of some painting of real importance which was transformed to meet the requirements of lekythoi by some skilful leky-

thos painter (or painters) early in the second half of the

I,

xxiii, 1

Daremberg-Saglio,

fig.

Palmettes in brown-red with alternate leaves


the scene are also

Much rubbed.
The stele
his right

knees

brown-red

in

is

violet

wash

sits

Ant. Denk.

The simple maeander and


used for garment and for details.

violet.

is

facing the right, his

hand

toward

raised

his

the

head

about his
hand holding up some small object (an obol ?) toward Charon
and his hair falls in curls to his shoulders.
At the right Charon
;

hand grasping

raised left

down

the

the youth, his right hand extended toward

at

him and

his

He

wears exomis and high cap.


At the left a
pole.
at the youth and holding out a flat basket ot taeniae ;

erect

young woman stands looking down

she wears a sleeveless chiton girded over an overfold and her hair

falls

on her shoulders

in

curls.

H. 0.32 m.
Athens, Nat. Mus. 1758, Cv. 1660.
Taf. xxiii, i
Amer. Jour. Arch. II (1886), pi. xii, 2.

Ant. Denk.

6.

I,

On

acanthus leaves.

violet
left

a violet mantle,

stands in his boat, looking

long

B.C.

^233-

now

crowned with anthemion and spreading

youth with bowed head

steps a

and

is

drawn

century

H. 0.43 m.

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1757, Cv. 1661.

5.

Taf.

fifth

Ornament and scene

in

rather fine

oblique crosses and not reversing.

dull

Violet

red lines,

wash

is

the

maeander broken by dotted

used for a garment border and dull

green for Charon's cap.

The
are

slender stele

added acanthus

decorated with taeniae and crowned with anthemion to which

is

leaves.

mantle with violet border.

Before

At the

leans forward, extending his right

pole erect

right

left

of the

arm

a flat basket

stele a small

child advances

Charon

xpvxq

of taeniae, and

in

right

At the

his

left

left

it

wears a

hand holds

woman

her right hand

toward Charon.

with one foot on the edge,

child, while

a greenish cap.

Ai^s

toward the

in his boat,

hand toward the

he wears a red exomis and

carrying on her

At the

it

right

lifting

his

approaches,

up

cup.

CLASS

New

7.

SERIES

XI,

GR

York, Metrop. Mus.

drawn

maeander

with dull black for the hair

in violet-black,

border, black for taeniae, red and thin

yellow

for

85

H. 0.254 m.

619.

Palmettes in black with spaces for red leaves


is

5-10

2,

also

scene

used for a garment

is

There

garments.

The

black.

in

wash

violet

are traces of a
pre-

liminary sketch.

The

on three

stele

is

steps

decorated with red and black taeniae, and crowned with

At

high scrolls and palmette.

the left Charon stands bending forward in his boat, his


hand raised grasping the erect pole and his right hand extended
he wears a yellow
exomis and high cap with traces of red.
Before the stele a child in partial profile stands
left

his

Charon,

facing

At

himation.

hand

right

raised a

woman

the right a

her right hand and carrying on her


chiton remain, and over

is

it

little

from

stands in partial
left

arm

side

his

profile,

with black taeniae

a flat basket

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1814, Cv. 1662.


Ant. Denk. I, Taf. xxiii, 3.
Ornament and scene
At

there are traces of a red

traces

of her

an himation with violet wash border.

8.

wash and dark red

holding up a black taenia in

in a

H.

Eretria.

0.37 m.

brownish red, the maeander simple and unbroken.

Violet

are used for garments.

Charon stands in profile in his boat, supporting himself by the erect pole
hand and extending his right hand toward the child in front of him
he wears
In the centre on a high rock sits a child, its feet
a red exomis and a high round cap.
to the right and its head turned to face Charon ; a violet garment is
spread on the rock
the left

in his left

under the

At

the

child.

(a goose ?)
both arms

In front of the rock at the right

woman

left

box with handle or

she wears a chiton, and an himation with violet border

her hair

in a

is

low projecting

strap attached.

drawn forward over

knot.

H. about 0.40 m.

Vienna, Oest. Mus. 1086.

9.

is

nearly in profile approaches, holding out in both hands a large bird

Palmettes in violet-gray with alternate leaves red

the maeander,

also

in

is

gray,

broken by dotted oblique crosses, but does not reverse.


The scene is drawn in gray,
to
with
a
redder
color
for
the
hair
duU
;
bright red is used for one garment,
varying
pink,
A color like the outline is apparently used as a
and a violet wash border for another.

wash over the

flesh of the

youth

at

the

left.

The

preliminary sketch

is

drawn with

dull point in the soft slip.

At

the right

Charon stands bending forward in his


left hand and extends

holds a pole erect in his lowered

He

before him.

wears a red chiton with reserved white

"noble"

boat, his right foot raised


his

belt

and

hand toward the

right
a

high round cap

he
girl

his

approaches him, holding out


type.
her
in both hands a goose ; she wears a chiton and an himation with violet border
flies toward Charon with gesture ot lamentaBefore her head a
curly hair is short.
face

is

of the

In the centre a

girl

in profile

^^ivyj]

tion.

At the

left

youth

holding up a hare that

10.

Brussels,

Frohner,
The

sits

Collection

approaches, carrying a bird cage in his left hand and


He wears a loosely draped himation.
erect on his right hand.
in profile

Mus.

Cinq.

903.

H.

0.29 m.

Plate XIV,

3.

van Branteghem^ no. 186.

palmettes and unbroken maeander are in dull black.

The

scene

is

drawn

in

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

86

with violet-black

dull red

tor the hair

to be indications of a preliminary sketch

At the

right

Charon

dark red

used for one garment.

is

drawn with

in his boat holds out

his

There seem

sharp point.

hand and

right

the pole erect

carries

on the edge of his boat.


He wears over both shoulders
At the left of Charon Hermes advances to
a short red chiton with fringed lower edge.
meet him and looks back at the woman whose left hand he holds in his small right hand

hand

in his left

the

toot

left

is

he wears

woman

chlamys and

in profile,

her hair

is

in a

a petasos

on

his shoulders,

both

her right hand extended from the elbow

low

flat

knot.

At the

left

is

Above her

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1891, Cv. 1658.

followed by a

her garments have disappeared

follows a child in profile, with

carrying a smegmatotheke in her right hand.

II.

He

in outline.

a sakkos

bowed

hangs in the

head,

field.

H. 0.29 m.

Cerameicus.

Three palmettes in dull green with alternate leaves red run from left to right.
The
are
drawn
in dull red
maeander
and
the
scene
red
and
violet
wash
are
used
for
simple
;

garments, dull

green

Charon's cap.

for

Preliminary sketch

in

the

soft

Much

slip.

rubbed.

Charon stands en face in his boat, holding the pole on his shoulder with the left hand
he wears a red exomis and a dull
and extending his right hand toward his companion
the
From
are
about
boat.
the left a man approaches, wearing
Reeds
drawn
green cap.
;

garment with

violet edge.

The Charon

scene has already been discussed in connection with


V (nos. 7-8), Class VI, i (no. 7), Class VII, 2

the lelcythoi of Class


(nos. 10-12), Class

IX,

(nos. 15-20), Class

IX,

2 (nos.

24-25), and

Several of the present examples are

Class IX, 3 (nos. 13-14).


elaborate and are clearly of a

somewhat

later

date.

On

more

no. 5

the

youth seated on the steps of the slender stele represents the dead
person for whom Charon has come (cf. Class X, 2, nos. 17-21);
his foreshortened right leg, the raised hands, the right
a coin,

and the

hand holding

profile with indication of a ridge at the base

of the

The three acanthus


original spirit of this painter.
the stele and the rocks under Charon's boat are also

forehead, show the


leaves

on

The woman

the right with hair loose over her shoulders


brings offerings to the grave as though Charon were not present.
the
The scene on no. 6 is a similar combination of two parts

unusual.

at

and

woman

bringing offerings, and the figure of a child for


has come with his boat.
Perhaps this vase is from
the same hand as no. 5, though more hastily drawn, for the effort to

stele

whom Charon

perspective so as to show Charon's left foot


in the boat and his right foot on the ground beyond the boat is most
unusual.
The figure of the child hurrying to meet Charon and the

draw Charon's boat

in

woman's hand are also unusual.


The scene on no. 7 also shows the same combination of stele and
mourner with Charon and the child for whom he has come. The
cup held high

in the

CLASS

SERIES

XI,.

hand of the

slightly raised right

child

is

The form

of the ferryman of the dead.

ii

2,

87

apparently his recognition


of the stele, as well as the

violet-black paint and the small size of the vase, recalls two other
804) and Class XII,
lekythoi, viz. series 3, no. 8 (Louvre,

MNB

GR

no. 14

(New York,

for the

drawing on these vases

On

no. 8 the child

on

a rock

are

finely

shrunken

above

618)
is

a casket

characterized
face, the

may be merely accidental,


not noticeably similar.

the likeness
is

also present, a little nude child seated high


In this scene the figures
on a lower rock.

chubby

the

old

child

boatman with

lean

bending forward as

body and

if in

curiosity

while his right foot is drawn up under his left leg, and the woman
with beautifully drawn sad face who brings the bird that had been the
If this vase

child's playmate.

the painter

is

much more

is

from the same hand

as nos. 5

successful here both in his drawing

and
and

6,

in

his appeal to the spectator.


striking Charon scene already discussed (Class IX, I, no. 20) should be compared with the one under

discussion in the painter's effort to characterize the different figures,


and perhaps also in the style of the drawing. The child, which is

the central figure on nos. 6-8, is occasionally present also in scenes of


X, 2, no. 16) either as
worship at the stele (e.g- Class IX, 3, no. i
the central figure, as a worshipper, or as an attribute to mark the
;

young mother.
apparently the girl for whom Charon has come
who carries the goose, while perhaps her brother brings the cage
for a small bird and a hare (cf. IX, 2, no. 22, Louvre,
612).
the
scene
is more stiff than
is careful and
the
good,
drawing
Though

On

no. 9

it

is

CA

the

Charon scenes thus

far

The wash

considered.

over the flesh of

it is found, however, on a
the youth at the left is most unusual
York
New
in
of
Class
VI, 2,
(07.286.42, see Appendix, no.
lekythos
;

14a), and another in

No.

10, which

in

London (VI, i, no. 2; Brit. Mus. D


some points of technique resembles

a simple, straightforward treatment of the

Charon

scene.

58).
no. 7, has

young

man, presumably Hermes, looks back at the shrinking woman whom


The drawing is
he is trying to lead forward rapidly toward Charon.
for the woman's left
simple, almost hasty, and decidedly awkward
with
more
refined drawing is
treatment
The same simple
hand.

found on no. 13
left

is

present

ff.

as

The child at the extreme


of the present series.
" attribute " to mark the dead woman as a

an

mother.

Probably no.

1 1

should be included here, though the damaged

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

condition of the vase makes

The

difficult to assign.

it

reeds about

the boat are regularly present on the Charon scenes of Class XIII,
but the violet wash on the garment edge is characteristic of the

present class.
With the exception

of no.

Charon

scene, and

addition

attempt

is

mourner

present with the


group (cf. the mourning
ephebos in the depositio scene no. 3, supra) adds a note of reality to
As to the representation of Charon,
a scene essentially imaginative.
we may add that no. 8 is the only one of these vases on which the

(cf.

made

Class VI,

this

ii, a

Charon

to characterize

as the

Boston, Mus. Fine Arts, 03.800.


neck 0.397 m. Plate XVI, i.
now

Palmettes in dull black with alternate leaves

The

wash

used

for

is

added

garment

scene

is

for the hair

in

for

one garment

unbroken maeander

through

to

brown

to

a dull

wash

violet

is

dark red the

this

delicate, but faded.

Neck and

column with egg moulding, echinus, and

thin abacus.

The drawing

shows white.

?)

lilac-brown

even lines of red, varying

over a few strokes of the outline color

and dark red

borders

sketch (in outline color

drawn

H.

Attica (Patissia).

12.

black

aged Attic ferryman

no. 7).

I,

also in dull black.

is

the

to

is

top missing.

At the extreme
Before

left

a fluted

is

facing the right, and with

it,

bowed

head, a

woman

stands nearly in profile, holding

both hands a taenia (?)


she wears a sleeveless chiton and over both arms from behind
her curly hair is gathered
a
scarf
with
violet
wash border on the ends
loosely draped
A mirror hangs in the field before her head. In the centre
in a loose projecting knot.

up

in

is

of the scene a

woman

with bowed head looking toward the right stands nearly en face,

both hands a large loutrophoros.


She wears a sleeveless chitonion covering the
over a long chiton with short sleeves
violet
wash
border
at
and
with
bottom,
ray
hips,
top
her hair is supported by a wide band reserved in white.
At the right a third woman
holding in

with bowed head stands facing the left, steadying with her right hand the basket of
taeniae on her left arm.
Traces of her chiton remain, over which is an himation once
dark red

her curlv hair

New

13.

Plate XIII,

York,

the scene

reddish

brown

At

brown with

is

alternate

left

is

hand on

a violet petasos.

red

The

m.

complicated maeander in brown.


is drawn in fine even lines of

scene

used for garments, violet wash for

vouth stands
his

hip

horizontal red crosses and a red border


is

leaves

band of zigzag ornament.

bright red

the extreme

spear, and the right

shoulder

H. 0.323

Mus. 06.1021. 130.

Metrop.

3.

Palmettes in

Below

in a loose projecting knot.

is

details.

in partial profile, the left

hand

over his right arm

woman

his

is

erect

red mantle, and on his

with bowed head stands in

holding up in her mouth an end of her garment and tying her girdle.
a

on

he wears a short girded chiton, ornamented with

Before him a

back over her ears and held by

delicate.

Drawing
raised

double band in a low

flat

knot.

Her

At the

hair

right

is

profile,

drawn

and facing

CLASS
the

left a

second

bowed head

with

garment has

The

but disappeared

all

her hair

is

red mantle of the central figure

12-14

2,

89

stands in profile, holding

mirror for her companion, and in her

a violet

kos.

woman

SERIES

XI,

is

hand carrying

in her

up

right

hand

Her
smegmatotheke.
covered
with
an
ornamented
sakapparently
left

laid

(on

a stool
?)

between the two women.

These two vases with dehcately drawn scenes of domestic

are

life

similar in technique and not unlike in the style of drawing.


No. 12
a
woman
the
of
a
bride
represents
carrying
loutrophoros
young
(or a

young woman who has died

before marriage)
the column at the left
and the mirror on the wall indicate the portico of her home. The
;

woman behind

her apparently holds up a taenia or perhaps a necklace.


should think of her as an attendant decking the bride,

Naturally we
but the woman with

basket at the right

flat

is

a figure

from scenes

at

the grave or scenes of preparation to visit the grave so that perhaps


the woman at the left should be thought of as carrying a fillet for use
If this interpretation be correct, the figure in the centre
young woman dead before her marriage and for this reason

at the
grave.

represents a

carrying the bridal vase ; and though she is shown in the portico of
her home and richly clad, yet the figures on either side are preparing
to deck her grave.
The composition of the scene is carefully studied

and the drawing is strong and fine.


No. 13, which is drawn more simply but with no less care or
delicacy, seems to be a purely domestic scene, unless perhaps the woman

The attendant with


dressing for her journey to the lower world.
toilet vase holds up a mirror for her mistress who is
tying her girdle,

is

while an ephebos, her brother or lover, stands waiting at the

On

left.

by Euphronios (Brit. Mus. E 44) a woman is represented


^
her
here the upper
tying
girdle, but the subject is unusual on vases
part of the body seems to be nude, as though the garment were being fastened at the waist before being brought up over the shoulders.
a kylix

If a definite interpretation of the scene were to be attempted, probably


the central figure should be regarded as the dead person shown in one
of the ordinary activities of life and attended by two companions.

The
this

border below the main scene occurs, so


vase and on no. 8 of Class X, series 3.

14.

New

York, Metrop. Mus. 08.258.19.

Palmettes in dull

brown with

alternate leaves bright red

The

broken by dotted obhque crosses.


red is used for garments.

At
1

the

left a

far as I

youth stands

in

Cf. also the white lekythos in

scene

is

drawn

H. 0.304 m.
;

in red,

maeander
varying

profile, facing the right, his raised left

Bonn

(Class

V,

know, only on

also in

to

brown,

brown

hand holding

no. 40) for a scene as realistic as that on no.

light

a staff

i 3.

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

90
while with

erect,

his

right

hand he

himation with black fold-lines.


facing the
erect

ot his

woman

companion

he wears

bowed head

with

a red

stands en face,

her raised left handholds a sceptre


and clasping the hand of the first figure
is thrown out
She
wears
a sleeveless chiton girded with
awkwardly.
her hair is in a low
red, and a small mantle is drawn forward over both arms

left,

the right hip

fold-lines in

At the

knot.

from

hand

clasps the

In the centre a

his side

This

right a

youth stands in profile facing the

hand

his right

left,

slightly raised

he wears a red himation.

drawn vase

hastily

is

Two

interesting for the subject.

per-

sons with clasped hands are seen not infrequently on grave monuments of a somewhat later date.
Here, as on the grave monuments,
the scene probably signifies the lasting tie of affection which binds the
living

and the dead.


Burlington Fine Arts Club Exhi-

Earl of Elgin Collection.

15.

bition,

903-1 904,

Palmettes typical

Three women

Cat.^ pi. xciii,

27.

The

maeander simple.

scene

is

drawn

centre stands
face, with bowed head, her face to the left
The one at the right stands in
and loosely draped himation.

head, facing the

on her raised

she carries a flat basket

one

in

the

she wears a girded chiton

The

tomb (not represented).

are carrying offerings to a

e/i

left

in pale red.

partial

with bowed

profile

hand, and

left

wreath

in

her

lowered right hand.

16.

Paris, Louvre,

CA

H. 0.325 m.

1439.

Palmettes in dull black with alternate leaves red

The

dull black.

the

same with

scene

is

thin green

drawn

in lines

wash added

now

of red,

Plate XIV,
maeander

the unbroken

faded

brighter red and violet

the hair in a

wash

i.

few

also in

is

strokes ot

are used for details.

with bowed head, holding a purse erect in his


he wears an himation with
extended right hand or touching a purse that hangs on the wall
In the centre an ephebos stands en face, with bowed head, his right
violet wash edge.

At the

left

youth stands in

profile,

hand on

his hip, his left

and petasos
violet

in violet

At

wash edge.

hand holding two spears

wash on

his shoulder,

the right a bearded

shoulder, turned so that his back

with

violet

wash

mass over the top

stripe at
of

is

erect

he wears

while over his

man

left

a short

arm

is

chiton, red boots,

a small

leans forward on a stick

seen; his right hand

is

on

his hip

his

left

he wears a chiton

lower and upper edge, and his mantle is gathered


Before him on the ground is a quail, above it

his stick.

mantle with

under

in
a

loose

^v)(^.

On

these two vases the scenes with three figures, but with no
No. 15 has been interpreted
stele, clearly have to do with the grave.
as a preparation to visit the grave.

In both scenes, however,

am

inclined to interpret the central figure as the dead person, the side
The
figures as members of the family or worshippers at the grave.
ephebos on no. 1 6, before whom flies a small '^v\tJ, has almost a

The
drawn
man
at
awkwardly

monumental
the
the

left

character.

perhaps

brother.

quail before

the right

The

is

him

is

household pet,
and the youth at

his

his father,

simple drawing on this vase

may

CLASS

SERIES

XI,

15-17

2,

91

perhaps be compared with that on no. 10, supra ; even in the awkward
it shows
individuahty and strength.
figure at the right
Paris, Louvre,

17.

Lee. blanes

MNB

H. 0.375 m.

505, Lee. 91.

Pottier,

151, no. 78.

att.^ p.

Palmettes and maeander in dull violet, the maeander broken by dotted oblique crosses

The scene is drawn


and reversing.
ments and on the sakkos, bright red
egg moulding

in dull
for

red

violet

wash

is

used for border of gar-

garment, and greenish black for taeniae and

of stele.

The low stele (or


stands a woman en face,

altar?)

is

crowned by egg moulding and

her head turned to the right

thin

Beside

plinth.

it

she wears a sleeve chiton in out-

violet edge at top and bottom, while her hair is in a loose knot beAt the left a woman approaches,
both hands she holds a green-black taenia.
holding out a large flat basket in both hands ; she wears a sleeve chiton in outline, and a
short jacket, or overfold, which is bright red, except for the violet border ; her hair is in a

and overfold with

line

hind

in

sakkos,

bound with

band

in a violet

wash.

At

the right a

woman

turns

away from her

she
in both hands she holds up a mantle rolled in a ball
companions and looks back
in
a
knot
loose
wears a sleeveless chiton with overfold, and her hair is held up
by a white
;

taenia.

In

In the field hang a mirror, wreath, etc.

this scene

two

women

with offerings stand beside a

tomb

or

stele of unusual shape, while the third seems to be turning away to lay
down the himation which she has worn to the grave. This treatment

of the

woman

carrying a rolled-up garment

is

original,

but in the pres-

ent series such realistic touches have been noted several times.

Series

The
scene.

2.

Conclusion

ornamentation of these lekythoi shows


palmettes and maeander are drawn

The

less variety

than the

in a dull red (rose),

shading toward brown, in a thin violet, or in a black (nos. 4, 7, 10, 11,


Traces of alternate red
12, 16), which may have an element of green.

The
leaves in the palmettes are found on at least half the vases.
maeander is usually unbroken in several cases it is broken by dotted
;

oblique crosses, either reversing (nos. 3, 17) or not reversing (nos. 6, 7,

At least in some instances the ornament


from the interruption.
was added after the scene was completed.
The scene is drawn in fine even lines of dull rose or violet i.e.
14)

for
except where black is used for the ornament, the same paint is used
the decoration and for the scene itself.
preliminary sketch with
nos.
Solid color
on
9, 10, 1 1.
sharp point or dull point may be noted

is

somewhat sparingly used, though the

found
all

in Class

except nos.

is

i, 2,

thin violet

wash sometimes

here used for garment borders or accessories on


Two shades of red are used, each on
10, 14 (15).

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

92
five or six

of these vases.

On

nos. 4, it, 17 accessories are in thin

black, on no. 7 a garment is in thin yellow (cf. the thick yellow of


Class IX, i), and on no. 9 a thin reddish wash is used for the flesh of
a youth (cf. two lekythoi of Class VI, i).
The interest of these
vases, however,

is

in the

drawing rather than the color.

The

striking contrast between these vases and, for example, those


is in the
of Class
The whole
original spirit shown by the painters.

of scenes other than the usual scene of offerings brought


to the grave.
And while most of these scenes are found in Class VI,
Class
and
In
I,
IX, thev are treated here with considerable freedom.
series consists

the prothesis scene a youth is present with the mourning women


in
the defositio scene the bier is shown on no. 2, and on no. 3 a mourning
;

Charon scenes, with one exception, conbringing offerings, on nos. 5-7 a stele is present, and

youth stands by the


tain a

woman

stele

the

on nos. 68 the interest centres

in a child.

The woman

with the lou-

woman

putting on her girdle (no. 13), the man


and woman clasping hands (no. 14), are new figures on lekythoi. And
if these scenes (nos. 12 t
6) are interpreted correctlv, the central figure

trophoros (no. 12), the

would represent the dead person with attendants, as in the somewhat


later scenes on grave stelae.
Thus the figure of the dead would be
present on all these lekythoi except perhaps no. 17,

Of

the objects carried by these figures the flat basket or canistron


is seen on nos.
the goose on nos. 89, the hare
5, 6, 7, 12, 15, 17
and bird cage on no. 9, and the mantle on no. 17 are found somewhat
;

rarely elsewhere

while the kantharos on no. 6 and the loutrophoros


here.
The mirror held up for use by the

on no. 12 are found only

attendant with smegmatotheke on no. 13 is also unique.


The objects
in the field, the mirror, the wreath, the
the
and the
soul,
purse,
flying

on the ground, occur about as frequently as in Class


column on no. 12 and the box on no. 8 are unique.
That the figures themselves represent for the most part

quail

the

familiar

is of course to be
expected, though the familiar gestures of the
outstretched hand (no. 10) and the slightly raised hand (no. 14) occur
each but once.
In the treatment of the women's garments and of the

types,

hair considerable variety

is

to be noticed.

The

chitonion on nos. 12

and 17, the scarf on no. 14, the decorated chiton of the youth on
no. 13, are unusual.

low

flat

knot usual

in

While the women's hair is ordinarily in the


Classes V, VI, IX, and X, it may fall free on

the shoulders (no. 5), or be held by a sphendone (no. 3), or be gathered in the loose projecting knot common in later classes (nos. 8, 12).

CLASS
Only on
IX,

The

SERIES

1-2

3,

93

drawing not unlike some examples


a thin greenish wash used for the hair.

no. 16, with

and X,

2,

XI,

is

its

in Classes

found on nos. 27, and conforms to one or two of the


On no. 17 alone is a peculiar form
types characteristic of Class XI.
a
which
will be discussed in connection
low
altar-like
found,
structure,
stele

is

with Class XIII.


In general this series includes vases with scenes found in Classes
VI, I, and IX, but in many instances the scene is developed in a

manner

to give

it

The drawing

new meaning.

more than usually

is

might be expected on vases which did not simply repeat familiar


scenes, and rather free.
Except in a few points the originality of the
painters dealt with the content of the scene in an individual manner,
fine, as

such that

this series did

Series 3.

Larger

not greatly influence the later lekythos painters.

lekythoi with several figures

scenes

of worship at

the grave

This

of lekythoi with scenes of worship at the grave


two exceptions the acanthus leaves are present at the top

series consists

With

stele.

and usually with an anthemion

the two exceptions are


included here because they are so closely related in technique to vases
of the present series.
Most of these vases are fine examples approaching 0.50 m. in height; but as in series i a few smaller vases are so

of the

stele,

closely related to the larger ones as to be included with them.


1.

London,

Brit.

H.

Mus. 97.3-19. i.

0.45 m.

Palmettes on the shoulder in black with alternate leaves red

broken by dotted oblique crosses.


The scene is drawn
violet wash and a light green are used for details.

The

slender stele on three rather high steps

On

bowed head

the upper step a youth with

arm, while

corselet, about his

bearded

his right

head

man

is

hand

rests

on

a violet taenia,

about

facing the

his knees.

lines

also in black,

of bright red

He

and under him

is

it

left

sets

left

his

himation shows traces of green and has

nearly in profile stands with

bowed

and supporting two erect spears

of

fastened a violet taenia.

he supports himself with

wears a chiton and ornamented


a

At

mantle with violet edge.

stands in partial profile, holding both hands out as if with a taenia

the

sits

maeander

even

in fine

i.

crowned with mouldings, two

is

acanthus leaves with violet edge, and a small palmette

his left

Plate XV,

violet border.

At the

right an ephebos

head, holding out a crested helmet in his right hand

in his

lowered

left

hand.

He

wears a mantle with

violet

wash border.
2.

London, Brit Mus.

The

01. 7-10.3.

palmettes in thin black have

H. 0.455 ^-

many narrow

leaves in

maeander, broken by oblique crosses, has nearly disappeared.

Plate XV,

black and red

The

scene

is

2.

the black

drawn

in

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

94
fine lines

of red-brown

wash, bright red, and blue are used

violet

garments and

for

de->

tails.

The

is crowned with mouldings and anthemion ; the second block of the


Violet wash is used
with
concave
ends, and above this are three thin blocks.
high
On
the top o{ the stele and on the anthemion ; violet taeniae are attached to the shaft.

base
at

slender stele

is

the base

hand

is

sits

woman

facing the right and looking back over her

on her knee, her

hand

left

shoulder, and across her knees

At the

held by a violet band.

is

raised to

shoulder

two

her right

Behind her head, over her

bright red mantle with violet edge

left

her bosom.

In front a

figures stand facing the stele.

left

and her hair

is

woman,

with bowed head, steadies with her right hand the flat basket on her left arm ; on it are
An himation with violet edge remains, but her chiton has

taeniae and a smegmatotheke.

her hair is held up by a violet band. Behind her a young woman places her
she wears a
hand on her companion's shoulder and rests her right hand on her hip

disappeared
left

Her

bright red sleeveless chiton.

At the

right

fan

in

(.'')

young woman

is

drawn, not

stands looking

her right hand, and

girded under the overfold,

face

carries

down

in profile,

but

in

three-quarter view.

at the seated figure

box on her

left

arm.

Her

she holds up a

sleeveless

chiton,

blue.

is

of vases is apparently from the same hand.


The
at
the
of
not
the
stele, the
wholly successful, mouldings
top
peculiar,
fine even lines, and the similar style of careful drawing, suffice to

This

fine pair

bring them into close relation, in spite of the fact that the acanthus
In each scene the seated
leaves are not present on the stele of no. 2.
figure with taenia about the head may be regarded as the dead person.
no. I it is a young warrior, to whom a companion or attendant

On

brings helmet and spear, while his father stands sadly holding out his
The seated youth is stiffly drawn with
hands perhaps with a taenia.
feet

extended, as

The

body.

if

seated

the painter had in

woman on

no. 2

is

mind the stiffness of the dead


more gracefully drawn, leaning

on her right elbow and looking back over her shoulder, as though
she were sitting in her home and being fanned by the attendant on
the right.
She is, however, looking at the grave offerings brought
by the

woman on

woman

at the

mournful
to their
slaves.

extreme

curiosity.

left,

The

The

is

the

looking over her companion's shoulder

mourning, or it
both vases the

fine

in places the

Paris, Louvre,

striking addition to the scene

in

short hair of two of the figures may be due


may be simply the short hair of women

even

work

S 1660, Lee.

Chaplain, Les ceramiques de

palmette.

left.

On

and delicacy, and


3.

the

la

lines give

has

an

air

of precision

marked beauty.

Dumont-

H. 0.495 m.

96.

Grece propre^

I, pis.

xxv xxvi

II, too.

palmettes have nearly disappeared, but the maeander remains, broken only by the

Both ornament and scene are drawn

in

rather

fine

lines

of dull violet-red.

CLASS
Violet

wash

is

on the seated

The

used

XI,

SERIES

95

3,

border tor garments and acanthus leaves, and solid yellow for sleeves

as

figure.

is crowned
by decorated mouldings, small acanthus leaves, and a
At the extreme left a woman en face brings
reaches
on
to
the
shoulder.
which
palmette
she wears a sleeveless chiton,
on her left arm a flat basket, on which is a smegmatotheke

slender stele

girded with wide sash over an overfold.


leg relieved, carrying

a fan in

behind her bowed head


her hair,

drawn

the stele a

her

left

Before her stands a

hand and

she wears a sleeveless

sits

nearly en face, right

in separate strokes of outline color,

woman

woman

right hand holding her mantle up


chiton and himation with violet wash edge
in her

is

easily in a chair, facing the left

held up by a wide taenia.


;

on her right hand are two

In front of
little

birds,

she wears a chiton


hand she holds up her himation behind her shoulder
with yellowish sleeves, over this a sleeveless chiton, and across her knees and behind her
her hair is almost covered with a veil, and
is an himation with violet
stripe on the edge

and with her

left

the garment

is

drawn up behind her head.


in her

At

the right of the stele a

left

hand an alabastron,

young woman in
right hand a

in her

profile approaches, holding up


her hair, drawn in separate strokes, falls in curls to the back of her neck
smegmatotheke
she wears a sleeveless chiton with violet wash edge on the overfold.

partial

This splendid lekythos, in spite of a slight hardness in the treatment of the faces, is one of the finest examples of Greek painting

The

seated figure is apparently the dead person, in


fold of her
a comfortable chair, leaning her head against the stele.
that are extant.

mantle has been drawn up to form


the stone, with her left hand she

cushion between her head and

is
drawing the mantle over her
on
her
are
and
hand
shoulder,
perched two little birds,
pets
right
The attendant at the left,
with which she had been wont to play.

who

is

also

tress as if

drawing her mantle over her shoulder, is fanning her misThe women on
she were still alive and in the house. ^

either side are bringing offerings to the dead ; it is as though the two
central figures were represented on a grave stele, while the outside
figures are the worshippers normally represented
This separateness of the central group is even

on white lekythoi.
emphasized by the

position of the stele which is out of centre behind the figure of the
dead.
The composition of the scene is elaborately studied, line by
to
line,
produce a rich, unified effect, and the drawing is unusually
careful,

sometimes almost

affected, as

a vase far superior to the

produce

though the painter desired

common

which

vases of this type.

to

Per-

not satisfactorily reproduced


in
Chaplain's plate, is to be regarded as a conscious effort to represent
the sense of gentle sadness which is often so apparent on the later

haps the drawing of the

marble grave

Cf. the

is

stelae.

The fragment
1

faces,

woman

no.
at

home

is

similar to no. 3 in

its

fine

being fanned, on a vase published by Tischbein,

drawing, as
I, pi.

xviii.

in

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

96

the form of the stele

with

here, however, the seated figure was a

youth

his spear.

Boston, Mus. Fine Arts, 94.216.


Plate XIII, i.
about
and
0.17 m. wide.

Fragment 0.125

4.

Shoulder missing
gray, the hair in

used for

maeander

many

The

unbroken.

in violet-gray

scene

drawn

is

and bright red and

separate strokes of the same,

"^-

high

in violet-

wash

violet

are

details.

The top of the slender stele remains, ornamented with red taeniae, and crowned
Before it is the head of a youth in
with the base of an anthemion picked out in red.
of
his
left hand remains holding erect a
to
the
At the
right
part
spear, point up.
profile
;

left

of the

stele a small taenia

the extreme right

is

is

draped

in the field

the right hangs a scabbard and the

at

centre and with violet lines near the circumference.

in the

lower half of a shield, red

part of the head of a

woman

(?).

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1936, Cv. 1674.


Ath. Mitth. XVI (I 891), 403.

second

color,

and

maeander

and

the

red-brown

in

side

palmettes

point

the

The

two

slender stele on

entlv, rises a

crowned with

scrolls,

in

by checker-

dark red and a border of

two

pairs of acanthus leaves

;
high ovoid tumulus, from the top of which, apparsecond shaft that breaks the maeander and is crowned with a palmette on the

behind the

shoulder.

is

steps

0.40 m.

leaves

maeander broken

The scene is drawn in dull red


board squares, not reversing.
violet wash are used for garments.
Drawing free and graceful.
and palmette

added

have

palmettes

forward

H.

Eretria.

5.

Palmettes

At

wreath

stele

is

On

fastened to the lower step of the stele.

is

en face and looking toward the

left

in his left

hand he

the step stands a child

with disk

carries a rod

bottom

at the

he wears an himation with violet edge, and a reserved


(a wheel ?), probably a plaything
At the extreme left a bearded man stands in profile, carrywhite band is about his hair.
;

ing a phiale (?) in his right hand

man

down

en face, looking

at

Next comes

he wears a dark red himation.

the child

his right

in

hand are two

spears, and

young

a shield

he wears a short chiton girded over a short


on the ground rests against his right knee
a
small
and
his
shoulder
mantle or scarf with violet edge, which
over
overfold,
right
hangs
the hair is curly and loose.
At the right a woman stands en
he holds with his left hand
;

face, her right hand almost touching the boy's head, and on her
taeniae

edge

and smegmatotheke.
her curly hair

She wears

a sleeveless chiton

fastened in a round knot and held

is

left

arm

a flat basket

and an himation with


a

up by

with

a violet

sphendone about the

head.

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1937, Cv. 1675.

6.

Eretria.

H.

0.405 m.

Palmettes and maeander (broken by checker-board squares and oblique crosses) in


The scene is drawn in dull red ; dark red is used for garments through

red-brown.

the red of the garment the lines of the preliminary sketch in the soft slip

Drawing

The

free

and

graceful.

slender stele

is

On

acanthus leaves.
in

his

lowered

show white.

left

crowned with anthemion which


block before

hand, and

his right

it

youth

hand

sits

is

drawn

facing

raised nearly to

against a

toward the
his

background of

left,

a lyre held

chin (drawing up his

CLASS
mantle ?)

over his knees

is

At the

reserved white.

is

chiton girded, and over his arms

At

SERIES

3,

4-7

97

mantle, once red, and about his curly hair is a wide band
an ephebos holding two spears erect ; he wears a short

his

left

XI,

is

narrow mantle or scarf; on

his shoulder

is

a petasos.

young woman, with bowed head, stands en face ; on her left arm is
her right hand she holds out some object (an alabastron ?) toward the

the right a

basket and in

She wears
loose

a sleeveless chiton undergirded,

and

dark red himation

her hair

is

a flat
stele.

held in a

knot behind by a reserved white stephane.

flat

These two

vases, alike in the treatment of the maeander, the stele,

the arrangement of the figures, and the drawing, are clearly a pair
made by the same hand. The checker-board break in the maeander,

common

which was

in

Class

of Class V.

earlier vases

And

IV, has hardly been found since the


while the slip, the paint, and the form

of the stele are distinctly characteristic of Class XI, the drawing is


more like that in some examples of Class V than might be

less free,

In each scene the

expected.

woman

at the right brings a basket

of

offerings and holds out her right hand toward the figure before the
stele
she wears a mantle loosely draped about her, and the hair is
As the outside figures on no. 3
held up by a wide fillet or stephane.
;

have

meaning from the

a different

the

woman

the

left

central figures, so

on these vases

at the right brings the usual offerings while the

seem

to indicate the

persons

dead person with his associates

in

at

life.

On

no. 5 I believe the young warrior with spears and shield is the
figure of the dead; he is looking down at his child with its toy, while
behind him stands the grave figure of his father.
On no. 6 the youth

with lyre, the lyre he was fond of playing, is the dead person sitting
before the stele with thoughtful mien, and the ephebos standing before him is a brother or intimate companion.
Such definite, personal

unusual on these lekythoi, but I believe the


justified by a study of the scenes on marble grave

treatment of the scene


interpretation

is

is

stelae.

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1957, Cv. 1679.

7.

'E^.

'A/3;j(.

1894,

Ornament and scene


of the vase
reversing.

H. 0.34 m.

are

drawn

in

gray

the palmettes

all

point in toward the neck

maeander broken by dotted oblique crosses and checker-board squares, not


The hair is in a brown wash over a few strokes of outline color
red, blue,

green, and violet

The

Eretria.

pi. 2.

wash

slender stele

breaks the maeander.

are used for garments


is

and

details.

Drawing

careful.

crowned with spreading acanthus leaves and a palmette which


stele on some support rests a flat basket on which are

Behind the

Before the stele stands a young girl holding behind her shoulder
pomegranates and a lyre.
a mantle with violet border ; she wears a sleeveless chiton, and a cloth is about her hair.

At

the

left in

front of a high tumulus decorated

with taeniae a youth

sits

en face on a rock.

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

98

supporting himself by his right arm, and looking away from the stele ; over his knees is a
Behind him on a higher part ot the rock sits a hare
green mantle with violet border.
(in

front of a second tumulus?).

left

arm

hand

right

At

the right stands a

woman

en face, carrying on her

with red taeniae, smegmatotheke, and a bunch of grapes ; her relaxed


She wears a sleeveless chiton and a blue
raised slightly toward the child.

a flat basket
is

himation with violet border, and about her hair

is

a violet taenia.

In the type of stele and the use of checker-board pattern to break


the maeander, as well as in the composition of the scene with one

mourner over against a group including the dead person, this lekythos
It does not, however, seem to be drawn
is related to nos. 5 and 6.
in its style it should rather be compared with no. 8
hand
the
same
by
The
and one or two other lekythoi mentioned under this number.
;

not confined to the front of the vase, but the indication of


rough ground (or distant mountains, if that is the significance of the
blue tint) runs around to the back of the vase, as, for example, in
scene

is

Charon scenes where

The

is

a pet

other offerings on a

flat

clump of rushes

found under the handle.

is

of the youth, rather than an indication of


probably
the wild country, as in the case of the hare found on a fine lekythos
The seated youth, as on
in the British Museum (Class VI, i, i).
no. 6, may well be the figure of the dead, whose lyre rests with
hare

basket in front of him and behind

the

Staes regards the small figure of the woman as another dead


person, but if my interpretation of nos. 5 and 6 is correct, it may be
better to consider her as the wife or younger sister of the dead person,
stele.

who

turns as though to receive for him the offerings brought by the


mourner at the right. She draws her garment about her with the

gesture noted on no. 3.

The

detail

on

this vase (grapes,

decorated

smegmatotheke, lyre, and second canistron) and the variety of color,


as well as the palmettes on the shoulder, are quite unusual.
Certainly
it

tempting suggestion of Staes


of Eretrian manufacture but

it is

as

'

^3^ ^ regard
this suggestion be adopted, the

('E<^.
if

^px- ^^94'

"-

and technique between Athenian

close relation in drawing, subject,

and Eretrian lekythoi cannot be overlooked.


8.

MNB

Paris, Louvre,

att., p.

148, no. 62

H. 0.285 m.

804.

Rayet-Collignon,

p.

233,

fig.

Pettier, L'ec. blancs

86.

Palmettes in dull black with alternate light red leaves, and maeander in black, broken

by dotted horizontal crosses.


toward

a violet,

The

stele

The

scene

is

also

drawn

in

dull black,

fading in places

and two shades of red are added.

on three

moulding, complex

steps, of

scrolls,

which the middle one

and small palmette

is

quite high,

is

crowned with egg

parts of the anthemion are picked out

in red.

CLASS
At

the extreme

man

bearded

left a

SERIES

XI,

in profile

8-10

3,

Next him an ephebos

lines.

raises his right

shoes, and a red petasos

His

hair

is

on

in,

and wreaths

in

her

left

the hair

he is wrapped
drawn with very few

is

nearly to his face

his shoulder,

and

in curving strokes of outline color

the right of the stele stands a

forward on two spears under his left arm,


he wears a chiton with red girdle,
;

in profile leans

hand, palm

bowed

approaches with head

to the neck in a dark dull red himation with black fold -lines

and

99

woman

mantle on

carries a small red

on

thinner

wash of

the

in partial profile, carrying a flat basket

hand and holding one of the taeniae high up

in

left

arm.

color.

At

his

same

of red taeniae

her right hand

she wears a sleeve chiton, an himation with red stripe on the edge, and a sakkos about her
hair,

which escapes

right

is

a high

Number
and

At the extreme

a lamenting
^pv^-q.

flies

bringing

offerings at the right,

Here, again, the ephebos

woman

Behind her

resembles no. 7 in size and in the presence of tumulus


both decorated with taeniae and as on nos. 6-8 there is a

stele,

woman

in small curls.

tumulus on two steps, over which are hung several red taeniae.

opposite a group of two persons.

hand

raising his right

as if in greeting to the

may be the dead youth accompanied by his aged


His
father.
garment girded over an overfold with floating edge recalls
in style of drawing the garment of the ephebos on no. 5 and of the
woman at the right on no. 3. The careful composition and the delicacy
before him,

of the drawing in places (cf. the eye of the ephebos and the profile
For general effect of the scene and
of the woman) also recalls no 3.
the form of the top of the stele, the vase may be compared with no.

GR

The
619, drawing less careful).
7 of series 1 (Metrop. Mus.
small flying soul occurs occasionally in Class XI i^e.g. series 2, nos.
9 and 16), but

Palmettes in

The

green.

and

common.

not

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1955, Cv. 1671.

9.

lines

is

dull

scene

of outline color

is

green with alternate

drawn

leaves red

in fine red lines,

bright red, dull

simple maeander also dull

(?);

brown wash over

the hair in a thin

green, blue, and

wash

violet

are used for

few

garment

details.

The

slender

acanthus leaves.

stele

On

woman
hands

crowned with

is

and

scrolls

the steps facing the right

the right hand raised, in

gesture of lamentation

sits

smegmatotheke,

in the other a casket

and over

it

a blue chitonion

with red border.

10.

bunch

of moderate-sized
the

left

hand on her

she wears a red mantle.

hung from cords

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1956, Cv. 1672.

Palmettes in dull green with alternate leaves red

The

woman,

At the

blue
hair,
left a

approaches, wearing a dull green mantle with violet border, which covers both her
At the right a woman stands en face, carrying in
a sphendone supports her hair.

one hand

for

H. 0.40 m.

Eretria.

scene

is

drawn

in fine

red-brown

garments and details.


The stele on three steps

is

lines

Eretria.

she wears a chiton,

H. 0.39 m.

simple maeander also

in dull green.

green, violet wash, and bright red are used

crowned with moulding and

bunch of

erect

acanthus

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

100

On

leaves.

woman in profile sits facing the left and holding up an alabastron


her sleeve chiton has brown-red stripes, and over her knees is a brown

the steps a

in her right

hand

mantle with

violet border.

and extending her


a

woman

right

At the

hand

stands a

left

lamentation

in

in partial profile stands

woman

tearing her hair with her

she wears a bright red mantle.

hand,

left

At the

right

with bowed head, holding out on her right hand a

flat

she wears a chiton and over this a short sleeveless chitonion, green
(or
The hair of the seated woman as of the woman at the right is in
blue) with violet edge.
basket of fruit

low round knot supported by

Here,

on no.

as

in evidence,

is

on the

leaves

a taenia.

the varied palette of the later lekythos painter


first time we find the bunch of acanthus

7,

and here for the

only a trace of the earlier anthemion

stele with

never-

theless the vases clearly belong to this the first class of lekythoi on
which the acanthus is used.
no. 10 there seems to be an effort

On

round column,

to define the stele as a

sometimes

as

in

Classes

XIII

The

and XIV.

gesture of tearing the hair in mourning, which is


found in both scenes, revives the realism of Class IX. That the

seated figure on no. 9 is mourning is not, I believe, evidence that it


does not represent the dead person (cf. Class X, 2, no. 19, p. 64 and
the reference to the Iliad there noted); and the seated woman on
the dead person holding

may be

no. 10

up

the

perfume vase which

has been brought as an offering.


The green "jacket," or short overchiton without sleeves, was noted on nos. 2 and 3 of series i, and is
occasionally found both on earlier and later lekythoi.
loa.

London,

Brit.

Mus.

H.

70.

0.49 m.

White Ath. Vases,

pl. X.

The
are

palmettes, with alternate leaves

drawn

thin black

in

and the lekythoi


fold-lines

for

in solid black.

mantle

is

garments

left,

stele

her right hand before her breast, her

ture of mourning.

She wears

which her
left

arm

face

is

silhouetted.

a flat basket

left

is

crowned with egg moulding (blue

On
hand

the upper step


raised

a sleeve chiton with gray stripes

ion, green with black fold-lines,

Her

and with gray edge.

At

the

thin gray,

blue for a garment, taeniae, and details.

(or column) on two steps


and
spreading blue acanthus leaves.
details) plinth
the

the simple maeander, and the scene

in

dark red with yellow-white pattern for a garment

either solid or in stripes, for

The wide

now brown,

curved strokes of thicker black, or in gray wash,


Bright green is used for taeniae, and the same with black

the hair

left

stands a

woman

sits

woman

above her head

and over her knees


long hair

facing

as if in gesis

an himat-

falls in curls,

against

nearly en face, carrying on her

with lekythos and four blue taeniae, and in her right hand an alabasShe wears a long grav chiton with short overfold, and her hair

tron and a bluish taenia.


is

in a loose knot

the right a

woman

and taeniae.

stands nearly en face, carrying on her

She wears

blue sleeve chiton,

elaborate yellowish pattern on a red ground

head.

In the field above

supported by a sphendone.

left

and over

her hair

is

arm
it

is

draped

a flat basket

a sleeveless

in a loose

taenia.

At

with lekythos

chitonion

with

knot at the back of her

CLASS

SERIES

XI,

This splendid vase has no

ioa-12

3,

loi

traces of the tentative or experimental


in the form of the stele, the sure
;

XI

character often noted in Class

sense for composition, and the attention to decorative detail, it may


be compared with the finer lekythoi of Class XIV, but the delicacy
of the drawing finds no parallel in that class.
The stele in the form

of a column with spreading acanthus leaves may be regarded as an


early example of the type of Class XIV, where the taenia draped in
the field

is

The

also found.

woman

seated

arms

raises her

in gesture

of lamentation like the seated youth on no. 9 her unbound hair falls
over her shoulders (cf. Class XIV, no. 24) and forms a background
for her face (cf Class XII, no. 7, and XIII, no. 5).
The sphendone
;

worn by the woman


present class

common

the

at

left

found more commonly in the


The free use of color also is

is

than in earlier or later classes.

some

in the present series, as in

XI

fine

examples of Class XIV,

not present for the somewhat elaborate pattern of the chitonion worn by the woman at the
The classification
left, the nearest analogies are found in Class XIV.

but here the violet wash of Class

of the vase

in Class

XI, rather than

is

in Class

XIV,

determined

is

pri-

marily by the delicacy of the drawing, and secondly by the fact that
the scene is drawn in even, medium lines of dull black.

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1954, Cv. 1673.

11.

H.

0.47 m.

For the central palmette are substituted two small palmettes on either side of the anthe-

Maeander complicated, broken by


stele, which extends on to the shoulder.
checker-board squares.
Ornament and scene are in violet-brown ; violet wash is used for
garment border and acanthus, dark red for garment and taeniae, light blue for a garment,
mion of the

dull black for the hair.

The

stele

is

decorated with taeniae and crowned with acanthus leaves and palmette
On the base sits a youth facing the left, a mantle with

reaching well on to the shoulder.


violet

edge over

his

knees

the hair

falls

in iine black curls to his

He

wears

a richly

ornamented

his

arm

left

and

corselet,

large

Corinthian

helmet pushed back ; over his right shoulder hangs a light blue scarf or small mantle.
hind him stands a bearded man in a red mantle, supporting himself with a staff.

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1949, Cv. 1751.

12.

Ornament and scene


deep red

The

are

drawn

in

brown-red

left

sleeveless red chiton

round shield with red bands.

At the

shoulders.

young woman carrying a flat basket of taeniae she wears a


At the right next the stele stands a bearded man, on
with overfold.

stands a

Be-

H. 0.44 m.

Eretria.

maeander unbroken.

The

hair

is

in

dark red and violet wash are used for garments and details.

slender stele

is

decorated with taeniae.

with violet border.


erect in his

left

At

crowned with spreading acanthus

On
the

the steps a youth


left

sits

an ephebos stands

hand and extending

his right

leaves

with violet border, and

facing the right


in

partial

hand toward the

he wears an himation

profile,
stele

holding two spears


he wears a chlamys

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

102
and on

his shoulder

forward on

The

hangs

At the

a petasos.

bearded

right a

knotted staff; he wears a dark red himation.

man

In the

with
field

bowed head

hangs

leans

purse (?).

and the checker-board pattern


top on no.
breaking the maeander indicate another vase of transitional type
when the acanthus leaf was just being introduced. Color also is
peculiar stele

though with a more limited palette than on nos. 9 and 10.


several vases already discussed in this series there is apparently
one mourner bringing offerings, and a group including the dead
freely used,

As on

person, the dead youth seated as if in his house, and two older memThe personal, individual characbers of his family standing behind.
ter of the scene is in striking contrast to the generalized scenes of

other classes.

The

on no. 12

without the usual palmettes (cf. no. 10),


and no solid colors are used except dark red and the violet wash
stele

The

is

woman

bringing offerings is not present, and we


have only the seated youth with his young brother and his father.
border.

usual

Bologna, Mus. Civ. 364.

13.

mann, Hall. Winckelmannsprogr.


Tav. iv.
Ornament and scene

are

drawn

Ill, 57, no.

dull

red, fading

H.

0.35 m.

Heyde-

1400; Pellegrini, Cat.^

to

rose

maeander broken by

Bright red and violet wash are used for garments

dotted oblique crosses and reversing.

and

in

Athens.

details.

On

In the centre a high ovoid tumulus decorated with taeniae rests on two steps.
the upper step facing the right
hair

is

short

At

the head.

with

wreath.

the

is

a hydria,

two

supporting her chin on her

Her

spears

on top of which

woman

left a

sphendone.

erect

in

shoulders, and a red mantle

laid the cushion

is

is

left

hand

her

mantle with violet

used in carrying it on
hands a flat basket

stands in profile, holding out in both

sleeveless chiton

back and supported bv


holding

woman

she wears a sleeveless chiton and about her knees

Before her

edge.

sits a

his

has nearly disappeared

At

raised

the hair

is

loosely

the right an ephebos stands nearly


left

hand

drawn forward over

the

he wears boots,
left

arm and held

eti

drawn
face,

petasos on his
in the

lowered

right hand.

The

high ovoid tumulus, found instead of the stele on several


vases of Class V and with the stele on nos. 7 and 8, supra, occupies
the centre of the

The young woman with slightly open mouth


who sits before it may be a mourner who has

field.

and sad expression

more probably it
offering in the hydria
represents the dead person, before whom her brother or lover is
standing, while the usual woman bringing offerings stands behind
brought

to the
grave an

The fine drawing recalls that on no. 12 of series 2 in the grace


of the figures and the delicate profiles; the hair of the standing
her.

CLASS

SERIES

XI,

13-16

3,

103

woman

In technique
also is arranged in a later style as on that vase.
not as closely related to other vases of this series as the scene

it is

might suggest.

The composition

of the scene on

no.

found, particularly in

is

H. 0.30 m. Lent by H.

Oxford, Ashm. Mus.

14.

quite similar, and

is

14

something of the same delicacy of drawing


the hands.

Stuart Jones,

Esq.
The

Palmettes and maeander in brownish red.

with thin

On two
a

woman

appeared

left, sits a

is

drawn

is

in

dull

in a flat knot at the base

At

of her head.

Mus. Fine

15. Boston,
Plate XVI, 2.

Arts,

the upper

At

the

has dis-

breast

left

H.

Athens.

94.126.

On

stripes.

the right a youth stands

hand grasping the edge of his himation over the


border leaves the right arm and shoulder free.

nearly en face, his right

himation with violet

violet-black,

Her garment

stands in profile, holding out in both hands a taenia.

the hair

scene

garment border and for garment stripes.


shaft with round top, or a very slender tumulus.
figure closely draped in a mantle with violet wash

for a

steps rises a

step, facing the


left

wash

violet

0.32

the

m.

maeander also in gray, broken by


The
scene is drawn in fine lines of
not
and
dotted
crosses,
reversing.
top
oblique
violet
wash
is used for garment border and details, and
violet
sometimes
with
tinge
gray,
the outline color is applied solidly for a garment; the taeniae were bright red.
Palmettes in gray with alternate faded red leaves

stele

The

on two

stele

anthemion on

steps of different height

a slender base

violet

wash

is

is

crowned with acanthus

On

centre of the palmette, and alternate leaves of the palmette.


sits

facing the

hand

At

the

left,

the face
a

left

supporting himself with his

drawn

is

woman

in front

view

left

arm and

over his knees

en face approaches, carrying a

hand

is

flat

raising her

less

chiton with violet wash border, girded over overfold.

face, holding up

slightly

a little bird in his right

and small

hand and

the upper step a youth

resting his

mantle with

head on

stele

At the

in his left

hand

she wears a sleeve-

right a
a

his right

wash edge.
on her left arm

violet

basket of taeniae

from her side awav from the

and

left

leaves

used for the border of the acanthus leaves, the

youth stands en
he wears a
;

cake (?)

long dull black himation with violet wash border.

In this scene, again, the stele

is

an experiment in dealing with

acanthus leaves, and, as on no. 2, the painter has also experimented in


The youth at
drawing the face of the seated youth in front view.
the right

is

companion with

his pet bird, while as usual

one

woman

The slightly rough surface of the white slip probrings offerings.


duces crayon-like lines somewhat similar to those found in Class IX.
16.

Athens, Private Collection.

Neck
in dull pink

gone.
;

The

the hair

is

palmettes,
in a

the

unbroken maeander, and the scene

few strokes of the same color with

a thin grayish

are

drawn

wash added.

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

104
and

red

Bright

a thin

green

wash

are

used for garments.

Preliminarv sketch with a

dull point in the soft slip.

On the steps
is crowned
by small acanthus leaves above scrolls.
on the ground, holding out his right hand, palm down
about his
At the left stands a woman holding out both
an himation in a thin green wash.

The
sits

slender stele

a youth, his toes

knees

is

hands

as if

with

bowed head,

a taenia

her garment

a flat basket

presenting

is

gone.

At the

right also stands a

woman

with

she wears a sleeveless red chiton, through which

show white.

the sketch lines

The

seated figure with just the toes touching the ground, as well
small acanthus leaves above scrolls, is quite char-

as the stele with

of Class XI.

acteristic

While the use of

color,

even the thin wash

and the drawing resemble that on some other vases of


the preliminary sketch is unusual and the arrangement

for the hair,


this series,

the seated figure of the dead extending his hand to


of the figures
is the scheme
receive an offering, and two women bringing offerings
the
rather
than
one
nos.
of Class
ordinarily
(series 2,
19, 21, etc.)

found

in Class

XI.
Series

The

3.

Conclusion

colors used for the palmettes

same

and the maeander

in this series

namely dull red or rose, shading to


brown (nos. 5, 6, 12, 13, 14, 16), or thin violet (nos. 3, 11), or a
the black
black which may be greenish or may now be gray.

are about the

as in series 2,

When

In one case
is used, alternate red leaves are usually added.
in a peculiar manner.
While the
are
the
(no. 7)
palmettes
arranged
maeander is often simple or broken by the dotted oblique cross which

or gray

usual on later lekythoi, we find also in the maeander the dotted


horizontal cross (no. 8) and the checker-board pattern (nos. 5, 6, 7)
which were customary in Class IV and earlier lekythoi of Class V.

is

Where

the

ornament

is

in

(greenish) black, the outlines of the

scene are in red (nos. i, 2, 9, 10; violet, no. 8); otherwise (except
no. 14) the outlines are drawn in the same color as the ornament,

though there is often evidence that the ornament was added after the
A preliminary sketch has been
main scene had been completed.
The use of solid color varies in a marked
noted on nos. 6 and 16.
Violet wash for a garment border or accessories
Dark red or bright red
8, 16.
or both (no. 8) are found on most of the scenes.
Green is also
found on nos. i, 7, 9, 10, 15, 16, blue on nos. 2, 7, 9, and a thick

degree in
occurs on

this series.
all

the vases except nos. 6,

yellow on no. 3.
lekythoi of Class

This enlarged palette

XIV,

is

found again

in

the late

along with the attempt occasionally to draw

CLASS
view

faces in front

(cf.

XI,

SERIES

CONCLUSION

3,

nos. 2, 15, supra)

105

here both pecuharities must

be regarded as experiments, for these scenes are drawn in a style related to that of Classes V, VI, and X, and, moreover, there are other
The
evidences of the painter's willingness to deviate from tradition.
black hair on no. 11, and the use of a brown wash over a few lines
red like the outline on no. 9 may also be recalled.
include a stele or tumulus, the original
The
hardly less evident than in series 1.

Although these scenes


of the painters

spirit

is

all

and

stele itself often receives considerable attention

The

never twice the

is

may be a high square block or a high block with


curved sides instead of the ordinary steps the slender shaft or column
same.

base

crowned by mouldings or special decorations below the anthemion and the anthemion may be like that of Class X, but with larger
or more scrolls (nos. 2, 8), or it may include one or two sets of rather

is

often
;

small acanthus leaves below a large or small palmette, or the acanthus leaves may take the place of any palmette (nos. 9, 10, 12, 16).

On

no. 13

is

tumulus and no

stele,

on nos.

a
5, 7, 8,

tumulus

in

addition to the stele, and on no. 14 the stele with plain round top
or slender tumulus which was found in Classes VII and VIII.

figure seated

on the high base of the


on an elevation near

stele (no. 3) or

stele, or
it

on

(no. 7),

is

chair before the

found on

all

these

vases except nos. 5 and 8.


While the seated figures show more origin
than
the
inality
conception
standing figures, as in Class X, series 2,
One
the standing figures are not simply repetitions of familiar types.

mourner bringing

offerings, to be sure,

the familiar

woman

with

is
present on all but five of the vases, but even in this
bunch of grapes (no. 7) on the basket is a new touch. The
seated figure on no. 9 and a standing woman on no. 10 raise their

flat

basket;

case a

Class IX.

The ephebos

with

hands

to tear their hair as often in

spears
times.

occurs five times, and the woman with toilet vase several
On the other hand, the woman fanning her mistress as during

the child with its toy


her lifetime is a new conception (nos. 2, 3)
before the stele (no. 5), the girl raising her garment above her shoulder
before the stele (no. 7, cf the same gesture, no. 3), the woman leaning
;

over her companion's shoulder (no. 2), are quite new and independent of lekythos tradition.
Further, the bearded man, apparently the

youth (nos. i, 5, 8, 11, 12), is present more commonly than usual, and in such cases as that of the youth drawing his
garment about him (no, 13, cf no. 14) a familiar type is modified by
a new touch.
Certain other attitudes and gestures should also be

father of the dead

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

io6

noted

not usual, the hand raised to the chin as if the head were
contemplation (nos, 6, 8, 13, 15), the woman's hand raised

as

bowed

in

youth leaning on his left arm (nos. i,


on
her elbow and looking over her
leaning
7,
shoulder (no. 2), and, finally, the relaxed feet of the figure seated on
so high a block that the feet do not touch the ground [e.g. nos.
to her breast (no. 2), the seated

woman

12), the

I,

16).

Except on no, 4, the objects often seen hanging in the field are
A
not found in this series, as in Class X and in some earlier classes.
wreath hangs on the stele on no. 5, on no. 7 a basket with a lyre
stands before the stele, and on no. 13 a hydria has been set down
before the tumulus; on no. 7 there are also indications of hills, and a
The objects carried by persons at the grave
hare seated before them.

the grapes on the basket of


offerings (no. 7), the hanging casket (no. 9), the cake and the bird
Even the garments do not
(no. 15), the spear and helmet (no. i).
The curling edges of the overfold
simply repeat the usual types.

also include

some

that are not usual,

on no. 3 and the youth's chiton girded over an overfold with curling
edge (nos. 5, 6, 8) strike the attention; and the extra sleeveless
"jacket" worn by some of the women (nos. 3, 9, 10) is found only
Moreover, the sakkos covering the hair
occasionally on lekythoi.
(no. 8), the veil over the head (no. 3),

head (nos.
matt color.

i, 2,

The most

On

itself.

all

3, 5) are

and

a wide taenia

about the

not often seen on lekythoi with drawing in

striking peculiarity is in the conception of the scene


these vases it seems reasonable to regard one of the

dead person.
Further, the most natural
most instances is to regard either the entire group (nos.

figures as representing the

interpretation in

12) or two or three of the figures as representing the dead person


in association with a
companion or two companions of his lifetime.
I,

Such

scene regularly chosen for grave stelae in the fourth


But on these vases (nos. 1,12 excepted) we have
century at Athens.
in addition one or two of the usual
figures bringing offerings to the

tomb.

is

the

In certain scenes discussed in earlier classes there are indica-

tions of these

two types of figures namely, the dead, perhaps with


the associates of his lifetime, and
persons bringing offerings, but the
differentiation of the two
types has never been so clearly developed as
in the

In

present series.

considering these peculiarities, it is interesting to note that


while two of these vases are said to have come from Athens (nos. 13,

CLASS

6,

5,

7,

107

accurately recorded are


Accordingly, the claim of

10, 12).

9,

1-2

4,

which the provenance

15), the only ones of

from Eretria (nos.

SERIES

XI,

is

made in Eretria rather than in Athens


While the peculiarities of the drawing

Staes that vases like no. 7 were

not lightly to be set aside.


this vase, which he points out, can hardly be said to characterize
the vases of this series, still the combination of drawing, precise at
times if not severe, with freedom in the conception of the scene, is
is

on

what would be expected on vases made after the Athenian manner


a provincial town under Athenian influence.

Series 4.

in

Smaller lekythoi [about o.jo m. high) with two figures at the

grave

As compared

more

with series 3, these vases are smaller, often

hastily drawn, and sometimes with elaborate acanthus leaves which


While but two figures are
suggest comparison with later classes.
as
is to be
on
smaller
and
less important lekvthoi,
present,
expected

much

they are sometimes drawn with

show the

original spirit

New York,

1.

Palmettes

with added red

black

in

anthemion and dotted oblique


violet

wash

Much rubbed.
The slender

shows

stele

traces of taeniae,

anthemion with small acanthus


sits

holding on her knees a

flies

lamenting

her hair

She wears
is

toward the

the

drawn

also

Plate XIV,

in

black,

now

in lines

broken

violet-black

and black

and

crowned by an egg moulding and

left

sleeveless

loosely gathered

At

stele.-

is

woman

the

for

in profile,

youth's shoes.

with

bowed

in a

(.')

small

chiton and himation

Lee. blancs

att.^ p.

The palmettes
black.
The scene

high

is

The
shoulder

stele is

there

carrying on her
right

hand

drawn

a casket

dull

in

hand

the

red

piece of metal
a

H.

0.29 m.

he

Pottier,

flat

with handle

is

maeander (broken by oblique crosses) is in dull


violet wash is used for garment borders and
still attached to one side of the vase.

moulding and an anthemion which

just a suggestion

left

1730, Lee. 92.

147, no. 59.

crowned by
is

^vyy\

the right an ephebos stands in profile, extending his

MNB

have disappeared

bright red for details.

head,

with violet

Before her

knot.

with hand relaxed, and holding a spear erect in his lowered left hand
wears a chiton with violet wash border, a scarf over his left arm, and black boots.

Paris, Louvre,

bv
thin

details,

right forearm

2.

2.

basket with wreaths and smegmatotheke, and lifting an ala-

flat

bastron in her right hand.

wash border

At

leaves.

is

rarely

3.

H. 0.30 m.
maeander

scene

border and

used for garment

is

leaves

The

crosses.

and

in series 2

GR 623.

Metrop. Mus.

and innovations

delicacy,

which was noted

of acanthus leaves.

At

the

left

rises

high on to the

woman

approaches,

basket with smegmatotheke and alabastron, and in her


she wears a sleeveless chiton girded over overtold, with

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

io8

At

wash edge.

violet

in her right

She wears

woman

the right a

hand, and

carries

on her

a flat basket

up an alabastron

with smegmatotheke.

himation with violet wash edge over her knees, and a

chiton, an

a sleeveless

seated on a rude block holds

arm behind her

left

sakkos about her hair.

The

rough surface of the slip on these two vases, with


the consequent crayon-like lines, and some characteristics of the
drawing recall Class IX, series 2, though the connection is not suffithese vases under series i of the
ciently close to lead me to discuss
slightly

The delicate drawing in not very fine lines, the freedom


present class.
of the garment folds (cf. the bottom of the overfold on no. 2 with
shape of the
smegmatotheke, and other details suggest that the two vases are from
While both figures on no. 2 are mourners bringing
the same hand.
nos. 3,

6,

5,

offerings, the
his

hand

3), the peculiar

of series

etc.,

ephebos on no.

might be the dead person extending

to receive the offerings brought by the seated

H.

Laurion.

Dresden, Alb. Z.V. 2038.

3.

slender

woman.

(without foot) 0.29 m.

Palmettes and maeander in dull red, the maeander broken by dotted oblique crosses

The scene is drawn in the same red, with


and reversing.
boots, and violet wash for the garment border.
At the extreme
extending

tree

and red boots

leg relieved, touching the youth's

left

it

apparently there

an

stands

ephebos

in

profile,

is

is

right
hair.

hand (as if
She wears

to

take the

a sleeveless

an overfold or cape behind

her

Behind her and extending toward


sphendone.
up by
low table or seat, above which a sword in its scabbard hangs

in a high loose knot, held

the centre of the scene

hand with her

hand touching her black

left

chiton, girded with violet girdle


is

Before

outlined.

hand (with a gray-green object), palm up, and holding two spears
He wears a chlamys without color, a petasos on his shoulders,
hand.
At the right a woman stands nearly en face,
his hair is sketchily drawn.

object he holds), and with her

hair

is

red for the youth's

his right

erect in his left

her

left

a brighter

from the sword-belt.

This scene without the

stele

discussed under series 2, while

may be compared

some

with later scenes

points in the technique

resemble

the youth,
i and 2.
Apparently, it is a farewell scene,
he goes forth to battle, saying farewell to a lamenting wife or
mother here doubtless the youth is the dead person and the tree

that of nos.
as

indicates the sphere of his activity, as the seat belongs to the

home.
4.

The

faded drawing

Berlin, Furtw. 2452.

The body

is

delicate,

Athens.

though somewhat

H. 0.285 m.

woman's

precise,

Plate XVIII,

i.

of the vase swells noticeably below the shoulders.


Palmettes in dull brown
broken
is
the
also
in
by dotted oblique crosses,
;
brown,
maeander,

with alternate leaves red


but does not reverse.
places

the hair

is

The

scene

outlined, and

is

drawn

filled in

in fine lines

with

of dull brown, shading to

wash of the same

color.

violet in

Violet wash

is

CLASS
used for

details,

deep red

for a

XI,

SERIES

3-7

4,

109

Traces of preliminary sketch with

garment.

dull point

in the soft slip.

The

leaves with violet

bowed head

She wears

of which behind ends


violet taenia

head, places

wound

left

arm

a sleeve chiton in outline,

in a tassel

her hair

is

ranged

At the

above which she holds

a flat basket

and

a large

red himation, the corner

about her face and held by

in curls

in partial profile,

right a

youth
on the upper step on the stele, and rests
his left hand supports two spears against

his right toot


;

chlamys remain, and on

his shoulder

is

a petasos, red

his right

bowed

with

forearm on his

his left side

traces of

with violet band.

Grdber der Hellenen, Taf.

Stackelberg,

Present

i.

xlvi,

unknown.

location

The

crowned with egg moulding and two sets of acanthus


sits a small bird.
At the left a woman with

is

about the head.

knee, with hand relaxed

5.

steps

wash added, on top of which

stands in profile, carrying on her

her right hand.

his

two

slender stele on

slender stele on four steps of unequal height

crowned with acanthus

on top of which

leaves,

is

is

perched

decorated with red taeniae, and

At

a small bird.

the

left a

nude

a small bird is perched


youth stands in profile, holding a staff erect in his raised right hand
He wears a round cap with red border, and brown
on the forefinger of his left hand.
At the right a seated youth supports himself on his left arm and extends his right
shoes.
;

hand

as if to attract the bird

about his knees

is

wrapped

a red

mantle.

The

very slender stele crowned by decorated moulding and two


sets of acanthus leaves above which is perched a small bird, and the
On no.
fine sure drawing, indicate the relation of this pair of vases.

4 the mourner bringing offerings is opposite a youth who may represent the dead person, while on no. 5 a youth holds out a pet bird to
i.e. no. 4 is the
his seated companion as though both were still alive
;

scene at the grave usual on lekythoi ; no. 5 is apparently the grave


The bird on top of the stele
stele scene noted frequently in series 3.

should perhaps be regarded as a suggestion of the open country where


the tomb was located.

0.31 m.

The
The

Benndorf, Gricch. Sic. Vas.., Taf. xvi,


scene

is

drawn

slender stele on

in fine lines

two

and anthemion from which spread two


profile

partial

approaches,

lowered right hand


is

carrying a

a small casket

low projecting knot.

in a

spears against his left shoulder

7.

decorated with taeniae, and crowned with moulding


pairs
flat

a youth stands
lowered right hand

is

drawn

At the
left

left

woman

arm and

in fine lines

partial profile,

he wears

a large

in

in her

holding two

chlamys.

Present location unknown.

Athens, Private Collection.


scene

in

right

his

dorf, Griech. Sic. Vas., Taf. xxii,

The

of acanthus leaves.

basket with taeniae on her

she wears sleeveless chiton and himation, and her hair

At the
with

i.

of rose.

is

steps

H.

Present location unknown.

Athens, Private Collection.

6.

Benn-

i.

of gray

himation, and her chiton shows traces of red.

a darker gray-green

is

used for the woman's

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

no
The
sets

stele

on two steps

two

leg relieved, holding

chiton, and boots

At

woman

in partial profile,

arm

left

She wears

hands,

is

The

The

Much

slender stele on

with acanthus leaves.

wears

a petasos, a

At

mantle.

At

girded

the right stands a

and

a dark himation,

mirror in the

H. 0.315

The

two
the

is

used

scene
for

is

drawn

is

is

which

the maeandcr,

in not very fine lines of dull

The

taeniae.

which

field.

ni.

shoulder ornament was in dark red, as

greenish black

dull

very delicate.

He

hand.

a small

a sleeve chiton

Athens.

broken by dotted oblique crosses.

violet-red.

left

Behind her hangs

the back of her head.

Neck modern.

an ephebos stands in partial profile, his right

holding out a smegmatotheke on her right hand, and carrying on

Berlin, Furtw. 2453.

8.

left

arm hangs

his left

a large flat basket.

drawn up over

the

spears erect in his raised

while over

her

is

decorated with taeniae, and crowned with scrolls and two

is

of spreading acanthus leaves.

drawing, especially of the

injured.
steps

left is

was decorated with


a

taeniae and

low tumulus on which

crowned apparently

vouth places

his left foot

elbow with the hand relaxed, palm down


his
the
His
from
elbow.
has
At
the
extended, palm up,
garment
disappeared.

right a

woman

the sleeveless

on

his left

knee

rests his left

stands nearly in profile, holding out a black taenia in both hands

chiton has

On

now

right

hand

is

young

disappeared.

these three vases the acanthus leaves are

more prominent and

the drawing is more free than on the vases previously discussed.


each scene a woman bringing offerings stands opposite a youth

In
;

on

and 7 the youth carries a spear and is dressed for a journey.


Benndorf interprets the scene as representing the meeting of a mourning woman and a traveller at a grave outside the city, and calls attennos. 6

tion to the

While

somewhat sentimental

attitude of the

youth on no.

7.

equally possible to regard the vouth as representing the


dead person to whom the offerings are brought, I believe it is safer
it

is

in the case

of these small lekvthoi not to lay stress on any definite

The painter represents a woman bringing offerings


interpretation.
and a youth, following the tradition long since established for such
scenes.

The freedom

youth on no.

of the drawing

and on no.

noticeable, especially in the


at the same time it is delicate and sure.
is

Instead of a preliminary sketch in the soft slip the legs of these figures
were drawn in outline color and may be seen where no solid color

remains for the garment.


been noted on nos. i and

The wavy

lines

of garment edges have

The youth
2, and frequently
on
forward
has
been
seen
on
no.
no.
8
alreadv
4, though the
leaning
tumulus was not present on that vase.
The woman on no. 6 closely
resembles the

On

woman

on no. 2, supra.
varied by placing a woman in contemplative

at the left

no. 9 the scene

attitude opposite the

in series 3.

is

young woman bringing

offerings.

The

gesture

CLASS

SERIES

XI,

in

8-11

4,

of the relaxed hand raised nearly to the chin occurs on nos. 6 and 8
of series 3, in each instance in the case of a figure probably to be
regarded as the dead person; it becomes common in Class XIII.
^

Munich, 2165

9.

On

a-

the shoulder the palmettes with

many

broken by dotted oblique cross, reversing

drawn

in

The

red fading to pink


stele

bowed

She wears

her side, her

at

a sleeveless chiton

At the

loosely over the knotted hair.

ing the

(Oldfield, 78)

The

At the

hand with

with overfold, girded

left

and accessories, darker red

maeander

The

H.

XXV

scene

is

drawn

in the

same

stands a

from the base

woman

with

apparently a cloth

drawn

is

with her right hand support-

De

0.25 m.

at

her side.

Janze, Cat. 133

(1905), 75.

The maeander, broken by


for a

left

hand hangs awkwardly

drawn

palmettes on the shoulder are larger than normal,

reversing, and the scene are

to right

black.

fingers bent raised nearly to

right a girl approaches,

Jour. Hell. Stud.

alternate leaves bright red.

The

left

Oxford, Ashm. Mus. 546.

10.

left

now

free acanthus leaves spring

basket of taeniae on her head, while her

flat

in a color

about the shaft are black taeniae.

head, her right hand

her chin.

point from

all

taeniae in dull green-black.

crowned with anthemion, and

is

of the palmette

leaves

both are

in dull violet-red

with

dotted oblique crosses and not

dull violet-red

bright red

is

used for taeniae

garment.

slender stele on one step

is

crowned with high

scrolls

and small palmette

on

the step, about the middle of the stele, and at the top below the scrolls are rings of acan-

At

youth in profile approaches, with bowed head, holding out both


he
wears a short sleeveless chiton or cuirass, a large chlamys fastened
;
on the right shoulder with red buckle, and a. light red cap.
Against his left shoulder rest two
At the right a woman
spears and before him flies a \\ivyy] with gesture of lamentation.
thus leaves.

hands

as if

the

left a

with a taenia

en face stands looking down, her left hand supporting a basket of red taeniae, her right hand
She wears a sleeve chiton, a large red himation
slightly raised, palm in, toward the stele.
is

wrapped over her

left

shoulder and around her body, and a light red band confines her

Before her hangs a sakkos with strings.

hair.

H.

Earl of Elgin Collection.

11.

Arts Club Exhibition,

903-1 904,

Cat.^

0.32

m.

Fine

Burlington

26.

Palmettes normal
simple maeander broken only by acanthus leaves.
stele
on
The slender
one step is decorated with taeniae and a row of acanthus leaves
;

the upper edge


halfway up, and is crowned by three spreading series of acanthus leaves
On either side is a female mourner;
of the leaves is marked bv a line of violet wash.
;

Three lekythoi

Bammeville should probably be classified at this point.


Cat., no. il ;
drawn in bistre 5 stele crowned with egg moulding, acanyoung woman with two fruits and smegmatotheke on her fiat basket, at

in the Collection

H. 0.236 m.; palmettes and maeander


thus leaves, and palmette

at

the

left a

in thin black,

No. 175 H. 0.27 m.; ornament


and palmette j at the left a young woman holding in
the right an ephebos wearing a red chlamys.
No. 20 ;

the right an ephebos with chlamys and in his lowered right hand a lyre.

and scene

in thin black, stele

both hands a

flat

leaves

basket with two fruits and alabastron, at

H. 0.24 m.; ornament and

woman

crowned with acanthus

scene in red, stele crowned with acanthus leaves and palmette; at the

wearing white chiton and red mantle, and carrying a

right an ephebos with chlamys.

flat

left a

basket with lekythos and taeniae

young
at

the

112

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

the one at the right

stands in profile,

with bowed head, holding out

taenia in both

hands.

H. 0.40

Athens, Private Collection.

12.

drawn

are

in a color

The

now

slender stele

some of which

the scene

Bright red and dark claret are used for details.

violet-gray.

decorated with four successive series of small acanthus leaves,

is

are bright

red,

apparently held bv

ephebos approaches, holding two

chlamvs has

ni.

The unbroken maeander and

Palmettes in gray with alternate leaves red.

bright red

At the

taeniae.

erect spears in his raised left hand, his head

At the

a bright red border.

right a

woman

brings a

left

bowed

an
his

basket of taeniae

flat

her sleeveless chiton with overfold has broad perpendicular stripes of dark claret.

H. 0.41 m.
Athens, Nat. Mus. 1839, Cv. 181 1.
are nearly effaced.
The scene was drawn in

13.

Ornament and scene


green and

wash were used

violet

The

stele

is

decorated with

dull

with acanthus leaves, which have

hands

to tear

right stands a

her hair

woman

At the

violet edge.

left

young woman

dull

raises her

At

stripes of dull green remain on her sleeveless chiton.

(r

pale red

and bright red for a garment.


green taeniae and ornamented above and below

for details,

the

in a bright red mantle.

other experiments in the use of the acanthus leaf are illustrated

Still

on the vases just described. On no. 10 rather large acanthus leaves


are placed at the bottom of the stele and at the middle and top of the
shaft, while the stele is crowned by the high scrolls and palmette
noted,

e.g.

on no.

of series 3 and no. 7 of series 2

on no.

1 1

there

row of acanthus leaves halfway up the slender stele and three sets
of leaves at the top; on no. 12 four sets of small acanthus leaves,
is

some

bright red, are attached to the slender stele; and on no. 13


there are acanthus leaves with violet wash edge at the top and at the
bottom of the stele. The woman bringing offerings is found here, as
before, on nos. 10

and 12 the youthful warrior is opposite her; and


on no. 1 3 we see again, as on no. 3, a woman raising her hands to tear
her hair in grief.
The drawing is more hasty than on some of the
;

vases previously discussed, but

it

sure and graceful.

is

H. 0.39 m.

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1836, Cv. 1727.

14.

Palmettes in gray with alternate leaves red

The

oblique crosses and not reversing.

brown-red wash

for

the hair

violet

scene

wash

maeander

drawn

is

is

used

also in gray,

for

broken by dotted

of dark gray, with


border
and red for
garment

in fine

lines

details.

The
the

left

slender stele

is

crowned with

stands an ephebos holding

two

small palmettes and spreading acanthus leaves.


spears erect in his left

with violet border and carries a mantle on

below which
right

hair

the curls

hand toward the


is

in a

fall

to his

stele

shoulders.

his

left

At

arm

on

the right a

her sleeveless chiton

hand

his

head

he wears
is

a high

voung woman

At

a chiton

red cap,

holds out her

has red stripes or fold-lines, and her

high loose knot projecting fi-om a sphendone.

CLASS

SERIES

XI,

12-16

4,

113

scene the small palmette on the stele flanked by two long


The youth at the left
narrow acanthus leaves is not very successful.

In

this

The red
should be compared with the similar figure on no. 10.
occawoman's
have
been
noted
garment
stripes, or fold-lines, of the
while the treatsionally in earlier classes, and recur in Class XIII,
from
a
cloth
loose
knot
with
ment of the hair
(cf. series 2,
projecting
no. 12)

XIII and XIV.

in Classes

Oxford, Ashm. Mus.

15.

Stud.

found also

is

XV,

covered with

The

in solid red.

The

m.

0.38

(with alternate leaves red) and simple maeander


hard yellowish glaze ; on this the scene is drawn

Palmettes

garment

H.

Athens.

steps

apparently a pillar

is

wreaths

At

bends forward and holds out in both hands

in profile

is

it

the right a youth stands in three-quarters view, his

the stele, palm in

his left

hand

on

resting

his hip

Oxford, Ashm. Mus. 543.

16.

Stud.

XV,

327,

slip is

red, with one

is

right

bound with

sets

a taenia,

of acanthus leaves

At the

a flat basket

she wears an ungirded sleeveless chiton, in outline,

dull

eyelashes are carefully indicated.

monument on two

grave

The

in black.
in

above which are two rosettes and mouldings ; on the top are two
crowned by a small palmette with alternate leaves in solid color.

woman

Jour. Hell.

325, pi. XV.

left

young
two

containing

and has short curly hair.


raised slightly toward

hand

covered by the red himation.

H. 0.284 m.

Eretria.

Jour. Hell.

1-2.

figs.

the palmettes have alternate leaves red.


;
One
used for the hair and for lyre strings.

Palmettes and simple maeander in black

The

scene
is

garment

The

in black, but dull red

the

of a

left a

pillar

on two

her head and the stele a lyre hangs

and looks back

ing on his hip

is

of which

is

covered with acanthus

in both hands a
approaches with bowed head, holding out
sleeveless
black
dead child ; she wears a
chiton, girded over an

overfold with a broad white sash

stele

steps, the top

woman

body of

tray with the

from the

is

in dull green-black.

stele consists

At

leaves.

drawn

is

her hair
in

the

is

in a loose

At the

field.

in his right

hand

is

Between

round knot behind.


right a

youth turns to go

a large purse (?)

his

left

hand

away
rest-

covered by the himation.

with high spreading acanthus leaves at the top has been


noted in series 3, nos. 9 and 10, but it does not become common till

The

Class

stele

XIV.

No. 15 has been cleaned

since

it

was published

in

the

that the

suspicious profile
Journal of Hellenic Studies, with the result
of the woman's face and some peculiar lines of the drapery have disThe strikappeared, and the wings also have practically disappeared.

out her basket of offerings,


ing attitude as she bends forward holding
remains ; and the dignified youth opposite, perhaps the dead person
The classification of no. 16 is
receiving the offerings, remains intact.
doubtful.

The woman's garment

is

of a type found in Class XIII,

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

114

the figure of the youth at the right is cursorily drawn, and the red
hair is found in Class XV; still, perhaps the vase finds its closest anin

alogies

the

present series.

to the grave,

is

The

child, apparently

dead child

found elsewhere only on no. 16 of Class V,

brought
In publishing this vase
where the body is not wrapped up as here.
Mr. Gardner interprets the scene as representing a nurse with child

and the young husband (with

The

has died in childbirth.

distaff) at

the grave of a

young

wife

who

individual character of the scene as thus

interpreted finds analogies in series 2 and 3 of this class.

Series 4.

Conclusion

The

colors used for the palmettes, the maeander, and the outlines
of the scene are the same as in series 2 and 3, i.e. black or gray (with

palmettes), or a dull reddish brown ; the


On no. 9, as on
greenish black and the thin violet do not appear.
two or three isolated examples in Classes IX and X, the palmettes

added red leaves

run from

left to

in

right

the

around the shoulder.

broken by dotted oblique


eral a red

is

the ornament

commonly used

in

On

for the outline of the scene

no.

there are

frequently
In gen-

and XIII.

even when

traces of a preliminary

4
and on nos. 6 and 7 the legs of the figures were
outline color before the garments were added.
is

sketch in the soft

drawn

black.

The maeander is

crosses, as in Classes

slip,

Solid color is used more sparingly than on some vases of series 3.


Violet wash for a garment border or some accessory occurs on nos.
Two shades of red are found together on no. 10;
14, IT, 13, 14.

one or the other is found on nos. 2-5, 12-14. The black boots
on no. I and the red boots on no. 3 recall a practice of Class IX.
Garments ornamented with fold-lines or stripes of color (red on no. 12,
green on no. 13) may be noted, as they are rare in Classes IX XII.

The

use of red for the hair with black for the outlines

1-15, 21, 22 of Class


also unusual.
1

The
which

XV)

and the

(cf.

nos. 17,

garment on no. 16

solid green

are

originality and for definite meaning in the scene,


characterized series 2 and 3, is conspicuously absent from most
effort for

of the scenes, though experiments

in the use

of acanthus on the

stele

are as varied as in series 3.


The stele itself consists of a slender shaft,
often with a band of ornament at the top (nos. i, 2,4, 6, 7, 15).
The

anthemionwith high scrolls

(nos. i, 2, 10) may have incipient leaves (nos.


the
stiff rows of acanthus
to use them
hesitated
painter
though
have a small bird at the top instead of a palmette (nos. 4, 5).

I, 2) as

twice

CLASS

SERIES

XI,

4,

CONCLUSION

115

Rows

of acanthus at various points on the shaft (nos. 1013) are an experiment repeated in Class XIV, where we also find the high acanthus
leaves of nos. 15, 16 (cf 6, 7) in a more stereotyped form.
Anything

The
experiment or originality, however, is limited to the stele.
normal scene consists of a woman bringing a flat basket of offerings
opposite a youth with spears or, in one or two instances, a woman who
like

The

does not bring offerings.


acter that

meaning;

it is

it

useless to

may

scene

make much

is

of such a conventional char-

effort to

determine any definite

represent the meeting of a mourner and a traveller


dead youth and the woman bringing offerings

at the grave, or the

more probably no very


painter.

The

seated

definite

woman

(nos.

meaning was
i,

2) or

in

youth (no.

mind of

the

the

and the youth

5),

leaning forward on his raised knee (nos. 4, 8) are more interesting than
the standing figures, though these also are drawn with freedom and
grace.

Only three scenes deserve

special

dead youth and


parently represents
like scenes of series 3; no. 15, where a
a

his

mention: no.

companion

5,

which ap-

as in the stele-

woman

(perhaps a Nike) bends


well forward, holding out her canistron in both hands; and no. 16,
where the woman brings the body of a dead child.

The

the grave follow the tragestures and the objects brought to


The woman raising her hands to tear her
dition of earlier classes.
hair in grief (nos. 3, 13)

is

IX ; the extended right


typical in Class
from
the side (nos. 10, 15)
raised
slightly

hand (no. i) and the hand


have often been noted, and the right hand raised nearly to the chin
Of the objects brought to the
(no. 9) was found four times in series 3.
grave only two even deserve mention, the casket on nos. 1 and 6, and

The smegmatotheke, either by itself or on


the purse (?) on no. 16.
the basket of offerings, is far more common than in other groups of
While

3 objects in the
field were conspicuously absent, we find here a flying soul (nos. i, 10),
a sword in its scabbard hanging by the belt (no. 3, cf. no. 4 of series
3), a mirror (no. 7), a sakkos (no. 10, cf. Class V), a tree and a chair
lekythoi, except perhaps Class V.

in series

The

connection of this series with series 3 is more evident


in the garments and the treatment of the hair.
The girded overfold
of the chiton with curling edge (on a woman, no. 2
on a youth,
(no. 3).

The sakkos

no. 7) repeats a peculiarity of series 3.


covering the head
(no. 2) and the veil over the back hair (no. 7) were noted in series 3,

and the high loose knot projecting from a sphendone (no. 14) occurred
in series 2.
The high red pilos on a youth (nos. 10, 14) and the free
cape over a woman's back (no. 3) are innovations here.

ATH'

ii6

The provenance
One is said to have
at Eretria,

WHITE LEKYTHOI

'N

'

se vases

ound

is

for the

most part unknown.

Athens, one at Laurion, and one


on the authority of the dealer from

at

but the statement rests

whom the vases were bought. If series 3 were to be considered as a


group of vases made for the most part in Eretria, certain vases of the
The absence
present class (e.g. no. 7) might have the same origin.
of originality combined with the purity of the drawing suggests, however, that in general these lekythoi came from Athenian potters.

Series

At

5.

Miscellaneous examples

this point arc classified a

few lekythoi which do not

fit

into the

They
previous series, but which probably belong under Class XI.
are not closely related to each other in a consistent series, nor are
the characteristics of Class XI as clearly defined as in the four series
previously discussed.

Boston, Mus. Fine Arts, 01.8147.

I.

Palmettes

in violet-gray

with traces

H. 0.285 m. Plate XVII,

ot alternate leaves in red

maeander

in the

i.

same

The scene is drawn


by dotted oblique crosses and not reversing.
Much
the same color with violet wash for details and light gray tor one garment.

violet-gray, broken
in

faded.

At

the

his right

floating

left a

hand he

mounted youth

spear above her head.

and

up

his

violet

horse to attack a retreating

Amazon.

In

he wears a chiton girded, a short chlamys


are white, and a petasos with traces of violet on
;

now
The Amazon crouches

behind with fold-lines that

the back of his head.

shield,

reins

carries a spear horizontally

On

her

left

to run away, and turns back, raising her


arm and away from the attacking youth she carries a

scabbard hangs on her right side

with violet wash stripe down the front, over


of her cap are clearly seen.

she wears a short girded chiton

a longer chiton,

and the

violet

wash earpieces

The violet-gray pencil-like lines of this vase resemble those on


no. 15 of series 3, but the drawing is more free.
The scene is most
unusual on white lekythoi, but it is to be compared with that on
another vase of

this

series

(no. 8)

on which the drawing and tech-

Apparently, it is a scene transferred


nique are decidedly different.
battle of Athenians and Amazons on red
figured vases of

from the

the period
and it was so transferred to a grave vase as appropriate
to the grave of a
young Athenian who had died fighting for his
;

country, perhaps with an enemy from the country of the Amazons.


The valor of the dead youth is indicated, as on the Dexileos stele
in

Athens, by placing him on horseback above a retreating enemy.

CLASS

SERIES

XI,

1-5

5,

117

Evidently the scene belongs with the stele scenes of


though the second figure is drawn from myth.

Shape less slender than usual


The scene
ornament or maeander.

now

violet

The

on two steps

stele

drawn

his chin

At the

hand thrown back

his right

head bowed and

surface

left a
youth stands nearly in profile, his head
he wears a violet himation ; the short hair is

H.

and simple maeander

in dull

0.283 m.
greenish

The

black.

scene

drawn

is

in

of dull pink, the hair in a few strokes of the same with a thin greenish wash
Deeper red is used for bands about stele, and on garment.
Drawing hastv and

damaged.

The

on two steps has two narrow red bands at the top and is crowned
acanthus leaves with a small ornament in the centre, which break the maeander.

slender stele

by

six small

At

the

left

man

stands a

At

side uncovered.

nearly in profile, wearing a red himation which leaves the right

the right a

woman stands

hand, and carrying a


sleeve chiton, now without color.
stele in the right

flat

en face, holding up an alabastron toward the

basket before her on the

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1810.

4.

slender stele

is

The

man

part of a

youth wearing a Corinthian helmet

on

is

drawn

his left

dark red mantle supports himself on a

in

arm and holds

pushed back, and

in rose,

with red

Palmettes in dull green with alternate leaves red

The

also in dull green.

leaves.

At

the

is

the

the right

chlamys

he carries

a spear erect in his right hand.

Athens, Nat. Mus.. 1898, Cv. 1759.

5.

scene

crowned with moulding and spreading acanthus


At
staff.

bearded

a shield

She wears

arm.

Foot missing.

garment.

The

left

Corinth.

Palmettes and simple maeander in dull green.

is

a color

lines

added.

upper

he wears a violet mantle.

Palmettes

medium

now brown

At the right a youth in partial profile sits facing the


hands clasping the knees which are drawn well up toward

his

Munich, 209c (19714).

3.

left

remain of shoulder

traces

rather coarse lines

in separate curving strokes.

stele, his

for a

No

and shiny.
in

decorated with four taeniae, and crowned by an anthemion

is

flanked by violet acanthus leaves.

drawn

is

used for garment, taeniae, and acanthus.

is

bowed and

thin

slip

H. 0.194 m.

Athens.

Munich, Private Collection.

2.

even

series 3,

scene

strokes of outline color for the hair

is

drawn
violet

Cerameicus,

the complicated unbroken maeander

in dark gray,

wash

is

H. 0.30 m.

with a brown wash over a few

used for

details,

blue and thick yellow

for garments.

The heavv
the

left

traces

stele

woman

of blue.

His mantle

is

is

crowned with anthemion and decorated with

stands holding out a

At the

right a

flat

young man

violet taeniae.

At

on the upper part of her garment are


holds up a small bird (?) in his right hand.

basket

yellow.

These four vases

unimportant examples which show certain


characteristics of Class XI.
No. 2 is a diminutive vase with two figures at the grave

are

the acanthus leaves are attached to the anthemion

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

ii8

manner of Class XI. On no. 3 the stele is


small
acanthus leaves, as sometimes in series 3
crowned simplv by
and 4, and we have the man with the woman bringing offerings, as
of the

the

in

stele

the hastv but graceful drawing is related to that of Class


XI rather than to that of later classes. The scene on no. 4 is probably the "stele scene" discussed under series 3, the dead young warin series

represented with his father as when he set out for the war;
though the vase was found in Corinth, the clay and the technique
seem to be the same as on vases found in Athens. The stele with
rior

on no.

scrolls

heavy

and the colors used, find analogies in Class


vase also is not typical of any of the clearly marked

this

XI, though

5,

classes of white lekythoi.

H. 0.245 m.

Boston, Mus. Fine Arts, 03.801.

6.

Palmettes

dark red with traces of alternate leaves

dull

in

The

red, broken bv dotted oblique crosses, not reversing.

now brown.

lines

\'iolet

wash

is

in

Plate XVII,

black

scene

used for garment borders and

maeander

drawn

is

in

also in

fine

even

and red

taenia,

2.

for

taeniae.

At the

left a

woman

with

bowed head

stands en f^ce, on her

left

arm

a flat basket

of

she wears a
and taeniae, and her right hand extended from the elbow, palm up
sleeveless chiton with overfold, colorless except for the border of violet wash on the bottom
fruit

of overfold and of skirt

At the

head.

on her
raised

hand

right

her

her knees

left

is

arm

woman

is

held up bv a wide violet sphendone knotted over her fore-

seated in a chair facing the

her

left

leans forward, and holds out

winged figure (Eros) with its arms extended and one wing
over the back of her chair.
Traces of the chiton remain, and over

small
is

mantle with violet wash border

Above

taenia.

her hair

right a

in

her hair

dark red taenia

the field a

is

is

held in a low knot bv

violet

draped, and behind her hangs

sakkos.

While the drawing of

this

vase

is

careless

and heavy, the scene

finds analogies in Class XI rather than in earlier or later classes.


The scene consists of a mourner bringing offerings, and of a woman
seated in a comfortable attitude with an Eros on her extended hand.

Evidently the

latter

is

marked
scene and the com-

whose character

the dead person

1 his definition of the


by the attendant Eros.
bination of mourner and the dead person represented

as

is

in

her

life-

time continue the tradition of series 3 and 4, a tradition which exercised

little

7.

Egg
in black,

influence outside the present class.

Munich,

Inv. 2263.

H. 0.248 m.

pattern and palmettes in thin black with alternate leaves red


is

broken by dotted oblique crosses, but docs not reverse.

fine firm lines

ments and

now brown

details.

the hair

is

now

dull pink

the maeander, also

The

two shades of red

scene

is

drawn

in

are used for gar-

CLASS
The

on two steps
At the left

slender stele

moulding and anthemion.


right hand on his hip and

his left

SERIES

XI,

6-8

5,

119

decorated with a taenia, and crowned by egg


youth stands nearly en face, with head bowed, his
hand holding two spears erect ; he wears a close-fitting
is

chiton which reaches to the knees, with a dull red belt and red border
his

feet are bright

red shoes, and about his head

woman

right, facing the stele, a

sits,

is

supporting herself with her

left

at

the bottom

On

white taenia.

on

block at the

arm and with her

right

she wears a sleeve chiton and


hand holding erect a large decorated lekythos on her knee
her head is bowed, and her hair
an himation, bright red with dark red line near the edge
is held
up by a taenia reserved in white.
;

drawn with great precision


approximately of the type found in

In contrast with no. 6 the scene here

is

and some deHcacy. The stele is


Class X, but the paint used for the outlines is not that of Class X,
The youth with spears at
nor is the scene conceived as in Class X.
the

recalls

left

on red figured vases, not on white lekythoi,

figures

common as is the youth with spears in series 4. Nor does the seated
woman with a lekythos on her knee, perhaps a mourner at the grave,
I am inclined to
regard the vase
closely follow any lekythos type.
experiment made by

as an

a painter

accustomed to work

in the red

figured technique.
Brit.

London,

8.

Mus.

97. 3-7. 4.

]ahr. Arch. Inst. 1898, A. A.,


Neck and mouth

restored

shoulder

slender and swells below the shoulder.


the horse

An
horse
tally

is

solid reddish

brown

S.

violet

H.

to

shoulder 0.21

m.

237.

now blank and maeander missing. The body is


The scene is drawn in fine lines of brown, while

wash

is

used for details.

ephebos on horseback riding toward the right over stony ground, reins up his
his head is bent forward and in his lowered right hand he carries a spear horizon-

he wears

a short

girded chiton and petasos bent up in front.

youth crouches to receive the attack


wears a

he carries

a large

shield

At the

drawn

right a second

in perspective

and

pilos.

No.

8 also

is

a vase

which shows few relations with any of the


it
may be another ex-

defined classes of white fekythoi, and perhaps

The precise, somewhat awkward, drawing and


periment like no. 7.
Nor
the use of solid color for the horse would point in this direction.
are the chiton and petasos of the rider treated as on other lekythoi.
The idea of the scene, however, is almost exactly paralleled on no, i

of this

series.

Series

5.

Conclusion

The

eight vases in this series do not belong together, except as


they represent various examples of work related to that found in Class
XI. The ornament shows but one variation from the usual type,

namely, no.

6,

on which the palmettes are drawn

in

dark red with

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

120
alternate leaves
(nos.

5) or

I,

added

The

in black.

pink (nos. 3, 4), or

in a

scene

drawn

is

brownish red

in

gray outlines

on the

first five

the lines of the outline are rather coarse and in one or two cases the

decidedly good but hasty (nos. 1,3); on the last three the
decidedly fine lines of brown, hasty on no. 6, overcareful
drawing
on nos. 7 and 8. On no. 5 blue and yellow are used for garments,
and on no. 2 the only solid color is a thick dark violet ; the usual violet
is

drawing

is

in

wash occurs on

nos.

i, 6, 8,

and

in several cases red

is

used for gar-

The

use of a special wash for the hair, noted rarely


In technique
in each class thus far discussed, occurs on nos. 3, 5, 7.

ments or

details.

nos. 7 and 8 are interesting in

that they

seem

to be carefully

experiments by painters not accustomed to work

As

for the scene itself, nos. i, 4,

and

in this

drawn

technique.

show the scene

like that

on

here the scene on nos.


grave monuments, frequently noted in series 3
interest
it
because
I and 8 is of
departs so far from lekythos
special
;

tradition

and repeats

a scene

On

found on an extant

stele, the

and 7 occur the figures of


bringing offerings and apparently of the dead person, as in
Athens.

stele at

nos. 3, 5,

Dexileos
a

woman

series

4;

certainly there can be little question of this interpretation in the case


of no. 6.
These vases, however, call for individual discussion rather

than for discussion as a series.

Conclusion of Class

The

XI

present class includes lekythoi which show marked variations


come from about the same epoch

in the different series, yet they all

fact that they all show experiments in


the
stele, mainly experiments in the use of acanthus leaves
treating
The differences which have been discussed
to decorate the stele.

and they are connected by the

technique, as though makers of lekythoi included in Classes IX and X, as well as other groups of lekythos
manufacturers, had experimented with the use of the acanthus leaf,
are

both differences

and

also differences in the conception of the scene

in

itself.

dinarily of a chalky consistency and quite smooth, as

the

ornament several colors afford

a choice to

The slip

in Class

X.

or-

is

For

the decorator; while

the palmettes rarely vary from the stereotyped form, the maeander
may be simple, or broken by dotted oblique crosses or even by the
earlier

red

is

checker-board pattern.
As for the scene itself, rose or brownordinarily used for the outlines, but different shades of black

or grav are not

uncommon.

What now

appears as a violet wash

is

so

CONCLUSION OF CLASS

XI

121

generally used for garment borders and accessories that it may be


Two shades of red also are
regarded as a characteristic of the series.

The

often found.

low, blue, green,

occasional use of a larger palette, including yel-

etc.,

be regarded as another line of experiment

may

for painters who did not follow closely the traditions


down to them.

In Class

IX

which had come

the stele was usually a simple block or pillar on steps

in Class
it was a more slender shaft crowned
by small scrolls and a
palmette, or by a small acroterion, and standing on two or three steps;

XI we

find the usual steps or, again, a high block, occasionally with concave sides ; the very slender shaft is often decorated

here in Class

by a band of ornament at the top the anthemion may be a more


elaborate form of that used in Class X, and acanthus leaves either are
added to the anthemion, or replace it entirely, or are attached to the
;

base or at several points successively.


Taeniae are frein
attached
to
the
but
not
such
numbers
as in Class
shaft,
quently
IX. This attention to the stele is significant mainly as it indicates
shaft at

its

an effort to break away from earlier traditions.


For the scene the painters of these vases have tried

all

the subjects

previously used on grave lekythoi and one or two new ones, and in
each subject some new element is introduced.
In the prolhesis scene
scene we find the figure of a youth who is lamenting; the Charon scene is varied by the presence of a child or of a
seated figure, while in several instances offerings are presented at a stele,

and

in the depositio

along with Charon in his boat the scene representing women at home is
so treated as to be adapted to a grave vase, and, again, in the scene at the
stele two or three
figures are treated as if they were in their home. This
;

point is the most striking, for such groups can only be understood
to represent the dead person with a companion or with other members
of his family, as if the relations with persons still living continued the
last

same

death as when he was

This

the type of scene


which constantly appears on Athenian grave reliefs, especially in the
fourth century b.c.
Though it is impossible to believe that these lekyafter his

alive.

is

thoi furnished the scene to the later grave reliefs, we may believe
that they helped to visualize the Athenian thought of the dead attached
to their living friends, in a

way

that

made

this

scene

more

natural for

the sculptors who carved the grave reliefs.


second striking feature
of these lekythoi, not unconnected with the point just mentioned, is
the definiteness with which occasionally the scene is
adapted to a particular person.

We

may

regard this feature as part of the effort of

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

122

the

painter to raise his work from that of the artisan


vases for the market to that of an artist-artisan who fills or-

lekythos

making

It is a
ders for particular individuals.
peculiarity of the present class,
that
with
the
however,
originality and the effort in series 2 and
along

make important vases for special occasions, we have in series


4 and 5 many smaller vases on which originality is confined to
3

to

variation in the stele, while the figures besicie the stele simply repeat
traditional types, along with a few vases in the spirit of series 2 and 3.

The drawing on

these vases

is

rarely overcareful

and never done

with great detail.


The sure simplicity of Class V, and a more subtle
but equally sure simplicity, has been noted on various examples ;
sometimes the drawing is hasty, sometimes more careful than strong;
general, there

in

the

thus

classes

is

tendency to greater freedom than

more showy examples,


paralleled in Classes

While Class

discussed.

far

XIV

in

anv of

contains

many

the finer vases of the present class can only be


and VI. The date of the class is probably

coincident with the later examples of Classes IX and X, viz. in the


Whether some of these
quarter of the fifth century b.c.

third

vases were

made

the examples
peculiarities
I

of

in Eretria is

an open question.

known provenance came from

would be explained

have not been able

if

to discover

Eretrian ware from what was

made

In series 3 most of
Eretria and

some

they were manufactured there, but


any clear tests to differentiate an
in

Athens.

CLASS XII: LEKYTHOI WITH SCENES ORDINARILY IN RED OUTLINE; THE OUTLINE OF THE STELE ORNAMENT REENFORCED
series of lekythoi which
present class consists of a small
XI
on
one
the
and
with
Classes
show relations
hand, and Class XIII

The

The one common

on the other hand.

seem

casual one,

is

characteristic,

palmette or acanthus ornament but while this


might easily be accidental, it so happens that it does

of the

the edges

which may

the use of a thick line of color to reenforce

characteristic

the most part form a distinct class


bring together vases which for
For convenience the examples with
with many points in common.

are discussed first, then the exof the type found in Class
of
anthemion
with
high scrolls and palmette, and
consisting
amples
In this class,
acanthus ornament on the stele.
finally three with

stelae

however, the different types of stele are apparently traditional material for the painter, and no line separates the three series.

Benndorf, Griech.
The

Vas., Taf.

0.468 m.

Plate XXI,

xxvi.

broken by

is

scene

drawn

is

the curly hair

ments and

dotted oblique crosses

details,

and reverses.

maean-

the

Slip grayish (injured

by

fire?).

of dull greenish black, shading in places toward violet ;


Dark red is used for garclose fine strokes of the same color.

in fine lines

drawn

is

2.

leaves in dull black


palmettes are in dark red-brown with alternate

der in red

The

Sic.

H.

Athens.

Berlin, Furtw. 2451.

1.

in

and dull black

The

for taeniae.

oudines of the figures were drawn

in

outhne color before the garments were added.


The slender stele is crowned with mouldings and anthemion, the centre picked out
on the shaft are three taeniae, one
with red, and the outer edge of the palmette reenforced
;

dark red.

Before the stele

is

a square

stone block, beneath

on the block

young woman

denote the low

tumulus

grasping her

knee with both hands, and looking up.

left

now without color, and


woman in partial profile
and taeniae on her

left

sits

over the back of her head

is

which curving lines perhaps


in profile toward the right,

She wears

drawn

girded Doric chiton,

At

a veil.

the

left

young

hand a flat basket with sprays


approaches, steadying with her right
arm ; she wears a Doric chiton with overfold, decorated with red

low flat knot. At the right a youth, nearly en face, leans forward,
the
two erect spears in his right hand, and looks down at the seated
himself
by
supporting
woman. He wears a red chlamys and a petasos, beneath which his hair falls to the neck

stripes

her hair

is

in a

in black curls.

2.

Dresden, Albert. 366, Z.V. 1410.

Arch. Inst. 1898, A. A.,

S.

H. about

black

is

interrupted

Jahr.

137, no. 30.

Palmettes in dull black with alternate leaves in light red


dish

0.42 m.

by anthemion, and
123

reverses

the

maeander

in dull red-

between dotted oblique

crosses.

124

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

V,

The

scene

is

ui fine

even

lines

of dull reddish black

two shades of

thick red are used tor

and one garment has added black fold-lines on a light red ground.
garments,
The slender stele on three steps is decorated with taeniae and surmounted by egg
thick red color is used to reenforce border and center of
moulding and hign anthemion
of
central
egg moulding and lines of moulding at the base of the shaft.
points
palmette,
taeniae, etc.,

On

either side of the

the

left

its

wings

st"'-?

{l/v)(i]

stands nearly en face, his right

wears a chlamys

At

ing the

flat

right

its

hand holding

with one arm touching

wings

At the

are extended.

a spear erect

a dark red himation


in circular strokes,

is

She wears

arm.

left

a sleeve chiton,

row of

making

Mus.

with

The

light red stripes,

hair

and reversing.

slender stele

1893, Cv. 1767.

in a red

it

is

violet

wash border

right

approaches

H. 0.40 m.

maeander broken

elaborate palmette, the outline apparently reen-

(?) seated on the steps of the stele,

At the

carefully

and

drawn

are used for garments.

At

decorated with taeniae and wreaths.

no chiton remains, but over her knees

wears sandals.

is

Cerameicus.

himation stands with head bowed, holding out

young woman
bird

Dark red and

crowned with an

is

forced with violet wash

man

He

above her forehead.

curls

Palmettes and maeander, as well as the scene, are in brown-red

The

at

youth

the head has disappeared.

raised to cover the back of her head.

2a. Athens, Nat.

by

left

with black fold-lines, and a petasos hangs on the shoulder.


stands nearly en face with right leg relieved, her right hand steady-

basket on her

oblique cross

head

its

in light red

woman

the right a

in the field,

flies

at the

down,

are

is

the

left

a small bird in his

bearded

hand.

extends her right hand to take the

mantle with violet wash border, and she

youth, nearly effaced.

While these vases have various points of connection with Class


X, 2, the careful delicacy of the drawing, the large size, the color of
the outline, as well as the type of palmette, distinguish them from the
series there discussed.

and the

delicate

The

detailed treatment of the eyes on no.

hands are specially noteworthy.


Here, again, the
drawn with more freedom, if not more originality,

seated figure is
though the typical standing figures are very gracefully handled.
Doubtless the seated figure represents the dead person, and perhaps
the standing youth should be regarded as the husband or brother of

the deceased woman, represented with the dead as on marble stelae,


while the figure at the right is the usual woman bringing offerings.
The reversal of the usual colors in the ornament is perhaps part of
the painter's effort to produce a lekythos somewhat different from, as
well as finer than the usual type.
No. 1 is another large vase drawn
in black outline with unusual care and delicacy, though the figures,
in

harmony with another type of composition, stand more

side the stele.

stiffly

be-

The

red fold-lines for a garment, the attention to the


curls of the hair, the ornament at the top of the stele, and the large
simple scrolls of the anthemion, are other points of resemblance be-

tween the two vases.

The

scene on no. 2a also

is

drawn with sim-

CLASS

The

and delicacy.

2a-6

XII,

125

bird in the man's hand

is
hardly an offering
but rather the scene represents persons in the home as
during the Hfetime of the dead woman, now seated before her grave

plicity

at the grave,

monument.
3.

Mannheim, Case

On

the shoulder the

black with

few zigzag
for

The

lines.

scene

garment border and some

for a

The

garment.

hair

is

maeander

the

drawn

is

details, bright red for taeniae

reversed

is

they are in dull

same color

the

in

of dull violet-red

in fine lines

drawn with

with a thin wash of greenish grav.

ment of

0.25 m.

cir.

position of the outer palmettes

black and red leaves

many

H.

178.

and

reduced to

is

violet

wash

The

and thick dark red

details,

few strokes of the outline color, and filled in


preliminary sketch shows white through the gara

slender stele on

two

is

steps

decorated with bright red taeniae and crowned with

band and the centre of the palmette


while the bottom and ends of the palmette leaves are reenforced in bright red.
flat

used

the right-hand figure.

anthemion

left

is

at

the top of the shaft

approaches a young

woman

is

in

a violet

partial

the only garment that remains

is

with head bowed, on her

profile,

hand

basket with red taeniae, in her right

away from

raised

is

violet,

At the
arm

left

the stele an alabastron

a
;

with violet wash

chitonion reaching to the knees,

border below and violet border with pattern in outline at the top ; the hair is in short
At the right a woman stands en face, her right hand sHghtly raised, palm in, her

curls.
left

hand extended from the elbow, palm up

himation

her hair

is

and before her by the

in the field,

Brussels,

4.

in a loose knot at the

Mus.

she wears a sleeve chiton and dark red

back of her head.

steps of the stele a

Cinq.

H.

394.

Behind her hangs a wreath


heron (?) stands erect.

0.25 m.

The

dull

The scene is drawn


palmettes and maeander are no longer visible.
brown
dark red, and (bright red, now) gray are used for a garment.

in lines

now

The

slender stele on three steps

centre and the outline are reenforced.

swan

or heron in

his

with red girdle,


5.

now

the

the right stands a

Palmettes and maeander


the

and palmette,

scrolls

a seated

garment

woman

Earl of Elgin Collection.

In

left

now

en face

down

youth looks

centre

H.

903-1 904; Cat.^


careless.
On the left is

stands

stele

m.

pi. xciii,

a high ovoid

crowned with anthemion

stands en face, her right hand raised to her forehead

6.

cord (once

the small

she wears a sleeveless chiton

0.273

basket of wreaths and taeniae.

hangs

which the

at

almost colorless leaves his

Her garment

has disappeared.

Fine

Burlington
40.

tumulus covered with


the

palmette and the centre of the palmette are reenforced with thick red.

woman

o'i

reddish gray above and dark claret red below.

Arts Club Exhibition,

taeniae.

At

extended right hand

At

right shoulder free.

crowned with

is

on her
In the

of the

outline

At the
left

field

arm
at

right

a flat

is

the right

wreath).

Athens, Private Collection.

Attica.

The unbroken maeander and the palmettes are


The scene is drawn

alternate leaves in bright red.

in

H. 0.274 m.

dull violet-red, the palmettes

in dull violet-gray

bright red

is

with
used

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

126

of anthemion,

for details

brown-red

Preliminary sketch with dull point

for

garment, and blue (?) for another garment.

in the soft slip.

very slender stele is crowned with anthemion, in which the centre and edges of
At the left stands a youth closely draped to
the palmettes are reenforced with bright red.

The

the neck in a brownish red mantle.

the stele his right

hand, palm up

At the right a youth (.'') stands holding out toward


he wears an himation now bluish, and his hair falls in

curls to his shoulders.

These four smaller

vases, like nos. 1-2,

show some resemblance

to

in the drawing and the scene, though the paint used for
and the decoration of the anthemion indicate at least that
No. 3 is drawn with considerable
they came from a different atelier.
a
vase
small
for
so
care
moreover, the heron beside the stele, the
decorated short chiton of the woman at the left, and the gestures of

Class

X,

2,

the outlines

No. 4

both figures are unusual.


long-necked bird

little

very carelessly drawn, but the

is

hands of the seated youth lends

in the

it

some

The

presence of both tumulus and stele on no. 5 has been


no. 13,
noted occasionally in other scenes {e.g. X, i, nos. 10 and 12

interest.

but the figure of

woman

basket of offerings in
infra)
one hand and raising her other hand to tear her hair in mourning is
The palette used on no. 6 is unusual, and the preliminary
unique.
sketch on nos. 3 and 6 suggests a care not often exercised on such
;

carrying a

small lekythoi.

Karlsruhe, Winn. 234.

7.

Plate XXI,

hair

is

shoulder gone.

in fine lines

wash

violet

for

H.

to shoulder

m.

0.25

I.

Neck and
drawn

Athens.

of violet-red

The scene is
Simple maeander in dull greenish gray.
is used for taeniae and details,
green for details,

bright red

the
garment border, and thin yellow with red-brown stripes for a garment
of a reddish brown color, over a few strokes of outline color.
Drawing
;

in curls

vigorous.

The
which

At

the

knee

stele

on two steps

is

decorated with taeniae and crowned with anthemion,

in

the palmette leaves are reenforced near the base and at the edge with bright red.

as

left a

woman

places her

left

foot

on

low mound, and

rests

her

left

arm on her
She

she bends well forward, pouring from a large hydria held in both hands.

wears a sleeve chiton, girded, with red-brown stripes on a yellow ground, and over it a
her hair falls in long curls over her shoulders,
sort of white overfold, or cape, with dark border
;

and forms
right a

background

woman

for her face.

Above

is

approaches en face, carrying on her

basket with twigs and taeniae, and holding

poured

her

a libation.

She wears

a chiton

red fold-lines and violet wash edge

down

draped
left

a bright red taenia.

arm away from the

At the

stele a

flat

had

just

before the stele a phiale as if she

with overfold, girded, and decorated with bright


her curly hair is gathered in a round knot on top

of her head.

This vase closely resembles

in

technique several

of the

vases

CLASS

XII,

12 /

7-9

which follow, and it has the same type of stele with bright red taeniae,
and the taenia draped in the field. The scene, however, is unique,
The woman at
and the drawing is in finer lines and more careful.
a
bath
in
her
for
the
dead person and pours it
the left brings
hydria
out at the grave, while her companion has just poured out a libation
from her phiale. The red stripes of one garment are frequently

found

in this class,

unusual

and while

but the yellow garment with brown stripes is most


in this class the curls of the hair are
usually indi-

cated with care, the long loose curls of the woman at the left which
fall so as to throw out the face in silhouette, and the
high round knot

of her companion's hair are striking deviations from the usual types.
Perhaps we may assume that the painter was attempting to reproduce

from some monumental painting, which he adapted to

figures

this

In that case
scene at the grave with all the colors at his disposal.
the awkward drawing ot the right hand of the woman at the left is
less surprising.

London,

8.

The

Brit.

Mus.

H.

Athens.

8i.

0.31 m.

palmettes are in coarse lines of dull black with alternate red leaves and red centre

the maeander

also in black, shading

is

the hair in a red


a garment

and

wash over

toward

few strokes

The

violet.

scene

of the outline color

drawn

is

thinner red

in strong red,

is

also

used for

taenia, dark red for another garment, blue for taeniae, and green-black for

details.

The

stele

on one step

is

ornamented with red and blue taeniae and crowned by an


in red (?).
Behind it a red and a blue taenia are

anthemion with edges reenforced

At the
draped in the field.
the neck in a dark red mantle.
left

on the step of the

foot

wears a sleeveless chiton

left

stands a youth in profile, his head

At

stele

in thin

the right

in

woman

is

bowed, wrapped to
head bowed, with
basket or box
she

in profile, her

both hands she holds out a

flat

red with dark red stripes, and an overfold in white with

red stripes.

Berlin, Furtw. 2465.

9.

No
scene

is

Athens

ornament remains on the shoulder

drawn

H. 0.252 m.
maeander

the simple

in rather coarse lines of dull red

dark red

blue for taeniae, and thin yellow for centre ot palmette

is

is

The

in faded black.

used for garments and details,

the hair

is

in small

even curls of

the outline color.

The stele on one step is crowned with egg moulding and anthemion ; on the centre
of the palmette is a yellowish wash, near the base of the leaves is a red Une, and the edge is
reenforced with thick red.
At the left a woman in profile approaches, with bowed head,
holding out in both hands a

with perpendicular red


are draped

in

stripes

basket of red and blue taeniae

and her curly hair

the field behind her.

extending his right hand

draped

flat

in a large

as if to take

At

is

in a loose

she wears a sleeveless chiton

low knot.

something from the basket of

red mantle, and his hair

Two

large taeniae

the right a youth stands in three-quarter view,

falls in

curls to his neck.

his

companion

he

is

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

128

Paris, Louvre,

10.

Lee. blanes

The

att.^ p.

MNB

H. 0.30 m.

614, Lee. 103.

Pettier,

148, no. 65.

palmettes are in dull black with alternate leaves red

the maeander,

also

in

The scene is drawn in red


broken by dotted oblique crosses and reverses.
black,
the
hair
is drawn with a few strokes of outline
red
is used for taeniae and details ;
bright
is

and

color,

The
in

mion,

wash

a thin red

is

added.

used for a taenia.

is

At the

draped a thick red taenia.

is

Blue

on two steps is decorated with bright red taeniae and crowned with anthebehind it
which the base and ends of the palmette leaves are reenforced in red
stele

left

woman

back, holding out a black taenia in both hands


is

in a

low round

At the

knot.

curly hair

is

second

away from

the stele and looks

her garments have disappeared

woman

stands en face, carrying a

the hair

flat

basket

arm away from the stele, and steadying it with her right hand
her
chiton and long overfold with perpendicular bright red stripes

with red taeniae on her


she wears a sleeveless

right a

turns

left

gathered in a small loose knot

at the

base of her head.

The same

type of stele recurs on these three vases, the same


taeniae draped in the field, and the same red stripes for a garment
the scene, also, is drawn in full red, and the curls of the hair are care;

The use of blue for a taenia draped in the field is


In each
found
(see Class XIII) outside these three examples.
rarely
of
the second
scene one figure is the woman with basket
offerings
on
where
is of a usual
no.
the
also
10,
painter retype, except
figure
fully indicated.

verts to a type of Class IV, viz. a woman with taenia in both hands
These are typical
turns away from the stele and looks back.
in
Class
and the
examples of a class with drawing not unlike that

who

stele

of Class X, along with a use of color more like that in Class

XIII.
11.

Paris, Louvre,

MNB

620, Lee.

H. 0.42 m.

no.

Pottier,

Lee. blanes att.^ p. 150, no. 72.


Palmettes with

alternate

leaves red,

and maeander

in

dull

broken by anthemion and dotted oblique crosses and reversing.


another red is used for taeniae and garment
fairly bright red ;

black,

The

the

scene

folds,

is

and

maeander

drawn
violet

in

for

a taenia.

In front of an ovoid tumulus the slender


scrolls,

The

perpendicular

stele

on one step

with small horizontal anthemion

base and ends of the palmette leaves are reenforced in

and about the

At

scrolls

the

left a

stele

are red

woman

taeniae,

and

a violet

taenia

is

is

crowned with horizontal

each side, and palmette ;


thick red
on the tumulus

at

draped

stands in profile, carrying a violet taenia in

in

the field behind

her lowered

left

it.

hand

and holding out in her right hand a large smegmatotheke


she wears a sleeveless chiton
with red stripes.
At the right stands a second woman eti face, an alabastron held by
a cord in her lowered right hand, and on her left arm a basket with wreath and red
;

taeniae

she wears a red garment with dark red folds.

CLASS

MNB

12.

XX,

Paris, Louvre,
Pettier, Lee. blancs

I.

The

10-14

XII,

617, Lee.

129

H.

105.

m.

0.33

Plate

att., p. 149, no. 67.

the maeander,
palmettes are in dull black with alternate red leaves and red centre
The scene is drawn in
is broken
by dotted oblique crosses and reverses.
;

also in black,

rather fine lines of

full

red

bright red

used for garment and

is

and

details,

dull green black

for details.

The

on three steps is crowned with elaborate high scrolls including a


white, above which is a rather small palmette with red spot in the

broad

stele

palmette reserved in
centre and thick red line at outer edge of the leaves.

low block, bends


knees is drawn a red mantle.

At the left a youth, seated on a


hands a wreath of green leaves ; about his

forward, holding out in both

At the

thrown out awkwardly


stele, and on her left arm she
;

stele

woman

right stands a

carries

basket of fruits and taeniae

flat

down

she wears a sleeveless chiton with a red stripe

and along the


draped two

skirt

taeniae,

her hair
at

the

in a

is

the

In the

high loose knot.

left

the

side, at the girdle,

above

field

away from

at the right are

another taenia beside a purse.

left

H.

Athens.

Berlin, Inv. 3170.

13.

nearly en face, her right hip

her right hand she holds out a smegmatotheke toward the

in

0.29 m.

Plate XIX,

i.

Palmettes and maeander in dark


Shape rather full and shoulder flat, as in Class IX.
one
"checker-board" square.
and
crosses
the
maeander
broken
dotted
red,
by
oblique
The scene is in fine lines of red-brown, varying to dull light red one garment is blue
;

gray, another has a border of yellowish wash.

The
large

stele

on two steps

surmounted by egg moulding and high anthemion with


At the left and partly in front of

is

scrolls, the edge of the palmette reenforced.

the base

is

in her left

low tumulus on which

hand she holds up

smegmatotheke

the outline color, over her knees


locks of her hair.

woman

is

a blue-gray himation,

At the extreme

stands a

left

bowed

facing the right, her head

sits

she wears a sleeveless chiton with folds in

and

woman

a sakkos covers all

in

profile,

but a few

her head

bowed,

steadying with her right hand a flat basket with fruit and taeniae on her left arm ; she
wears a sleeve chiton and an himation with border now dull yellow ; her hair is in a small
flat

knot

at the

back of the head.

The

figure of a

woman

standing en face at the right

is

nearly effaced.

14.

XVIII,

New

York, Metrop. Mus.

GR

618.

H. 0.248 m.

Plate

2.

Palmettes in thin black

and not reversing.

The

maeander

scene

is

drawn

also

in

in

even

black, broken
lines

by dotted oblique crosses

of dark violet

violet

wash

is

used

garment borders and details, black for a taenia and details.


The slender stele on three unequal steps is crowned by a high anthemion with edge
now black, and with details in violet, to which are attached rudimentary acanthus leaves

for

on the second step rises a high ovoid tumulus, and both stele and tumulus are
decorated with black and violet taeniae.
At the left a young woman (?) in profile, with

behind

it

no
head bowed, approaches and holds out both hands, a lyre in her lowered left hand
chiton remains
At the right an
the himation has black fold-lines and violet border.
;

ephebos stands nearly en face,

his relaxed

right

hand

raised

slightly

from

his

side,

and

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

130

holding two spears erect in his lowered

on

a petasos

edge,

The

his shoulders,

left

He

hand.

wears

long chlamys with violet

and shoes laced with black thongs.

high anthemion of the stele with extra scrolls has been noted

York, GR 619; 3, no, 8, Louvre,


804), and the form of anthemion on no. 14, as well as the
colors used on this vase, suggest that perhaps it should have been

under Class

XI

(2,

no. 7,

New

MNB

discussed under that class, in spite of the reenforced violet-black edge


The tumulus occurred with the stele on XI, 3, no.
of the palmettes.
8,

and the type of scene

in life

duced

youth with

lyre and youth with spears, as


on sculptured grave stelae so often reproPerhaps the heads on no. 14 have been re-

recalls the scenes

in Class

XI,

3.

Numbers

11, 12, 13 are drawn in the red lines characteristic


painted.
No. 12 is peculiar for the reserved white palof the present class.
mette in the lower part of the anthemion and tor the red block under

the anthemion.
In addition to the draped taeniae of nos. 8-10, a
the broad red stripe on the woman's
red purse hangs in the field
The seated youth
chiton is another peculiarity of the present class.
;

with the wreath

woman

mav be regarded

as the

whom

dead person to

the

bringing offerings.
Except for the exaggerated position of
the woman's right hip, the vase is drawn with sure and delicate touch.

The

is

high knot of the woman's hair

on no. 13

is

is

similar in design to that

like that

on no.

The

7.

stele

on no.

12, but here a graceful


with offerings stand at either

figure sits before the stele, while women


The colors used for garments and the checker-board square in
side.
the maeander are unusual, but the fine drawing resembles that on no.

Number

1 1
is drawn with
greater care and less grace; the red
the
taenia
behind the stele, and the striped garments
outlines,
draped
are characteristic of the present class.

12.

MNB

H. 0.32 m. Pottier,
Paris, Louvre,
618, Lee. 106.
Lee. blancs att.^ p. 149, no. 70.
Rayet-Collignon, La ceram. grecque^
15.

pi.

xi.

The
maeander,

The

scene

palmettes are in dull black with alternate red


also in black,
is

drawn

in

is

broken by the

fairly fine

lines

stele

of

leaves and red

and by dotted oblique

full

red

thicker red

garment border, and details


bright red with black fold-lines
and blue for one taenia.
The hair of the youth is drawn with
the outline color, covered with a thinner red wash.
;

The

stele

on three

steps

is

is

centres

crosses,
is

used

the

and reverses.

used for taeniae,


for

garment,

few curved strokes of

decorated with taeniae, the lowest one blue, and crowned

with egg moulding, upright scrolls flanked by spreading acanthus leaves, and a palmette of
which the base and ends of the leaves are reenforced with a thick red.
In the field above
are festooned three taeniae

and

at

the right hangs a wreath.

At

the left a

woman

stands in

CLASS
partial profile,
a

XII,

with bowed head, her right hand

basket of fruit

her sleeveless

15-17

at

chiton

her waist and in her lowered

has a

deep
and along the bottom both of overfold and
;

side

loose knot

by

131
left

hand

wide border of red down the

right

skirt

her hair

At the right a youth stands in


sphendone.
with black fold -lines.

is

profile,

held

up

wrapped

a small

in

to the

neck

in an himation, bright red

To

the anthemion with high scrolls acanthus leaves are here


added, but the full red of the outlines, the draped taeniae in the field,
and the wide red band on the woman's chiton are found here, as, e.g.^

The

on no.

12.

of the

woman,

rarely found

graceful drawing, as well as the exaggerated left hip


The deep basket of fruit is
also recalls that vase.

as an offering at the grave.

the analogy of similar

By

IV

the youth draped to the neck


the dead person visible at the grave.
figures in Class

H. 0.30 m.

Vari.

Berlin, Inv. 3369.

16.

Palmettes and simple maeander in dull violet-brown,

The

leaves in bright red.


is

scene

drawn

is

even

in

lines

may be regarded
Plate XX,

2.

the palmettes with

of dull violet-red

The

The

hair

slender stele

even curls

in small

is

alternate

wash

violet

used for garment border and details, bright red for taenia ends, and green

of palmettes.

as

for

centre

of the outline color.

decorated with bright red taeniae and crowned with violet wash

is

at the base and halfway up the shaft are acanthus leaves


egg moulding and anthemion
with violet wash edges
the palmette has a green centre, then a series of red dots, and
;

At

the ends of the leaves are reenforced in bright red.

the

left a

woman

in profile places

low, irregular tumulus and bends well forward, holding out a large flat
she wears a sleeve chiton with perpendicular
basket with green wreaths and red taeniae ;
Above her basket in the
bright red stripes, and an overgarment with violet wash border.
her

field

on

foot

left

hangs the string of

At

wreath.

her right hand on her breast, her

woman

the right a

hand

left

stands in three-quarter view,

and touching her head ; she


and lower border, and an over-

raised behind

wears a chiton with bright red perpendicular stripes


garment without color except for the wide border of violet wash.

women

is

gathered

mass behind, not

H. 0.295 m,

Berlin, Furtw. 2457.

The

palmettes and simple maeander are in thin

violet

dark red

is

The

the

The

scene

same color

is

is

stele

on

hair of both

Plate XIX,

black, the palmettes with

in rather coarse lines

2.

alternate

of thin black, shading to-

used for the small even curls of the hair and for details

used for garments and

slender

Salamis.

drawn

The

in a definite knot.

17.

leaves in dark red.

ward

in a loose

two

crowned with egg moulding and

details.
is

steps

decorated with

anthemion,

in

red

which the

taeniae

centre

at

intervals,

and

and

of the

edges
halfway up the shaft is an egg moulding and a
At the left stands a
row of acanthus leaves, the edges of which are reenforced with red.
woman in profile, holding out in both hands a dark red mantle rolled in a ball ; she wears
palmettes are reenforced with dark red

a chiton

with perpendicular

partial profile, carrying

her

right

hand

(palm

stripes

on her
in)

left

of the outline color.

arm

toward

the

stele

At

the right a

woman

stands in

with red taeniae, and slightly raising


she wears a short sleeve chiton with

a flat basket

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

132

The

perpendicular red stripes, and an himation in outline.


in curls, gathered in a loose mass or knot behind.

On

hair of both

women

is

drawn

these two lekythoi acanthus leaves are present on the shaft,


The reenforced edges of palmettes and
Xi.

as occasionally in Class

acanthus leaves, the stripes of the garments, and the treatment of the
hair are characteristic of Class XII, though the use of black and
violet

not usual in this

is

woman

the head of the

On

rather clumsy.

on

The drawing

class.

on no.

at the right

is

fine in places, e.g.

t6, but

no. i6 the attitude of the

in

woman

general it is
with her foot

tumulus and her companion's gesture of lamentation are unusual


in this class
and the presentation of a rolled-up mantle at the stele
on no. 17 is an interesting recurrence of a type found occasionally in
a

earlier classes.

18.

Paris, Louvre,
att.^ p. 150, no. 73.

The

shoulder ornament

and alternate leaves

with black

darker red
violet

the

wash

whole

On

in red

Plate XXII,

in dull black,

is

lines

used for

is

was drawn

one step stands

garment and

in violet

wash

Pottier, Lee. blancs

tor

The

scene

taeniae,

is

blue

drawn
for

in

red

taenia,

Instead of any other preliminary sketch,

in outline before the

garments were added.

slender tumulus decorated with several red taeniae

a high rather

woman, with bowed

i.

with elongated palmettes having a centre spot

simple maeander in dull black.

garment border and taeniae.

for a

figure

and two taeniae

MNB 615.

above

it

are

festooned a red and a blue taenia.

At

the

hand on top of her head, her


few traces of her garment remain. At the right a woman,
right hand extended, palm up
with head bowed, stands nearly en face, her right hand arranging the taeniae on the
left a

head, stands in profile, her

left

tumulus (?), her

left

hand

slightly raised;

she wears a dark red sleeveless chiton

wash on

with

lower edge and on the lower edge of


the overfold
The hair of both women is in
the right hip is awkwardly thrown forward.
loose curls gathered in a small knot behind, apparently drawn with the same brush as
black fold-lines, a wide border in violet

its

the outline.

Although there

is

no

on

stele

this vase, so that

it

lacks the dis-

tinguishing mark of this class, viz. an anthemion with reenforced


edges, the colors and style of drawing and the type of draped
taenia lead me to include it here.
In particular the pose of the right-

hand

figure, the

treatment of the

hair,

and the type of profile find

their analogies in this class.

H. 0.295 m.

19.

Berlin, Furtw. 2458.

The

palmettes and simple maeander are in dull grav, the palmettes with alternate leaves
The scene is drawn in dull red ; the same color is used for the small even

Salamis.

in a thick red.

curls of the hair

The

stele

is

a darker thicker red

is

used for a garment, taeniae, and details.

apparently a short heavy column crowned with egg moulding and a

CONCLUSION OF CLASS

XII

133

mass of acanthus leaves, the edges of which are reenforced with thick red.
At the
woman stands in profile, her head bowed, holding out in both hands a large flat
basket with broad red taeniae.
She wears a sleeveless chiton, ornamented with
perpendicrich
left

ular red stripes

and girded

her curly hair

in

is

low loose mass behind.

At the

stands a youth in three-quarter view,

carrying a cithara in his lowered right hand

large himation covers

His head

the

left

hand.

is

slightly

bowed, and

his

right
;

his

hair falls in

curls to his neck.

20. Berlin, Inv. 3368.

No

ornament remains on the shoulder

The

black.

H.

Vari.

thicker red

is

scene

is

drawn

in

0.29 m.

there are traces of a simple

rather fine Hues of red,

used for a garment, bright red for

maeander

in dull

shading toward violet.

garment, taenia, and

Dark

details.

The
taeniae,

stele is apparently a short


heavy column on two steps, decorated with red
and crowned with red band and a rich mass of acanthus leaves, the edges of which

are reenforced with bright red.

hands a large

flat

wings.

short mantle

left

basket with red taeniae

perpendicular red stripes.

At the

At the

right

In the

field

stands a youth

stands a

in profile, holding out in

both

before her head

in partial

drawn forward over both

woman

she wears a sleeveless chiton undergirded, with

profile

is a
lamenting if/vxrj with full
he wears a bright red chiton, a

shoulders, and a bright red petasos

the hair

falls

in curls to the shoulder.

Occasionally in Class XI, as in Class XIV, the stele is broad, apHere,


parently a thick column, and crowned with acanthus leaves.

however, the acanthus leaves have the reenforced edge, the outlines
are in red, red stripes ornament the garments, and the
type of drawing
is like that on other vases of Class XII.
Conclusion of Class

The

XII

lekythoi included in the present class are either over 0.40 m.

in height, like the


larger vases of Class XI, or
like examples in Classes X, XI, and XIII.

0.25-0.30 m. in height,
shoulder ornament

The

and maeander are quite generally in black with alternate leaves of the
maeander in red; on no. i these colors are reversed, on nos. 6 and 16
used instead of the black, and on no. 13 the only
color used for the ornament is a dark red.
The scene itself may be
a reddish violet

drawn

is

black (nos. i, 2, 17), or gray (no. 6), or a violet-brown (nos.


3, 4, 14, 16); the characteristic color, however, is a full red, stronger
and darker than is usually found in Class XIII. Violet wash, so
in

commonly found

for a garment border or details in Class XI, occurs


hereon nos. 3, 7, 11, 14, 16, 18. Black is often used for details, and
one or two shades of red for garments and details thin yellow is used
for a garment on nos. 7 and 13, and a thin bluish
gray on no. 13 (cf.
;

6).

The

characteristic use of color in the present class,

however,

is

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYT HOI

134

found

use of red stripes (nos.

in the

and black

stripe along the border of a

i, 2,

7-11, 13, 16, 17, 19, 20)

on garments, or of a wide red


chiton (nos. 12, 15, cf. 18), and further in

stripes (nos. 2, 14,

17, 18)

the use of blue (nos. 8-10, 15, 18) as well as violet (no. 11) and red
While the hair is usually in the same color as
for the wide taeniae.
the outlines, the use of a thin wash over a few strokes of outline color
is

more common than

IX XI

in Classes

(cf.

nos. 3, 7, 10, 15).

preliminary sketch

more commonly, e.g.


the figure was drawn

soft slip has been noted on nos. 3 and 6


on nos. i and 18, the whole figure or most of

in the

garments were added.


have been grouped as nos.

in outline color before the

Scenes with stele of the type of Class


i-io of this class. The use of bright red to reenforce the ends of the

palmette leaves is the main difference from the stele found in Class
X, but the ornament at the top ot the shaft, the number of taeniae

on the

and the occasional touches of color

shaft,

of the

in the centre

The
palmette and toward the base of the leaves may also be noted.
character of the paint used for the outline of course definitely separates these lekythoi from those discussed under Class X.
On nos.
11-14 the

stele

series

complex

thoi of Class

is

XI

surmounted by a
important palmette, as on two lekyThe stele on no. i i is
and 3, no. 8).

broader for

of scrolls and
(2, no. 7,

its

height and

is

less

very slender, and on both nos.

and 14 the scrolls are arranged to


increase disproportionately the height of the anthemion
while on nos.
11 and 13 the broader stele is better adapted to this kind of anthei

mion.

On

these four vases, also, the taeniae on the shaft are

sized and the


is

ornament

represented at

3, no. 8

on nos.

empha-

tumulus
top of the shaft remains.
the outside of the scene on no. 15 as on Class XI,
1 1

at the

and 14

it is

behind the

stele,

and on no.

it

takes

the place of a stele.


On nos. 16, 17 acanthus leaves are attached to the
shaft of a stele with anthemion, and on nos. 19, 20 acanthus leaves
take the place of an anthemion at the top of a broad stele or column.

Only on

nos.

i,

on a low tumulus

2a,

and 13

in front

is

a third figure present, a

of the

stele.

The woman

woman

seated

bringing to the

from which hang broad taeniae is found


on fourteen of these twenty lekvthoi, and on six of the other seven a

grave a flat basket of offerings

woman

The
present with some offering brought to the grave.
second figure may be the youth with spears (nos. i, 2, 14), the youth
draped to the neck in his mantle (nos. 6, 8, 15), a seated youth with
is

bird or wreath in his hands (nos. 4, 12) or a standing youth of some


On nos. 16 and 18 the second figure
6, 9, 19, 20).

other type (nos.

CONCLUSION OF CLASS
is

woman

raising her

hands to tear her

hair,

XII

and

135

in the other scenes

woman

bringing offerings.
Except for no. 7 and one
or two of the seated figures, these scenes repeat familiar types with
on nos. i and 2a alone is there a
little meaning and little interest
it is

usually a

The
suggestion of the marble grave stelae scenes, as in Class XI.
scene on no. 7 is unique, a woman pouring from a hydria at the grave
while her companion holds out a phiale, and may be regarded as a

The seated figure on


representation of worship at the grave.
in
of
the
toilet
vase
held
nos. I, 2a, and 13,
by the latter, doubtspite
literal

less represents the

dead person

applied to the youth draped


to some other figures.

the same interpretation

to the

neck (nos.

may

also be

and possibly

6, 8, 15),

Of

the objects brought to the grave, the hydria and phiale on no.
"
on no. 15 is
7 are rarelv seen on lekythoi, and the "fruit basket
the
wreath
The
elsewhere.
found
(no. 12),
lyre (nos. 14, 19),
hardly
the bird (nos. 2a, 4), the taenia (no. 10), and the vases (nos. 3, 11, 12,
wreath hangs in the field on
13) are often found in other classes.

nos. 3, 5,

draped

and

16,

15,

these vases,

however,

in the field (nos.

and the heron

(?)

a
is

a characteristic mark of
purse on no. 12
the broad taenia of red or blue or violet
;

7-12, 15, 18).

The

on the ground beside the

flying soul

on nos.

stele (no. 3)

2, 20,

find earlier

analogies.

The one

peculiarity of the garments is the free use of black or


red stripes noted above, and the use of a broad border of red or
violet along the entire edge of the chiton.
The short sleeveless

chiton with ornament at top and bottom occurs on no. 3, and on nos.
There
I, 2 the mantle or a veil is drawn over the back of the head.
is

much

is

common

variety in the treatment of the women's hair, but one point


to almost all these scenes, viz. the care with which the

curls of the hair

are indicated (note


especially

The

curly hair and the striped garments together lend


In
picturesque quality not generally found on lekythoi.

nos. 12, 16).


a certain

on both men and women

the matter of drawing, attention has been called to the standing


figure
with hip thrown out on nos. 12, 15, 18.
The attitudes are more

than on earlier classes

along with this freedom, the drawing


be
In general,
described
as
may
usually sure, but sometimes hasty.
it resembles that of Class
more than that of any other class.
free

It

in the

is

a striking fact that only

National

Museum

at

classified

here

is

Athens, while the only vases for which a


come from Athens or from Attica

given are said to

provenance
outside of Athens.
is

one of the vases

LATER SMALL LEKYTHOI WITH SCENE IN RED


OUTLINE STELE WITHOUT ANTHEMION

CLASS

XIII

The

lekythoi of Class XIII are about 0.30 m. in height, and often


The slip is chalky, the ornaslenderer than in the preceding classes.
ment hastily drawn, and the scene also is often hastily drawn in shaded

The figures repeat a few well-marked types,


After the Charon scenes,
are peculiar to this class.
the vases are grouped according to the type of stele, the stele with
of rather dark red.

lines

some of which

pediment with or without an altar-like structure partially seen at one


side, the stele crowned with plinth usually triple, the stele with
No distinct
acanthus leaves, and finally an ovoid stele or tumulus.
lines exist to divide the present class into separate series.

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1999, Cv. 1665

1.

Corr.

Bull.

Neck

veil

(1877), p. 40,

Dumont

pi.

The

scene

H.

632d).

(Coll.

ii.

0.32 m.

Chaplain,

I, pi.

restored

maeander

in dull green.

is

drawn

red

is

in

yellow

used

garment.

At
head

1.

xxxiv,

for a

Hell.

is

the

left

young woman approaches, her relaxed

over the back of her head.

pole on

hand

raised

is

At the

Charon

right

toward her

fore-

seated in his boat, holding his

is

shoulder and extending his relaxed right hand toward the

his left

the boat are stones

waist

left

she wears over her sleeve chiton a short yellow chitonion with red border, and a

and

in front

and behind are reeds

woman

beneath

he wears a high cap, and about his

garment.

Athens, Nat. Mus. 2000, Cv. 1664


ment, 0.17 m.
2.

The

body of the vase remains.


and details.

the

Only

scene

is

H. of

632f).

(Coll.

drawn

in red

dull green

frag-

and red

are used for garments

At the

left

young woman approaches, her relaxed

and carrying

in

At

Charon

the right

her right hand a casket


is

her himation

is

3.

draped

The

att.y p.

MNB

is

raised

toward her chin,

with reddish border.

Before and behind the boat are reeds.

H.

622, Lee. 100.

150, no. 75

cf

In

p.

35, no.

0.29 m.

Pottier,

5.

palmettes are in dull black with alternate red leaves; the maeander, also in dull

broken by dotted oblique crosses.


in the same color ; dull green-black is used
black,

hand

dull green

a taenia.

Paris, Louvre,

Lee. blancs

left

seated in his boat, holding the pole erect in his raised right hand

he wears a red exomis and a high round cap.


the field

is

The
for a

136

scene

is

coarsely

garment and

for

drawn

in red, the

Charon's cap.

hair

CLASS
At the

woman

left a

in

toward the back of her head

1-7

137

approaches rapidly, her right hand raised high

profile

partial
;

XIII,

she wears chiton and dull green sleeveless short chitonion

round knot high on her head.


At the right Charon stands in his
boat with high stern facing the left, his left hand upon his pole, his relaxed right hand
He wears girded exomis and black cap. Before
extended from the elbow, palm down.
her hair

in

is

a loose

and behind the boat are reeds, and waves are drawn against the

London,

4.
pi.

Mus.

Brit.

White

0.29 m.

Ath.

leases,

xii.

The
black
hair

is

is

palmettes are in dull black with alternate leaves bright red

The

broken by dotted oblique crosses, reversing.


in the outline color, solid with strokes added

garment, taeniae, and

At the
one on her

left

right

details, dull black for details.

woman

scene

at the

edge

maeander

the

drawn

is

bright red

also in

in full red
is

the

used for a

Preliminary sketch in pencil-like

lines.

face approaches, holding up on each hand a flat basket, the


hand containing red taeniae she wears a chiton girded over an overfold,
efi

with wide red border

at

At the

the bottom of overfold and of skirt.

boat leans forward on the pole in his

hand and holds

left

On

wears a red exomis and dull black cap.


is

H.

61.

side.

right

hand

his right

Charon

in his

straight out

he

the shore before the boat are reeds and above

draped a taenia.

Hell.

H. 0.30 m.

Athens, Nat. Mus. 2028, Cv. 1663.

5.
I

(1877), p. 40,

Neck and

pi. i;

shoulder restored.

Dumont
The

scene

is

Chaplain,
drawn

i.

xxxiv,

I, pi.

in full red

Bull. Corr.

green-black

is

used for

Traces of the preliminary sketch may be detected.


garment and details.
At the left Charon in his boat bends forward, grasping in his right hand the pole over
his left shoulder, while his left hand lightly touches the side of the boat
he wears a
;

girded exomis and high black cap.

Below

the boat are stones (or

waves?) and on

either

on one of the reeds hangs a black taenia.


At the right a woman in partial
she wears a chiton girded over an overfold and a black mantle which
profile approaches
covers the back of her head and both hands
her right hand is raised toward her chin
her
side reeds

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1759, Cv. 1657

6.

Plate

forms a background for her face.

hair, falling free in curls,

XXIV,

Palmettes in

I.

gray-green

with alternate leaves red

oblique crosses, and not reversing, in gray-green.

red

H. 0.275 m.

(Coll. 632).

The

maeander,

scene

is

drawn

broken by dotted
in shaded lines of

gray-green, yellow, and red are used for garments and details, bright blue for the

water beneath.

At

the

raised right

Charon stands

Beneath the boat

exomis.

woman

left

hand and lowered


is

holding the pole against his left shoulder, with


he wears a green cap with red outline and red
blue water and on either side of it are reeds.
At the right a
in his boat,

left

hand

stands in partial profile, raising a rectangular object

(tablet

in her right

hand

She wears a yellow chiton with red fold-lines, girded over an overfold,
and an himation with red border.
In the field are traces of a red taenia.
before her face.

7.

The

Oxford, Ashm. 264.

H.

0.25 m.

palmettes and the maeander are in dull violet-black.

red, fading

toward pink

thick bright red

is

used for a garment.

The

scene

is

drawn

in

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

138
At the

left

Charon stands

ing his right hand, palm up

in his boat, leaning on the pole in his left hand and extendhe wears a high cap and a bright red exomis.
The boat has

At

broad Hnes of red above and below.

the right a

woman, with bowed

three-quarter view, raising the right hand slightly, palm in

Above between

himation.

On

the

two

ij/vx>]

Aies

toward the

head, stands in

she wears a long chiton and

left

with gesture of lamentation.

the seven vases just described the Charon scene

is

abbreviated

two figures and drawn in the rather hasty fashion of the present
class.
Reeds before (and often behind) the boat, and stones or waves
to

in front

of

furnish a suggestion of the landscape.

it

Charon, seated

or standing in his boat, either rests on his pole, holding it in both


he does
hands, or extends one hand toward the approaching woman
;

not, as before,

draw

his boat to the

While he

shore with the pole.

wears the garb of the Attic boatman, there is no attempt to reproduce


his rude features.
The woman who hastens forward to meet him
her head in a gesture perhaps of awe or
Her grave, sweet face on no. i is
adoration on nos. i, 2, 3, ^,6.
color
use
of
and
the
indicates that special care was
charmingly drawn,
raises

one hand almost

taken with this vase

to

no. 2

is

so like no.

that the

two mav be

re-

of vases, like other pairs to be noted below.


On no.
garded
3 the woman's hand is raised toward the back of the head and she
as a pair

wears the same short sleeveless chitonion with red border, as on no. i.
It is not unnatural that the woman for whom Charon has come should
carry a casket, as

on no.

2,

but that she should carrv two

flat

baskets

of offerings, as on no. 4, can best be explained by assuming that the


type is carried over from that oi a woman presenting offerings at the
stele
curiously enough Charon extends his hand as though to take
;

the offerings from her baskets.


The taenia draped in the field on
nos. 2, 4, 5, 6 is also carried over from grave monument scenes in
Classes
a

On

XII and XIII.

background

for her

no. 5 the

charming

woman's

profile

(cf.

hair

is

down and forms

Class XII, no. 7)

her

attitude, with hip thrown out, also recalls an attitude noted several
times in Class XII.
On no. 6 the free use of color does not make

drawing the tablets which the woman carries form


The flving soul,
striking peculiarity of several vases in this class.
often found in earlier classes, occurs onlv on no. 7 in this class
on

up

for the careless

this

vase the

woman

slightly raises her relaxed right hand, a

common

which was occasionally found in earlier classes.


gesture
While these vases are somewhat hastily drawn, the drawing on no. i
and no. 5 is very fine on nos. 4 and 5 the lines of the preliminary
in this class,

sketch are visible.


as no. 15

Another Charon scene of

of the Collection Bammeville.

this class is described

CLASS

The

Palmettes and maeander missing.

Black

is

H.

Athens, Private Collection.

8.

used for

The body

Prothesis.

with slender

one black

garment and

legs, the

8-1

XIII,

scene

drawn

is

head with a

stands in profile, her right

At the

ment remains.
basket,
less

The one

woman

at the left

is

appar-

Behind the middle of the couch


the forehead of the dead

no gararm a flat
;

approaches, carrying on her left


she wears a black sleeve;

arm over the body of the dead

chiton.

Ornament

The

plinth.

The

missing.

At the extreme

the

Attica.

Athens, Private Collection.

9.

lies

right

of red-brown.

injured.

arm extended toward

right another

and extending her

lines

is

Behind the couch are three mourners.

taenia.

shaded

in

wrapped in a mantle and laid on a high couch


Over it is laid
stephane and supported by a pillow.

of the dead

her hair with her right hand.


ently a child, grasping

woman

139

0.25 m.

Much

for details.

right

is

the bier a single

drawn

in red

bright red

used for

is

field is

a prothesis scene.

occupied by

On

a high

couch

Behind

in a mantle, the

wrapped

m.

details.

head supported by a pillow.


stands en face, both hands raised to her head in grief

the dead,

woman

is

to shoulder 0.18

decorated with taeniae and crowned by a thin triple

a stele,

remainder of the

body of

scene

H.

The two

fragmentary vases with a prothesis scene are interesting


on later and
only as showing that this scene did not entirely disappear
more carelessly drawn lekythoi. The woman with flat basket of offeritself on no. 9, however, are evidence that
ings on no. 8, and the stele
the scene was repeated with little thought of its original meaning.

Athens, Nat. Mus. 2013, Cv. 1718.

10.

Palmettes in dull green with added red leaves

by dotted oblique

maeander

The

crosses, but not reversing.

H.

scene

is

0.33 m.
also in dull green,

drawn

in red

broken

red and dull

green-black are used for garments and details.


The stele on two steps is decorated with red taeniae and surmounted by a pediment

with acroteria
left

on the

left,

part of an

"altar"

an ephebos leans forward on the staff

der, his relaxed


profile

left

hand

raised slightly

approaches, her relaxed right

which

seen projecting from behind.

is

supports a red

toward the

hand

raised

stele.

mantle under

At the

toward her chin

right a
;

On

the

his left shoul-

woman

in partial

she wears a sleeveless

chiton girded over a long overfold with green stripes.

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1962, Cv, 1738.

11.

Eretria.

H.

0.33 m.

Palmettes in gray-green with alternate leaves red ; maeander also in gray-green, broken
The scene is drawn in shaded lines of red ;

by dotted oblique crosses and not reversing.

red and green- black are used for garments and

The

broad

ment with
the

left

right

stele

acroteria

on two steps
on one side

is

details.

decorated with red taeniae and surmounted by a pedi-

is

seen part of an

"

an ephebos leans forward on two spears which

hand

is

slightly raised

toward the

stele.

He

altar

rest

"

projecting from behind.

on the

stele steps

At

his relaxed

wears a short red chiton, a chlamys with

At the right a woman approaches,


red border, on his shoulders a petasos, and red boots.
an overraising her relaxed right hand toward her head ; she wears a chiton girded over
fold, green-black

with white border.

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

140

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1848, Cv. 1818

12.

Palmettes in gray-green with alternate leaves red

The

by dotted oblique crosses.

scene

drawn

is

in red

maeander

is

m.

0.31

also in grav-green,

bright red

H.

(Coll. 662).

broken

used for details, dark

red with black fold-lines for garments.

The stele

decorated with red taeniae and surmounted by a pediment \vith red acroteria ;
is red with added ornament in white;
part of an "altar" is

is

the centre of the pediment

At

seen on one side projecting from behind.

red stripes

two

the right stands an ephebos, holding

laxed right hand toward his head

on

lines, a petasos

his shoulders,

Ornament

The
;

broad

on one

stele

side

woman

carrying a wreath

hand, and raising

left

his

re-

dark red chlamys with black fold-

a chiton, a

and boots.

1772,

scene

Cv.

drawn

is

in

1817

red

bright red

H.

668).

(Coll.

is

to

used for garments

is

decorated with taeniae and crowned by a pediment with red acro-

The

flat

stele

left

no chiton remains, but she wears

easily, his right foot

on the

stele

step,

woman

sits

red himation.
raising

slightly

his

he wears a red mantle (chlamys).

Mus.

Brit.

London,

basket

78.

H. 0.30

palmettes are in dull black with alternate leaves

rn.

now brown

the maeander, also

The scene is drawn in fine lines


broken bv dotted oblique crosses, reversing.
a lighter thick red
with
added
on
the edge
in
the
same
color
strokes
the
hair
red,

in black,
full

At the

seen an "altar" projecting from behind.

is

holding out a

14.

of

stands a

spears erect in his

he wears

The

grav-green.

mound,
At the right an ephebos stands
relaxed right hand toward the

is

left

details.

teria

on

in

Mus.

13. Athens, Nat.


shoulder 0.15 m.

and

the

hand, and raising her relaxed left hand toward her head ; she wears a chiton with
At
and an overgarment, or chitonion, which is dark red with black fold-lines.

in her right

is

used for details, blue for a garment and details, thin black (once red

?)

for a

garment

stripe.

The

stele

on one step

is

decorated with red and blue taeniae, and crowned with red

abacus and blue pediment in which the

hidden "altar"
both hands
stripe

down

holding two

wears

is

wreath of red flowers

At the

the side.

is

tvmpanum
At the

seen at the right.

left

red with blue decoration

woman

in

partly

she wears a sleeveless blue chiton with wide gray

right a

youth stands en face, his right foot drawn back,


" he
and resting his right elbow on the " altar

spears erect in his left hand,

with faded red folds and red

a short chiton

partial profile holds out in

girdle, a

chlamys, red shoes, and on his

shoulder a red petasos.

15.

XXIII,
The

Paris,
I.

Louvre,

MNB

613, Lee.

H.

107.

0.33

m.

Plate

Pettier, L'ec. blancs att., p. 150, no. 71.

palmettes are in dull black with alternate red leaves

the maeander, also in black,

The scene is drawn in full red, the


broken by dotted oblique crosses, not reversing.
hair in the same color with the same brush
brighter red is used for taeniae and details,

is

the same with black fold-lines for a garment, and blue

The

stele

which has red

on two steps
stripes

is

(.')

for

another garment.

decorated with red taeniae and crowned by a pediment,

below and red

in the

typanum.

Behind

it

and showing

at the right

CLASS
is

XIII,

141

12-17
At

an altar-like structure, crowned with egg moulding and thin plinth.

the

woman

left a

approaches rapidlv, her left hand extended toward the stele, her right
hand raised behind her head with tablets from which floats a ribbon ; she wears a sleevein partial profile

less

At

chiton without color, girded over overfold.

elbow on the "

resting his right

he wears

a short bright

altar

" and

the right an ephebos stands en face,

holding two spears erect in his raised

left

hand

red chiton with black fold lines, and a chlamys with traces of blue,

while his petasos with red edge hangs on his shoulder.

16.

The

H. 0.225 m.

Mus.

Brit.

London,

palmettes are in dull black with alternate leaves red

broken by dotted oblique crosses, reversing.


are in a different red with black ends.
is

The
ment

stele

on two steps
'<

part of an

altar"

The

scene

wreath behind her

in full red, the taeniae

is

decorated with three red taeniae and crowned by a pedivisible

behind

it

At the

at the left.

left

which supports

in profile

youth

his

garment, and

At the right a woman approaches, holding a


in.
hand, and extending her right hand behind the stele ; she

hand, palm

left

her

in

the maeander, also in black,

drawn

is

leans well forward on the staff under his left shoulder,

holds out his relaxed

is

left

wears a sleeveless chiton girded over an overfold.

17.

Palmettes and maeander in gray-green.


are used for taeniae

The
in blue

broad

is

side

is

details.

Drawing

The

scene

drawn

is

in

stele

falls

red and blue

decorated with blue taeniae and crowned by a pediment outlined


seen part of an

"altar"

At the

projecting from behind.


left

about her shoulders.

At the

right a

he
which supports the himation under his left shoulder
his relaxed left hand is extended toward the stele.
ton
;

man

also

left

hand extended

she wears a chiton girded over an overfold, and on her

her hair

red

0.25 m.

nearly effaced.

approaches, her right hand raised behind her head and her

toward the
mantle

and

stele

on one

woman

H.

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1910, Cv. 1768. Cerameicus.

left

leans forward

arm

on the

is

staff

wears shoes and a short chi-

In this series the broad stele on one or two steps is decorated


with several broad red taeniae and crowned by a pediment with
acroteria

the acroteria are solid red on nos. 12 and 13, on no.

\c^

the

tympanum is solid red, while on nos. 14 and 17 a broad band of blue


surrounds the pediment and on no. 14 the tympanum is red with
blue decoration.

The common

characteristic of the series

is

an

altar-

like structure, perhaps a rectangular tomb, which is represented behind


Besides the usual red and
the stele and just visible at one side.
dark green for garments and details, blue is found on nos. 14, 15, 17,

on nos. 10, 12, 14, 15, and a broad white or red


garment border on nos. 11 and 14. There is no indication that the
two figures are other than mourners at the grave. On nos. 10 and 1 1
the slightly raised hand of the youth, and the relaxed hand of the
striped garments

woman

raised

adoration

to

her chin

may both

be understood as gestures of

these vases, drawn hastilv, but with some distinction, are

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

142

No.

of Class XIII.

characteristic

quite

which

12,

is

even more

both with the relaxed hand raised in


hastily drawn, has two figures,
No. 13, also carelessly drawn, shows the youth with raised
adoration.

thumb and

in which
right hand,

woman

with a

forefinger touch, opposite a seated


basket of offerings.
On no. 14 with elaborately

flat

decorated stele and no.

the ephebos

is

leaning on the "altar" behind

the stele, opposite a woman with a wreath on no. 14 and tablets on


no. 15; the variety of color, the attention to such details as the
curls of the hair,

from the

and the

finer

common work more

drawing distinguish these examples


generally found, and very likely they

made together by the same hand. The man leaning on a


which supports his garment is found on nos. 16 and 17 as
well as on no. 10; no. 17 may be compared with no. 14 in the use
of blue and with nos. 14 and 15 in that the drawing is somewhat
are a pair

staff

better than usual.

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1911, Cv. 1769.

18.

Cerameicus.

Palmettes in gray-green with alternate leaves green

The

oblique crosses in gray-green.

and

for a taenia, red for a taenia,

The

broad

stele

At the

in blue.

woman

before her face

extended

left

drawn

is

in

red

0.25 m.

maeander broken by dotted


is used on the
pediment

blue

gray-green tor garments.

decorated with blue taeniae and crowned by a pediment outlined

left sits

with the right hand


the right a

is

scene

H.

woman, with bowed

head, holding her mantle behind her head

she wears a chiton, and a mantle

is

wrapped about her knees.

At

in her right

hand

approaches, holding a rectangular object (tablets ?)

she wears a chiton with overfold, bordered with gray-green, and on her

arm

a scarf.

is

Brit.

In the

Mus.

field is a

red taenia.

H. 0.34 m.

19.

London,

The

palmettes are in dull black with alternate leaves

74.

Plate XXIII, 2

brown

the maeander, also in

broken by dotted oblique crosses, not reversing.


The scene is drawn in full
red ; brownish red is used for a garment and details, dull green for a garment and details,
blue for a garment, and claret-red for details.
black,

is

The
with

broad

stele

pediment,

woman

in

on two

steps

is

brown and green

decorated with

which the tympanum and

central

taeniae and

ornament are red-brown.

crowned

At the

left

face, holding high behind her tablets with floating ribbon ; she wears a
sleeveless chiton with green overfold to her knees ; the bottom of overfold and of chiton as

stands a

cti

well as the girdle

drawn back,

is

claret-red.

At the

raising his relaxed right

shoulder with his lowered

left

hand.

hand

He

forward over both arms, and red shoes.

20.

London,

Brit.

Mus.

right

an ephebos stands in profile, his right foot

to his chin

wears

A
73.

and supporting two spears on

his left

a short red chiton girded, a blue scarf

taenia

is

draped

in the field

stele.

maeander

in

H. 0.32 m.

Palmettes in dull brownish black with alternate leaves

red

the

broken by dotted oblique crosses.


The scene is drav/n in deep red
and
red
are
used
for
dull
red, black, and blue for details.
bright
green
garments,

same color

is

drawn

behind the

the
dull

CLASS
The

broad

on two steps

stele

is

XIII,

18-22

143

decorated with taeniae,

once red, and crowned with

and pediment in which the tympanum is black with applied red, and the
At the left a woman in profile approaches,
surrounding band and acroteria are blue.
she wears a sleeveless
steadying with her right hand the ornamented box on her left arm
black abacus

chiton and an overgarment, dull green with border once red.

from behind, leans forward on the


mantle

hand

the relaxed right

is

under

staff

his right

At the

shoulder,

extended, palm in; a taenia

is

right a youth, seen

which holds up

his red

in the field

behind

draped

him.

21. Berlin, Furtw. 2463.


Palmettes

H.

Athens.

0.32 m.

black with alternate leaves dull red

in dull

broken by dotted oblique crosses, not reversing.


A thin red wash
red, with hair in the same color.

The

is

the maeander,

scene

drawn

is

3.

also in black,
in fine lines

of

used for garment, taeniae, and de-

is

blue for taeniae, and green for a garment.

tails,

The broad

on two steps

stele

which

in

ment,

hand on

over his

left

his hip, his left

At

shoulder.

basket of blue taeniae

knot behind.

is

decorated with red taeniae and crowned with a pedi-

At

are spirals in brighter red.

his right

Above

the right a

her garment

the

a youth
of
a lyre
strings

hand on the

mantle

is

approaches,

looselv draped

and presents
out in

a loose

one red and one blue.

Athens.

London,

The

palmettes are in black with alternate leaves

Brit.

in partial profile

woman (much damaged) bends low


now greenish her hair is drawn

is

are draped taeniae,

Mus.

left

22.

80.

H. 0.30 m.

now brown

the maeander, also in

broken by dotted oblique crosses, reversing, but is not broken by the top of the
The scene is drawn in red thick red and blue are used for garments and details,

is

black,
stele.

Surface damaged.

dull black for details.

The

stele

is

decorated with red and blue taeniae,

and crowned with

which the tvmpanum is red.


At the extreme left are reeds
sits on a low tumulus,
steadying with her right hand the large
She wears
is

Plate XXII,

in a

a sleeve chiton

and about her knees

hand

right

to his chin

left

pediment
a

basket on her

an himation with black border

arm.

left

in

woman
her hair

an ephebos in profile leans forward, supshoulder with his lowered left hand, and raising his relaxed

small round knot behind.

porting two spears on his

At the

is

before them

right

he wears a short red chiton, a small blue mantle or scarf drawn

forward over both arms, and

a petasos

on

his

shoulder.

red taenia

is

draped

in the

behind him.

field

The

stele

but

without

the

common

on these
the

and the attention to the decoration of the

14 and 17.

nos. 18,

of the same type as on nos. 10-17,


projecting from behind it;

structure

characteristics of the series are the use of bkie, as

nos, 14, 15, 17,

nos.

five vases is

altar-like

20-22

is

taenia draped in the field (cf

on

on
4-7) on

stele, as

nos. 2,

further evidence of the effort for decoration.

With

the larger palette and greater elaboration there is found more care in
The woman with tablets raised high in the air occurs
the drawing.
on nos. 18 and 19, as on nos. 6 and ic^^ supra. The youth with spears
raising his re -axed right

hand

to his face

on

nos. 19

and 22 repeats

144

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

the type of no.

12 with the addition of a scarf drawn forward over

Number 20 is

both arms.

unusual

woman

in that the

carries a carefully

decorated casket, while the youth leaning on his staff is seen from
behind, a type found in Class III and occasionally recurring, e.g. in

The

IX.

woman

of the

holding her mantle


behind her head on no. 18 is repeated from the figure of the dead
person seated before the stele in preceding classes, and perhaps should
be interpreted in the same way here.
For the seated woman on
Class

seated

figure

no. 11 this interpretation is not probable


vase are apparently taken over from the

MNB

Paris, Louvre,

23.

The

palmettes are

in dull

on two

stele

steps

is

crowned with

parallel lines

without color, and over her knees

Above

of her head.

at the base

youth leans forward on a stick


relaxed right hand

ander,
is

which supports

MNB

the maeander, also in black,

drawn

in full red

dull greenish

is

her hair

draped

At

the field.

in

the mantle under his

loose

in

is

left

knot

flat

the

right

shoulder

his

in.

H. 0.335 m.

616, Lee. 104.

palmettes are in dull black with alternate leaves red and red centre

also

drawn

now

she wears a sleeve chiton

mantle

her a red taenia

palm

H. 0.285 m.

Plate

Pottier, Lee. blancs att., p. 149, no. 68,

2,

The

basket

flat

a dull green

slightly raised,

Paris, Louvre,

24.

XXII,

is

is

this

pediment, the slanting sides of which are


At the left on a low tumulus a woman sits

of black.

holding out in both hands a large

in profile,

hastily

is

on

scenes.

loi.

black with alternate leaves red

broken by dotted oblique crosses.


The scene
wash is used for a garment and details.

The

the reeds at the left

Charon

621, Leo.

is

ornamented with short

in

in

black,

red,

is

the hair in

the

same color

brighter

red

is

used

for

mae-

the

The

broken by dotted oblique crosses, not reversing.

scene

garment and

details.

The wide
in the

stele

on two steps

tympanum and

tumulus a

woman

sits

is

crowned with

pediment

for the circle at the


top bright red

leaning forward

her

arm

left

is

below the pediment and


At the left on a low

applied.

ornamented box on her

clasps an

knees, and her right hand is raised behind her head with tablets from which floats a ribbon.
She wears a sleeveless chiton and over her knees is a mantle with bright red
her
edge
;

hair

is

in a

low

loose knot supported by a bright red

leans forward on
his face,
his

On

two

palm
shoulder, and

wears

a petasos

each side of the

25.

spears under his

He

in.

left

hand, and

Brit.

raises his relaxed

red chiton, a small mantle or scarf

hanging by the string

stele a

London,

At the

taenia.

red taenia

Mus.

is

sword

festooned in the

77.

in

right

right

an ephebos

hand toward

drawn forward over

scabbard hangs

at

his

side.

field.

Athens.

H. 0.235

The

'""

the maeander, also in black,


palmettes are in dull black with alternate leaves red
broken by dotted oblique crosses,
The
scene
is drawn
in fine hnes of full
reversing.
red, the hair in red wash over a few strokes of outline color
dark red is used for a
;

is

garment and

details,

and bright red

for a

garment border.

CLASS
The

broad
in

the

woman

left a

on her knee
fold

At

on two

stele

which

pediment

the lower

is

steps

her

the

tympanum, and

the chiton has dark red stripes and bright red border, the overfold a bright red border.

himation covers the

his large red

Mus.

left

erect staff near the

H. 0.325 m.

Athens.

London,

The

palmettes are in dull black with alternate

Brit.

hand grasping an

hand.

26.

black,

red

At

the acroteria are dark red.

on the lower step and bends forward, resting


she wears a sleeveless chiton girded over over-

the right a youth stands in partial profile, his right

top

145

foot

left

of taeniae

a large flat basket

23-27

decorated with three red taeniae, and crowned with

member,

in profile puts

XIII,

75.

leaves

red

the maeander,

also

in

The scene is drawn in full


broken by dotted obhque crosses, not reversing.
a
and a red now dull for
black
fold-Hnes
is used
for
red
with
garment,
bright
is

taeniae

and

The

details.

broad

on two

stele

steps

is

decorated with three red taeniae and crowned with a

At the left a woman stands en face, her


which base and tympanum are red.
pediment
relaxed right hand raised high behind her head, her left arm extended from the shoulder
in

behind the
is

stele

she wears a sleeveless chiton, girded over overfold, and a small mantle

drawn forward over both arms

right an

in profile leans

ephebos

the hair

relaxed right hand to his chin, and supports

ered

hand

left

red shoes, and a

falls in

forward, the

left

two

spears

drawn back
on

a little

his left shoulder

he

with

raises his

his

stele with

decoration

pediment of the stele, but without the use of blue.


On no. 23, which
the field is found on nos. 23 and 24.

to the

taenia in

low-

he wears a red chiton with black fold-lines, a chlamys with red border,
petasos on his shoulder.

Four more vases show the same type of


added

At the

short curls to her shoulders.

foot

A
is

woman of no. 22 and the youth


Number 24 resembles no. 15
and 16.
tablets held up by the woman behind

carelessly drawn, recur the seated

leaning on his staff of nos. 10


and the

in the decorated stele

is seated and holds a decorated box on her


on no. 20; it may well be from the same hand as nos. 14
Numbers 25 and 26 have a simand 15, and perhaps nos. 19 and 20.
ilar decoration for the pediment, and the striped garments noted on

her head, though here she

knees, as

nos. 10, 12, and 14 also recur.

Paris, Louvre,

27.

MNB

612, Lee. 108.

H.

0.33 m.

Palmettes, with alternate leaves red, and maeander in dull thin black

not interrupted by the top of the


for details

The
extreme
face, his

and

for taeniae,

left

a dull dark

The

scene

green

is

is

drawn

in red

the

maeander

bright red

is

used

used for one garment.

At the
crowned by a pediment and decorated with red taeniae.
and before them a youth sits on a low tumulus, his shoulders en
hand holding two spears erect
he wears a short chiton with red decoration

broad

left

and

stele.

stele is

are reeds

and chlamys drawn

in

outline.

Above him

a taenia

is

draped

in the field.

At

the right

young woman stands en face, touching the acroterion with her right hand, and on her
She wears a sleeveleft arm
holding a large flat basket of red taeniae away from the stele.

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

146

dark green, with wide band of white and narrower band of bright green

less chiton in dull

the right side, along the girdle, and along the bottom of the skirt

down

down

loose

Mus.

28. Athens, Nat.


shoulder 0.25 m.

Maeander
for

in

garments and

The

her hair

falls

H,

to

her back.

stele

The scene
Much damaged.

is

grav-green.

details.

Cv.

1766,

drawn

1713

in red

663).

(Coll.

red and gray-green are used

decorated with taeniae, and crowned by a pediment with acroteria.

is

At

hand
left a bearded man sits, holding two
At the right a woman
with traces of red and green, and on his shoulder hangs a petasos.
on
arm
a flat basket with
her
hand
and
her
left
in
right
approaches carrying a small casket
a
over
overfold.
red taeniae ; she wears a chiton girded
greenish
spears erect in his right

the

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1971, Cv. 1758.

29.

he wears a chiton

H.

Eretria.

0.32 m.

maeander also in gray-green,


Palmettes in grav-green with alternate leaves red
lines
scene
is drawn in shaded
and
not
The
broken by dotted oblique crosses
reversing.
;

of red

the hair

green wash over a few strokes of red

in

is

used for

is

green-black

garment and red for details.


The broad stele on two steps is decorated with red taeniae and surmounted by a pediment
At the left a woman stands en face, one hand raised toward her face
with acroteria.
;

she

wears a chiton

right a

woman

an

overfold,

green-black

now

red

border.
at

At the

the stele top

without color.

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1998, Cv. 1752.

30.

with

supporting herself with her right arm and looking up

sits

she wears a chiton

over

girded

Cerameicus.

H. 0.30 m.

Palmettes in grav-green with alternate leaves red ; maeander also in gray -green, broken
The scene is drawn in shaded lines of red ;
bv dotted oblique crosses and not reversing.
red

used for garments and taeniae, black for taeniae.


The broad stele is decorated with red and black taeniae, and surmounted by a pedi-

is

ment with
hind the

At

acroteria.

stele

her hair

(or chitonion) which


leans forward on

the
is

a young woman approaches, her left hand extended beshe wears a chiton, and an overgarment
low flat knot

left

in a

bordered with red

is

his staff, his relaxed left

at

top and bottom.

hand

raised slightly

At the

right a

toward the

stele

young man
;

he wears

a loosely draped red himation.

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1811, Cv. 1814.

31.

Corinth.

H.

0.25 m.

gray-green with alternate leaves red ; maeander also in gray-green,


The scene is drawn in
broken by dotted oblique crosses, but not by the top of the stele.
eflaced.
red.
lines
of
fine
Nearly
Palmettes

The

in

broad

stele

ephebos holding two


stele,

palm down

extending
left

hand

his right
;

is

At the left stands an


pediment with acroteria.
hand and extending his left hand toward the
At the right stands a second youth,
chiton and chlamys.

crowned by

spears erect in his right

he wears a

hand toward the top of the

he wears an himation.

stele

and carrying

a lyre in his

lowered

CLASS
London,

32.

On

Mus.

Brit.

XIII,

28-33

H.

88.

147

0.26 m.

the shoulder a large spreading palmette, black with alternate leaves red

maeander

broken only by the top of the

in black,

The

stele.

scene

is

rudely

simple

drawn

in

red, with dark red for taeniae.

The

stele

on one step

At the

acroteria.

At the

left

decorated with a taenia and surmounted bv

is

youth approaches,

youth stands in partial profile,

Paris, Louvre,

32a.

and maeander

Palmettes

3448, Lee. 113.

in

dull

thin

on two

steps

youth with mantle over

his

left

hand

hand held

his right

is

scene

drawn

is

in

used for a garment.

out,

palm

lines

now

preliminary

slip.

crowned by a pediment with acroteria. At the left stands


At the right a woman en face approaches, holding
right arm.
is

out her relaxed right hand (palm in) toward the stele and carrying a

on her

pediment with
he wears a

extended

H. 0.24 m,

The

black.

stele

right

arm.

left

brown, with bright red for the hair


greenish wash
sketch (?) is drawn with a sharp point in the white

The

forearm

chlamys.
down an himation covers his
right

his

flat

basket high up

she wears a sleeveless chiton.

The same

type of stele, but without special decoration for the


on the vases just described moreover, a taenia
occurs
pediment,
draped in the field is found only on no. 27, and the use of stripes or
;

The reeds at the


frequent.
no. 27, as on no. 22, are doubtless carried over from the
scene, and it is on one of those scenes (no. 5) that we find a
a

border on garments

as here with hair

is

less

hanging down

her back.

The

seated

man on

left on
Charon

woman
nos. 27

dead person, except that on lekythoi


unusual to give this degree of definiteness to

and 28 might be regarded

as the

of the present class it is


it
the scene
is
simpler to regard the seated figure as merely a
variation from the standing figure of a man found on most of the
;

The same may

vases in this class.


no.

29

be said of the seated

woman on

the easy attitude of this figure is characteristic of a class


Number 31 is drawn
is
hasty, but often graceful.

where the drawing


in

much

finer lines than usual

the lyre, which also occurs

on

no. 21,

repeated from earlier scenes where some definite meaning may be


attached to it
on this vase the maeander is not interrupted by the
is

stele top,

probably because

in this instance

it

was drawn before the

scene below.
33.

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1944, Cv. 1736.

Ornament and scene

Red

in red,

the

H. 0.285 m.

Eretria.

maeander broken by oblique

crosses

and reversing.

used for a garment and details, yellow for a garment, and green-black for details.
The rather slender stele is decorated with red taeniae and crowned by a pediment
is

with acroteria.

At

the

left

young woman approaches holding out

basket with green twigs and taeniae

traces of

yellow are

all

in

both hands

a flat

that remain of her chiton

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

148
her hair

is

in a

low

flat

At

knot.

bowed head, wrapped

the right a youth stands with

in

a red himation.

H. 0.24 m.

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1775, Cv. 1807.

34.

Palmettes in gray-green with alternate leaves red

The

remain.

The

scene

is

drawn

in fine lines

of

full

red

of gray-green

traces

another red

is

maeander

used for a garment.

crowned by egg moulding and pediment with acroteria.


At the right a young woman carries in
At the left stands a youth wrapped in an himation.
her right hand a smegmatotheke, and on her left arm a flat basket
her chiton has disaprather slender stele

is

peared, but the pale red himation remains.

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1902, Cv. 1823.

35.

Cerameicus.

H.

0.3

m.

Ornament and scene

Two

reversing.

in red, the maeander broken by dotted


oblique crosses and
shades of red are used for garments and details, green-black for taeniae.

Drawing good.

The

rather slender stele

is

decorated with taeniae in two shades of red and crowned

At the left a youth stands with bowed head, his right hand
by pediment with acroteria.
At the right a young
on his hip he wears a light red mantle with dark red fold-lines.
;

woman

approaches carrying

The

with dark green twigs (wreaths) and red taeniae.

a flat basket

sloping shoulder, the finer lines of the drawing, and the slender

stele serve to bring together these three lekythoi

moreover, on nos.

22 and 35 the ornament as well as the scene is in red, and the figures
The youth draped to the
vary from the usual types of this class.
in
IX
was
found
Class
and
neck
occasionally in later classes, but is
unusual in Class XIII

the youth with hand on his hip also is rarely


found here, and the smegmatotheke, common enough in earlier classes,
If we may assume that
is
only found on no. 34 of the present class.
;

these three lekythoi are from one hand, it is interesting to note that
the provenance of no. 35 is Athens, while no. ^3 came from Eretria.
36.

London,

Brit.

Mus.

63.

Gela.

H.

0.25 m.

The dull green palmettes have nearly disappeared ; the maeander, also in dull green,
broken by dotted oblique crosses, reversing.
The scene is drawn in red, with the hair
Much rubbed neck restored.
in a wash of the same.
is

The

stele

with acroteria.

on two steps is decorated with red taeniae and surmounted by a pediment


At the left a horse, bridled, stands in front of a simple tree.
At the right

youth in partial profile sits on a rock, grasping two erect spears


he wears a short chiton, chlamys, and petasos on his shoulder.
a

in his raised right

hand

The vase just described is one of the very few with drawing in
matt color on white which have been found in Sicily. The seated
youth with spears in his hand is not unlike other seated figures in
Class XIII, and the colors are those usually found
the horse standing
by a tree, however, is unique, and the spirit of the scene is unusual
;

CLASS

XIII,

34-40

149

that apparently the dead youth is represented as sitting by the


The nearest analogy is
grave with the horse he had used in battle.
in

found

it

youth on horseback (no. 54, infra). Probably the vase was


Athens, and chosen for export because of the specific scene

in a

made

in

represented.

Palmettes in dull green with alternate leaves red

scene

drawn

is

The

in full red

broad

is

is

maeander

The

also in dull green.

used for one garment.

decorated with taeniae and surmounted by a triple


of an "altar."
At the left a youth leans

his

left

shoulder

raised nearly to her chin,

and her

left

hand

his right

At the

his side.

raised slightly

is

is

seen part

left

from

hand

hand

a yellowish color

on two steps

stele

plinth; behind it at the


forward on a staiF under
left

H. 0.24 m.

Athens, Nat. Mus. 2002, Cv. 1720.

37.

is

on the

right stands a

staff

woman,

and

his relaxed

her relaxed right

hand drawn back away from the

she

stele;

wears a yellowish chiton girded over a long overfold.

H. 0.225 m.

Athens, Nat. Mus. 2005, Cv. 1716.

38.

maeander also in gray-green.


;
gray is used for garments and taeniae.
decorated with taeniae and crowned with triple plinth

Palmettes in gray-green with alternate leaves red

scene

drawn

is

The
the

stele

left side

(on

a staff

an

in

red

a color

on two steps
*

under

"

altar
left

shoulder ?) and raises his

now

a loosely draped himation

hand behind the


chitonion or

is

stele

At the

seen projecting from behind.

is

and

At

gray.

in her left

"jacket" now

the right a

hand

on

youth leans forward


relaxed right hand toward the stele ; he wears

woman

wreath (?)

left

stands, her extended right

she wears a chiton and a short

gray.

H.

Athens, Nat. Mus. 2006, Cv. 1786.

39.

The

now

Palmettes in dull green with alternate leaves red

0.32 m.

maeander

also in dull green

dull

green and red are used for garments and details.


The broad stele is crowned with triple plinth, of which the upper and lower numbers
about the shaft is a red taenia
are red
part of an "altar" is seen behind at the left.
;

At

the

left

youth leans forward

on the

staff

under

his

shoulder

left

he wears a loosely

On a block at the right sits a woman, her relaxed right hand raised
draped red himation.
to her chin and her left hand above her head ; she wears a sleeveless chiton and over her
knees

is

a dull green himation

40.

XXIV,

Athens,

Nat.

with red border.

Mus.

2007, Cv. 1717.

Palmettes in dull green with alternate leaves red


scene

is

H.

0.29 m.

Plate

2.

drawn

in full red

another red

is

maeander

also in dull green.

The

used for garment and for taenia, and dull green

for a

garment.
The broad

stele is decorated with taeniae and surmounted by a triple plinth, the


" behind the
and
lower
members red. At the right is seen a very little of an " altar
upper
At the left a woman with bowed head sits, supporting herself on her right arm,
stele.
She wears a sleeveless chiton,
and slightly raising from her knees her relaxed left hand.

and over her knees

is

a greenish himation

with red border.

At

the right a youth leans for-

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

250
ward on
wears

a staff

under

his right shoulder,

Palmettes erased

Mus.

Brit.

London,

41.

and

relaxed right hand to his chin

raises his

he

draped red himation.

a looselv

D 84.

H. 0.245 m.

Athens.
The

simple maeander in dull gray.

scene

is

drawn

in

"altar"

is

carelessly

coarse red lines, with hair in the same color.

The

stele

At the

surmounted by

is

right a

black,

Mus.

H.

89.

the

part of an

left

with alternate leaves red

palmettes are in dull black

is

mantle.

0.25 m.

The

broken by dotted oblique crosses, reversing.

is

at

she wears a sleeveless chiton and over her knees

Brit.

London,

The

moulding, and

it.

raised above the shoulder

42.

a triple

The draped figure at the left leaning on his staff is nearly erased.
woman sits in partial profile, her right hand extended and her left hand

behind

seen

the maeander,

scene

is

also

drawn

carelessly

in
in

red.

"

surmounted by a thin triple block


at the right an " altar
behind
it.
At
the
left on a low block sits a woman, supporting herself on her
appears
she wears
right arm, and raising her relaxed left hand, palm in, just abcjve her knees

The

on one step

stele

is

a sleeveless chiton

forward on the

profile leans

hand

his relaxed right

On

and her hair

is

is

staff

in

loose high

knot.

At

the right a youth in partial

which supports the garment under

slightly raised,

palm

37-42 the stele is crowned with a triple


upper and lower members are usually solid red, and
nos.

rectangular structure

right

shoulder

plinth of which the


as on nos. 10-17 a

seen projecting from behind the stele on one


are a pair made together and with the same scene,

is

Numbers 3738

side.

his

in.

except that the youth's staff is no longer visible on no. 38 and the
gestures of the woman on the right as well as her garments are varied

Numbers 39 and 40

somewhat.

are another pair with practically the


same scene, except that the figures are reversed on the second vase ;
even the colors of the garments and the red border on the woman's

mantle are the same.

Numbers 41 and 42 have much

the

same scene

as

39 the drawing of no. 41 is very poor; no. 42 is better, and the


In general
attitude of the seated woman deserves notice (cf no. 29).
the drawing on these lekythoi is decidedly more careless than on the
no.

ones previously described.


43.

Athens, Nat. Mus. 2008, Cv. 1729.

Palmettes in dull green with alternate leaves red

scene

is

Neck

drawn

red

dull

green

is

maeander

0.29 m.
also in dull green.

used for garments and taeniae, and red for

The

taeniae.

restored.

The
At

in

H.

the

broad

left

stele

woman

with moulding
approaches, her

at the
left

top

is

decorated with red and green taeniae.

hand extended

to

touch the

stele,

her raised

She wears a greenish


right hand holding a corner of her mantle (?) behind her head.
is a mantle or scarf.
and
an
and
over
her
arm
sleeveless
over
overfold,
chiton,
girded
right

CLASS
A

youth seated

the right looks at the

at

staff; over his knees

41-47

woman,

his

Palmettes in dull green with alternate leaves red

scene

is

raised

drawn

The

in red

broad

arm and

two

on

stele

On

plain red block.

another red

over her knees

an erect

is

staff in

is

steps

left

erect

hand

hand nearly

maeander

The

also in dull green.


details.

supporting herself with her right


she wears a sleeve chiton, and

woman,
head

to her

himation

his

0.33 m.

decorated with red taeniae, and crowned with a


left sits a

is

At the

an himation with dull green border.


his right

hand grasping an

used for taeniae, and dull green for

is

the base at the

raising her relaxed

left

H.

Athens, Nat. Mus. 2009, Cv. 1820.

44.

151

green mantle.

a dull

is

XIII,

right a

draped loosely so

youth stands

easily,

as to leave the right

side free.

Mus.

Brit.

London,

45.

05.

Palmettes in thin black with alternate leaves red

drawn
black

in full red, the hair in a red

is

used for a garment and

The

stele

wash over

decorated with red, black,

is

is

0.29 m.

maeander

The

also in black.

few strokes of the outline color

scene

is

greenish

red and yellow for details.

for details, light

which the lower member

triple plinth of

H.

1-2.4.

and yellow

taeniae,

black and the upper

and surmounted by a
red.
At the left

member

an ephebos sits on a tumulus, holding two spears erect in his raised right hand ; he
wears a chiton with notched red border, a chlamys with yellow border, a red petasos on
his shoulders, and black boots.
At the right a young woman in partial profile with bowed

hand

head approaches, her relaxed right


dark green chiton,

sleeveless

Mus.

Athens, Nat.
shoulder 0.15 m.
46.

Palmettes in gray-green with

The

scene

The

is

drawn

broad

stele

both hands toward

it

left

Cv.

1773,

alternate

bright red

is

scene

is

side

she

wears

1733

red

leaves

maeander

H.

641).

(Coll.

also

in

to

gray -green.

used for a garment and taeniae.

is

decorated with red taeniae and crowned by a thin

woman

stands, one foot on the step of the stele, holding out

At the right stands a youth, holding


he wears a chiton, chlamys, and boots.

she wears a chiton once red.

chlamys

in his

hand

H. about 0.30 m.

Athens, Private Collection.

47.

The

of his

on one step

At the

triple plinth.

one corner

in red

from her

raised

slightly

girded.

drawn

in fine lines of red

two shades

of red are used for a

garment and

for details.

The
a

stele

is

crowned by

remains.

At

At the

a thin triple plinth.

bright red taenia in her right hand

the right stands a second

her chiton

woman

is

stands a

woman

holding out

missing, but her dark red himation

carrying a

extending her relaxed right hand toward the stele

left

flat

basket on her

left

arm and

she also wears a dark red himation.

Lekythoi with stele crowned by a thin triple plinth, of which the


upper and lower members are usually red, but without the altar-like

drawn in the same hasty manner as the


Numbers 44 and 45 may perhaps be regarded
previous series.
as a pair, on which the left-hand figure of one and the right-hand
structure seen at one side, are

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

152

figure of the other are seated ; the attitude of the seated


on no. 44 may be compared with that on nos. 29 and 42.

woman

Num-

ber 45 shows a much more free use of color than any of the other
The figures grasping a fold of a
lekythoi with this type of stele.

garment

(nos.

43 and 46) occur occasionally

in the

present class (cf

no, 18).

Palinettes in gray-green with alternate leaves red

The

green.

scene

ment, and red

The
At

lines.

drawn

is

stele

the

woman extending her hands, palms up in opposite directions


no garment remains.
In the field hang a wreath and taenia.

in

stands a

hair

another red with black fold-lines

young woman (nearly effaced) holding out

the right stands a second

touching her hair with her

drawn

left

hand

H.

Laurion.

mark the

to

round

hand

with red taeniae

pillar,

slightly

At

0.29 m.
maeander

left is

youth

the right stands a

toward the

stele

in partial profile,

young woman,

wrapped

lines

to the

also in partial profile,

and carrying on her

left

arm

flat

basket

she wears an ungirded chiton without color.

H.

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1770, Cv. 1734 (Coll. 643).


der 0.18 m.
Benndorf, Griech. Sic. Fas. Taf xvii, 2.
The

Palmettes and maeander missing.


is

also in black.

for taeniae

51.

red

basket with red

flat

and garments.
decorated with two taeniae in red, and with

At the

capital.

neck in a thick red mantle.


raising her right

with thicker red added

in strong red,

one step stands

of thick red

a gar-

short.

is

is

used for

is

holding out her right hand, palm up, and


she wears a sleeve chiton, red with black fold-lines,

palmettes are in dull black with alternate leaves red

scene

0.29 m.

woman

Dresden, Alb. Z.V. 2036.

The

On

dark red

H.

Eretria.

for taeniae.

left

At

50.

also in grayused for a gar-

is

decorated with red taeniae and crowned by egg moulding and

is

Ornament and scene

taeniae.

maeander

the right kneels a

ment, and red

The

the unbroken

another red with black fold-lines

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1995, Cv. 1743.

49.

and her

red

stands a youth draped to the neck in a red himation with black fold-

left

(in lamentation ?)

At

in

0.26 m.

for taeniae.

broad

At the

plinth.

H.

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1795, Cv. 1802.

48.

scene

is

drawn

to shoul-

in rather coarse lines

of red

used for taeniae.

The broad

on one step

stele

double plinth.

At the

her relaxed

hand

left

forward on the
ard the stele

52.

staff

left

is

decorated with red taeniae and surmounted by a plain

woman

in profile kneels,

to her forehead

under

his right

extending her right hand and raising

she wears a chiton.

the right a youth leans

apparently he wore an himation.

Athens, Nat. Mus. 2004, Cv. 1789.

Palmettes and maeander missing


cate the hair.

At

shoulder and slightly raises his relaxed right hand tow-

Bright red

is

the scene

used for a garment.

is

drawn

H.

0.26 m.

in red,

and

few red

lines indi-

CLASS
The broad
woman en face,

stele

is

crowned by

carrying a

relaxed right
slightly raising his

On

the shoulder

153
At the

plain double plinth.

left

stands a

young

a youth,

H.

Athens.

Berlin, Furtw. 2466.

53.

48-55

no garment remains.
At the right stands
hand toward the stele
he wears a red himation.

basket

flat

XIII,

0.18 m.

two palmettes from left to right in dull black zigzag lines also in black
The scene is drawn in rather thin red, with dull black wash for
;

replace the maeander.


taeniae and details.

The

stele at the right is decorated with two black taeniae and crowned with egg
At the left kneels a young girl, her right hand out
a capital in thin black.
and
moulding
of
her
her garment has disappeared ; the hair falls in
left hand on
head
her
;
top
palm up,

loose curls to her shoulder.

Oxford, Ashm. 263.

54.

Only

traces of the palmettes

in hasty, vigorous

H.

Athens.

and maeander remain.

0.27 m.

The

scene

is

drawn

in full red

manner.

From the right, and partly in front


with simple square capital.
he wears a chlamys and petasos and carries
an ephebos on horseback
a spear horizontally in his lowered left hand, a shield on his right arm.
At the

of the

left is

a stele

stele, gallops

Instead of the stele with triple plinth for a capital, these lekythoi
have a single or double plinth several of them are very small and
;

none are drawn with


with no

stele,

On

48 and 49, the latter apparently


red with black fold-lines is used for a garment; on no.
care.

nos.

48 we

find again a draped taenia, here with a wreath also in the field ;
these two lekythoi received more attention from the maker than those

which follow.

The

on no. 50

stele

of red to mark the

lines

capital.

is

apparently a round pillar with

On

nos. 48, 51, 53 the kneeling

.woman with hands raised in lamentation, which was introduced in


Class IX, recurs
on nos. 53 and 54 but one figure exists besides the
With one exception, no. 54, the figures are of the types already
stele.
on no. 54 a youth is represented on horseso familiar in this class
;

back with shield and spear, curiously enough with shield on his right
arm and spear in his left hand as though the painter had been working
which the natural positions were reversed.
On this vase the drawing is hasty, but much superior to that on most
of the vases in this class.
A horse was noted on no. 36 both nos. -^6

from the cast of a

relief in

and 54 may be described


is

person
55.

as "grave-stele scenes

represented as in

life.

is

Athens, Nat. Mus. 2015, Cv. 1730.

drawn

The

stele

in red

in

which the dead

(Cf. also Bull. Corr. Hell. II, 414.)

Palmettes in gray-green with alternate leaves red


scene

"

H. 0.30 m.

maeander

also in gray-green.

The

red and gray-green are used for garments and details.

on two steps

is

decorated with red taeniae and crowned with acanthus leaves

projecting from behind on one side

is

seen part of an altar-like structure.

At the

left a

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

154

vouth leans forward on the


red himation

hand

toward her head, and

raised

She wears

under

staff

a chiton

and

a short sleeveless

the right a

left

Palmettes and careless maeander

scene

drawn

is

in

shaded

lines

woman

approaches, her right

hand, away from the

stele, a pitcher

(?).

chitonion of grav-green.

H. 0.295 m.

Athens, Nat. Mus. 2016, Cv. 1792.

56.

The

At

lowered

in her

and drops both hands relaxed

his lett shoulder,

loosely draped about him.

is

in gray-green, the former with alternate leaves red.


of red
bright red is used for garments and taeniae,
;

green-black for a garment.

The

broad

stele is

decorated with red taeniae and crowned with acanthus leaves

jecting from

behind on one side

forward on

his

staff,

is

relaxed

his

raising

At

seen part of an "altar."

hand toward

left

his

the

head

pro-

youth leans
he wears a loosely

left a

At the right a woman approaches, raising her right hand toward


draped red himation.
her head with the same gesture as her companion's ; her chiton is black with a red border
at

the top, on the bottom of the overfold, and on the bottom of the skirt.

Palmettes
scene
for a

H. 0.33 m.

Athens, Nat. Mus. 2014, Cv. 1719.

57.

in dull

drawn

is

in full

green with alternate leaves red


red

red

is

maeander

The

also in dull green.

used tor a garment and details, yellow with red lines

garment.

The

broad

stele

At the

on two steps

is

crowned with acanthus

leaves

and decorated with red

youth stands with one foot on the stele step, holding an alabastron
in his left hand
he wears a loosely draped himation with traces of red.
At the right a
woman stands en face, her relaxed right hand raised from her side, carrying in her left
taeniae.

left

hand awav from the

which

a small casket

stele

over her chiton she wears a short chitonion,

vellow with red fold-lines.

is

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1801, Cv. 1819

58.

(Coll. 644).

H.

Attica.

0.23 m.
Palmettes in gray-green with alternate leaves red

The

by dotted oblique crosses and not reversing.


another red

The
the

left

maeander

scene

is

also in gray-green,

drawn

in

shaded

lines

broad

stele

woman

is

decorated with red taeniae and crowned with acanthus leaves.

approaches, her right hand raised behind her head, her relaxed

toward the

stele

hand

his

left

she wears a girded sleeveless chiton with red border.

the right a youth leans forward on the staff under his right shoulder, on top of
left

used for garments and details.

is

raised slightly

his

broken
of red

relaxed right hand

is

slightly

toward the

raised

which

He

stele.

At
hand

At
rests

wears a

loosely draped himation, red with black fold-lines.

59.

Athens, Private Collection.

Palmettes in gray-green with alternate


'['he

scene

is

drawn

in

red

dark red

is

H. 0.285 m.

leaves red

maeander

also

in

gray-green,

used for a garment.

The stele is crowned with spreading acanthus leaves. At the left a woman apAt the right stands
proaches and bends forward holding out a flat basket with taeniae.
a youth extending his right hand as if to take something from the basket.

CLASS

Maeander omitted

61.

in

in rather fine lines

The
left

broad

stele

woman

her mantle
carrying a

in

0.38 m.
draped figure stands before

H. 0.34 m.

Athens.

79.

rude palmettes and unbroken maeander are


no flat color is left.
of thin red

The

the

H.

leaves.

Mus.

Brit.

London,

155

the scene in red nearly effaced.

crowned with acanthus

drawn

56-63

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1881, Cv. 1833.

60.

a stele

XIII,

thin

The

red.

Drawing

scene also

is

rude.

At
crowned with egg moulding and three large acanthus leaves.
sits on a low tumulus, her left hand raised toward the chin
profile
is

At the right a woman en face approaches


drawn up high behind her hair.
a sleeveless chiton with overfold.
arm
she
wears
on
her
left
flat basket
is

The

spreading acanthus leaves at the top of the stele, which were


found on some examples of Classes XI and XII, occur on some vases

of the present

Numbers 55 and

class.

t^(i

be described as a pair

may

probably made

Here, again, an altar-like structure is seen


together.
behind the stele and at one side, the figures are the same except for
of gesture and garment, and color is freely used.
slight differences

The drawing on

nos.

c^c^^

^6, and 57 is better than the average in this


Numbers 59-61 are rudely
freely used.

class, and on no. 57 color is


drawn and of little interest.

(Cf. also Collection

H.

Athens.

Berlin, Furtw. 2464.

62.

Bammeville, no. 21.)

0.31 m.

Palmettes in dull black with added leaves in dull red

the maeander, also in black,

The scene is drawn in rather fine


broken by dotted oblique crosses, not reversing.
a brighter red is used for taeniae and garment border, and dull greenish
lines of dark red
is

black for a garment and details.

The

Drawing

hasty but sure.

surmounted by capital with maeander, compound scroll with


acanthus leaves in thin gray wash, and palmettes which break the maeander above the scene.
At the left a youth sits on a low tumulus with head bowed, holding up a taenia in both
hands

on three steps

stele

over his

to the hair

with

is

arm and

left

a fine brush.

with her right hand the

flat

knees

At

the right a

and along himation,

wash over

strokes,

few

Taeniae are draped

63.

The

in

supported by
the field on each side

Mus.

woman

curl-ends are added

stands in partial profile, steadying


left

arm

she wears a sleeveless

black with reddish edge; her hair,

dull

is"

Brit.

London,

is

of taeniae on her

basket

chiton in outline,
a

mantle with red edge

his

dull

gray sphendone

in a

in

red

high loose knot.

of the stele.

83.

Athens.

H. 0.295 m.

palmettes and maeander are in dull black, the maeander broken by the acanthus
The scene is drawn in coarse lines ot red ; there are traces of black

leaves of the stele.

wash

for details.

The
base,
traces

slender stele, rising in

and two

series

of black wash on the

to her shoulder

of an "altar

"

has acanthus leaves just above the

of acanthus leaves on the extension of the shaft

extending her relaxed

hand

front

left

shaft.

At the

hand (palm

left

in) straight

woman

in

toward the

she wears a sleeveless chiton and a scarf

the top

at

partial
stele

there are

profile approaches,

and

raising her right

drawn forward over her

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

156
arms

her hair

* altar

" with

in his left

is

At the

in a loose high knot.

hand

his right

he wears

youth standing en face touches the


girded chiton and carries two spears erect

right a

a short

hand.

Two more

vases with acanthus leaves on the stele have certain

Number 62 is drawn in the hasty but sure style of


points of interest.
the better examples of this class, color is freely used, and taeniae are
Perhaps
draped in the field, as often on the finer vases of this class.
this vase

should be described

the stele

is

crowned with

similarity in scene

as a

companion piece

to no. 22,

on which

many points of
has a unique form of nar-

pediment, for there are

Number 63

and technique.

decorated with three rows of acanthus leaves, and standing in


The
front of a rectangular structure which is seen on both sides.

row

stele

is in the hasty style of the present class, and the


figures are
the same, though the woman's scarf and the youth's simple

drawing

much

chiton are not garments verv


64.

The

scene

is

drawn

On

red.

in

The

stele.

either

H.

side

of a broad

the

left

woman

stands a figure with

H. 0.30 m.

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1852, Cv. 1813.

On

0.275.
stele

garments have disappeared.

Palmettes and maeander in gray-green

tumulus.

represented.

Athens, Nat. Mus. 2024, Cv. 1785.

hand extended toward the

65.

commonly

In

scene in red.

holds out in both hands a

On

sleeveless chiton with traces of blue (?).

the centre a high ovoid


flat

basket

she wears a

the right an ephebos leans forward on his

staff.

66.

maeander

Palmettes and

tumulus decorated with


forward on his

staff.

her mantle in one hand

67.

H.

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1850, Cv. 1810.


in

gray-green

many

taeniae

At the

right a

she wears a

behind

In the centre a high ovoid

scene in red.

At the

are reeds.

it

0.30 m.

young woman sits in a


chiton and an himation.

left

an ephebos leans
corner of

chair, holding a

H. of

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1767, Cv. 1735 (Col. 669).

frag-

ment 0.19 m.
(Palmettes and) maeander
for a

garment and

in

gray-green.

The

scene

is

drawn

in red

red

is

used

details.

high ovoid tumulus in the centre

youth, holding a spear in his

left

is

decorated with red taeniae.

hand, and extending

his

At the

relaxed right hand

At the right stands a young woman


chlamys with red border, and boots.
she wears a chiton and a red himation.
her right hand toward the stele

left sits a

he wears a

slightly raising

68.

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1877, Cv. 1777 (Col. 653).

Gray-green palmettes run from


in red.

left

to right

maeander missing.

H. 0.23 m.
The

scene

is

drawn

CLASS
At the
right

her

left

ovoid tumulus.

a high

is

hand stands

woman

XIII,

64-73

Facing

it

157
and touching

at the right

it

with her

she wears chiton and himation, and holds a round


object in

hand.

left

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1914, Cv. 1773.

69.

Maeander omitted

H.

Cerameicus.

0.21 m.

scene in red nearly effaced.

child apparently crouches

The vases with


The woman seated

on rocks before

high ovoid tumulus.

high ovoid tumulus are careless and uninteresting.


and drawing her garment about her on

in a chair

on rocks on no. 69 deserve notice

no. 66, and the child crouching

as

variations from the fixed types usually found in this class.

Palmettes and an

scene

drawn

is

The

stele

arm

egg pattern (which replaces the maeander) in gray-green

decorated with red taeniae and

is

is

At the

reenforced.

the right

is

the edge of

red

right

is

The

scene in red.

palmette reenforced.

and unbroken

Palmettes

another red

The

and

moulding

young woman, on her


hand extended toward the

H, 0.275 m.

At the

left

is

crowned with

stands a

young woman

stele

an ephebos extending his right hand toward the

H.

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1851, Cv. 1723. (Col. 673).

72.

maeander

in

gray-green

the scene

is

drawn

stele.

0.26 m.
in

red and

used for garment and taeniae.

is

stele

and anthemion
profile

the

At the

basket.

flat

the

two pomegranates, and her right


second young woman carrying a flat basket with red taeniae.

Palmettes and maeander in gray-green

anthemion,

stands a

left

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1853, Cv. 1793 (Col. 675).

71.

with a

crowned with

basket with

flat

At

stele.

0.25 m.

red with another red for details.

in

palmette of which the edge


left

H.

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1778, Cv. 1732.

70.

on two steps
;

is

decorated with a red taenia, and crowned with mouldings

the edge of the palmette

with right foot on the

stele

is

reenforced.

At the

left

bending forward and holding out

step,

youth stands
his right

in

hand

he wears a long red himation.


At the right a woman stands en face^ steadying with her
her garment has disappeared.
right hand the flat basket on her left arm
;

Wien, Hofmus.

73.

H. about 0.20 m.

624.

Palmettes and simple maeander in thin black, the palmettes with alternate leaves red.

The

scene

drawn

is

in fairly coarse lines

of red, with yellow

for the hair

and dark red

for

a mantle.

The
in

stele

which the

on one step

is

decorated with taeniae and crowned with a large anthemion,

outline of the palmettes

is

reenforced with the same color.

At the

left is a

At the
with one hand protruding from the closely draped red mande.
a kneeling woman with both hands extended, as if in a gesture of mourning.

seated figure,
right

is

She wears

a sleeve

Four

chiton

now

without color.

vases on which the stele

is

crowned by mouldings and

a pal-

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

158

mette with reenforced edge might have been included

in

Class

XII

finds closer analogies in the present

except that the careless drawing


class and the figures represent the types of Class XIII.
the variation in the stele these vases have no interest.

Conclusion of Class

Except

fiar

XIII

The

lekythoi of the present class are about 0.^30 m. in height, or


in shape they are more slender than in the
rarely somewhat smaller ;
sometimes
classes,
quite slender, with high sloping shoulder

preceding

The

and long neck.

With few

exceptions

slip

{e.g.

chalky, quite soft, and not polished.


the shoulder palmettes are in
i^i^, 35)

is

nos.

thin greenish black with alternate leaves red, and the maeander is in
the maeander is ordinarily broken by dotted obthe same thin black
;

In one or two
and sometimes by the top of the stele.
lique
cases {e.g. no. 31) the top of the stele seems to be painted over the
maeander, which apparently was completed before the scene was drawn,
but usually the order of procedure seems to have been the reverse.
crosses,

The most
is

is

drawn

much

striking characteristic of the class

in

the

dark red, usually

same

shaded

in

is

lines

the fact that the scene

as in Classes

that used in earlier classes; as

The

color

quite different

from

of dark red.

XII and XIV but

compared with Class XII, where the

lekythoi are generally of the same size as in Class XIII, the shaded
lines of the present class, the more hasty drawing, and the differences
in the treatment of the scene itself serve to define the two classes in

In Class

their relation to each other.

XIV

the color of the outline

is

the same and shaded lines are usually found, but the lekythoi are
much larger and both the scenes and the style are different. The
^^^ present class, and the coarse lines
o^ e.g. no. 41 illustrate the differences which exist within the class.
on no. 4 it
preliminary sketch in the soft slip may be seen on no. 5

of nos. 31, 34, 2S

finer lines

'^^

is

drawn

in pencil-like

Solid color

is

gray
used for

and on 32a with a sharp point.


garment on more than half the vases

lines,

described, thin dull green on twenty-four of them, and red, usually


from the outlines, on thirty-eight. The dull green has

a red different

been found occasionally in earlier classes, but much


than here.
Yellow is used for a garment on nos. i, 6,

and blue

is

found, ordinarily for accessories, on nos.

Striped garments also are more


earlier classes, stripes of dull
green or red on nos.

19-22, 64

(?).

less
2)3->

frequentiv

31 45> 57>
y

6, 14, 15, 17, 18,

common
6,

than

in

10, 14, 25, 27,

CONCLUSION OF CLASS
3 Si 57 y

^"^

stripes of black

15, 26, 48, 49, 58.

on red

In Class

XII

XIII

159

Class V, series e) on nos. 12,


attention was called to the use of
(cf.

broad red stripe on the border of the chiton,


in Class XIII
border often found in Class XI

like the violet


this

border

is

wash
found

either a bright red border on a dull black


without color, or a white border on a dull

on twenty-two examples,
garment or

garment

The effort for ornament and color, which appears in


black garment.
the treatment of the hair and in the accessories as well as in the
garments, regularly characterizes the more careful examples of this
and it is absent only in the more hastily drawn examples.
class
;

Of the Charon

scenes (nos. 1-7) and the prothesis scenes (nos. 8, 9)


little more need be said than has been said above.
They repeat in
of this class, the
simplified form, and often with gestures characteristic

scenes already developed.


Only the reeds and the stones or waves
by Charon's boat, and the taenia in the field on nos. 2, 4, 5, 6 are

The grave scenes of the


additions in the spirit of the present class.
remainder of the class have been grouped according to the type of
the stele with triangular pediment often ornamented in color
stele,

10-36), the stele crowned by a triple plinth (nos. 37-54), the


with
acanthus leaves (nos. 55-63), the high ovoid tumulus
stele
(nos.

65-69), and the stele with hastily drawn palmette ornament


Where color is used with any freedom the stele is
(nos. 70-73).
The presence of
decorated with red (and rarely with blue) taeniae.
(nos.

an altar-like structure, probably a rectangular tomb, behind the stele


and projecting on one side, is a mark of the present class noted on
nos. 10-17, 37-42, 55-56, and 63 (cf. Class V, no. 5 and Class VI,
I,

no. 10).

At

woman

the grave usually a

man and

bringing some offering, and a

adoration.

The woman

is

woman are represented, a


young man with gesture of

kneeling on nos. 48, 51, 53, seated on a

mound on

nos. 13, 18, 22-24, ^9? 39~4^j 44? 61, or on a chair


or
occasionally
standing en face {e.g. nos. 19, 27, 29);
(no. 66),
The
ordinarily she stands nearly in profile or approaches the grave.

low

man

is

seated on

nos.

27,

28, 36, 43, 45, 62

on nineteen vases

he leans forward on his staff which supports a mantle at his armpit;


two spears are held erect in his hand on seven vases, or they rest on
his shoulder (nos. 22, 26), or they are held under his arm so that he
lean forward on them (nos. 11, 24); on nos. 25, 43, 44 his
hand grasps an erect staff; on nos. 14, 15 he leans his elbow on
the "altar" behind the stele.
And the same gestures constantly

may

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

i6o

hand

are repeated, the relaxed

on sixteen vases

raised slightly

the relaxed hand, palm

from the

side,

palm in,
some-

in, raised to the head,

thumb and

forefinger touching, on twenty-four vases ; and


the hand held out straight, sometimes touching the stele, on twentyseven vases,
gestures in which objects are not presented at the

times with

The

grave.

gesture of lamentation

may

be noted on nos. 51 and

and
^^ (cf. nos. 26, 37, 39, 41, 48, 49, 62) as well as on nos. 8, 9
the attitude of the seated woman who supports herself on one arm is
;

to be noted

A man

on nos. 29, 40, 42, 44.

on horseback occurs

once (no. 54), and a child crouching on the ground once (no. 69).
In general the repetition of a very few types indicates the commercial,
while the easy
as opposed to any artistic character of these vases
;

even when they are very hastily drawn, de-

attitudes of the figures,

note the practised hand.


As the types of figures are few, but picturesque, so the garments
have little variety, but are decoratively arranged. The women wear
on nos. i, 3, 12,
a sleeveless chiton, often girded over an overfold
;

is worn
like a
^^, 57,
The himation is not ordinarily present; on
jacket over the chiton.
nos. 5 and 61 it covers the back of the head, and on nos. 18, 43, 66

20,

38,

30,

short sleeveless

the wearer draws

it

chitonion

forward in her raised hand.

nos. 19, 22, 24, 26, 43, 62)

Occasionally

{e.g.

on both men and

women a light mantle


shoulders.
The men ordinarily

or scarf is brought forward over both


wear chiton and chlamys and often boots (cf. nos. 11, 12, 14, 15, 19,
the short girded chiton is sometimes worn alone (e.g. no. 28),
26, 45)
;

but the himation

is

somewhat

Considerable attention

and of women.

from

The

is

less

common

than in earlier classes.

paid to the curls of the hair both of

coiffure of the

women shows much

men

variety,

knot projecting from the top of


the head (e.g. nos. 3, 42, 62, 6^); it is rarely supported by a
sphendone as sometimes in earlier classes. The hair of women is
a

low

flat

knot

to a loose

occasionally short (nos. 26, 49), and occasionally


the back (nos. 5, 17, 27, ^2)-

it

hangs

free

down

Of the objects brought to the grave the flat basket with taeniae and
other off^erings is still the most frequent
however, it occurs on less
than a third of these vases, and in general on the vases that are more
An alabastron is brought once (no. 57), the smegmatotheke
careless.
;

The lyre in the


only once (no. 34), and a taenia twice (nos. 47, 62).
The ornamented box
hands of a youth is seen on nos. 21 and 31.
or casket (nos. 20, 24, 28, 57) has not been common in grave scenes

CONCLUSION OF CLASS

XIII

i6i

domestic scenes, and the wreath (nos. 12, 14, 16,


38) has usually been lying on the flat basket instead of being carried
as

it

was in

earlier

hand

The most

striking object is the tablets with


loose ribbons, which are carried in the uplifted hand of a woman on
in the

here.

as

24; on nos. 6 and 10 of Class VI, i, tablets are


the grave (cf. VII, i, no. 21), but they are not held up

nos. 6, 15, 18, 19,

presented at

manner of the present

in the dramatic

class.

Perhaps

they

are

brought to the grave with a message for the dead person, though
find no direct evidence for such an interpretation.

A
and

flying soul in the field is


wreath only on no. 48.

found only

in a

The draped

Charon scenes

Charon scene

taenia, noted

(no. 7),
in

Class

and in grave scenes


on
vases
where
the efix)rt for
(nos. 18-24, 27, 48, 62)
presence
decorative efi^ect is rather marked leads one to regard it as mainly

XII, occurs both

in

decorative in

its

Charon scenes
are part of the

intention.

(nos. 2, 4-6)

its

Perhaps the reeds which are

in place in

(nos. 1-6) but not in grave scenes (nos. 22, 27, 66)
effort for the picturesque on these vases.

same

Sixteen of these lekythoi are said to have been found in Athens


or in other parts of Attica, four in Eretria, one in Corinth, and one
in Gela.
The class is sufficiently homogeneous to create the impression that they were all made in one place, namely in Athens.
The fact that many of the existing examples of this class seem to have

been made together in pairs (nos. 1-2, 14-15, 18-19, 37-38, 39-40,
In general, the lekythoi of this
55-56) strengthens this impression.
class

are small

examples, continuing in a measure the tradition of

XI and XII, and for the most part parallel to


While the drawing is hasty, often
Class XIV.

Classes

of

the larger vases


careless, at the

and often marked by the desire for decorative


effect, still in many instances a sure touch redeems these scenes from
"
the charge of" commonness
and marks them as Greek in their feelI know no evidence for
ing.
placing them later than the end of the
best

somewhat

fifth

century or the very beginning of the fourth century.

affected,

LATER LARGE LEKYTHOI WITH SCENE DRAWN IN


RED OUTLINE

CLASS XIV:

The

vases of this class are usually 0.40 m. or

On

rather slender, with high neck.


in

shaded

lines, less

commonly

more

in
height, and
the
scene
is drawn
chalky slip

in fine lines,

On

of dark red.

fully

half of these vases the scene consists of two standing figures and a third
figure seated before the stele, and on these solid color is rather freely

On

the less important vases with two figures standing at the


After the
stele the drawing is more careless and less color is used.

used.

scenes, prothesis and depositio scenes, and one battle scene, the
examples are grouped as in Class XIII according to the form of the

Charon

As compared with Class XIII the vases

stele.

and the limitation

less careless,

no reason

to a

few types

purchasers or as the product of different

drawn

is

red

light

with

in fine lines

for

sharp

stele

mented pediment

in

0.384

m.

Plate

woman

the maeander, also in black,


and
dotted
The
top
oblique crosses, and reversing.
black
red
is used for Charon's
and
details,
greenish
cap

full

and

hard

for

the acroterion.

preliminary sketch was drawn

slip.

it,

Charon bends forward

left

He

behind are reeds.


;

beard, and eyes are

in his boat,

wears

drawn with

a light red

drawing

it

to shore

exomis, and

three-quarters view
and in her left hand she

hand she holds up an alabastron toward the stele,


basket of taeniae on the level of her shoulder.
She wears

now

without color

her hair

is

in

At the

in

a sleeveless chiton,

with

a high black

a fine brush in careful detail.

approaches, her head as well as her bodv

right

an overfold,

stele

At the

a taenia.

the hair below

right a

H.

Eretria.

537.

on one step is decorated with taeniae and surmounted with wide oi-naon the step stands a lekvthos, and behind it is
light red with acroteria

the pole in both hands

cap

of

garment,

point in the

The wide
draped

is

ateliers.

palmettes are in dull black with alternate leaves red

drawn, broken by the

hastily

scene

There

marked.

3.

The
is

CA

Louvre,

Paris,

XXIV,

less

however, that these closely related classes were


and differ only as designed for different classes of

to doubt,

contemporaneous

1.

are larger, the drawing

in

her

carries

girded over

heavy locks of outline color with

fine

strokes at the edge.

Berlin, Furtw.

2.

S.

18,

Taf

The

2681.

Attica.

H. 0.465 m. Jrch.

Zeit.

1885,

ii.

shoulder shows only the acanthus leaves from the top of the stele, and perpendic-

ular parallel lines

above them

only the glaze lines enclosing space for the maeander re162

CLASS XIV,
The

main.

scene

and a gray wash

The

drawn

in red,

now

faded

violet

163
used for garment and

is

details,

to indicate water.

apparently round,

stele,

Charon

the left

is

1-4

is

crowned with egg mouldings and acanthus leaves. At


left hand
only the

stands bending forward in his boat, the pole in his

outline of his exomis remains, together with a

high round cap.

Before the stele

sits

Charon, her raised right hand drawing


supporting the right elbow ; her chiton

wide garland of
woman toward the

a veil
is

ivy,

and on

right

head

his

is

the

but looking back

forward from her head, and her

at

hand

left

while the mantle over her knees

in outline,

is

with indications of a pattern ; her hair falls free behind.


At the right a woman
approaches, holding a mantle with leaf and fruit decoration behind her in her raised right
in violet

hand and lowered

hand

her chiton

Berlin, Furtw.

3.

19, Taf.

S.

left

2680.

is

with

in outline

Behind are reeds.

slight decoration.

H. 0.535 m. Arch.

Attica.

Zeit. \%%i^^

iii.

Shoulder without decoration, and only the glaze lines enclosing space for the maeander
remain.
Neck high and slender. The scene is drawn in full red, varying to orange red.
Details in a color now dark violet, applied in different degrees of thickness, and in yellow
Surface injured bv

and blue.

The
ground
is

stele,

both
;

at

a violet taenia at the top

traces

stele

fire.

apparently round, has at the top three palmettes in yellow on a blue


the top and the bottom are acanthus leaves now thick violet
and there

remain of

his

of the

At the

shaft.

left

vouth

in

profile

approaches the

mantle, which was decorated with garlands of ivy.

Before the

and facing toward the right is a voung woman in partial profile, her right hand raised
the back of her head, and in her extended left hand a flat basket with four violet pome-

stele

to

granates and taeniae hanging

Facing her

stripes.

at

down.

Traces remain of

chiton decorated with violet

the right of the stele stands Charon, the right foot

on the edge of

his

boat (of which only faint traces remain ), his right hand extended toward the pomegranates ;
he wears an exomis now violet and a high round cap.
Greenish balls (waves or stones ?)
are

drawn beneath

the boat at the bottom of the scene, and behind

Athens, Nat.
H. to neck 0.30 m,
4.

Mus,

1916, Cv.

drawn

in rather coarse red lines

and dark red

is

is

violet foliage.

Athens (Cerameicus).

1659.

Palmettes in dull green with alternate leaves red


is

it

maeander

in dull green.

used for a garment.

The

scene

Neck broken and

scene nearlv effaced.

Charon, apparently beardless and wearing

These four Charon scenes

a red

is
;

is

unhke

individuality of a portrait, while the face of the

that

it is

drawn

poling his boat to the right.

Charon scenes in
No. i is drawn
regularly present.
the face of Charon has almost the

are not

Class XIII, except that the stele


with much care in fine red lines

exomis,

in three-quarter view.

On

the

woman

is

unusual

in

this vase the stele crowned

by
lekythos on the steps, together with the
woman bringing offerings at the right, determine the character of the
scene
Charon in his boat coming through the reeds is only an accesacross
sory figure which serves to remind one of the journey of the soul
a

pediment and with

'

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

i64

On no. 2 it is the acanthus stele which seems out of place,


the Styx.
Charon coming in his
for the scene would be complete without it
boat for the seated dead woman, who is attended by a companion

The face of Charon is of the


a garment over her shoulders.
" noble "
type, and the drawing is quite careful on this vase, as on nos.
The garland of ivy worn by two figures on no. 1 and one on
and
4.
3
drawing

no. 3, the use of thick violet for details, and the indication of water or
stones beneath the boat, as well as the style of the drawing, serve to
On no. 3 the young woman
bring these two vases into close relation.

before Charon seems to be offering him pomegranates from a dish,


the
while her right hand is raised to her head in gesture of adoration
;

woman

bringing offering seems to be introduced between Charon and


As to the stele, the same form of palmettes but
the dead youth.
without acanthus leaves is found on a vase to be discussed later (no.

On no. 4 the scene


22, Athens 1840).
the figure of Charon.
Wien, Hofmus.

5.

Ornament and scene

The

scene

drawn

is

in

in fine

effaced except for traces of

is

Eretria.

Inv. 1969.

H. 0.412 m.

dark red, the palmettes with alternate leaves

even

lines

dark red

is

now white.
now thick

used for a garment, a color

garment, bright red and black for details.


On a high bier with elaborately ornamented legs
ornament
(?), her head supported by two pillows with zigzag

violet for a

Prothesis.

woman
body

is

wrapped

in a

mantle

now

the bier stands a small lekythos.

with the

left

hand

violet,

and over

Behind the

raised to the hair

and the

stands en face looking toward the right, her

extended
a

are laid black

bier at the left

left

hand

stands en face looking toward the

or basket

on her

left

arm

left,

Beneath

and red taeniae.


is

hand extended.

right

body of a
and red
the

laid the

figure

nearly effaced,

woman

In the centre a

raised to her hair

right

hand

At the

right

and her

she wears a sleeveless chiton with traces of color on the skirt.

woman

box

it

is

in black

steadying with her right hand the large

her sleeve chiton has disappeared, but the dark red hima-

tion remains.

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1756, Cv. 1651 (Coll. 629) H. 0.46 m.


Dumont Chaplain, Les ceramiques de la Grece propre^ I, pi. xxxii, p.
6.

388

Heydemann,

Griech. Fas. Taf.

Palmettes and maeander missing.


for a

garment and
Prothesis.

wrapped
Behind
taeniae.

details,

On

in a violet

the

couch

The

11.

xii,

scene

is

drawn

in red

dark violet

is

used

dark green for details.

a couch lies the figure of the dead, the head raised on pillows ; it is
mantle, with violet flowers on a wide white border about the breast.

at

head and foot are two very large lekythoi decorated with violet

In the centre behind the couch a

woman

stands en face, looking at the face of

she wears a
dead person, with both her hands raised to her head in lamentation
Below the couch is a duck or goose above
chiton and a mantle with dark green edge.
the

in the field

hang

violet taeniae

and wreaths.

CLASS XIV,

The

scene on no.

5-6a

drawn somewhat

5 is

165

carefully in fine

even

lines,

i, and the lekythos which there stood on the steps of the


This lekythos is the perfume
stele here stands beneath the bier.
vase used, as these scenes show, in connection with burial.
As
earlier prothesis scenes, only two of the
with
are
compared
figures

as

on no.

making gestures of lamentation, while the


casket as

if to

Number 6 is
The duck or

woman

third

place jewellery or other objects on the

drawn and only one mourner

carelessly

goose beneath the

stele

is

home

brings

body of the dead.

pet;

is

represented.
the wreath and

would also mark the interior of a house except that


in Classes XIII and XIV the draped taenia is so often used as a mere
The two large lekythoi draped with taeniae have a special
decoration.
interest, for they seem too large to be mere perfume vases;
perhaps

taeniae in the field

grave monuments, large pottery vases which


were predecessors of the fourth century marble grave monuments in
The garland about the dead
the form of lekythoi (cf. Class V. no. 26).
they

body

may be regarded

is

as

of the type noted on nos. 2 and

Museum, Mas.

Vienna, Oest.

6a.

Benndorf, Griech.

Sic.

3.^

Athens.

351.

H.

0.52 m.

Vas.y Taf. xxxiii.

Traces remain of the usual palmettes on the shoulder; instead of the maeander above
The scene is drawn in fine lines
the scene are two lines of brown glaze, close together.
of brownish red, the hair

for garments

and

details.

wash of

thin

in a

Dark brown,

the outlines.

dull gray-green,

the

same color with

and blue (changing

few strokes on

to

it

like

thick violet) are used

Occasional pencil-like lines of thin black remain from the pre-

liminary sketch.

On a couch lies the body of a woman, her head on a pillow at the right.
Prothesis.
The couch has plain square legs, of which only one is seen this leg is quite short, so
The dead
that we must assume a high block under it, of which no trace remains.
woman is decked with small earrings and necklace with pendants the body is wrapped in
a mantle without color, and over this is a dull green cloth; across it are laid taeniae now
At the left, in front of the foot of the couch, a woman stands in profile to
violet in color.
;

right, her right

hand extended and her

sleeve chiton and a

and remains of some other object


couch and

in the centre

hand grasping her


Behind her

left

brown mantle.

large dark

in front
;

of her head

of the scene a second

woman

is

hair;
in

she wears a dull green

the field hang a wreath

lamenting

i/'u;^?/.

stands en face, her

left

Behind the
leg relieved,

dead woman's face, and both hands grasping her hair;


she wears a chiton with short sleeves, now without color, and over this a chitonion

her head

bowed

originally

blue

as she looks at the

(but

now

partly violet)

with white border below, and above

border on which are traces of a pattern in dull green.

iMuch

the same scene

185, H. 0.50 m.).

On

is

large lekythoi and underneath

and

at the

found on

this vase
is

at

the

extreme

formerly in the Collection van Branteghem

a vase

right

white

third

{Sale Catalogue no.

on a high couch with head at the left; behind are two


the foot of the couch stands a man with hand raised to his head,

the dead youth

a goose

At

head of the couch (on the right) stands

lies

woman

with both hands raised to tear her hair.

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOl

i66

woman

stands in

woman

the dead

on her

traces of taeniae

now

overfold,

before the

without color.

face

ot

the

The hair
standing women

of

three

now

mostly violet

and carrying

Before the face of the dead

flies

the

head of

basket

flat

with

chiton with

a sleeveless

lamenting ipyxv, and


extended in opposite

woman is another i/'v;^r; with wings


dead woman is loosely gathered in a

third

is

arm away from the couch; she wears

left

directions.

The

profile facing the left, her left leg relieved, fanning the

partial

with a blue fan

knot; the hair of the

short.

scene on this fine vase

is drawn with sure and delicate touch.


under
Class
XIV, the attention to detail, the use of
belongs
color, and the omission of the maeander recall the movement which
led to the even larger and more elaborate lekythoi of Class XVI.

While

it

The

short legs of the couch also may perhaps be explained by comThe figures are not
parison with no 2. of Class XVI (Berlin, 2684).
differentiated as

on the lekythos just mentioned, but it seems fair


with canistron and fan as a servant, the others

woman

regard the

relatives of the

to
as

The

dead woman.

servant fanning her mistress was


noted on no. 3 of Class XI, 3 (Louvre, S 1660), but there the two
figures seem to represent the dead person with an attendant in the
On the present vase, as suggested by
occupations of her lifetime.

Benndorf (who compares Iliad XIX, 24 f.) the dead body is fanned
This is a new touch of realism in a scene
keep away the fllies.

to

which always

is

in close relation to the


practice

kept

it

depicted.

H.
Athens, Nat. Mus. 1796, Cv. 1653 (Coll. 630). Attica.
Dumont
m.
L^j
de
Grece
la
0.425
Chaplain,
ceramiques
propre, I, pl.xxix.
7.

Palmettes

The

scene

is

in

gray-green with alternate leaves red

drawn

in red

red

is

simple maeander

Before a broad stele crowned with acanthus leaves,

Depositio.

hold the body of a bearded

in

grav-green.

used for garments, dark green for details.

man which

is

wrapped

in a

two winged

The winged

mantle.

figures

figure at the

bends well over and grasps the knees of the dead man
the one at the right (bearded)
on
a
mound
and
his
foot
the
under
the shoulders.
Both winged
body
right
puts
supports
wear
short
red
chitons
and
dark
shoes.
figures
green

left

The
and XI,

which occurs several times


found on this one vase of Class XIV.

depositio scene,
is

in Classes

Here

it

VI, IX,
is

drawn

the composition is effective, and the solemn


character of the scene is well brought out, though the drawing lacks

with considerable care

the delicacy of earlier classes.


In the drawing and the restrained use
of color it may be compared with no. i.
8.

Paris, Louvre, S. 1661, Lee. 95.

blancs att.^ p. 151, no. 78 bis;

The

neck

is

H.

0.55 m.

Monuments grecs^

Pottier, Lee.

II, p. 13, pi.

iii.

unusually long, and on the high sloping shoulder no ornament remains

CLASS XIV, 7-10


traces of the

maeander

on the right half)

The

are seen at the right.

the hair

same

in the

is

scene

167
drawn

is

in full red

(now

violet

color.

In the centre a tree with foliage stands behind two epheboi attacking each other.

The one

the

at

left

is
bending forward, his left foot on a stone, driving
he carries a shield on his left arm, and wears a girded

in partial profile

his spear at the horse's

head

chiton ornamented with parallel lines at the bottom and a chlamys.


horse, and raised the spear
he wears
back somewhat toward the spectator

horseback

has

turning his

reined up

case a warrior

Class

fallen

Greek

XI

in Class

Amazon was

an

His opponent on

hand

right

to

attack,

chlamys, high

at his side.

one vase

in that

his

a girded chiton,

cap, and a sword

On

in

his

(series 5, no. i)

found a

is

Amazon

on horseback attacking an

IV

also noted in Class

a warrior (nos.

series
[e.g.

battle scene,
in

retreat

and

no. 19)

i,

in

7677) and an Amazon on horseback over a


The scene, as noted under Class XI, is of the

(no. 78^).
type appropriate to the grave stele of a warrior killed in battle.

But

while the figure of an Amazon brings in a poetic touch in the scenes


noted, here we find a simple scene of combat between two Greeks.
The drawing is vigorous but not refined.

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1816, Cv. 1670.

g.

The

palmettes are in dull green with alternate leaves red

The scene
broken by dotted oblique crosses.
used for garments, and blue for details.
The

broad

stele

with blue taeniae.


erect in

his

raised

crowned by

is

On
left

the steps

hand and

drawn

large blue

sits a

is

maeander

in red

resting

also in dull green,

green, red, and black are

pediment with acroteria and decorated

youth turned slightly to the


his

H. 0.487 m.

Eretria.

right

hand on

holding

left,

knee

his

two

he wears

spears

green

At the left stands a youth holding a staff in his left hand and
chlamys and red shoes.
his
hand
the seated figure
a red himation is draped loosely about
toward
extending
right
him.
At the right a youth in a black and red himation stands in profile, carrying a
;

Corinthian helmet in his

which

rests

hand and holding

left

At

on the ground.

the

lefl:

is

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1817, Cv. 1669.

The

palmettes are in dull green with alternate

thin gray

The

wash
broad

are used for garments


stele, resting

two

blue edge, and red shoes.

mantle

is

Before

it

is

drawn

sits

the

left a

maeander

in red

also in

dull

red, blue, and a

is

crowned by a large
elbow on one of

leaning his left

youth,

hand

he wears a chlamys with

youth stands bending over toward the seated figure

draped loosely about him, with red

stripes

over a dull wash.

Although this scene is drawn in glaze, it can hardly be dated much


and some question might perhaps be raised as to its authenticity ; it
of Class X of which traces are still visible.
1

XIV,

0.49 m.

details.

spears erect in his raised right

At

H.

Eretria.

leaves red

scene

a blue shield

in the field.

on a large block and several steps,

blue pediment with acroteria.


the steps and holding

and

The

hand the edge of

draped

10.

green, broken by dotted oblique crosses.

in his right

a red taenia

earlier
is

At the

right a

than the lekythoi of Class

drawn over

a scene

in

the style

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

i68
young woman stands

her right hand.

in profile,

taenia

is

wearing

draped

a chiton

and drawing an himation about her with

in the field.

noteworthy for the vigor and expressiveness


in particular the face of the seated figure has an

This pair of vases

is

of the sure drawing,

individuality of expression which is most unusual on lekythoi and


The lines of the scene are fine and detailed,
indeed on vases generally.

color

is

freely used,

and the composition

While

carefully studied.

is

these vases clearly belong with Class XIV, the workmanship is far
The seated figure is no
superior to the other vases included here.
doubt the dead youth, attended on no. 9 by two companions, one of

whom

helmet and shield

carries his

woman, but

man

neither the

on no. 10 one of the

woman

nor the

definite interpretation can be given to the scene

figures

is

If a
bring offerings.
it
the
dead
represents

youth with the companions of his lifetime, after the manner often
noted in Class XI.
Probably these vases are among the earlier
examples of Class XIV.
11.

XXV,

MNB

H. 0.495
619, Lee. 97.
Pettier, IJc. blancs att.^ p. 151, no. 77.
Louvre,

Paris,
2.

Plate

"i-

Shoulder quite flat with palmettes in dull black, alternate leaves red ; the maeander,
is broken
by dotted oblique crosses and the top of the stele. The scene is

also in black,

drawn

in red

red

also used for a

is

garment and

outer lines of the acroterion, and violet

wash

for base

for

and tympanum of

garment edge and

stele,

details.

blue for

Drawing

delicate.

The wide
hand and

right

stele

on three steps

On

and blue.

in red

elbow

left

with violet wash edge

wash

violet

At the

woman

the hair

the

left

is

crowned with

woman

on her knees

drawn

stands a

pediment with

in single lines

man

much bowed,

her

she wears an outline chiton and a mantle

of outline color,

(nearly obliterated) with

stands in partial profile,

right a

acroteria, decorated

facing the right, her head

sits

his

touching the

is

held up by a

right
left

hand on

arm of the

youth
lowered right arm
his red himation leaves the right breast bare
Behind his head is draped a
color, surrounded by fine lines of detail.

with

in solid

is

resting

her hair,

At

taenia.

top of a cane.
seated

the steps a

his

violet taenia.

12.

XXV,

London,

Brit.

Mus.

Palmettes in black with alternate leaves red


black.

H.

Athens.

72.

0.405 m.

Plate

I.

The

scene

is

drawn

in

deep red

complicated unbroken maeander also in


is used for
sphendone and a gar-

thick violet

ment border.

The wide

crowned with red abacus and

it
a pediment with red tympanum
with
black
a
taenia
from
below.
Above
it is
draped
perspective
ends.
On the upper step a woman sits with legs crossed, facing the left she extends her
relaxed right hand, palm down, and with her left hand grasps the garment on her knee ;

seems

to

stele

be drawn

is

in

her chiton

is

nearly gone, but a mantle with violet border

is

drawn up behind her back

CLASS XIV, 11-15


and over her knees

woman

her hair

is

169

hand hangs relaxed

her side

at

down

At

held by a violet sphendone in a high knot.

standing in profile touches the stele pediment with her

the

left

hand, while her right

left

her sleeveless chiton, girded under a short overfold, has a

the side and across the bottom

supports his head on his

her hair is held up by a wide violet


youth nearly in profile leans on the staff in his left hand, and
His red
right hand, while the right elbow rests on his left hand.

himation covers the

hand which holds the

violet stripe

At the

sphendone.

left

staff.

Athens, Private Collection,

13.

Vas. Taf. xx,

Sic.

right a

H. 0.34 m.

Ornament and scene

in violet-gray

red and green are used for taeniae and details.

on three steps has red taeniae on the


in green, and a pediment outlined
ornamented
moulding

The

broad

while the
left,

stele

tympanum

On

red.

is

hand

she wears a

woman
on her

woman

stands

woman

crowned with

is

green with green acroteria,

sits

in partial

profile facing the

left

face approaches, steadying with her right hand the flat basket of red
At the right another
she wears a sleeve chiton with red stripes.
arm

efi

taeniae

the upper step a

and

steps,
in

elbow (?) and holding up an alabastron in her right


At the
chiton with red stripes and about her knees is a green mantle.

supporting herself on her

left a

Benndorf, Griech.

i.

left

face, a basket with wreath and taeniae on her left arm, and her right
hand extended behind the head of the seated figure ; her chiton has nearly disappeared
eti

but some of her himation remains.

sakkos (?) hangs in the field at the extreme right.

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1833, Cv. 1822

14.

Palmettes

in

green with alternate leaves red

dull

dull green

The

is

used for

broad

also

maeander,

The

broken by dotted oblique crosses but not reversing.

H,

(Coll. 636).

scene

is

drawn

in

in a

0.52 m.
dull

green,

brown

red

garment.

crowned by

stele is

sits at ease, facing the left

pediment with

On

acroteria.

she supports herself on her

arm and

left

the steps a

raises

woman

her right hand

her chiton has disappeared, but the himation remains about her
At the left a woman brings a basket with taeniae ; she
knees and behind her shoulders.

nearly to her forehead

wears a sleeveless dark green chiton with wide white


holding a staff erect in his raised right

15.

New

At

girdle.

the right stands a youth

hand (?).

H.

York, Metrop. Mus. 07.286.45.

0.38 m.

Plate

XXVI.
broken by
Hasty palmettes in black with alternate leaves red ; maeander in black,
The scene is drawn in full red ; greenish black is
dotted oblique crosses, not reversing.
used for garments and red for taeniae and details.

The

stele

is

decorated

with a taenia and crowned

tympanum and wings are solid red.


in her lowered left hand
facing the left
;

Her

basket.

border

On
is

block before

it

with pediment in which the

woman

with

bowed head

an alabastron (?) and on her right arm

is

sits

a small fiat

chiton has disappeared, but behind her and over her knees is a mantle with red
At the left an ephebos with bowed head
falls in curls over her shoulders.

her hair

the face is drawn nearly in


left hand
approaches, holding two spears erect in his lowered
front view.
He wears a girded chiton with ray ornament in red at the top and bottom,
;

a black

chlamys, and on

his

shoulder a petasos.

At the

right a

woman

with

bowed head

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

lyo

stands in partial protile, her right

She wears a black

right elbow.

hand supporting her chin and her


sleeveless chiton with overfold

the bottom of skirt and of overfold

at

i6.

Brussels,

hand under the

left

down

the

side

left

and

a red stripe.

is

Mus. Cinq. A.

H. 0.52 m.

124.

Palmettes in black with alternate leaves once red

the dull black niaeander

broken

is

The scene is drawn in deep red brighter red is used for


by dotted oblique crosses.
garments and details, dull green, black, and a color now yellowish for garments.
The broad stele on two steps is crowned by a pediment with acroteria. On the
;

upper step an ephebos sits facing the right, holding in his left hand the spear that
shoulder ; he wears a greenish chiton and over his knees is an himation.

his left

with

light red

interior rests against the steps

forward on

a staff

hand, palm

in,

is

on the

At the

left.

man

bearded

left a

rests

on

A shield
leans

which supports the light red mantle under his left shoulder
his right
raised toward his chin.
At the right a woman with bowed head stands
;

en face, her right hand drawing the

veil

about her head, her

she wears a sleeveless chiton girded over overfold,

now

left

hand

slightly raised

yellowish in color, and a veil

over the back of her head.

The same

type of stele noted on nos. 9, to, and a similar figure


On nos. 11,12 a woman sits
seated before it, occur on nos. 11-16.
easy attitude before the stele, and the standing figures on either
side are gazing at her but bring no offerings.
The drawing is vigorous and delicate, but lacks the striking individuality of that on nos.
in

The use of violet for details,


common in Class XIV. Number

9, 10.

very

as

on these two

13

know

vases,

is

not

only from the pub-

lished description ; the drawing is rather ordinary, but as in Class


XIII much attention is paid to decorative lines in the drapery. In

contrast with the vases previously discussed, both the standing figures
and the seated figure holds up an alabastron

are bringing offerings,

which she may have taken from the basket before her.
On no. 14,
is
drawn with care but rather heavily, the seated woman

which

arm and raises her right hand in a gesture of adoraone of the figures brings offerings, and she wears a chiton with
the wide white girdle noted in Class XIII.
On no. 15 only the

leans on her left


tion

seated figure holds the offerings brought to the grave, while the man
and woman are gazing at her.
No. 16 is hastily drawn in rather

Here the seated figure of the dead is a youth with shield


and spear,^ and again the standing figures gaze at him with right
hand raised in adoration instead of bringing offerings. The use of
fine lines.

yellow for garments


'

not

common.

Cf. a vase formerly in the Collection van

Before the stele with pediment


his

is

knees;

at the left a

sits

a bearded

youth holds out

brings a flat basket of offerings.

to

On

Branteghem (&/e

man
him

nos. 9, 10
Catalogue no.

it

197,

seemed reasonH. 0.47 m.,

Attica).

facing the right, with spears in his hand and a shield against
a

helmet and a sword

in its scabbard;

at the right a

woman

CLASS XIV, 16-19

171

able to interpret the scene as representing the dead person with his
companions as when Hving. On nos, it -16 the seated figure is
evidently the dead person, but the other figures, if any interpretation

can be given, seem to be mourners at the grave rather than com-

panions of his lifetime.

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1961, Cv. 1737.

17.

The

Eretria.

palmettes are in dull green with alternate leaves red

H.

0.45 m.

maeander

also

The scene is drawn in red


The scene is nearly effaced.

green, complex and broken by dotted oblique crosses.


green, and black are used for garments and details.

The

in dull
;

red,

stele on two steps is crowned


by triangular pediment above a leaf and dart
and
decorated
on one ot the steps stands a duck or goose.
with red taeniae
moulding,
At the left stands a man clothed in a red himation
before the stele a woman with flat

broad

wearing a dark green himation ; and at the right a second woman


a
red
chiton
and dark green himation.
Red taeniae are draped in the field.
wearing
basket of offerings,

The

scene just described differs from the usual type in that all three
The
figures are standing, the central one with a basket of offerings.
duck or goose here seen on the steps of the stele is found in the

hands of

seems

on

a seated
figure

prothesis scene on no.


to

have

nos. 50, 51 infra;

6.

Though

drawn

been

also occurred in the

it

the scene

is

nearly effaced, it
with attention to detail and

carefully

decorative effect.

New

18.

XXX,

Plate

3.

Palmettes in black with

scene

H. 0.406 m.

York, Metrop. Mus. 06.1169.

drawn

is

alternate leaves red

unbroken maeander

with red wash over a few black

in black,

in

lines for the hair

The

black.

bright red

is

used for taeniae and details, black for a garment, and blue for a taenia.

The

on two

stele

is

steps

decorated with taeniae,

and crowned with ornamented

near the base is a red taenia.


Above the stele
moulding and pediment, tympanum red
and at either side are draped taeniae, one blue, the others red.
At the left a woman in
profile with bowed head approaches, holding out in both hands a large flat basket with red
taeniae
she wears a sleeve chiton with red stripes and a black himation
her short hair
;

falls in

At the

separate locks about her head.

right a

and carrying on her

woman

arm away from the

raising her relaxed right

hand,

basket with red taeniae

her chiton shows traces of red stripes

left

en face approaches, slightly

her

fluffy hair

stele a flat
is

in a

low

projecting knot.

London,

19.

Brit.

Mus.

85.

Athens.

Palmettes and maeander no longer visible.

brown

violet

is

The

H.

scene

is

0.42 m.
drawn

in red

used for a garment, greenish black for details, and a black

varying to

once blue

?)

for taeniae.

The
which

is

stele

on two steps

surrounded by

is

decorated with taeniae, and surmounted by a pediment

decorated moulding and has ornaments

at the corners.

At the

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

172

woman

left

on an irregular mound, holding out in both hands a basket


She wears a sleeve chiton and over her
taeniae.

in profile sits

which contains three lekythoi and two


knees

stands en face, his

left

two

leg relieved, holding

taenia

is

in the field at the left

draped

right an

ephebos
hand
he

spears erect in his raised right

wears a girded chiton with black pattern, a chlamys,


shoes.

At the

mantle with green-black pattern on the edge.

violet

is

on

a petasos

of the

his shoulders,

and red

stele.

and the same attention to decorative effect


are found on these two vases where the scene consists of only two figures.

The same

On

type of

stele

women

no. 18 both are

with baskets of funeral offerings; the red


fill out the scene, and the

in the field help to

and blue taeniae draped

The use of black for


decorative quality.
striped garments increase the
in
the
vase
this
outlines should strictly place
following class, but on
The lekythos figured by
the whole it finds closer analogies here.
Taf. xlvi, 2, may belong at this point
Stackelberg, Graeber der Hellenen,
One of the figures on no. 19 is seated, and in her
in the discussion.
basket are lekythoi brought to the grave as offerings in addition to the

In this case the stele

taeniae.

draped

elaborately decorated, a taenia is


a decorative pattern on the

is

and the garments have

in the field,

edge.^

Palmettes in dull green with alternate leaves red

'

maeander.
a

H.

Athens, Nat. Mus. 2038, Cv. 1830.

20.

The

garment.
The broad

scene

drawn

is

in red

blue

is

details,

and

a dull

green wash for

decorated with wreath and blue taeniae, and crowned by a blue

stele is

At

an egg pattern replaces the usual

used for

At the

moulding with small palmette above the centre.


green mantle.

0.35 m.

left sits a

woman

draped in a dull
he wears
;

hand

the right a youth stands leaning on a staff in his right

an himation with blue border.

21.

The

high shoulder

dull black.
for stripes

The

The

of garment.

broad

is

scene

stele

and crowned with thin


left

CA

Paris, Louvre,
black

mouth

drawn

is

Drawn

with

right a

woman

shaped
;

the simple, elongated

blue

used for taeniae and

is

for hair

fine detail, e.g.


is

encircled with

three

brown ornament

blue taenia, and carrving a

in

and eyes.
wreaths and several taeniae,

like a

garland on the upper and lower edge.

flat

thrown

out, extending her right

basket of taeniae on her

left

hand avvav from

wears a sleeveless chiton girded over overfold, with perpendicular brown


iCf the van Branteghem
The

lekythos
stele,

in

which

the Burlington
is

stained purple,

Club
is

flat

basket

wearing petasos, chlamys, and endromides.

with

At the

hand with

the stele

she

stripes.

1888 {Catalogue no. 52,


on
pediment with three acroteria,
the left is a seated woman with violet

Exhibition for

crowned by

palmette, and decorated with green taeniae;

mantle over her knees, holding out


spears,

is

brown

At the
upper and lower parts of which are blue.
he
wears
him
hand raised on an erect staff behind

stands en face, her right hip

H. 0.423 m., Attica).


each of which is a green

maeander
details,

the
triple capital,

stands a vouth en face, his right

an himation with

bell

in full red

on one step

H. 0.495 m.

Eretria.

467.

at

three lekythoi

at

the right

is

an ephebos with

two

CLASS XIV, 20-23


Athens, Nat. Mus. 1840, Cv. 1712

22.

Palmettes normal

used for

The

The

maeander unbroken.

garment.
stele on one step

is

crowned with

triple

a block, holding open the casket on her knees


tion about her knees, while her hair

is

XXXI,

London,

is

drawn

ornament.

down

in

red

At the

left

At the

he wears

H.

1900. 1 2-14.7.

another red

woman

sits

is

on

right

a short

0.45

youth ap-

red mantle.

m.

Plate

4.

Palmettes in black with tight scrolls

The

scene

held by a sphendone.

Mus.

Brit.

H. 0.415 m,

(Coll. 639).

she wears a sleeveless chiton and an hima-

proaches, holding out his relaxed right hand, palm

22a.

173

scene

is

drawn

in fine lines

maeander

of red brown

also in black, interrupted

by

stele top.

violet are

used for

black, red, green, and

details.

The

stele

on three steps

decorated with red and black taeniae, and surmounted by

is

At
double plinth with black maeander and three projections ornamented with palmettes.
the left an ephebos sits on a high stone or tumulus, grasping two erect spears in his raised

He

right hand.

wears a chiton with band of short black bars

and black boots

a petasos,

at

red and green marks on the stone

top and bottom, a chlamvs,

may

indicate a mantle

or

woman

with bowed head stands nearly en face, holding up a coin


in her right hand, and in her left hand away from the stele carrying a crested Corinthian
Her sleeveless chiton has a black bar ornament at the neck ; a similar ornament
helmet.

At the

taeniae.

at the waist

right a

seems to belong to her himation.

23.

Berlin, Furtw. 2677.

Form

tall

and slender

the maeander, also in black,


bright red

is

At the
anthemion.

Athens.

H.

0.37 m.

Plate

XXX,

2.

the palmettes are in dull black with alternate bright red leaves
is

unbroken.

The

scene

is

drawn

in fine lines

of violet red

used for details and blue for a garment.


right a slender stele

At

the

left

on one step

is

surmounted by

peculiar, rather careless

an ephebos on horseback approaches the stele

chlamys, a red petasos hangs on his shoulder, and he has red shoes

he wears

in his right

blue

hand he

carries a spear.

few vases of the present class show variations from the two usual
On nq. 20 the stele is crowned by a decorated mouldstele.

types of

ing above which is a very small palmette ; the wreath about the stele
and the free use of blue for details are noticeable. Number 21, which

drawn with much detail, shows the same wreath and the same free
the embroidered decoration on the youth's mantle is
use of blue
22 and 22a the stele has a triple ornament like the
On
nos.
unique.
with acanthus leaves on no. 3 (Berlin
triple palmette which occurs

is

2680) the drawing is sure and careful but the only color is the redNo. 22a is decidedly interesting for the
of the youth's mantle.
at the right who holds out a plumed helmet
of
the
woman
figure
;

In

one hand, perhaps the helmet which the seated youth had worn

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

174

when

battle

in

and

living,

her right hand a coin.

in

This coin,

doubtless "Charon's obol," was found also in Class XI, 2, no. 5.


Number 23 may be compared with no. 54 of Class XIII in that there
is

but one figure, a youth on horseback, beside the


slender

is

and surmounted by

used, and the drawing


Brit.

London,

24.

Palmettes

a careless

Mus.

H.

71.

0.51 m.

and the lower eyelashes are indicated


broad stele on two steps is crowned by

with triangular top, and on which are

the field,

at

border

is

On

stands a lekythos.

edge (surface damaged).


before her on her
the lekvthos

falls

high

step of the

on the upper

arm

left

on the

stele

At

again

taeniae.

of

his

is

black

is

garment, bright red tor


heads are drawn nearly in

an alabastron beside a

a black

loutrophoros

the upper step a

a sleeveless chiton,

mound

black,
;

block trom which rises a slender

a thin

a blue

rude blocks

head bowed

at

hanging

strigil

about the main

woman

in

stele

facing the

sits

himation with violet wash


;

about her neck

is

Before her on the same step

loose on her shoulders.

stele,

in

in detail.

left

On

also

in full red

2.

for a

over her knees, and her sandals are fastened with black cords

necklace, and her long hair

feet

the

and

the right a second alabastron

and the subsidiary shaft are fastened


she wears
right with arms folded

at

drawn

is

The

the edge of a garment, and orange-yellow tor a necklace.


front view,

The

is

Plate XXVIII,

the maeander,

The scene
broken by dotted oblique crosses and reverses.
used for vases and a garment border, violet for taeniae, blue

shaft

Blue

palmette.

stele

vigorous but not careful.

black with alternate leaves red

dull

in

is

The

stele.

the

left a

he wears

man

f?)

sits

with

his

mantle with bright red

woman stands eti face, her left leg relieved, holding


with black taeniae, and with her right hand touching
She wears a sleeveless chiton girded over overfold, with

the right a

a flat basket
step.

black border on both skirt and overfold.

This vase

is

unique

in the

kind of

stele

with

its

nearest analogies area lekythos of Class VI, 2 (no. 12


c^G),

where

a lyre

offerings
Brit.

and wreath, two pitchers, two lekythoi, and

Mus.

the

a krater

mound, perhaps representing the objects contained in


and a lekythos of Class V (no. 4, Berlin, Inv. 3262) with

stand before a
the

mound,

The
vases on the steps of the stele and a lyre and a casket on top.
on the steps, might
objects here, with the exception of the lekythos
within
the
grave, though more probably
possibly represent objects
they are offerings at the grave.

The

scene

is

also

noteworthy

in that

the faces, nearly in front view, are drawn with great detail, especially for
the eyes.
Color is used with great freedom, and even the gold neck-

While the
and sandal straps of the seated figure are indicated.
vase comes under the definition of Class XIV, and has some points

lace

of resemblance with nos. 9-10, it must be regarded as an experiment


lekythos painting by an artist who refused to submit to the tradi-

in

tional restrictions of his

work.

CLASS XIV^ 24-27

Shoulder without ornament

The

main.

scene

drawn

is

H. 0.57 m.

Alopeke, near Athens.

Berlin, Furtw. 2682.

25.

175

only the glaze lines enclosing space for the maeander re-

in fine lines of dark reddish

brown, varying

to orange

blue,

The white slip is poor.


garments and details.
The wide stele on one step is decorated with violet and blue taeniae, and crowned
with mouldings (cyma and abacus with vertical dark green strokes) and acanthus leaves
and

dull green,

now

violet are used for

On

violet.

man

block before the stele a bearded

in partial profile sits


facing the

erect in his left hand


he wears a girded chiton, and behind and
right, holding two spears
At
under him is a violet mantle, both with border ot short green lines and violet fruit.
the left stands in partial profile a woman, who carries behind her on her right hand a flat
;

basket with twigs, lekythoi, and blue taeniae,


stele

her

chiton with

sleeveless

strokes (leaves ?) along the

and

long overfold

her

raises

lower border, and with

extended toward the seated

is

of green leaves

at

the girdle

figure

the mantle

and the lower edge.

perpendicular

garland of leaves and

hanging over her shoulder ; her hair falls free in long curls.
leans forward on a staff which supports the mantle under

hand

hand shghtly toward the

left

decorated with

is

is

At the
his

fruit

right a

man

bearded

arm, while

right

green

or flowers

his right

ornamented with horizontal sprays

In the

are

field

draped two outline

taeniae.

The

palmettes are in dull black with added dark red leaves

The scene is drawn in


broken only by the stele.
dark violet is used for taeniae and details, dark green

is

black,

color

H. 0.405 m.

Athens.

Berlin, Furtw. 2678.

26.

ish black for details,

The

broad

and

stele

dull pink for

on three

for a

Surface

garment borders.
is

steps

full

the maeander, also in

red, the hair in the

much

crowned by red and blue

much

On

same

garment, blue and greeninjured.

and acanthus

plinths,

second step sits a young


woman, her feet toward the left, her body and head nearly en face ; her hands are raised
She wears a sleeve chiton with greenish black
from her knees in a gesture of uncertainty.
leaves

which do not spread out

stripes

and over her knees

brush in loose

is

flufiy curls.

as

usual.

as

an himation with dull pink edge ; her hair is drawn with fine
By her side lies a dark red taenia. At the left a woman

stands in partial profile, steadying with her right

arm

left

hair
at

is

her himation with dull pink edge

At the

short and curly.

right a third

is

hand the basket of dark red taeniae on her

drawn forward over both shoulders

woman

stands in partial profile,

her waist supporting the right elbow as the right hand

a chiton

27.

now

the

thick green with dull pink edge

Wien, Hofmus. 622.

H.

and

is

raised to her chin

her
;

her

left

arm

she wears

girdle.

0.51

m.

Griech.

Benndorf,

Sic.

Vas., Taf. xxxiv.


Palmettes in green-black with alternate leaves red

maeander,

also

in

green-black,

The scene is drawn


broken by dotted oblique crosses and the acanthus leaves of the stele.
in fine carefiil lines of full red, the hair drawn with the same brush ; green-black and bright
red are used for garments, and yellow for details.
The stele on three steps is decorated with taeniae and crowned with mouldings and
spreading acanthus leaves.
a yellow lyre

On

about his knees

with bowed head stands

the upper step in partial profile a youth


is

mantle with red edge.

in partial profile, the left

At the

sits

easily, playing

left a

young woman

her
hip thrown out awkwardly, holding

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

176

hand down and her

right

sleeveless chiton

At the

short.

hand up

left

thread between them

as if stretching a

green-black with wide red border

girded over overfold,

she wears a

her hair

right an ephebos stands en face, leaning on the short vellow staff

hand and extending

hand behind

his right

the stele

he wears

is

in his left

chlamvs with wide red

border and black shoes.

28.

Paris,

XXVIII,

CA

Louvre,

H.

Eretria.

536.

m.

0.47

Plate

I.

Traces of the palmettes remain on the shoulder, dull black with alternate red leaves ;
is in dull black broken
The scene is
by dotted oblique crosses, reversing.

maeander

the

drawn

in fine lines

edge

bright red and dark green are used for garments and border.

The

full

same

red, the hair in the

on three steps

stele

On

ment.

of

is

the steps a youth

color, solid with fine strokes

crowned with acanthus


toward the

sits

and

leaves

hand grasps two erect spears high up and his left hand rests on
over one leg is a mantle with vermilion border.
At the left

view

full

knee

his

leaf orna-

a peculiar

face nearly in

right, his

along the

his right

behind him and

young woman

in

profile

up on her left hand and extending her right hand,


a
she
wears
dark
Doric
chiton with red band down the side and along
green
palm up
the bottom.
At the right a youth in partial profile approaches, his right hand grasping
approaches, carrying a flat basket high
;

an erect knotted stick

over his

shoulder hangs a red mantle.

left

red taenia

is

draped

in the field at the right.

CA

Paris, Louvre,

29.

H. 0.47 m.

166.

Palmettes in dull black with alternate leaves red

the maeander, also in dull black,

The scene is drawn


broken by dotted oblique crosses and reverses.
lines of red ; for the hair a thin red wash is applied over a few strokes

in

is

two shades of

quite fine even

like the outlines

red are used for garments and details.

The wide

stele

on two steps

crowned with mouldings and two

is

sets

of acanthus

(now generally gray). On the upper step a


a mantle with bright red edge leaves
youth sits easily facing the right, his head bowed
free only the right hand, in which he holds up an apple.
The beginning of a beard is
with details added

leaves

bright red

in

indicated on his cheek.

and

his right

as to leave

hand on

left a

youth

in partial profile approaches, his

an himation in thick red

only the right arm free.

relieved

right leg

At the

his hip

At the

right

is

wrapped

woman

head bowed,

closely about

him so

stands nearly en face,

the

she slightly raises her right hand toward the stele, palm in, and on

arm away from the

basket of red taeniae

her

left

less

chiton she wears a chitonion reaching to her knees with a wide notched border of red

at the

hangs

stele

top and the bottom

she carries a

her hair

is

in

flat

loose

flat

over her sleeve-

Behind her

knot.

in

the field

a wreath.

05.6-8.1.

H.

Palmettes and maeander no longer visible.

The

30.

London,

for the hair a

Brit.

brown wash

is

Mus.

0.48 m.
scene

is

Plate XXVII,

drawn

applied over a few strokes like the outlines

in
;

fine

i.

red lines

dark red

is

used

garment and taeniae, and light red for a garment and details.
broad stele on three unequal steps is decorated with red taeniae and crowned
with ornamented moulding, low scrolls, and a series of rather narrow leaves spreading
for a

The

from

a red spot in the centre.

On

the upper step a youth

sits in

profile facing the right.

CLASS XIV, 28-31


hand

his left

wears a

youth

raised

in profile

shoulder

left

en face, a

flat

seated youth

nearly

to

his

forehead and his right hand

on

leans forward

a staff

he holds out both hands


basket on her

his

knees

he

At

with a taenia.

as if

arm and her

left

from

lifted

mantle apparently red.


At the left a
which supports the dark red mantle under his

red chlamys and over his knees

light

177

Behind her

her garments have disappeared.

woman

the right a

stands

hand extended toward the head of the

right

in

the field are draped dark

red taeniae.

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1755, Cv. 1696 (Coll. 634).


Dumont-Chaplain, Les ceramiques de la Grece propre I,
31.

Palmettes in gray-green with alternate leaves red

The

green.

and

violet

scene

wash

drawn

is

in

lines ot

fine

red

H. 0.575 m.
xxiv.

pi.

unbroken maeander

greenish wash

also in grayused for a garment

is

for details.

The

stele on three steps shows traces of taeniae, and is crowned by mouldings (one
On the upper step a woman sits facing the left,
and
spreading acanthus leaves.
violet)
She wears a chiton with overfold, and her
on
her
hand.
head
her
bowed
right
supporting

hair falling in long curls on her shoulders

woman

with bowed head stands in

taenia horizontally

with

chiton

overfold

an ephebos stands

partial profile, her right leg relieved

between her hands,

in

is

in

partial

greenish

profile,

as

if

about to decorate the stele

wash with white border below.

holding

spear

erect

extending his right hand behind the shoulder of the seated


cap in dull green, a chlamys with colored border, and boots.

The more common form


is

of grave

a rather broad stele or pillar

At

forms a background for her face.

in

raised

woman

monument

on two or three

his

the

left

she holds a

her sleeveless

At the
left

right

hand, and

he wears a conical

in the present class

steps,

crowned by one

more mouldings and spreading acanthus leaves. On the vases


in fine, even lines of full red with
just described, the scene is drawn
the
considerable care, and color is used with more or less freedom
or

scene includes a figure seated before the stele and two standing figures
and in four instances a taenia is draped in the field. On no. 25 there
is no trace of the usual maeander and shoulder ornament, but the
;

acanthus leaves of the stele extend on to the shoulder; color is freely


used, the garland of leaves and fiowers noted on no. 2 occurs again,

and the garments are embroidered

The drawing is

in striking patterns

detailed, but lacks delicacy.

Number

along the edge.


26 has the usual

freely used for garments and depalmettes on the shoulder


tails, but the embroidery of no. 25 does not recur; the order of the
with basket of offerings,
figures is the same as on no. 25, viz. a woman
;

color

is

the seated figure of the dead, and a third figure, here a woman, in
The head of the seated figure is nearly in front
contemplative attitude.

view

as

for the

green.

on no.

wooden

The

9.

Number

staff"

and

fine detail

27 shows a smaller palette, only yellow

lyre in addition to the usual red

of the drawing

may

and

dull

be compared with that on

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOl

178

something of the same

nos. 9-10, and there is


expression, though here

it is

effort for individual

The

more clumsy.

lyre in partial per-

spective and the attitude of the youth at the right show again the
effort of the artist for something beyond his powers.
Number 28, on
which only red and dark green are used for garments, is also drawn

with

little

success and

much

Number

attention to detail.

drawn

is

29

with real delicacy and vigor except in the treatment of the hands
the wreath in the field and the wide notched border on the woman's
;

chitonion exemplify the usual effort for decorative effect, though here
the only solid color now visible is red.
On no. 30 the woman with
offerings, the seated youth and his standing companion are awkwardly
And on no. 3 i we find the same
drawn, and only solid red remains.

drawn with much care and little delicacy. The long locks of
woman's hair form a partial background for her face, as on
of Class XIII and no, 7 of Class XII.

figures,

the seated
no. 5

32.

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1832, Cv. 1697

The

palmettes and maeander are no longer visible.

brown

coarse lines of red which appear distinctly

used for garments and violet wash for details.

The

broad

stele

hair

is

supported

bv

with violet border, and

Sic.

at

Damaged and

is

a tree

drawn

in rather

On

woman

the steps a

sits

green in places) himation

At the

was

left

woman,

stands en face wearing a mantle

covered with leaves.

H. 0.54 m.

Athens, Private Collection.

is

Light red and blue arc

restored.

(now

man

the right a bearded

the extreme right

scene

acanthus leaves.

sphendone for wreath?).

At

whose head alone remains.

33.

violet

she wears a light red chiton and blue

facing the right;

and her

crowned with

is

The

the hair.

in

H. 0.60 m.

(Coll. 635).

Benndorf, Griech.

Fas., Taf. xv.

Maeander
stele top.

in

The

gray-green, broken by dotted oblique crosses and acanthus leaves of the

scene

is

drawn

in

shaded

lines

grav-green and yellow-brown are

of red;

used for details, and there are some traces of red on the garments.

The

broad

marks" and

stele

on two steps

is

spreading acanthus leaves.

crowned bv

On

thin mouldings with

the upper step a

with her right hand holding open the casket on her knees
At the left a
ornament, and about her knees is a mantle.

woman

sits

gray

"

triglyph

facing the right,

she wears a chiton with yellow leaf

woman

in partial profile

approaches,

with both hands drawing a light scarf over her shoulders ; she wears a chiton with overfold.
At the right another woman stands, her left leg relieved, raising her relaxed left hand to

The

her face; she wears a sleeve chiton and himation.

drawn back and gathered


34.

XXVII,

New

in a

York, Metrop. Mus. 06.1021. 135.

of the

women

is

loosely

H,

0.45 m.

Plate

2.

Palmettes no longer visible


in

hair

projecting round knot.

unbroken maeander

in

thin black.

The

scene

is

red with a thin reddish wash over a few strokes of outline color for the hair

shades of red and

a color

now

thin grav arc used for

garments and

details.

drawn
;

two

CLASS XIV, 32-36


The

broad

on two steps

stele

is

crowned with

On

and decorated with taeniae.

leaves,

hand on the

facing the right, his right

which covers

arm

his left

At the

hand.

his left

hand on

?), his right

several

the upper step

He

knee.

left

his hip

mouldings and spreading acanthus


sits a
youth with bowed head,

wears an himation with red edge,

youth en face leans forward (on a staff under


he wears a bright red himation with dark red

left

179

At the right a woman stands in partial profile, looking down at the seated
border (?).
vouth ; her relaxed right hand is slightly raised and on her left arm away from the stele
she carries a large flat basket containing two lekythoi and an alabastron ;
she wears a

now

sleeve chiton,

gray

light

her hair

held by a taenia

is

knot, and in her

in a loose

ears are earrings.

XXIX,

Mus. Fine

Boston,

34a.

H. 0.485 m.

Arts, 11. 1275.

2.

Palmettes in dull gray with traces of alternate leaves in red

used for the hair, staff and spears, and a garment

The

broad

On
his

head,

stele

on two

steps

is

the upper step a youth

is

color and the others with reenforced out-

solid

facing the

sits

hand holding two spears

left

dark red

decorated with taeniae and crowned with mouldings

leaves, of which two are in

and acanthus

is

of

fine lines

another garment.

light red for

maeander

the gray

The scene is drawn in rather


broken by the acanthus leaves of the stele.
red-brown and the same color is used soHd on two of the acanthus leaves

Hnes.

Plate

his

right

wears

left,

he

erect
;

hand
light

raised

red

toward

short

his

chiton,

At the left a woman approaches carrying


chlamys, and petasos at back of his neck.
a flat basket on her left arm
her garments are no longer visible.
At the right a bearded
seen
from
leans
forward
on
a
staff
which
behind,
man,
partly
supports his dark red
,

himation under the

left

armpit

35. Athens. Nat.

his right

hand

is

Mus. 1892, Cv.

on

his left shoulder.

Palmettes in dull green with alternate leaves red

The

scene

garment and

The

stele

on two steps

the steps a youth

helmet pushed back, and in

on the knotted
youth

he wears

sits

his

staff in his left

young woman,
left

is

dull green.

in

dark red

is

used for

facing the

hand

is

left

spear.

hand and extends

holding up an alabastron in

he wears a red chiton and Corinthian

At

the

left

bearded

man

leans lightly

hand, palm up, toward the seated


At the right there remains the upper part of a
her right hand and carrying a flat basket on her
his right

arm.

Mus. 1894, Cv.

scene

is

drawn

in red,

with dull green

for the

H. 0.50 m.

Cerameicus.

1766.

Palmettes in dull green with alternate leaves red

The

unbroken maeander

hair

red

is

used for

in

dull green.

garment, red

dull green for details.

The
facing the

arm

unbroken maeander

decorated with red taeniae and crowned with acanthus

dark red himation.

36. Athens, Nat.

and

red with a dull green wash for the hair

in

details.

broad

On

leaves.

drawn

is

H. 0.52 m.

Cerameicus.

1765.

broad
right

he wears

stele
;

is

crowned with acanthus

in his

a loosely

left

hand

is

leaves.

On

the steps a bearded

man

sits

knotted stick and he supports himself on his right

draped himation.

At the

left

traces

remain of

young woman

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

i8o

At the right a youth stands en face, holding two spears erect


with
a
red border, and a petasos in red and dull green.
chlamys

bringing a

wears

basket.

flat

Mus. 183 1, Cv. 1796

37. Athens, Nat.

The
drawn

palmettes have disappeared

in red

The
her

in

color remains on

ward

slightlv

sits

hand

left

scene

is

group of acanthus leaves which break the maeander. On


she extends her right hand, palm up, and
facing the right

crowned with

is

woman

the steps a

The

simple maeander in gray-green.

0.57 m.

much damaged.

stele

H.

(Coll. 638).

he

easily,

some

holds

At

her garments.

on the knotted

garment fold?) before her face;


bearded man stands en face leaning

(a

object
the

left

staff in his left

hand

From

he wears an himation.

no
for-

the right

woman

approaches, carrving on her left hand a flat basket with wreath, and holding up
she wears chiton and himation, and is adorned with neckan alabastron in her right hand
a

and

lace

bracelets.

38. Athens, Nat.


Palmettes missing

scene

is

drawn

The

woman

supporting

knees a mantle.

At

right

hair

is

maeander

short

the

elbow

right

At the

The
the

left,

left,

left

her
she

bowed head on
wears

She wears

sleeveless

young man holds out

stele

gesture of

mourning
At the right

is

crowned with acanthus

in red

left

is

woman

her

in

both

woman.

hands

her

H. 0.60 m.

and green

maeander un-

used for a garment.

On

leaves.
left

in profile,

left

about

and

chiton

Cerameicus.

alternately red

greenish black

her right hand, and her

stands a

On

and her

helmet toward the seated

the steps a

woman

hand supporting the

chiton, and a mantle about her knees.

the
;

leaves

drawn

a sleeveless

At

many

is

bowed head on

large lekythos.

fringe.

scene

broad

her

her right hand,

young woman approaches, holding out a taenia (.'')


and she wears a chiton with long overfold, ungirded.

The

The

small acanthus leaves and anthemion.

crowned with

is

facing the

sits

Palmettes in dull green, with

broken.

0.55 m.

green, broken by dotted oblique crosses.

in dull

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1908, Cv. 1770.

39.

H.

Cerameicus.

1907, Cv. 1771.

much damaged.

rather slender stele

the steps a

hand

in red

Mus.

sits

right

Beside the stele

is

facing

elbow.
a

very

both hands raised to her head in

she wears a sleeveless chiton and a dark green mantle with heavy
a

bearded

man

leans on the cane

in his

left

hand and

raises his re-

laxed right hand (palm in) toward his head.

On

nos.

32-39 the same form of

the dead seated before

and with

it,

less attention to

found with the figure of


but the scene is drawn in shaded red lines
On no. 32 no
detail than on nos. 25-31.
stele

is

shoulder ornament remains, but color is freely used in the scene; the tree
at the extreme right is very unusual (cf. no. 36 of Class XIII and the

The scene on no. 1^1^ is


reeds on nos. 22 and 27 of the same class).
little color remains, but the
with
but
considerable
hastily
vigor

drawn

scarf of the

woman

at the left

and the embroidery on the chiton of

The curve
the seated figure suggest the eflfort for decorative effect.
to indicate
seems
of the mouldings at the top of the grave monument

CLASS XIV, 37-4oa


round

that a

Here

intended.

is

pillar

On

XI.

women might

the three

home

represent the dead person seated in her


as often in Class

i8i
well

with two companions

find again the woman bringthe spectator.^


Little color is

we

nos. 34-37,

ing offerings, the seated figure, and


used, and the scene is hastily drawn in rather a fine manner; the
seated figures on nos. 35-37 are particularly well done.
The necklace

and bracelets on the standing woman of no. 37 are very unusual.


Numbers 38 and 39 do not repeat the usual formula of woman bringing
offerings and spectator; on no. 38 a woman brings a taenia to decorate the stele, while a youth holds out his helmet toward the seated

though he were handing it to


the army; while on no. 39 a man and a

woman,

his wife

as

from

his return

woman

stand with gestures


supports her head on her

woman who

of mourning beside a seated

on

hand (cf no. 38). The lekythos on the steps of the stele was noted
on no. 24 and beside the bier on nos. 5-6.
These vases also are
drawn hastily but with some strength.
Brussels,

40.

Mus.

Somzee, Catalogue de

Cinq.

H. 0.575 m.

1022.

Frohner, Collection van

190I) no. 102.

vente^

Collections de

Branteghem, no. 198.

Two
the front

palmettes in dull black with alternate leaves red extend from the handle toward
the unbroken

dull greenish black

maeander

and brighter red

is

The

also black.

for

garments and

scene

is

drawn

in

deep red with

details.

The stele on two high steps is in two parts, each crowned with acanthus leaves ; the
lower part is red with white perpendicular strokes, the upper part greenish black with
similar white strokes
the second set of acanthus leaves is on the shoulder.
At the side
;

On

of the second step two plants are growing.


left, and resting her right forearm on a casket

in

over her knees

her hair

woman

is

an himation without color

youth leans forward on

object

40a.

the garment

At

in a high loose knot.

the

left

is

brown

is

low knot.

in a loose

At

down

the right

hand

slightly raised as if holding out

is

bright red with white border.

of palmettes or maeander.

solid

is

shoulder, and draws his mantle forward

left

his left

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1800.

traces

brown, and

her hair

red staff under his

over the right shoulder in his right hand

No

is

facing the

she wears a sleeveless chiton of dark green with wide white stripe

the side, at the girdle, and across .the bottom

some

sits

she wears a sleeveless chiton and

stands en face, drawing forward in both hands from her shoulders a small mantle

striped with red

woman

the upper step a

her lap

Cv. 1776 (Coll. 665).

The

scene

is

drawn

H.

in fine lines

0.48 m.
of reddish

used for a garment.

^
Cf. a lekythos in the Collection Bammeville (Frohner, Catalogue no. 8, H. 0.56 m.) drawn in bhtre
with red and green for garments, etc.
Before a stele crowned with acanthus leaves a woman sits facing the

right and holding in her right

hand

a gou--uernail ;

over her knees

wearing a chlamys and extending his right hand toward the


arm horizontally and raising her right hand to her head.

stele

is

at

green mantle
the right

is

at the left

woman

is

an ephebos

extending her

left

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

i82

The slender stele is decorated with three rows of spreading


woman in sleeveless chiton and brown mantle brings a flat

left a
left

arm

At

top.

below her

right hand, perhaps

the right a

woman, whose garments show no

casket with triangular

is

color, brings a

smegmatotheke.

Dresden, Alb. Z.V. 759 (367).

41.

Fragment.

suspended by cords,

At the

acanthus leaves.

basket of offerings on her

The
woman

The

scene

slender stele

is

drawn

is

of dark red.

in rather coarse lines

ornamented with four rows

At

holding out a small basket.

of acanthus leaves.

At the

left

stands

the right an ephebos stands in partial profile,

holding two spears erect in his right hand; he wears chiton, chlamys, and greaves (?).

Number 40 is

peculiar in that the high slender stele with several rows


of acanthus leaves is prolonged to the top of the shoulder, and the
The plants at the side of the
shovilder palmettes are adjusted to it.

and the gestures of the standing figures are also peculiar. The
scene is rather crudely drawn with much attention to details of hair
stele

Number 40a and the fragment no. 41 have a somewhat


of
both the casket
similar type
stele, not prolonged onto the shoulder
and the smegmatotheke on no. 40a are unusual in the present class.
and eyes.

Athens, Private Collection.

42.

Normal palmettes and unbroken simple maeander.


red

in

dark green

The
is

a square

on two steps

"altar" on two

woman

steps.

At the

left a

arm

she wears chiton and himation

is

on

in profile sits

boots,

Behind

now

mann,

drawn

in the field

leaves

which do not

it

without color.
left

hand

At

the

on her

left

an

ephebos
he wears chlamys, high cap, and
right

without color.

Bologna, Mus. Civ. 367.

43.

are

and projecting on both


the ring of a wreath remains.

behind

a square block, holding out a flat basket

approaches, holding two spears erect in his

now

crowned by acanthus

about the shaft are tied two taeniae

Ornament and scene

used for taeniae.

rather slender stele

reach the maeander


sides

is

H. 0.403 m.

Eretria.

Athens.

H. 0.355

'^^'

Heyde-

Drittes Hall. IVinck. progr. S. 57, no. 1399.

Palmettes in dark green with alternate leaves dark red ; the complicated maeander,
broken by dotted oblique crosses and not reversing, is also in dark green.
The scene is
drawn in full red dark green is used for a garment and details, red for details.
;

The

slender stele on

two

steps

is

crowned with mouldings and spreading acanthus

leaves and

"

altar

ornamented with red and green tae;iiae behind it on both sides is seen an
" with
At the leir an ephebos sits with bowed head, holding two
egg moulding.
;

erect spears in his raised

chlamys,
tial

profile

her raised

On

on

a petasos

left

hand

his shoulder,

he wears

a short chiton

and dark green boots.

with red and green pattern,

At the

right a

woman

in par-

approaches, her head bowed, drawing about her a dark green mantle or scarf in
left

hand

she wears a sleeveless chiton with long overfold.

these two vases the acanthus stele

both sides of it
Class XIII.

is rather slender, and on


"
seen the rectangular base or " altar frequently noted in
On no. 42 the woman is seated and the youth standing;
is

CLASS XIV, 41-45

183

The fact
is seated and the woman
standing.
seen on both sides of the stele separates these
further no. 42 is distinctly larger
vases from the type of Class XIII
than lekythoi of the previous class, and the peculiarly decorated
on no. 43 as well as the manner in which the woman holds
on no. 43 the youth

that the "altar"

is

garments

her scarf find analogies in Class

XIV

rather than in

Class XIII.

The lekythos figured by Stackelberg, Graeber der Hellenen, Taf. xliv,


apparently belongs with nos. 40-43.
Boston,

44.

XXXI,

Mus. Fine

H.

01.8130.

Arts,

m.

0.34

Plate

2.

the gray maeander is broken by


Palmettes in dull gray with alternate leaves bright red
The scene is drawn in fine even lines of full red
stele top and dotted oblique crosses.
;

with similar lines


details, bright

for details

of the loose hair

violet

wash

used for garment border and

is

red for taeniae and details, dark green for a garment.

Surface badly weathered.

on one step is decorated with red taeniae and crowned with mouldings, five
acanthus leaves, and five small narrow leaves at the very top
bright red is used on the

The

stele

wash for two of the latter and for


egg moulding, and for three of the narrow leaves, violet
At the left a woman stands in partial profile looking down
the border of acanthus leaves.
at

the naked babv she carries in her arms, while the baby looks up and raises

mother's neck.

to the

drawn up over
left leg

Her

chiton

is

not visible

At

the back of her head.

relieved, holding

two

her himation with violet

the right an ephebos stands

spears erect, point

up, in his raised

left

its

right

hand

wash border

is

nearly en face, the

His short

hand.

he wears also a long green

(once red?) hangs loosely from the left shoulder;


chlamys with violet wash border, pushed back, and a bright red petasos on
At the back of the vase a large red taenia is draped in the field.
chiton

his

shoulder.

The vase just described is intermediate in size between the norms of


Class XIII and of Class XIV, but the fine even lines of the drawing
resemble those of certain vases

in the present class,

on which

a taenia

On
here (cf nos. 25, 28, 30).
frequently draped in the field as
Class
no.
and
16
discussed
two lekythoi previously
XI,
(Class V,

is

4, no. 16)

living child

is
brought to the stele, and more frequently a
the
on
seen
ground near its mother (Class VI, i, nos. 14,

dead child
is

scene
25; Class IX, I, no. 20, etc.) the nearest analogy to the present
at home (Class IV, 2, no. i la
woman
a
is found on vases
representing
This mother may represent the dead
IV, 3, no. 7; V, no. i).
;

a mourner.
grave, or possibly she is
characterization of the person, here as a mother, is not
Class XI, but is most unusual in the present class.
at

person

the

The

palmettes have nearly disappeared

the simple maeander

The

scene

on top of the stele.


dark red and blue are used for garments.

by the acanthus
dark red

H. about

Dresden, Alb. Z.V. 758 (365).

45.

leaves

is

drawn

The definite
uncommon in

0.25 m.
in dull black
in

is

interrupted

rather coarse lines of

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

i84

The wide stele at the


woman sits facing the left
At the

red mantle.

from the
shoulder

right

crowned with simple acanthus ornament.

is

she wears a chiton and over her

woman

left a

stele a flat basket,

and with her

In front a

shoulder and knees

en face approaches, carrying on

is

arm away

her right

hand drawing the himation forward from her

left

of the chiton only traces remain

left

the himation

Athens, Nat. Mus. 201 1, Cv. 1798.


Chaplain, Les ceramiques de la Grece propre,

blue with red border.

is

H.

46.

Dumont

0.43 m.
xxxvi.

I, pi.

The
maeander also in gray-green.
Palmettes in gray-green with alternate leaves red
red
and
and
is used for
black
is drawn in red
details,
yellow for
garments
greenish
;

scene

details.

The

stele

on two steps

is

decorated with red taeniae and crowned by small acanthus

At the left an ephebos sits facing the right,


ornament.
him
his conical red cap hangs on the spear
on
the
shield
beside
resting
he wears a dark green corselet with details in red and
which stands erect behind him

leaves

on either

his right

side of a circular

arm

about
yellow on the shoulder pieces and elsewhere
on which he sits is a mantle with red edge, and
;

the right a

her chin

woman

knees

his

and

over

the

boots are dark green.

his

block

At

hand raised nearly to


partial profile approaches, her relaxed right
" which is dark
she wears over her chiton a short chitonion or "jacket
green with
in

yellow border above and below, and over the back of her head

a veil or scarf with fringed

is

edge.

Palmettes in red and a color

now

the acanthus leaves, and the scene are

and

H.

Athens, Private Collection.

47.

0.45 m.

The

gray.

drawn

in

complicated maeander, broken only by


Dark gray is used for garments
full red.

yellow-brown and two shades of red for details.


The broad stele is crowned by plain mouldings and acanthus

details

Her

ing out in both hands an ornamented box.

ornament on the body

stands in partial profile,


right

hand, palm

in,

about her knees


holding two

is

sits in

one moulding
a low round

on

left

holdpartial profile,

chiton has bright red sleeves and a gray

a dark gray himation.

spears in his raised

toward the base of the

leaves

At the

wash

and the edges of the leaves have


applied.
tumulus with taeniae in brown and two shades of red, a woman
a dull grayish

stele.

He

At the

right an

ephebos

hand and extending his relaxed


wears a short chiton and chlamys,
left

both with grav ornament on the edge, and shoes, brown below and gray above.

48.

Athens, Private Collection.

Aeglna

(?)

H. 0.54 m. Benn-

dorf, Griech. Sic. Vas.^ Taf. xxii, 2.

Ornament and scene


tails,

are

drawn

in a

brown-red.

Gray

is

used for garment and de-

bright blue for garment and details, and yellow for taeniae.

The

broad

stele

on one step

is

decorated with blue wreaths and taeniae of blue and

vellow, and surmounted bv spreading acanthus leaves on either side of


At the left a woman in
which is reserved white on a gray background.

small

profile

palmette
sits

on a

near the top of her garment


her gray himation closely about her
pile of stones, drawing
At the right a youth stands in partial profile, holding a spear
is a band of leaf ornament.
he wears a loosely draped blue himation.
erect in his raised left hand
;

CLASS XIV, 46-52

MNB

Paris, Louvre,

49.

H. 0.485 m.

440.

Pettier, Lee. blanes att.^ p. 147, no.

Mouth
maeander
in hnes

spreading,

also

is

bel]

(once red

?)

below

thick violet

Plate

XXIX,

i.

c^c^.

the high sloping shoulder

lacking, though the lines above and

now yellow-brown

and green

shaped

185

without ornament

is

The

are present.

scene

used for taeniae, bird, and

is

the

drawn

is

details,

for leaves.

The wide

on one step

stele

decorated with violet taeniae, and surmounted by dec-

is

At the left a woman


orated plinth and bunch of acanthus leaves, the alternate ones violet.
she
sits on a violet seat, and bends forward holding out a violet duck in both hands
;

wears a sleeveless chiton and over her knees


small knot,

drawn

is

At

in separate curls.

is

an ornamented himation

woman

the right a

her hair, in a low,

stands e}iface, turning her head

away from the stele, but looking back and holding her right hand out, palm down, toward
She wears a sleeveless chiton, over which a wreath of green leaves and violet
the stele.
flowers

hung over the

is

repainted.

Palmettes and maeander

The

used for

is

greenish gray

broad

At

gray.

now

is

with some

scene

man

turns away
down) toward the

woman

left a

in profile sits

Behind her

in

goose.

on

She wears
gray

a taenia

is

His himation

is

a chiton

her hair

is

is

loosely gathered in a

draped
it, and extends

now

drawn
stele

in coarse
is

brown

low knot

right a

his relaxed right

bearded

hand (palm

without color.

lines, almost glossy.

crowned by spreading acanthus

holds out a goose towards the stele

over his knees

the right a second youth stands en face, raising his

palm in, and holding his left hand high up


and a high brown conical cap.

New

At the

in the field.

H.

0.42 m.

Pettier,

146, no. 49.

att.^ p.

broad

52.

red

hastily in full

with short sleeves, and about

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1837, Cv. 1726.

scene

The

drawn

is

i.

square block, her feet crossed easily,

Paknettes in dull green with alternate leaves red

The

XXX,

the

from the stele, looks back at

Lee. blanes

rudely

on one step is crowned by square blocks with ornament in gray perabout it are taeniae
and large acanthus leaves, the central one gray

free curls.

51.

is

details.

mantle with ornament

Plate

The

missing.

holding out a goose (?) in both hands.


her knees

the head

stele

pendicular strokes,

now

draped

in the field above.

H. about 0.40 m.

Karlsruhe.

50.

shoulder and under the right hand

left

V^iolet taeniae are

simple maeander in dull green.

Traces of green on a garment.

leaves.

At

the

left

a seated

mantle with traces of green.


right hand slightly toward the

is

as if grasping a spear

York, Metrop. Mus. 06.1021. 136.

he wears

youth
At
stele,

a short chiton

H. 0.413 m.

the maeander is also in


Traces remain of the black palmettes with alternate leaves red
The scene is drawn in full red, with hair in the same ; traces of red are seen on
;

black.
a

garment.

The

stele

on two steps is decorated with taeniae, and crowned with mouldings and
At the left a bearded man leans forward on a staff which holds up the

acanthus leaves.

red mantle under his

left

shoulder.

At

the right a youth

sits in

partial profile

on

a pile

of

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

i86
stones, his

wears

hand on

left

his

knee, his right hand raised and grasping an erect spear

he

chlamys and high pointed cap.

H.

Athens, Nat. Mus. 2010, Cv. 1791.

53.

0.36 m.

Pettier,

Lee. blancs att.^ p. 144, no. 38.


Palmettes in dull green with alternate leaves red

The

scene

and

details.

The

is

drawn

broad

in

stele

red with a thin

crowned bv

is

wash

unbroken maeander

for the hair

At the

seated

left is a

red himation which leaves the right shoulder uncovered.


at

the stele

face looking
and her right hand

on her

slightly raised

is

Cambridge,

54.

left

Fitz.

arm she

carries a

toward the

man

At the

flat

drawn

dull

green.

nearly effaced) in a

right a

woman

stands en

basket with pendant red taeniae,

stele.

H. 0.36 m.

Mus., Gard. 141.

Normal palmettes and maeander broken only bv acanthus top


is

in

used for a garment

is

ornamented with dots and acan-

three thin mouldings

thus leaves, and decorated with taeniae.

bright red

ot

stele.

The

scene

dark red, varying toward gray.

in a

The rather
woman stands in

on two steps is crowned by acanthus leaves.


At the left a
on
her
arm
a
flat
basket
and
right
partial profile, carrying
raising her relaxed
hand
her
chiton
is without
fold
or
At the right
toward
her
forehead
ornament.
right
an ephebos sits in an easy attitude on a block covered by his chlamys
his right hand rests
broad

stele

on

his knee,

and

his raised left

hand holds two spears

erect.

He

wears only

high cap

and red boots.

On

the vases just described and those which follow the scene con-

of two figures beside a rather broad stele or column crowned by


On nos. 45-48 color is somewhat freely used, the
acanthus leaves.
sists

decorative element
fairly

good.

whom

On

emphasized, and the drawing though hasty is


no. 46 the figure at the left seems to be a dead
is

woman

The
approaches with gesture of adoration.
detail of the garments, and the free manner in which the woman's veil
or scarf floats out behind are noteworthy.
The same effort for decoyouth,

rative effect

the

noticeable

is

on nos. 47 and 48, where

spears stands before a seated

woman

youth with

use of color a vase published by Stackelberg {Graeber der Hellenen, Taf. xliv, 2) with an
acanthus stele may be compared with them. On no. 48 a wreath of
;

in

its

embroidered on the upper part of the woman's mantle probthe


wreath or garland of fruit and leaves on the upper and lower
ably
of
the
woman's mantle on no. 49 should also be regarded as
parts
leaves

is

On nos. 49, 50, and 51 the seated


6, 25).
holds
out
a
duck
or
figure
goose toward the stele this mav be an
to
the
offering brought
grave, or a household pet in the hands of the
embroidery (cf also nos.

dead person.

The

that these vases

similarity of the

two figures on nos. 49-50 suggests

may have been made

as

pair.

The

seated figure,

CLASS XIV, 53-59

187

which also occurs on nos. 52-54, may regularly be interpreted as the


In view, however, of the general character of the
figure of the dead.
scenes in this class, which for the most part repeat types already familiar
without attaching to them a definite meaning,
on this interpretation.
Lee. blanes

Palmettes in dull green with alternate leaves red


scene

The
flat

is

drawn

broad

basket

the right

stele

red

thin black

is

crowned with acanthus

is

hand

left

raised as if

is

The

scene

The broad

is

left

green.

woman

stands a

with

held a spear.

it

H. 0.355

stele is

out in both hands a

dottier,

careful

unbroken maeander

in dull

in red,

At the

left

stands a

in his right

woman

At the

basket with red taeniae.

flat

himation leans on the thick staff

The

damaged.

scene

drawn

is

in a sleeveless chiton, holding

right a

bearded

man

in a

H.

0.38 m.

deep red

hand.

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1764, Cv. 1778.

Much

"^-

with solid red for garments and taeniae.


crowned with acanthus leaves and decorated with large red taeniae

drawn

the steps are no longer visible.

in red,

Athens.

and another red

is

used tor a garment

for taeniae.

Traces of the
ing two

remain.

stele

spears erect

hang red

On

on the other,

one side stands an ephebos with red chlamys, holdyoung woman, carrying a flat basket from which

taeniae.

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1765, Cv. 1779.

58.

Much
and

the

in dull

rubbed.

att., p. 143, no. 35.

Palmettes in dull green with alternate leaves red

and

At

leaves.

Athens, Nat. Mus. 2012, Cv. 1787.

Lee. blanes

57.

Much

the stele, and his

down, toward

green.

unbroken maeander

used for a garment.

At
her garments have disappeared, leaving only the outlines of her figure.
extends
his
and
he
a
black
a youth wearing
right hand, palm
pilos
chlamys

is

56.

Pottier,

141, no. 23.

att.^ p.

in

wiser not to insist

H. 0.305 m.

Athens, Nat. Mus. 2017, Cv. 1790.

55.

The

it is

The

damaged.

scene

is

drawn

in

H.

Athens.

red and another red

is

0.32 m.

used for garments

details.

The

stele

is

decorated with red taeniae and crowned with acanthus leaves.

On

an ephebos stands holding two spears erect ; on the other side stands a young
1
carrying a flat basket from which hang red taeniae.
side

59.

London,

Brit.
in

Mus.

86.

H.

0.38 m.

black with alternate leaves red

Elongated palmettes
scene is drawn in red, with dark red

one

woman

maeander

The

also in black.

and garment borders.


The stele on two steps is decorated with many taeniae, and crowned by egg mouldAt the left a youth stands in profile, holding out
ing and three acanthus leaves in outline.
At the right a woman
his left hand, palm up
he wears a large mande with red border.
for taeniae

she
standing en face steadies with her right hand the basket of taeniae on her left arm
wears a sleeveless chiton with coarse stripes in faded red, and her hair is in a low knot.
;

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1798, Cv. 1806

that the

man

wears a helmet.

may

be classified at this point as no. 58a.

The

only peculiarity

is

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

i88

The scenes on
woman bringing

spectator.
fairly

these vases consist of a stele crowned with acanthus,


a flat

No. 55

slender stele with

with some care.

basket of

drawn with

is

many

ofi^erings,

and

man

taeniae about

and

it,

standing as a

No. 59 has

considerartle care.
it

also

is

drawn

garment decoration remains,


and the vases have no interest except as showing the demand even for
of the present class.
hastily drawn lekythoi
Little solid color or

Conclusion of Class

XIV

In the present class the slender shape of the lekythoi, the chalky
the red used for drawing the outlines, and the two types of stele
slip,
recall

Class XIII.

The

vases, however, are larger, usually 0.40 to


ordinarily the drawing is more careful and

in height; and
The ornathe figures less conventional than in the previous class.
in
with
alternate
red
thin black
ment on the high sloping shoulder is
This ornament and also the maeander are
leaves in the palmettes.

0.50 m.

no longer visible on nos.


49,
this

2, 3, 6, 8, 19,

25, 30, 32, 34, 37, 38, 40a,


uses

50
Furtwangler {Vasensammlung in Berlin^ no. 2680-2682)
mark as a means of classification, but the omission may be
;

acci-

dental or the result of fading, as seems to be the case sometimes in


On no. 40 the stele is carried to the top of the shoulearlier classes.
der, with a palmette

on each

side

and on no. 21 the shoulder

is

black

like the neck.

The

scene

is

drawn

in

deep red, usually

shaded

in

lines

in

cer-

i, 5, 9, 10, 22a, 25-31, 40a, 44) the lines are fine


and not shaded, and these vases are drawn with more care and detail

tain instances (nos.

on no.

I.

preliminary sketch with a sharp point is visible


Thin black is used for a garment or details on twenty-

than the others.

eight of these vases, and one or two shades of red on thirty-nine, the

two colors often appearing on the same vase.


and more decorative vases other colors appear
on nos. 3, 9-1 1,18, 20, 21, 23-26, 32, 45, 48
27,

-^1^^

47, 48 and orange on no. 24

12, 19, 22a, 25, 26, 49,

and thin

On
in
;

the

more

some

variety
yellow on nos. 3, 16,

thick violet on nos.

violet

on nos.

careful

blue

1,

2, 3, 5, 6,

24, 31, 32,

44

gray-green wash on nos. 2, 10, 20, 1^1,^ 34, 47, 50; light green on
nos. 9, 1 5, 22a, 25, 49
Narrow stripes of red or
and pink on no. 26.
black occur on six vases and a broad garment border of red or black
or violet on twelve vases
this decoration is less common than in
a

Class XIII, and the use of black stripes on red does not occur here.

CONCLUSION OF CLASS XIV

decorated border

is

to be

189

noted on nos.

5, 15, 22a, 29, ^^y 43' 47 5


21, 25, 48 and 49 a garland of leaves and flowers or
fruit occurs, which in some cases is
clearly embroidered on the gar-

on nos.

2, 3, 6,

ment, while

other cases

in

it

may

be either embroidery or possibly an

worn over the garments.

actual garland

found only here, goes with the

free

This embroidery, which is


use of color and the ornamental

of the drawing, as part of the effort for decorative


was noted under Class XIII.
lines

The Charon

scenes

The
woman

of those scenes.
(no. i)

scenes and Charon

On

result.

which

1-4) are more elaborate than similar


lack something of the simple charm

XIII and perhaps

scenes in Class

and the

(nos.

effect

stele (nos. 1-3), the taenia

hanging

in

the field

bringing offerings, indicate a confusion of grave


scenes, which leaves only decorative value to the

no. 3 the scene

is

worked out more

consistently, but the

Of the prothesis scenes no. 5


prominent place.
and
even
to
the lekythos in actual use becarefully
literally,

stele still occupies a


is

drawn

neath the bier; no. 6 is only interesting for the very large lekythoi
which stand behind the bier their size suggests that they may be
intended for grave monuments, though grave monuments are not found
;

examples of the prothesis scene (except Class XIII, no.

9).

depositio scene (no. 7) closely follows similar scenes in classes

VI

in other

The

The battle
drawing is very marked.
scene also (no. 8) is vigorous and effective in composition, but lacks
the grace and delicacy which characterize earlier work.
and XI, but the difference

The
type of

stele
stele

in the

scenes are grouped for convenience according to the


and the number of figures represented.
On nos. 9-19

the stele is surmounted by a pediment with acroteria as on no. i, and


on nos. 9-17 three persons are present; on nos. 25-59 ^^ ^'^ ^^- 2
the grave monument is a wide column or stele crowned with acanthus
On nos. 3,
leaves, and on nos. 25-40 the scene includes three figures.

20-24 the fineal of the stele varies in form. The triple plinth found
XIII, however, does not occur, and the rectangular "altar"
behind the stele is found only on nos. 42-43.
The stele is decorated

in Class

with several
color,

what

acanthus leaves

taeniae, occasionally the

and the pediment with acroteria

is

are in

solid

regularly ornamented some-

richly with color.

The

typical

scene on fully half these vases consists of a seated

figure before the stele with a

On

man and

woman

standing at either

nos. 9, 10, 16, 22a, 25, 28, i^c^^ 43, 52, and 54 (cf 34a) the
seated figure is that of a young warrior with spears
resting against his

side.

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

190

shoulder, and on no. i6 a shield


him clearly this is a type of vase
;

On

standing on the ground beside


made for use at the burial of youthis

playing a lyre, as ocand on no. 29 he is holding


casionally on lekythoi of earlier classes,
it
should
be regarded as the figure
cases
also
in
these
up an apple
The seated woman may be holding up an alaof the dead person.
ful warriors.

no. 27 the seated youth

is

bastron (no. 13, cf 15), or holding a casket (nos. ^3) 40) or a small
sometimes she supports her head on her hand
flat basket (no. 15)
;

(nos. 31, 38, 39), or grasps the garment beside her head [e.g. no. 37),
or her hands lie on her lap (nos. i i, 24)
occasionally she leans back
arm
no.
on
one
14); once (no. 14, cf.
[e.g.
supporting herself
;

the vouth on no. 30) her hand is raised to her head in the gesture of
There is no one type for the dead
adoration noted in Class XIII.
woman corresponding to that for the dead youth, but in general the

of a person rather apart from the other figures in the scene.


standing figures show rather more variety than in Class XIII.

attitude

is

The
The man

leaning on a staff or crutch under his left armpit occurs on


nos. 20, 25, 30, 34, 34a, 40, 52 ; ten times we find the man with an
erect staff in his hand, and twelve times the youth carrying spears
The woman bringing a flat basket
either erect or on his shoulder.

found on twenty-five vases, but the attitudes of this


figure vary considerably, and it is noteworthy that on fully twenty-two
Other offerings
examples no offerings at all are brought to the grave.
with offerings

is

than those on the

flat

basket are the taenia

{e.g.

nos.

31,38) the casket

(nos. 22, 40a), the goose (nos. 49-51), the alabastron (nos. ;^^, 37),
Of the gestures
the helmet (no. 22a), the smegmatotheke (no. 40a).
noted especially in Class XIII the hand raised slightly from the side is

found on nos. 25, 51, ^^y and the relaxed hand raised to the head in
adoration on nos. 1 6, 30, 23, 34a, 39, 46, and 54. The hand extended
(palm up) is found fourteen times; twice a man's hand rests on his
more commonly than before a woman
hips, the elbow out (nos. 29, 34)
;

supports her head on her hands (nos. T2, 15, 26, cf 31, 38,39), or
draws forward the garment over her shoulder (nos. 10, 16, 2;^^ 37,

The gestures of lamentation occur on no. 39 as well as


40, 43, 45).
in the frothesis scenes (nos.
Attention has been called to
^-^^.
the man on horseback on nos. 8 and 23.
It appears that the scenes
show much more variety of
are more carefully studied.

The garments
be expected

in

are

much

classes

figures than in Class

same

XIII, and often they

XIII, just as should


Women wear a
nearlv contemporaneous.
the

as in Class

CONCLUSION OF CLASS XIV

igi

which mav be girded


short sleeveless chitonion occurs sometimes

sleeveless chiton, often with an overfold

no. i); over this a


nos, 29, 46) or a veil (no. 16) or a light scarf (no. ^2)^
tion

is

The

frequently added.

{e.g.
{e.g.

^^^ ^^^ hima-

necklace (nos. 24, 27)j earrings (no.

and sandals (no. 24) are details very rarely


found on vases drawn in matt color. The young men are drawn
with a short chiton (nos. i, 7, 25, 34a, 43) and perhaps a corselet {e.g.
34), bracelets (no. 37),

no. 46) or an himation, more commonly than with a chlamys (nos.


8-10) and the high round cap or pilos is used rather than the petasos ;
The figure
quite generally their high boots are indicated in color.

draped

neck

to the

in

a mantle, often noted in earlier classes, does

Even more than

not occur here.

in

Class

XIII

attention

Occasionally the hair of the

to the treatment of the hair.

is

paid

women

is

sphendone (nos. 11, 12, 32, 34) but generally it is


knot which may stand out from the back or the
gathered
top of the head short hair is seen on nos. 18, 26, 27, 38, and on nos.
a

supported by

in a loose
;

15, 24, 25, 31 the hair hangs in long curls over the shoulders, forming
a background for the face on no. 31.
The only object commonly found in the field is a taenia of red or

blue or violet draped from the top of the scene (nos.


25, 28, 30, 44, 49, 50).
scenes, and a tree is found

Reeds

at the side are

6,

9-12, 17-19,

present in the

Charon

A wreath hangs in the


8 and 32.
on
no.
sakkos
6,
13, but the flying soul
Number 24 is peculiar in the number and variety of
does not occur.
utensils on or about the stele; a plant grows beside the stele on no.
field

on nos.

29, 42, and

on nos.

40, a goose (or duck) stands on the steps on no. 17 and a lekythos
on nos. I and 39. The lekythoi in the pro^hesis scenes (nos. 5, 6) have

been discussed above

The provenance

in

connection with these scenes.

known is as follows eight


four
more from the vicinity
from Eretria, thirteen from Athens, and
of Athens.
Some of the finest examples {e.g. nos. 9, 10) and some
of these vases, so

of the poorer examples were found

far as

in Eretria.

So

far as

data are at

is
nothing to indicate whether or not there was a local
manufacture of these vases in Eretria in addition to their manufacture

hand there
in

Athens

but there

was the case

in

is

not the same homogeneity in this class as


On the vases with two figures and

Class XIII.

occasionally on vases with three figures the drawing is hasty and at


times careless on the other hand many of the scenes with three figures,
especially the scenes drawn in fine lines, are drawn carefully with much
;

attention to detail.

The

faces nearly in front

view (nos.

9,

10,

15,

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

192

and the occasional

effort to give an individual expression


occur
the present class.
outside
The effort for
hardly
decorative effect in line and color is no less marked than in Class

24, 26, 28)

to the figures

XIII, with which this class seems to be contemporaneous. Even in


the more careful examples the drawing, vigorous and effective as it
often is, lacks the grace and refinement which was so characteristic
of Classes X and XI.

LATER LEKYTHOI (MAINLY SMALL) WITH SCENE


IN GRAY OUTLINE

CLASS XV:

The

present class consists of a series of lekythoi for the most

part about 0.30 m. in height, on which the scene is drawn in thinned


After three
black or gray, and red is frequently used for the hair.
larger

examples with scene

and red

in gray outline

for the hair, the

the rounded
according to the type of stele
tumulus on a base, the rather wide stele or column crowned by
spreading acanthus leaves, and the stele crowned by simple plinths
vases

are

classified

there remain

three examples which perhaps

the end

at

find

their

closest analogies here, though they do not correspond exactly with


These lekythoi are differentiated from
other vases in this class.

examples in Classes IX and XI, where gray is also used for outlines
and rarely red for the hair, by the character of the drawing and the
of solid

use

general they are


or slightly later.

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1834, Cv. 1842

1.

contemporaneous with

In

color.

XIII and XIV,

Classes

H. 0.40 m.

(Coll. 681).

Palmettes, not of the usual form, in dull green with alternate leaves red

maeander
and

in dull green.

The

scene

is

a tuft

in

Much

dull green are used for garments.

In the centre

drawn

is

gray with

unbroken

the hair

for

brown

damaged.

From

of high reeds.

brown

the

left

youth with brown shield and


From the right a second

Corinthian helmet pushed back presses forward into the reeds.


in

youth

dull green

chlamys and hanging petasos, with two spears

in

his

hand,

right

hastens to meet his opponent.

Munich

2.

2785.^

Neck high and mouth


brown

H.

also

two

at the sides

left a

man

bearded

back, and

in his

The

scene

is

drawn

in

black

thin

black and red are used for taeniae and details.

crowned with mouldings and three projections, of which


steps
At
show each half a palmette as if the stele were a round column.

on two

stele

black.

dull

varving toward violet-grav, the hair brick red

The

now

Palmettes in dull black with alternate leaves

large.

unbroken maeander

the

0,38 m.

is

leans forward

right

on

a crutch

under

his

hand he holds out toward the

left

shoulder, the

stele a

left

foot

the
the

drawn

red taenia and a bird

his

At the right a woman approaches the


himation leaves the right side of the body free.
stele and bends forward, holding out in both hands a flat basket from which hang red and
black taeniae
curly hair

is

her sleeveless chiton,

in a loose

girded,

low knot.
193

has stripes or fold-lines

now brown

the

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

194

Mannheim, Case

3.

H.

178.

m.

0.46

arch.

Jahr.

Inst.

(1890), A.A., 153.

red

Palmettes in dark green with alternate


High sloping shoulder and large neck.
unbroken maeander in greenish black.
The scene is drawn in the same

fading toward a violet


red.

Partly repainted

The

the

hair

curlv

barely outlined in black and

is

acanthus leaves and


(

.?

as

if in

approaches, carrying on her right hand

wreaths, and raising her


overfold, without color

stands a bearded

man

black,

with dark

filled in

(.'').

stele has four sets of

the front part of a creeping child


profile

leaves

hand

left

in

to

her hair projects in


profile, his

partial

At the

away from

her forehead
a

left

the stele a

woman

flat

is

in partial

basket with

two

she wears a chiton girded under an

large

right

block on which

the top a large

at

relief.

loose knot behind.

hand extended toward the

At the

right

stele.

The

red hair and himation and the black beard are apparently repainted.

Three

v^ases

about 0.40

outlines and red or


no.

brown

resembles that on no.

in

ni.

height have the characteristic gray


The scene on

hair of the present class.


8

of Class

XIV,

except that here both the

warriors are on foot and reeds or bushes intervene rather than a tree.

The

scene here also resembles that found on grave monuments, for


example the Archenautes stele in Athens. The vase is much damaged, but apparently the drawing is finer than is customary in Class
XV. Number 2 also is drawn with some care, and the two figures

The
profile form a rather striking composition.
with triple palmette, apparently on three sides of a column, was
noted on no. 3 (with acanthus leaves) and no. 22 of Class XIV;

bending forward

in

stele

while offerings are regularly brought to the stele by a woman, a bird,


the pet of the deceased, is occasionally brought by a man {e.g. Class
X, 2, nos. 20, 23 3, no. 8). The scene on no. 3 is interesting in spite
;

of repainting because of the figure of a creeping child {^.) on the upper


block of the stele; on nos. \i^ and 14 ot Class VI, i, figures are
represented on top of the

been represented
figures are

The

in

actually

apparently reproducing what might have


relief on the stele, and on no. 5 of Class V small
stele,

drawn

in

the

pediment of an

altar-like

four rows of acanthus leaves occur rarely in Classes

4.

Paris, Louvre,

MNB 623, Leo.

H.

114.

tomb.

XI and XIV.

0.25 m.

Pottier, L<?r.

blancs att., p. 149, no. 69.


The
Only traces ot the palmette remain on the shoulder simple maeander in black.
is drawn in dull black
red is used for the hair and blue tor a garment.
Drawing
;

scene

coarse.

The

high ovoid tumulus on one step

youth stands

in

profile,

wrapped

to the

is

neck

decorated with black taeniae.


in a

blue himation.

At the

Before him a

left

\pv)(rj

flies

CLASS XV, 3-9


toward

At the

head, with gesture of lamentation.

his

her right hand toward the tumulus, and carrying a

Dresden, Alb.

5.

Mouth
leaf

The

missing.

ornament

195
right a

stands holding out

arm.

left

H. of fragment 0.185 ^^

Laurion.

Z. V. 2040.

woman

basket on her

flat

palmettes have disappeared and the maeander

The

in dull black.

scene

is

drawn

in dull black,

is

with red

replaced by a

for the hair

and

taeniae.

At the

right

is

tumulus on

a high

The

At

At

the

left

on an irregular mound, and extends his

H.

Peiraeus.
maeander

coarse palmettes and careful complicated

0.22 m.
thin greenish gray.

are in

same

color, with deep red for the hair and for taeniae.
painted
At the right is an ovoid tumulus on two steps, decorated with red and gray taeniae.

scene

the

in the

is

stands a

left

pomegranate

woman, bending forward and holding

out a

Ornament
the hair

The

missing.

scene

red with green stripes

The

high ovoid tumulus

is

basket with taeniae and

is

is

drawn

H. 0.195 m.

Eretria.

in coarse gray lines

with

a reddish

wash

for

used for a garment, and blue for taeniae.

decorated with blue taeniae.

in a large red mantle, his right

face

flat

she wears a sleeveless himation decorated with gray stripes.

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1976, Cv. 1746.

7.

6)1

rests

Athens, Private Collection,

6.

The

decorated with red taeniae.

step,

nude boy leans forward on his left arm which


relaxed right hand toward the tumulus.

hand

Before

it

stands a youth

raised to his forehead.

On

four small lekythoi with gray outlines and red for the hair a
tumulus draped with taeniae takes the place of any other
ovoid
high
grave monument (cf. no. 18 of Class XII and many examples of

VII and VIII).

Classes

On

nos.

4 and 7 blue

used

is

in addition to

red and dull green, as not infrequently in Class XIII,


The closely draped
6 stripes decorate a garment.
figure of the youth on no. 4, before whom flies a small soul, may
Numbers 6 and 7 are
represent the dead person as in earlier classes.

usual

the

and on

no.

quite small examples with only one figure, a mourner at the grave;
and on the fragment no. 5 onlv one figure is visible.

Dresden, Alb. Z.V. 2037.

8.

Palmettes in thin black with alternate leaves red

drawn

are also

On
ephebos

two

steps

with bright red for

right a

chiton

is

woman

with head bowed,

0.29 m.

the simple

details.

stands a high tumulus and a stele

in partial profile stands

At the

9.

in thin black,

H.

Laurion.

maeander and the scene

Nearly erased.
with round top.

At

the

left

an

hand holding two spears erect.


her
flat basket on her left arm

his left

in partial profile stands carrving a

barelv visible.

H.

Athens, Nat. Mus. 2001, Cv. 1731.

Lee. blancs

m.

Pettier,

att.^ p.

Palmettes hastily
dull green.

142, no. 24.


drawn in dull green with

0.25

The

scene

is

drawn

in coarse

gray

alternate leaves red


lines

red

is

used tor

simple maeander

garment and

in

details.

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

196
At

the extreme right

woman

with

Behind her and

toward

his

high ovoid tumulus or

is

basket of taeniae on her

flat

the

at

Palmettes careless,

decorated with red taeniae.

with her right hand.


a red mantle extends his right hand
stele

The

brown with

scene

drawn

is

in the

same color

The

grave

mound on two

in

sits

in a
is

steps

to the

draped

profile,

alternate leaves in thin black

dark red

H. 0.298 m.

(2122),

with hair

maeander

the simple

brownish black shading in places toward


used for a garment and for taeniae.
himation

in a red

his

head

is

violet,

At the

decorated with four large taeniae.

is

neck

slightly

is

left a

bowed.

woman

the right a

on her

taeniae

stele

decking the

is

of the scene a youth in

left

Munich, 209 d

also in black.

At

arm

companion.

10.

youth

left

left

en face approaches, steadying with her right hand the flat basket of
arm ; her garment has disappeared ; the hair is gathered in a loose pro-

On

jecting knot behind.

either side of the

tumulus

is

\\iv^']

flying

toward

it

with ges-

ture of lamentation.

The same tumulus


is

round top

a stele with

17, 18

in the color

On

of the outlines.

tumulus

in addition to the

Number

Class V, no. 28).

one

at

is

found on three more vases with gray out-

is

Hnes but with the hair

is

(cf.

no. 8 there

Class VII,

peculiar in that the

i,

nos.

tumulus

and the two figures are approaching it from the same


On no. 10 as on no. 4 a youth, here seated, is draped to
Doubtless
his mantle and accompanied by flying souls.

side,

direction.

the neck in

he represents the dead person, and it is possible that the youth with
spears on no. 8 might be understood in the same way.
11.

Frohner,

On

Mus. Cinq. A

Brussels,
Collection

H. 0.30 m.

904.

Plate

XXXI,

3.

van Branteghem, 187.

the shoulder one broad palmette and a series of scrolls in dull violet-black

the

broken by dotted oblique crosses, but does not reverse.


The
brick red is used for hair and a garment (rescene is drawn in fine lines now black
painted ?), vermilion for taeniae, and violet wash for taenia and details.

maeander

in the

same color

is

The
is

stele

on two steps

decorated with taeniae, and crowned with abacus (on which

is

maeander) and high palmette between acanthus leaves edged with


youth stands en face, his right hand extended away from the stele
a

erect, his left

At the

hand on

right stands a

his hip

woman

under the garment


en face, a

flat

violet.
as

if

At

the left

holding a

staff

he wears an himation with violet edge.


basket with red taeniae on her left arm away
;

She
stele, and her relaxed right hand extended toward the top of the stele.
brick-red sleeveless chiton with overfold, the lower edge of both left white
a cloth

from the
wears

covers her hair except for curls about the face and a protruding bunch of curls behind.

12.

New York, Metrop. Mus. 07.1.

Careless palmettes in red


less.

and

The
details,

The

scene

is

hastily

H. 0.276 m.

Plate

the maeander, broken by the stele top,

drawn

in black

with hair

in brick-red

black

is

is

XXXI,

i.

small and care-

used for a garment

red for details.

broad

stele

on one step

is

decorated with taeniae and crowned with acanthus

CLASS XV, 10-15


and

leaves

on

a black ovoid object

At the

"altar."

seen an

bowed, holding out


with overfold

a taenia

her hair

woman

young

At the

behind

in partial

right a

woman

it

profile

She wears

her right hand.

in

short.

is

thin double plinth

left

197

on both

sides

approaches,

sleeveless

may

be

her head

chiton,

girded,

her right hand

stands en face,

extended over the top of the stele with the taenia she holds in both hands
her sleeveless
is thin black with red fold-lines
chiton
her
hair
is
in
a
low
small
knot.
girded
curly
;

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1777, Cv. 1815.

13.

Palmettes

maeander

wash

in

for the hair

The
is

The

red

used for

At

woman

hand

right

garment and

toward the

slightly

details.

crowned with acanthus

is

sloping shoulder

High

flat

stele,

in

palm

dull green

The

is

H.

broad

stele

is

is

crowned with acanthus

a seated

is

woman

in

H.

Mus. Arch.

her

raising

0.41 m.

The

o.

At

leaves.

At

scene

drawn

is

in gray lines;

Scene nearly effaced.

red.

dull green

ported in a high knot by a wide sphendone.

15. Florence,

At the

mantle.

arm and

left

Palmettes with long leaves in dull green with

in dull green.

used for a garment, and the hair

the right

and decorated with

a red

her garment has disappeared.

and high neck.

unbroken maeander

leaves

youth draped to the neck in


basket with red taeniae on her
a

left is

carrying a

alternate leaves red

at

the

drawn

is

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1841, Cv. 1836.

14.

while

is

0.25 m.

with alternate leaves bright red ; simple


in coarse gray lines, with a red-brown

green

scene

apparently a column,

stele,

in dull

green.

dark red taeniae.


right

drawn

coarsely

dull

H.

mantle

the

left is

a standing

woman,

the hair of the latter

is

sup-

the extreme right reeds are growing.

16 m.

Heydemann,

Z)r///^j- //<2//.

Winck. progr. \\\^^A^.


Dull green palmettes with alternate leaves red
are also

drawn

in thin dull green

the hair

is

the simple

red, and dark red

is

maeander and the scene


also

used for garment and

details.

The broad stele


woman approaches
;

shoulders.

At the

on two steps is crowned with acanthus leaves.


she wears a red chiton, and her short hair

right a

woman

At
falls

the
in

left

young

curls to

her

stands, decking the stele with a red taenia (green ends)

her (sleeveless) chiton has disappeared.

The

use of black orgray outlines with red for the hair occurs on
the stele is crowned with

the five vases just described, and here

acanthus ornament.

No.

is
decidedly unusual in the fine even black
of
the drawing
the combination which
preciseness
crowns the stele, and the type of basket which the woman carries are

lines

1 1

and the

also unusual.

to avoid

the impression that the vase


has been more or less repainted, keeping the original pose of the
On no. 12, as on nos. 4243 of
figures but modifying some details.
"
Class XIV a rectangular tomb or " altar
is seen behind the stele
It

is

difficult

and projecting on both sides; the use of red fold-lines or stripes on


a garment in thin black is not common.
The same ordinary work-

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

198

no. 14, and on nos. 13


manship is to be found on the large lekythos
extreme
and 15. The reeds or bushes at the
right on no. 14 were
noted on no. 66 of Class XIII, as well as in Charon scenes where
they first appear and in a battle scene on no. i of the present class.

with alternate leaves red

Palmettes in dull green

The

scene

The
the

H.

Athens, Nat. Mus. 2039, Cv. 1831.

16.

drawn

is

broad

stele

woman

left a

At

appeared.

toward the

in coarse
is

lines

red

is

simple maeander in dull green.

used for

garment.
gray
decorated with red taeniae and crowned with acanthus leaves.

en face

brings a basket of taeniae

on her

left

hand

palm

stele,

At

her garment has dis-

hand

the right a youth in deep red himation stands raising his right

slightly

in.

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1774, Cv. 1821

17.

0.31 m.

H. 0.25 m.

(Coll. 664).

Palmettes coarsely drawn in dull green with alternate leaves red ; simple maeander in
The scene is drawn in coarse gray lines red is used for garment and details,

dull green.

and green

stripes for

garments.

The stele, apparently a column, is crowned with acanthus leaves and decorated with
At the left a youth raises his hand slightly toward the stele,
red taeniae (green ends).
At the right a woman brings a
a dark red mantle with green stripes.
he
wears
in
;
palm
flat

large

basket of red taeniae

she wears a chiton with green stripes.

H.

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1776, Cv. 1794.

18.

0.25 m.

Palmettes coarsely drawn in dull green with alternate leaves red


simple maeander in
The scene is drawn in coarse gray lines red is used for garment and details,
;

dull green.

and green

The

a
stripes for
stele,

garment.

apparently a column,

At the

red taeniae (green ends).


the right a

green

woman

brings a large

is

crowned with acanthus

leaves

and decorated with

At
youth draped to the neck in a red mantle.
she wears a chiton with
basket of red taeniae

left is a
flat

stripes.

The
maeander

H.

Athens, Nat. Mus. 2003, Cv. 1715.

19.

drawn

palmettes are coarsely

The

in dull green.

Traces of white

garment.

scene

lines

is

dull green

in

drawn

in

0.25 m.

with alternate leaves red

coarse gray lines, and red

is

;
simple
used for a

of preliminary sketch (?).

on two steps is decorated with taeniae and crowned by carelessly drawn


At the left is a woman
behind it is a high rounded tumulus.
spreading acanthus leaves
bringing a flat basket, and at the right a man en face in a long red himation.

The

broad

stele

Palmettes

The

scene

The

is

in

dull green

drawn

in coarse

very slender

stele

with alternate leaves red


grav lines

on two steps

yellowish red
is

holds out both hands toward the stele

woman

nearly effaced brings a

flat

0.25 m.

simple maeander

is

in

dull

green.

used for a garment.

decorated with red taeniae and crowned with

spreading acanthus leaves above a decorated moulding.

H.

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1870, Cv. 1801.

20.

she wears

At

the

left

woman

yellowish sleeve chiton.

basket of offerings.

in profile

At the

right

CLASS XV,

An

16-23

199

acanthus stele like that on nos. 11 15

but the hair


of the

is

same gray

in the

as the

found on nos. 16-20,

is

The drawing

outline.

is still

but ordinary character found on the vases pre17 and 18, with dull green stripes on red

fairly careful

Numbers

viously described.

The tumulus
garment, may have been made together as a pair.
behind a stele (no. 19) has occurred frequently in earlier classes beginning with Class V, but this is the first instance where it is comfor a

bined with an acanthus

stele.

Number 20 is

yellow for a garment, and


is like that on other vases of this

peculiar in the use of a thin


the drawing, however,

in its slender stele;

similar scene are

found on no. 29

drawing and a
(Plate xviii) of the BurSimilar

class.

in case

and perhaps no. 30 in the same


lington Club Exhibition in 1 903-1 904
from
the
Earl
of
also
case,
Elgin collection, belongs with this series.
;

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1854.

21.

sloping slioulder and high neck.

High

Small palmettes

through the solid red.


The broad stele is crowned bv simple mouldings.
a bright red

wearing

toward the

slightly

mantle

stele,

palm

in

green with alternate

dull

The scene is drawn in gray lines,


The sketch in outline color shows

simple unbroken maeander in dull green.


with red for the hair ; red is also used for a garment.

leaves red

At the

woman

left a

approaches,

the right a youth stands in profile, raising his right hand

at

in

for

except

his

arm he

right

is

closelv draped in a red

mantle.

red

22.

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1855, Cv. 1834.

High

sloping shoulder and high neck.

unbroken maeander

the hair

The
figure,

scene

red and dull green are used for garments.

broad

and

On

Palmettes in dull green with alternate leaves

The

in dull green.

at

stele

is

crowned by

the right a

woman

H. 0.32 m.

a black

is

drawn

gray lines, with red for

in

Scene nearly effaced.

At

moulding.

the

left

are traces of a seated

stands en face, wnth dull green chiton and red mantle.

is drawn in
gray outlines with red for
crowned by simple mouldings as on nos. 37-54
On no. 21 the outlines of the figure show through
of Class XIII.
the bright red applied for the woman's mantle
ordinarily no

22 the scene

nos. 21,

the hair, but the stele

is

preliminary sketch was used in these later lekythoi, but it was not
unusual to sketch the entire figure and later to apply color for the

garments.
23.

Paris, Louvre,

CA

1745.

H. 0.325 m.

Shoulder ornament and maeander have disappeared.


fine lines

The

now brown

for

garments and

slender stele on three steps

details a thick
is

at a flat

scene

green and

At

rudely drawn in

is

a thick violet are used.

decorated with green and

crowned by egg moulding and high acanthus ornament.


approaches but looks back

The

the

left

violet
a

taeniae,

woman

and

en face

basket of green and violet taeniae on her right hand

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

200
avvav from the stele

behind her head so


holding up

she wears a chiton in outline and a green mantle

as to leave

in his right

her face in

At the

relief.

right

hand an aryballos suspended from cords

which

he wears

is

drawn up

youth stands en fuce,


a

long himation,

green with violet edge.

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1771, Cv. 1780.

24.

Coarse palmettes in dull green with alternate leaves red


The scene is drawn in fine lines of violet gray

dull green.

The
palmette
left

The

is

also in

used for a

is

crowned by moulding and anthemion,

in

which

the leaves of the

his

In the

right

field

is

hand toward the

draped

he wears

stele

dark green mantle with

a large red taenia.

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1812, Cv. 1812.

25.

maeander,

greenish black

At the
about the shaft is a red taenia.
surrounded by a gray line
At the right stands
with bowed head brings a flat basket of red taeniae.

red

youth extending

red edge.

0.29 m.

for details.

slender stele
are

woman

careless

garment and dark red

H.

Athens.

H.

Tanagra.

0.35 m.

only traces remain


edge of the shoulder is rounded and no palmettes remain
The scene is drawn in fine violet lines red and violet are used for details.
;

of the maeander.

In the centre

is

it is
column crowned by egg moulding and a capital with volutes
At the left stands a woman with flat basket of red
;

decorated with red and violet taeniae.


taeniae

hand

right

arm and

At the

right a

on her

a mirror in her right

hand

her chiton

is

ornamented with

youth with spear in his left hand holds out a taenia in his right
he wears a conical cap with flap covering the back of his neck and a corselet over

red stripes.

a short striped chiton.

The

show the marked characteristics of


the present class, but this seems the most convenient place to include
Number 23 is carelessly drawn in fine brown lines; the shape
them.
of the acanthus ornament on the stele is unusual
it is not
customary
last

three vases do not

for the

woman

a basket

bringing
look back at

from the

stele to

found on

later lekythoi.

it,

of offerings to turn her head away


and the arvballos is almost never

Apparently, the youth carrying the aryballos, and wearing the mantle with an unusual combination of colors, is
the figure of a dead person represented as on his way to the palaestra.

The

mantle of the

her face

is

woman

also unusual,

held up so as to form a background for


though the same effect has occasionally been

produced by using the woman's hair as a background {e-g- Class XII,


On no. 24 the scene is drawn in fine
no. 7; Class XIII, no. 5).
lines

tive

of violet-grav, a taenia is draped in the field as in more decoraexamples of Classes XIII and XIV, and the treatment of the

Numpalmette ornament and the taenia on the stele shaft is unusual.


ber 25 was found at Tanagra, and is so different in style from Athenian
The ornament
lekythoi that it may possibly be of local manufacture.
on the shoulder

is

missing

the scene

is

drawn

in fine violet lines

CONCLUSION OF CLASS XV
an Ionic column takes the place of a
offerings has a mirror in her other hand
cap

is

bringing the taenia which

is

stele

the

201

woman

bringing

and the youth with peculiar


usually in the hands of a woman.
;

Conclusion of Class

XV

The

lekythoi of the present class, with three or four exceptions,


m. in height and rather slender in shape. The
shoulder palmettes are in dull green with alternate leaves red, and
are about 0.30

unbroken maeander is in dull green, except that this ornament


is no
longer to be found on nos. 7 and 25, and on no. 5 a leaf ornament takes the place of the palmette. On nos. 11, 23-25 the scene
is drawn in fine lines, and on nos.
23-25 in colors differing from the
the

With these exceptions the scene is drawn in coarse


class.
of thin black or gray, and on nos. 1-7, 11-15, 21-22 the hair
done with a brown or red color. A red or dull green wash over
of the

rest

lines
is

few strokes of outline color was used for the hair

in isolated
examples
drawn with the usual brush in
red strokes.
Solid red for a garment is found on about half the
lekythoi here; thin gray-green is used in this way only on nos. 1,12,
Red or green stripes are found on nos. 2, 6, 12, 17, 18,
22, 24.
and 25, the red applied on thin black on no. 12, and the gray-green on
thin red on no. 17.
The borders of garments also are occasionally

of earlier

classes,

but here the hair

is

reserved white, or in a different color


violet

appear only sporadically


no. 20, blue on nos. 4 and
;

The

on

scene

no.

no.

{e.g.

wash on no.

23).

Other colors

1, a reddish

yellow on

and thick green on no. 23.


two
warriors
represents
fighting, a scene
7, thick violet

which occurs rarely in several earlier classes. With this exception


the scene on these vases represents one or two figures at the grave.

On

nos.

4-10 an ovoid tumulus on one or two

of any other

monument;

V-VIII, and occurred

also in Classes

On

nos.

11-19

leaves as in Class

acanthus stele

is

a fairly

broad

stele

is

found on nos. 20 and 23.

it is

adorned

accompanied by a
crowned by acanthus

it

XIII and more commonly

also

Here

and XII.

with large taeniae and twice (nos. 8 and 19)


stele.

steps takes the place


in Classes

uncommon

the tumulus was not

is

in

Class

XIV;

the

The "altar" behind

the stele on no. 12 has been discussed under Classes

XIII and XIV;

the stele with thin plinths for the top (nos. 21, 22) has also been
discussed under Class XIII, where it is typical.
The peculiar pal-

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

202

mette ornament on no. 24 and the volute capital on the


25 have no close analogies.

pillar

of no.

On

three small examples (nos. 5-7) there was apparently but one
The two figures on nos. 12, 14, 15, 20
the tumulus.
figure beside
are both women bringing offerings; on the other examples one finds
a

bringing offerings, and a man who may be merely a spectator


mourner or sometimes perhaps the figure of the dead person.

woman

or a

with earlier scenes the youth draped to the neck (nos. 4,


10, 13, 18) might represent the dead person, and so perhaps might
the immobile figure with spears on no. 8 and the youth with ary-

By analogy

however, the traditional character of these figures


seems to govern their appearance in this class, and perhaps it is unOf the gestures, the
wise to attach any definite meaning to them.
ballos

on no. 23

hand raised slightly, palm in, a gesture common in Class XIII,


the hand is raised to the head as if in
occurs on nos. 13, 16, 17, 21
more commonly the right hand is extended
lamentation on nos. 3, 7
right

arrange the taeniae or perhaps merely to


touch the stele (nos. 3, 4, 5, 9, 11, 12, 24, cf nos. 15, 20), and this

toward the

gesture

As
and

is

stele

if to

as

found both

for

men and women.

the figures repeat traditional types, so the garments of men


are practically the same as in Classes XIII and XIV,

women

namely a sleeveless chiton sometimes with overfold for women, over


which an himation may be worn, and an himation (rather than a chlamys)
The one difference of garments between this class and the
for men.
two preceding classes is the absence of scarf-like draperies which
there were added for decorative effect, and the simpler drawing of the
garments that are emploved here. The hair of the women is some-

more commonly it is in a loose knot projecting from


the head, and in one case (no. 14) supported by a sphendone.
With two or three exceptions a woman brings the usual flat basket

times short

of offerings to the grave.

On

nos. 12

and 15 she

carries in her

hands

only a large taenia to attach to the grave monument, and on no. 25


The youth with aryballos
she brings a mirror as well as a flat basket.
(no. 23) does

not occur elsewhere on these

no. ^2^ youth with

strigil),

but the

lekythoi

man holding

(cf.

Class V,

out a bird has been

noted occasionally in earlier classes.


Objects in the field are relatively
few; a flying soul occurs on nos. 4 and 10, a large taenia draped in
the field on no. 24, and a bunch of reeds or a bush occurs on no. 14
as well as

Of

on no.

the

i.

lekvthoi

whose provenance

is

known, one comes from

CONCLUSION OF CLASS XV
Eretria,

203

and one from Tanagra, the others from Athens or Attica.

The one from Tanagra

is

so unusual in details of the scene as well as

whether or not it was made in Athens,


but this question does not arise about the others.
In general the
decorative effect noted in Classes XIII and XIV and the fine touch
in color as to raise the question

which often went with rather hasty drawing are not characteristic of
this class.
Rather, the drawing is somewhat carefully done in coarse
tends to be heavy, the grace of Greek work is not
Probably these vases were made toward the end
altogether lacking.
of the fifth century or early in the fourth century B.C. and practically
lines

at

but while

the

ateliers.

it

same time

as the

two preceding

classes,

though

in different

CLASS XVI

VERY LARGE LEKYTHOI ENTIRELY OR NEARLY COVSLIP; ELABORATE POLYCHROME DECORA-

ERED WITH WHITE


TION

There remain a few lekythoi distinctly different in type from those


which have been discussed up to this point, and yet continuing in a
measure the traditions which were developed, especially in Class XIV.
They

are over 0.60

m.

and the

in height,

characteristic

The

entirely covered with a rather coarse white slip.

from that on other white lekythoi

together different

men

examples are

decoration

is al-

on most examples

reddish brown with shading in a


while
the flesh of women is white
same
of
the
tone
darker
color,
and color is used with more freedom than on any but a very few of
the flesh of

painted a thin

is

the examples thus far discussed.

It

seems probable that these vases

grave monuments, or in connection with grave monuments, taking the place of marble lekythoi with carved or painted
As several of them have been adequately published, and as
scenes.
are
so
different from the white lekythoi to which this volume
they

were used

as

has been devoted, I shall discuss little else than the lines of tradition
which connect them with the vases previously treated.

The

shoulder

blank except for the palmette on top of the


The scene is drawn

is

enclose space for the maeander are missing.

brown varying
and

tails,

to orange.

traces of reddish

The wide

H.

Alopeke near Athens.

Berlin, Furtw. 2683.

I.

stele,

in fine

0.75 m.
and the

lines to

lines ot reddish

Brown, blue, violet, and green are used for garments and
brown wash indicate in places the modelling of flesh parts.

de-

by an outline palmette with high double


small
with
brown,
palmette ornaments below, and on the
shoulder a reserved white palmette on blue ground with traces of added scrolls ; on the
Before the stele sits a youthful figure facing the
steps are several blue (violet) taeniae.
stele

right,

decorated

is

with a face nearly

and eyelashes

are

in front

drawn

the hair

is

view, the

drawn with

is

left

hand

fine

blue
single

toward the chin.

raised

About the neck

in detail.

over the knees and underneath


leaves;

the top

at

violet acanthus leaves

scrolls in

is

mande, and
At
strokes.

across

the

en face, his right hand upon a stafi^away from the stele, his

mantle

is

about his waist and over his

the brush.

At the

blue stripes.

arm

the hair

In the

his short

field

chiton

is

ornamented

on each side of the

stele

204

is

pupils

is

the lap a spray of green

left

left

bearded

hand on

drawn

man

his hip.

stands

blue

in fine single strokes

right beside a prancing horse stands a bearded

hand

erect in his left

left

The

the line of a chiton or necklace,

man with two

of

spears

top and bottom with green and


draped a dark violet taenia.
at

CLASS XVI,

1-2

205

This lekythos, which Furtwangler classifies as transitional to nos.


1 and 3, has no longer the traditional palmettes on the shoulder, nor
the maeander above the scene

up

the elaborate top of the stele, which runs


on to the shoulder, in a measure takes the place of the usual shoulder
;

The double palmettes on the stele and the little anthemia


palmettes.
under the acanthus leaves are anticipated by such a decoration as the
stele has on Class XIV, no. 3 (Berlin 2680) where the same blue is

XIV

On another vase of Class


(no. 24, Brit. Mus.
71)
the figure seated before the stele is drawn with the face nearly in front
view, and the pupils of the eyes and the eyelashes are indicated with
The hand raised to the chin may have held
the same detail as here.

found.

it
the mantle as on no. 37 of Class XIV
may be the gesture of
adoration noted frequently in Classes XIII and XIV.
horse is
;

found beside the grave stele on only two lekythoi previously discussed,
here it is the steed of the
namely, on nos. 36 and 54 of Class XIII
;

warrior standing beside it, or perhaps of the dead youth who is seen
sitting on the steps of the stele, and its presence may be explained by
the effort to produce a scene more elaborate than the ordinary traditional
As a whole the scene represents the dead person with friends
type.

or

members of

his

family

it

the typical scene of marble grave

is

The
stelae, which was noted frequently on lekythoi of Class XI.
striking feature of this vase is the use of a thin brown wash on the
horse and on the standing man at the left to indicate shadows and
On two or three earlier vases (Class VI, i,
bring out the modelling.

Mus.

no. 2, Brit.

58

Appendix, Class VI, 2, no. 14 a,


used for the flesh of one of the

07.286.42) solid color is


this vase seems to be the

made

New

York,
but

figures,

example on which the attempt

earliest

is

to define shadows.

2.

Furtw.

Berlin,

Alopeke near Athens.

2684.

Winter, Berliner IVinckelmannsprogramm, 1895, Taf.


The

entire vase

is

covered bv a somewhat coarse white

are traces of violet leaves,

The

leaves.

scene

is

on the neck are

drawn

in

flat

slip.

H.

i.

On

the large

and on the shoulder narrow

violet stripes,

masses of color, with

details

m.

0.68

mouth
violet

of the figures and most

of the outlines of the figures defined by fine lines of red


the flesh of the men is painted
light reddish brown with shadows indicated by a wash and in places by fine lines of
;

darker

brown

shading.

Dark

garments and

women

violet, blue, green,

is

white with

and gray,

details

as well as

in

red-brown but without

two shades of brown,

are used for

details.

Prothesis.
right.

the flesh of the

On

The couch

high couch

rests

lies

the

on blocks drawn

bodv of
in

youth, his head on a pillow

perspective, of

which only the one

at the
at

the

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

2o6
right remains

it

painted dark violet with white rosettes, and over

is

row of green

decorated with a

is

it

laid a

white robe

The

leaves and apparently with a dark green border.

bodv of the youth is wrapped to the neck in a mantle reserved white with a few fold lines
Beneath the couch is a lekythos, above it a dark green taenia draped in
in light brown.
At the left, at the foot of the
the field, and a pale brown ij/v^-q with arms extended.

woman

couch, a
right

hand

darker

a pale

brown

stands nearly e face with arms extended in opposite directions, on her

brown

flat

fold lines,

basket

she wears a sleeveless chiton girded, light

and her hair

is

Behind the couch

short.

brown with

woman

second

in

both hands, as though to caress the dead man's head ;


profile bends forward, extending
she wears a light green sleeve chiton and a light brown himation, both with darker

brown

man
the

and her curly hair is gathered in


on a staff under his

fold lines,

profile leans forward

in

head of the dead man and

a dark violet

his

right

mantle with blue border, and

hand

knot.

At

the right a bearded

armpit,

his

left

a flat
left

raised behind

his hair

his

own

hand touching
head; he wears

The

and thin beard are gray.

model-

Above the scene is a narrow violet line,


ling of the flesh parts is carefully indicated.
and below it a broad band of light brown indicates the ground on which the figures are
standing.

The

entire absence of black glaze on the vase just described, and


of
a white slip to cover its whole surface, including handle and
the use
neck, mark the final break with the traditional ornament on white

lekvthoi.

The

decoration of shoulder, neck, and

mouth with

violet

leaves has no prototype on pottery vases, and its source must be


Further, the method of drawing is entirely difsought elsewhere.

seems to have applied his color in flat masses,


Such a
of eye and hair.
the changed position of the left hand of the central

ferent, in that the artist

adding

later the outlines as well as details

correction as
figure

makes

method of procedure.

clear this

While the type of face

bears only a general resemblance to that in earlier classes, the scene


one that has been found in Classes VI, IX, XI, XIII, and XIV,

is

and the gestures

as

well

as

the type of scene remain unchanged.

Even

the lekythos below the couch occurred on no. 5 of Class


and the taenia draped in the field on no. 6 of the same class.
flying soul, rarely

usual in Class

IX

found

after Class

XI,

is

rather than in later classes.

found here

in

XIV,
The

the form

Although the persons

by the bier are usually all women, one of them is a man on Class IX,
One
I, no. 12, XI, 2, no. I, and Appendix, Class VI, i, no. 16 b.

women brings
on Class XIV, no. 5

of the

basket on Class XIII, no. 8, and a casket


the flat basket is no doubt carried over from

a flat
;

scenes at the grave, though it might equallv well be used to bring


The real difference
taeniae, lekythoi, etc. for use at the prothesis.

between

this

and

earlier

examples of the same scene

characterization of the different figures.

lies

in

the

While the group of women

CLASS XVI,

207

2-3

usually found in Class IX might almost be hired mourners, we see


here the father and mother of the dead youth bending over his head
and a servant bringing the basket of objects to deck the bier. Indeed,

the face of the father has an individuality of expression rarely found


on Greek vases and gray beard and hair have been noted but once
on white lekythoi (Class IX, 2, no. 2).
The problems which this lekythos raises have been discussed by
Winter in the publication indicated above. The most interesting
;

point is the use of both a darker wash and shading lines to bring out
On a vase which presumably bethe modelling of the man's form.

century B.C., this treatment of the


shadows is a most significant fact for our knowledge of the development of Greek painting. In Class IV, a white enamel paint had
been used for the flesh of women recurring to this old method, the
longs to

the end of the

painter of

this vase did

fifth

The

not combine with

it

carelessness as to structure of the left

any attempt

arm of

at modelling.

woman

the

at the

and the right arm of the woman in the centre, as well as the
awkwardness of the hands of the women, marks the limitation of
left

the painter, who, in spite of his ambitious attempt, was only making a
"
Still, the composition of the scene and
lekythos for the dead."
the fine figure of the old man leave the clear impression that he was
following the models of the great painters of his age.
Berlin, Furtw.

3.

The

entire vase

is

covered with a coarse white

^^'^9S->

^^

The

large

slip.

of violet leaves, and on the neck are traces of color

wreath of leaves

now

outlines in reddish

and

used for the

is

is

drawn

is

details.

applied white, violet,

mouth shows

with

applied for the flesh

Blue with details

and brown are

traces

decorated with a

is

in flat masses of color

of the same

used for shading and

stele

the shoulder

0.69 m.

and

details

of the men,

in

and

violet

used for garments

also

Partially restored.

details.

The

is

scene

a thicker coat

brown;

and darker red-brown

brown

The

violet.

H.

Alopeke near Athens.

2685.

Winter, Berliner tVinckehnannsprogramm,

stele in blue is crowned by a high double top with blue palmette on


between spreading violet acanthus leaves.
Before it a youth in partial
on a low tumulus with dark taeniae, his right hand on his knee he

low, broad

a dark violet ground,


profile to left

sits

wears an himation loosely hanging from the shoulder, painted white with red-brown
At the left a youth leans forward on the stick which holds his mantle under the
details.
left

shoulder, and extends his right hand (palm

seated figure

the mantle, like the flesh color,

is

down)

as

brown with

if in

conversation with the

reddish

brown

the right a youth stands in partial profile with arms hanging at his side

ion leaves his right shoulder free.

shading

in

darker red-brown.

The

flesh parts

details.

At

the white himat-

of each figure are painted

brown with

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

2o8

In the use of the white slip and the decoration, no. 3 follows the
same type as no. 2, and may well be from the same hand. Here also

drawn

masses ot color, with caretul shading to


bring out the modelling of the men's figures, and contour lines are
The stele
sparingly added to define the outlines of the faces, etc.
the scene

with

and

its
is

is

in

flat

high double top bears a general resemblance to that on no. i,


understood as an effort to make a more imposing mon-

to be

ument than had been customary on

The

thoi.

scene, like that

on no.

the earlier and simpler white lekythe


i, consists of three men

dead youth and two companions of

and there are no per-

his lifetime,

In this respect as well as in its large style,


sons bringing offerings.
the vase resembles the large marble lekythoi used as grave monuments.

The

XII (1905), 43

f.,

0.95 m.

Monuments

grecs^

Fonda-

pi. V.

reproduction indicates that the edge of the thick foot and the large bell-shaped

mouth

are covered with black glaze

have

chalky white

H.

Madrid, Mus. Arqu.

4.

tion Piot,

above the scene


fine lines of

is

On

slip.

The

omitted.

brown-red

the shoulder, neck, and handle, as well as the body,

the shoulder are palmettes in dark

scene

a dull reddish
;

is

drawn

in flat color

brown, but the maeander

with the details and outlines in

brown with hatched shadows

is

used for the flesh

dark violet, dark green, blue, applied white with red details, dull yellow and brown, are
used for garments and details.

The ground
is

beneath the figures

apparently a round

is

indicated by a broad

band of yellow.

The

stele

colored blue, crowned by a decorated moulding and a compli-

pillar

cated anthemion with palmette leaves in green on dark violet, on each side of which

narrow acanthus

leaf

with suggestions ot green

youth sits facing the left, his


hand on his knees ; he wears

left

elbow

resting

detail

on dark

on the back of

violet.

Before the

his chair (?),

and

is

stele

his right

a white himation with dark green border and fine red fold lines.
he
youth leans forward on his staff, his left foot drawn back
At
wears an himation, apparently once dark violet, which covers the back of his head.

Before him,

at

the extreme

left

brown

the

left,

are the knees of a seated figure,

At the

fold lines.

ion once violet (?)

right another

covered bv a dull yellow garment with


himatpartial profile, wearing an

youth stands in

only the head and shoulders remain.

The

three youths are beard-

less.

In general style no. 4 closely resembles nos. 2 and 3, and the


with its richly decorated, complicated top is of the same type as

stele

that

on no,

3.

The same broad band

of yellow-brown as that on

no. 2 indicates the ground.


There is no decoration above the scene,
but on the shoulder are palmettes not unlike the usual palmettes on
earlier lekythoi.

on no.

3,

leaning on a

At

a seated
staff,

first

sight the scene seems to repeat that found

youth with two standing youths, one of them


the color scheme is richer and more

though here

CLASS XVI,
and one

elaborate,

The

ot the

3-5

youths has

his

209

mantle drawn up over

his

seated person at the extreme left, however,


unfortunately only the knees remain
give a different aspect to it
and the significance of the figure cannot be made out, except that it

head.

knees of

gives an unusual balance to the scene, which anticipates the more


The attitudes,
complicated effect of the two vases that follow.

and garments of the

gestures,

figures,

even to the garment drawn up

over the back of the head, repeat types that are not unfamiliar on
In the publication by Collignon the central
earlier white lekythoi.
stele is interpreted as an acanthus leaf seen
the
of
the
of
top
part
while the acanthus leaves at the sides are seen in side

in front view,

know

the vase only from the publication, and the plate


The band of ornament at the
hardly seems to confirm this view.
in this form more than once in Class XIV,
occurred
of
stele
the
top

view

and there

also the curvature

seems to signify

drawn in
what sort of

round

pillar

It is not clear
perspective (cf. Class XIV, nos. 49, 50).
no trace of it is visible, but the position
a seat the seated figure has
of the left arm can only be understood if the elbow rests on some
;

support like the back of a chair. The figures that remain, as on nos.
I
and 3, represent the dead person and his associates, without the
addition of

XII

The

bringing offerings.

CA

Louvre,

5.

Pioty

women

(1905), 31

foot

is

thick,

H.

273.
f.,

0.96 m.

Monuments

Fondation

grecs^

pis. iii-iv.

and the slender neck has

a slight

spreading

at the

top instead ot

The entire vase except


there is no maeander above
on the red shoulder are white palmettes
the edge of the shoulder is
to
from
the
bottom
the scene, but the whole body of the vase
The
are
about
utilized for the scene, so that the standing figures
0.45 m. in height.
the shoulder

the usual bell-shaped mouth.

chalky white shp

scene

is

brown

drawn

flat

red-brown,

are used tor garments

The

covered with a

in

is

masses of color frequently defined by fine contour lines of redbrown, a thin pale red, blue, dark violet, and dark green

thin light

and

details.

crowned by

a palmette flanked by half palmettes, the central


the space between the
the sides red on blue
the
ones
at
on
brown,
palmette blue
on
a light brown ground ; on
white
reserved
leaves
bv
is
occupied
palmette
palmettes

broad

stele

is

each side

is

back to back.

large

Before the stele two

dark violet acanthus leaf

The one

at

the

left,

who

looks toward the

her knees and raises her right hand to her chin


girded, about her knees
sakkos.

Before her,

at

is

a red

the

left

left,

rests

she wears a light

women
her

brown

mantle with dark green border, and her hair


of the scene, a

woman

are seated

left

hand on

sleeve chiton
is

in a

white

stands nearly efiface, holding out

both hands a light violet (?) taenia ; she wears a sleeveless chiton in pale red with brown The seated woman at the right, who looks
red fold lines and a dark red himation.

in

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

210

palm up

about her knees

her shoulder,
hair

is

brown

she wears a light

hand on her knees and

right, rests her left

toward the

gathered

en face with

bowed head,

is

her relaxed right hand slightly,

dark green mantle with light violet border, and her

low knot.

in a loose

raises

with white border or white taenia over

sleeve chiton

Before her,

at

the right, a

her right hand raised slightly

woman

toward ihe seated

stands nearly
figure,

and

small casket (pale red with dark red details) on her raised left hand awav from the stele ;
she wears a pale red sleeve chiton with dark red fold lines, and a dark red himation with

white border

woman

her short hair

to her

falls

neck

in

curls.

with red and blue taeniae on her raised

left

gathered

down
The ground below

protruding knot.

in a loose

condition,

finest vase

is

of this

the one just described.

of Collignon

in

to add, except

the front

the figures

flat

basket

she wears a dark

her hair apparently


is

indicated

by

is

broad

class, in

spite of

its

fragmentary

To

the discriminating criticism


the publication cited above I have little or nothing
to indicate the relation with earlier classes of lekv-

pointed out by Collignon, the two seated women before


both of them dead persons receiving offerings, form a

As

thoi.

stele

brown.

line of

Perhaps the

the

the extreme right another

hand away from the

red sleeve chiton, girded, with a wide white line

uneven

At

stands in partial profile, a wreath in her slightly raised right hand, and a

stele,

double centre for the composition, such that now one, now the other,
becomes the centre of attention as the vase is viewed from different
In the distribution of color as well as in the disposition of
points.
The broad stele
the figures, the composition is carefully studied.
with three palmettes is a more elaborate example of a tvpe found in
It seems to me to be a column rather
Class
(nos. 3, 22, 22a).

XIV

than a square stele drawm

drawing

is

(Class

X,

makes

it

perspective, though such perspective


for the stele on other lekythoi
fragmentary condition of the vase again

in

found for the casket and rarely


I,

no.

11).

The

doubtful whether the

women

are seated

on

stools, or

on

The seated woman


the steps, or on a tumulus before the stele.
at the left apparently is grasping the mantle near her shoulder (cf. no.
Not only this gesture, but also all the attitudes, are familI, supra).
on lekythoi of Classes XIII and XIV, the taenia held up in
both hands (Class XIV, no. 31), the slightly raised hand of the seated

iar

figure at the right (Class XIII, nos. 40, 42) and of the standing woman
before her (Class XIII, nos. 7, 10), the casket or flat basket raised high

away from the

stele (Class

XIV,

no, i),

and the

feet

hanging down

as

though the seat were too high (Class XIV, nos. 24, 30). The eyes are
drawn with four nearly straight lines for eyelids and brows as regularly
in Class XIV, the hair is treated in the same manner, and except for
the rather weak line of the chin the profile is of the same type.

CLASS XVI,

Not only is the profile rather


XIV, in spite of the attention it

211

5-6

vigorously drawn than in Class


receives, but the hands are distinctly

less

The attempt to define the


example, on no. 2, supra.
is
of
shadows
means
hardly noticeable except on the
modelling by
bust of the seated figure at the left, where a wash is employed as on
awkward,

as, for

supra, rather than the shading lines which were employed with
It is true that the
a wash on nos. 2-4 for male figures.
garment
no.

I,

folds of

two standing figures serve to bring out the modelling, but

often true of the garment folds when they are indicated in


Classes XIII and XIV.
Only the indication of the left breast of the

this

is

As pointed out by
standing figure with the casket is a new device.
in size and in style has a grandiose character
Collignon, this vase both
The connection
classes of lekythoi.
earlier
in striking contrast with
with earlier white lekythoi is further evident in the nature of the
scene ; while the scenes on nos. 1,3, and 4 give the dead person with
his still living associates, we have here seated dead persons and stand-

Although the scene is expanded to


ing women bringing offerings.
include five figures, the conception is the same as on large numbers
of the usual white lekythoi of earlier classes.

H. to shoulder, 0.68 m. total


Neuburg.
Jahr. Arch. Inst. VIII (1893), A. A.,
height as restored, 1.091 m.
Monuments
188;
grecs, i905) P- 34
6.

Stift

Heidelberg,

On

Only fragments remain.

apparently in glaze

of

women, on which

The

scene

red-brown
details are

red-brown with vellow

the shoulder

Above

blue ravs outlined in black.


the usual maeander.

lights.

is

is

the scene

is

is

a ray

ornament with alternate red and

an egg pattern

in black outline instead ot

brown, in some places


red-brown for that

outlined in black varying to

used for the flesh of

added

men and

in fine lines of dark

a thin

red-brown

the hair

Black, red, blue, and yellow are used

for

is

also dark

garments and

details.

The broad
red and blue.

stele

drawn-

Before

it

two

in perspective

crowned by

is

figures are seated back to back.

cyma with

Of the

the back of the head (repainted) and the knees and one foot remain.
the knees is without color, the contours in yellow-brown glaze lines

red-brown, the figure

was

that of a

man.

Before him

at

the

leaves alternately

one

at the left

only

The mantle

over

stands a

left

is

dark

flesh

dark

as the toot

man,

ot the
brown, leaning forward on a staff under his left armpit ; he wears a blue himation
Of the seated figure at the right, looking
head only the back part remains (repainted).
;

toward the

right,

and the right hand which rests


only the upper part of the head remains,
the very light brown flesh marks this figure
like the head of a cane

on some black object


as a

woman

the eye and face contour

is

in dark

red-brown, and

noted between the upper eyehd and the eyebrow.

toward the

left

stand

two women,

flesh light

Before her

brown.

touch of yellow

at the right

The one

may be

and looking

next the seated figure

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

212

carries in her raised right

hand

a casket, red

with black outlines, with top

woman

the details of her face are like those of the seated

small

low knot

right carries

which hang

raised

a red taenia

and

hand
a

Hat basket,

Her

just described.

The one

apparently her himation had a red border.

on each

like a

at

yellow with black and red

blue taenia with red ends.

Her garment

is

hip-roof;

hair

is

in a

the extreme
details,

from

yellow and her

hair short.

This lekythos also, which I know only from the publications cited
namely, two
above, has the same type of scene as that on no. 5
the broad stele, with one standing figure at the
figures seated before
;

left

and two

difference

at the right.

In the conception of the scene the main

that the seated

is

both men, and that the

and the standing


forward on

latter leans

figures at the left are


his staff as if in

con-

versation with the deceased instead of bringing offerings to the dead,


i.e. the left-hand
part of the scene corresponds to the scene on nos.

The most striking


no. 5.
I, 3, and 4, the right-hand part to that on
difference in technique is that a thin red-brown, thinner than that
The attitudes
used for men, is applied for the flesh of the women.
and gestures are repetitions of those already found in this class, and
the two standing women at the right hold up one a casket, the other
two flat baskets, as on no. 5. Although the drawing on this vase
seems to be much more delicate than that on no. 5, one must conclude either that the two were

some common prototype.

made

The

together or that they go back to


ray ornament on the shoulder,

occasionally found on black-figured vases, is properly an


though
ornament of bronze vases which was reproduced in painted pottery
it

and

is

finally in

marble.

The cyma on

the stele

is

a bit

of architectural

realism that occurs only here on white lekythoi.


According to the
which
no
doubt
is correct, the mantle of the seated
published description,
in yellow-brown glaze.
With the effort
figure at the left is outlined
for variety in color and decoration which marks this group, it is not
strange that the artist of this vase should have sought the brilliant
effect thus

easily obtained with the materials at his

though he was working


general use on a white

at a

time

surface.

command, even

when

The

glaze lines were no longer in


yellow touch above the eye I

cannot explain, unless possibly it is a trace of color that originally


covered all the light brown of the women's flesh.
In this class should perhaps be included the fragment of a large
lekythos in Berlin which is published by Curtius [Jahr. Arch. Inst.

X, 86

figures,

Taf

To

judge from the size of the fragment and the


The scene is
the complete vase was perhaps 0.70 m. high.

f.,

ii).

CONCLUSION OF CLASS XVI


drawn

in fine lines of

brown-red, and the same red

213

applied flat for


a garment.
The fragment gives the upper central half of the scene.
In the centre is a square pillar with indications of perspective at the

top

near the top

is

a series

of acanthus leaves

is

on the

capital

is

group of two winged male figures, one bearded, holding the draped
body of a dead woman in a diagonal position a double set of volutes
;

behind the figures serves to

out the composition.

fill

woman sits facing the right and


woman holding up in both hands
a

stele

looking up

Before the stele

at the left stands a

a slender taenia as if to

deck the

youth, looking down at the seated figure and


Above the scene a narrow band
hand, palm out.

at the right is a

holding up his right


of leaves and fruits takes the place of the usual maeander.
The
interest
of
the
is
of
vase
course
the
of
the
special
adaptation
depositio
scene to serve as the crowning

member of

Conclusion of Class

the stele.

XVI

The

striking characteristic of the present class, which separates


these vases from the entire series of lekythoi previously discussed, is
their large size (0.68

m.

m.

to 1.09

in height).

Moreover, with the

exception of no. i, the white slip covers all or nearly all the surface
of the vase.
The decoration is of a new type, and the method of

drawing

is

There seems no reason

distinctly different.

to

doubt that

those lekythoi were made for a diff'erent purpose from those discussed
before and that the connection with earlier classes is only the force of
a tradition

What

this

from which the painters could not entirely free themselves.


purpose was has been pointed out by Winter and CoUignon
above

these were not perfume vases for use


in connection with burial, but rather
grave monuments, or vases to be
in the publications cited

As such they should


up in connection with grave monuments.
be compared with the marble lekythoi used for grave monuments at

set

Athens

in the

fourth century b.c.


As for the decoration, the maeander pattern at the top of the body
and the lines to enclose it have disappeared the narrow violet line at
;

the top of the body of the vase on no. 2 and the egg pattern on no. 6
are the only traces that remain of the earlier decoration above the
scene.

Palmettes on the shoulder are found only on nos. 4 and 5


are in brown on white, and on no. 5 in white on the nat;

on no. 4 thev

ural red of the vase.

On

the only shoulder decoration is the


elaborate top of the stele prolonged above the body of the vase
the
no.

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

2 14

red and blue rays on the shoulder of no. 6, and the violet leaves on

shoulder and neck of nos. 2 and 3, are ornaments that have no connection whatever with earlier lekvthos tradition.

The

break with

earlier tradition

is

most evident

in the

method of

Clearly on no.

2, and probably on the other examples of this


painting.
class, the scene was painted in flat masses of color, and the red-

brown

outlines were added later for

the scene, or for parts needing


This direct reversal of the lekythos method must be

clear definition.

all

referred to the influence of a different kind

of painting, probably

painting on white panels or the fresco painting practised by great


masters.
The use of a flesh color for men and sometimes for women,

and the attempt to bring out the modelling by line shading, is to be


These changes in method, which are of
referred to the same source.
the greatest importance as illustrating the development of painting at
Athens, are the more interesting when one considers the still domi-

nant influence of lekythos tradition in the scene


colors used are for the

itself.

most part colors found on

Even

though here they are used with much greater freedom.


The prothesis scene on no. 2 follows exactly the same

lines as

even to the small vase beneath the couch, the

earlier lekythoi,

flying above, and the taenia draped in the


ferences are in the form of the couch, and

field.

in

the

earlier lekythoi,

The

only

on

xjjvxrj

real dif-

the definite characteri-

zation of the figures as maid, father, and mother (or sister).


The
other vases represent the scene at the grave, after the usual manner
on white lekythoi. The stele is of course more elaborate to corre-

spond with the larger size, but no new elements are introduced
even the figures on top of the stele on the Berlin fragment described
under no. 6 differ from earlier examples of the same thing only in the
method of treatment.
As before, the figure seated before the stele

represents the dead person


(nos. 5

On

and

6),

we may

still

and when there are two seated figures

assume that both represent dead persons.

and 4 the figures at the side are survivors associated with


the dead person as when he was alive, a type of scene noted often in
Class XI
on no. 5 and at the right on no. 6 the standing figures are
nos.

I,

3,

The
bringing offerings in the same manner as on earlier lekythoi.
of
are
all
familiar
on
man
earlier
the
and
types
figures
lekythoi

woman

lamenting on no. 2; the woman with a basket of offerings on


and 6 the man with hand on his staff (no. i), or with erect

nos. 2, 5,

spears (no. i ), or leaning on the staff under his arm (nos. 3, 4, 6); even
the seated figure with elbow apparently resting on the back of his chair

CONCLUSION OF CLASS XVI


(no. 4)

has been noted

more than

'^.ce.

And

while

215

some of the

by no means pecuhar to ] ythoi, there are none which have


not been found more or less frequently in earlier classes of lekythoi.
the slightly
Even the gestures are of the types previously found

types are

raised

hand

hand extended palm down (no. 3); the


Moreover, the
the xpyxv (no. 2) and the taenia (nos. i and 2),

(no. 5); the right

gestures of lamentation
objects in the field,

at the prothesis (no. 2), etc.

The
to the grave are peculiar to lekythoi.
offerings (nos. 2, 5, 6), the taenia (no. 5), the

and the objects brought


flat

basket for grave


the casket for jewellery or toilet articles (nos.
5), and

wreath (no.

on lekythoi

are objects regularly represented

The

style of

5, 6)

as offerings at the grave.

drawing on these lekythoi bears

marked resemblance

It is
to that on Class XIV, in spite of the difference of method.
clear that the two classes belong to the same period, probably about

400

B.C.,

and that

XVI

Class

at least in

the

work

use of line the style of

was of the type which

had been developed

in

in

earlier

of lekythoi.
In general it appears that the class of lekythoi under discussion
was made for an entirely different purpose from earlier lekythoi,
and that the artists who made them attempted to follow in a measure
classes

the

methods of

and painting on panels with

a white

At

the same time the influence of earlier lekythos painting


controlled the choice of scenes, the types of figures in these

surface.
still

fresco painting

scenes, the gestures of the figures, and the objects in their hands or in
the field; and further, the use of outline and of fine lines for details

The valuable testimony


earlier lekythoi.
closely resembles that on
of the vases to the history of painting at Athens has been discussed
by Collignon and Winter

in the publications already cited.

CONCLUSION
Scenes represented on Lekythoi
classes ix-xvi

(i)

Scenes with no Stele and no Direct Reference to Burial

The

in dull color has


description of white lekythoi with drawing
the stereotyped character of these vases, which were

made evident
manufactured

in

large

On

limited time.

numbers

for a definite

purpose and within

the earlier lekythoi with drawing in glaze outline

scenes from mythology and domestic life were gradually replaced by


scenes at the grave and other scenes which had to do with burial.

found on about ninety per cent of the


later lekythoi described in the present volume, and the remainder gendeath and burial, there are
erally have scenes that are connected with

While the scene

at the

grave

is

examples without tumulus or grave stele and without that


direct reference to burial found in the Charon scenes and similar
In this group I do not find the prepscenes soon to be discussed.
fifteen

aration to visit the grave noted in earlier classes (see Vol. VI, 342 f )
where much the same scene occurs (Class IX, 3, no. i
XI, 5, no. 6),
of vases where the stele is present suggests a different
the
^

analogy

In scenes at the grave one of the figures is frequently


interpretation.
indicated more or less clearly as the dead person ; he is attended
sometimes by a woman bringing offerings, sometimes by a relative or

sometimes by both. The series of scenes


under discussion it seems to me reasonable to interpret by analogy as
and it is with
ordinarily intended to refer to death, even if indirectly
friend of

his

lifetime,

this

analogv

The
1

in

view that these vases are discussed.

scenes here included are scenes at

Perhaps the scene on Class XI, 2, no. 15, three

be classed as a scene of preparation to

visit tlie

home and

women, of which one

grave.

216

battle scenes.

has a basket of offerings, should

CONCLUSION
Of

217

home two

(Class IX, 3, no. i ; XI, 5, no. 6) represent a woman bringing offerings before a woman seated as if in her
home ; the seated woman with the baby boy before her on the former

the scenes at

on marble
exactly the conception of the mother at home found
stelae,^ and the seated woman with the Eros on the latter vase is so
detached from her companion that she seems again to represent the

vase

is

dead person
sakkos.

in

It is

her home, on the wall of which hang taenia and


woman bringing a flat basket of offerings,

of course the

which suggests the thoughts of death.


3, no. la;

2, no. 14) are seen a

XI,

On

two more vases (Class IX,


youth or youths and a woman

apparently it is the dead woman in her home with comOn one more vase the woman bringing
her lifetime.
of
panions
the other side of which is a seated
offerings occurs before a tree, on

at

home

woman

no. 27) ; here possibly the tree indicates the


Other
the tomb of the seated woman was situated.

X,

(Class

country where

2,

her companions
represent the woman dressing with
(Class XI, 2, no. 13), the bride with her companions (Class XI, 2,
no. 12), the youth to whom his sister or his wife is bringing weapons

scenes at

home

him to put on (Class X, 2, no. 11; XI, 4, no. 3), and the young
To me
warrior with his friend and his father (Class XI, 2, no. 16).

for

these scenes, like other scenes or parts of scenes in which a stele is


with the companions of
present, represent the dead person as in life
his lifetime

the

scene which

later

was

in

general use

on marble

stelae.

grave

Four battle scenes


them (Class XI, 5, no.

occur.
i)

is

The youth and Amazon on one of


to be compared with earlier Amazon

scenes (Class IV, i, no. 19; 3, no. 30; V, no. 78); the intention is
the same as on marble sculpture representing Athenians and Amazons,

namely, to shed on the present battle scene the glory of the ancient
Th^ horseman attacking a youth on foot (Class
mythical conflict.

XI,

5,

no. 8)

And

is

the

same

in

conception as the scene on the Dexileos

scenes (Class XIV, no. 8 ; XV,


no. i), like the two preceding, represent the dead youth in the gloThe parallel between lekythos scenes
rious deeds of his lifetime.-

stele.

the other two battle

and scenes on marble grave rehefs


nection with scenes where the stele

will
is

be discussed further in con-

present.

Cf. Conze, Die attiiche Grabreliefs, I, Taf. xxvi, xxxiii, etc.

hoplites,

Museum represents two


lekythos of Class XIV recently discovered in Athens and now in the National
It is published
one attacking the other before a broad stele or pillar crowned with acanthus leaves.

by A. Bruckner, Ath. Mitth.

XXXV

(1910), S. 206,

Taf

x.

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

2i8

Charon Scenes

(2)

The Charon

found occasionally on vases with the


two vases (Class V, nos. 7-8) in its
on
drawing
glaze outline,
more complete form, and on five vases (Class VI, i, no. 7; VII,
in an abbreviated form (Vol. VI, 347 f).
On the
2, nos. 10 f.
scene was

in

lekythoi with drawing in matt color, the same scene appears in four
forms
{a) with Charon, Hermes, and the dead person ; {/?) with
:

Charon, the dead person, and an attendant {c) with Charon and the
dead person only and (d) with Charon, a mourner, and usually the
dead person.
;

Charon

(a)

scenes

with Hermes and the dead person.

On

five

of

the lekythoi discussed in the present volume is found the full Charon
Charon in his boat, and Hermes presenting to Charon the
scene
:

With
dead person whom he has brought to the shore of the Styx.
one exception (Class XI, 2, no. 10) Charon in his boat is at the left
and the

figure of the

dead

at the

right, as in

the two examples of

On

three of the five examples the dead person


(nos. 7-8).
is a
youth closely draped to the neck (Class IX, i, nos. 15-17) on
the other two it is a woman whose hand is grasped or about to be

Class

grasped by Charon (Class IX, 2, no. 24; XI, 2, no. 10); and on the
last-mentioned vase alone occurs an attendant of the dead as on Class

Charon stands

high stern of his boat with one knee


bent as though the foot was on a thwart, and draws the boat in or holds
it at the shore with his
pole grasped in both hands
only in no. 10

V, no.

8.

in the

of Class XI, 2 is the pole held in one hand and the other hand extended toward the dead person, and on no. 17 of Class IX, i there is
no pole. As in the other series he wears a workman's exomis, attached only on one shoulder and girded up, and a high round cap
find no marked eflxjrt to depict his nature as like that
(pilos).

We

of the Attic ferryman, though there

between

On

his rather

common

features

is

and

distinct difference of type


the dignified face of Hermes.
a

i,
17 and Class XI, 2, no. 10 Hermes is not
bearded, a petasos hangs on his shoulder, and the only mark of Hermes
is the
On nos. 15-16 of
kerykeion on the former of the two vases.

Class IX,

no.

I
he is bearded and wears winged boots; in each case he is
back
at the dead youth, but no. t6, where he extends his left
looking
hand toward the youth to draw him on and holds his kerykeion

Class IX,

towards Charon to denote the destination, is the more characteristic


The youth draped to the neck on nos. 15-17 of Class IX, i
example.

CONCLUSION

219

for burial, but here prerecognizable as the dead person draped


On no. 24 of Class IX, 2 the dead
sented to Charon by Hermes.

is

holds her mantle over her head, dressed as for a journey, and
extends her left hand for Hermes to take on this vase alone of these
five occur the small souls that suggest the confines of the world of the

woman

On

dead.

no. 10 of Class

XI,

2 the

dead

woman seems

to shrink

Hermes hurries her forward here she is attended by a


back
with bowed head carrying a toilet vase, and the sakkos in the
as

above

is

child
field

transferred from domestic scenes.

With these scenes on lekythoi should be compared other representations of Charon, as, for example, the two terra-cotta reliefs pubIn these
lished by von Duhn {Arch. Zeit. 1885, S. 7 f., Taf. i).

Charon stands with knees bent as on nos. 7-8 of Class V


in face and dress the representation of Charon resembles that on
and the attitude of Charon with pole in
the lekythoi of Class IX
one hand and the other hand extended is like that on no. 10 of Class
rehefs

than the lekythoi


extends
his kerykeion
Hermes looks back
of Class IX.
woman,
toward Charon, and holds his left hand behind the woman as if to urge

XI,

2,

lekythos

nearer

the

relief

date

in

at the

but in the reliefs he is


her on, much as on no. 16 of Class IX, i
without a beard or winged boots and he is approaching Charon inThe figure of the dead on the reliefs
stead of standing impassively.
;

woman

hesitating to advance toward Charon


mantle about her much as on no. 24 of Class IX, 2.

is

and holding her


It seems to me

reasonable to refer both reliefs and lekythoi scenes back to a common


which may have been inprototype, some celebrated Athenian painting

And I believe that on


spired by the painting of Polygnotus at Delphi.
the whole the reliefs are nearer to the prototype in the disposition of the
while on the lekythoi, especially the lekythoi of Class IX, the
figures,

due

to the tradition of those

who made

the lekythoi
The rude face of Charon on the lekythoi of Classes V
of this class.
and VI may be nearer the prototype ; but the beard of Hermes and

stiffer attitudes are

winged boots are perhaps due to popular belief, in the mind of the
The draped figure of a youth on nos. 1517 of
lekythos painter.
Class IX, I is distinctively a figure of lekythos tradition, while the
woman holding her mantle in one or both hands is presumably derived
from the prototype. The attendant on no. 8 of Class V and no. 10
his

of Class XI, 2

may perhaps have come from

addition, however,

is

entirely in the spirit

the prototype; such an


of Class XI, and it is only

the presence of such a person on no. 8 of Class

which suggests that

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

220

As for the small souls,


not an addition bv the lekythos painter.
to me clear that they were first introduced into lekythos

it is

it

seems

scenes in connection with the Charon scene and denote the realm of
souls with which

The

Charon forms the connecting

lekythoi of Class V,

link (Vol. VI,

347

f.).

believe to be earlier than those of Class IX,

appears on lekythoi of Classes


IX f. in that the idea of adapting the Charon scene to these burial
vases was originated by makers of lekythoi of Class V.

and only responsible

Charon

{b)

is

it

dead and an attendant^

scenes including the figure of the

but not Hermes.

Hermes

for the scene as

In the Charon scenes other than those of

omitted, and we

series a

find the dead person confronting Charon


In the present series the boat of Charon

without any intermediary.


is at the
right of the scene as often as

we may assume
based on another prototype, or more probit is

at the left

possibly that the scene is


On three
ably that it is freely adapted by the lekythos painter.
on no. i 8 of Class
vases the scene includes a child and its mother
:

IX,

the

mother

is

the dead person and a

young

possibly a

girl,

slave rather than a daughter, brings articles for the toilet ; on no. 20
of Class IX, I and no. 8 of Class XI, 1 the child is added almost as

an attribute to mark the dead person

as a

mother.

On

no. 9 of Class

XI, apparently the young woman with the goose is the dead person,
as on no. 8, and the youth with bird cage and hare may be her brother
2

or lover with the pets of her lifetime


possibly the goose in the hands
On no. 25 of
of the dead woman is an offering brought to Charon.
Class IX, 2 the draped man is the person for whom Charon has come,
;

and the woman may be regarded simply as the companion of his lifetime or as a wife who died with her husband in any case it is the
same type as the dead woman of the terra-cotta reliefs and of one
;

Under this series apparently


lekythos mentioned under series a.
belong three lekythoi otherwise unknown to me in the series given
by

Pettier, Lee. blancs att. p.

type of scene as no.

34 f.
9 of Class XI,
seem to belong

His
2 and

no. 21

has

much

no. 18 of Class

same

the

IX,

his

nos. 15 and 17 also


in this series.
The presence of
small souls on at least four of the eight vases of this series is noteIn two cases (Class IX, i, no. 18 ; XI, 2, no. 8) the face
worthy.

of Charon

of the rude, realistic type noted in the examples under


In general the scene including the dead person
and a companion of his lifetime is characteristic of Class XI
its
Classes

is

and VI.

IX

cannot be paralleled outside the Charon scenes


presence
here mentioned, and this fact might be used as an argument to show
in Class

CONCLUSION
borrowed

that the painter

type of series
less carefully

from

prototype other than the proto-

a.

Charon

{c)

it

221

with only the figure of the dead.


On small and
white lekythoi, on which the scene is regularly

scenes

made

Charon scene includes only Charon in his


the same type of scene is also rarely found
where three figures are admissible. Of Charon

limited to two figures, the


boat and the dead person

on lekythoi of classes
scenes drawn in glaze outline, no. 7 of Class VI, i might have had
three figures; on nos. 11-12 of Class VII, 2 the two figures are as
as are

many

found

in that class

and the single figure of nos. lo-ioa

In Class IX (outlines in
represents the more usual type of scene.
dull color) nos. 13-14 of series 3 have but the two figures, though in

Charon scenes have three figures on these two


is drawn with
sparse beard and some effort to indicate the Attic ferryman, and he extends one hand toward the dead
woman as on the terra-cottas mentioned under series a. The dead
woman on no. 13 puts her foot on a rock as though she were about
to get aboard the boat
on no. 14 she stands with bowed head, carryIt is possible to reing a small chest and holding up a toilet vase.
over
this
as
carried
from
a
stele
series /^), or to
scene
(cf.
gard
figure
series

and

1 the

vases Charon's face

say that she carries with her to the lower world the toilet objects she
Number 1 1 of Class XI, 2 is a
had been wont to use while living.

damaged vase not easy to classify, but


1-7 of Class XIII and also nos. 10,
figure
Pottier's

and on

36

f.)

is

is

standing on both feet

Class IX, 3, noted above.

cap

Numbers

in Pottier's list i^Lec.

also seated, but at the left, while


;

one hand and extends the other hand

His

is

sometimes of

face

is

on the

ordinarily he holds his


as on the lekythoi of

dignified, with

no

effort to rep-

and while he wears the usual exomis,


On
high, loose type, not round and stiff.

resent the ordinary ferryman


his

11,

in this series.

and 16

Pottier's no. 10 he

other lekythoi he
pole in

belongs

group homogeneous in style, in which one


On nos. i, 2, and
represented opposite Charon in his boat.
no. 11 Charon is seated in his boat at the right of the scene,

blancs att. p.
is

form

it

time the reeds about Charon's boat,


which are so noticeable in the terra-cotta reliefs of this scene, and on
these vases are found for the

nos.

I, 3, 5,

and

boat as on those

first

waves or stones are indicated by the side of the

The

taenia draped in the field (nos. 2, 4, 6,


and Pottier's nos. 10 and 16) is carried over from the stele scenes of
Class XIII where it has only decorative meaning; but the taenia on

the reeds (no. 5)

reliefs.

is

an interesting original touch, connecting worship

ATHENIAN WHITE LEKYTHOI

222

grave with the coming of Charon. The figure of a woman with


over her head (nos. i, 5, Pottier's no. 1 1) has occurred on several

at the

veil

examples already discussed, and the woman with casket is to be compared with Class IX, i, no. 14, supra. Numbers 4 and 6 perhaps belong

of

in series d^ for the characteristics

mourner

at the

grave are

Charon's boat.

given to the figure before

with a mourner [as in grave scenes), and often


In Class XIII the taenia draped in the
the figure of the dead also.
field is a decorative element carried over from stele scenes to Charon

Charon

{a)

scenes

in the

scenes

same way,

believe, the figure of the

woman

holding

up tablets on no. 6 (cf nos. 15, 18, 19 of Class XIII) and the figure
of a woman bringing a canistron on each hand (no. 4) are figures
really belonging to scenes of worship at the grave but carried over
"
which is to
This is a kind of " contamination
into Charon scenes.
be expected on vases which were manufactured in large quantities
When the grave
with little attention to the meaning of the scene.
the
usual offerings,
with
the
itself
is
introduced
stele
person bringing
the dead person on the steps of the stele or standing before

Charon in his boat, we may still call


more conscious effort to combine an

it,

and

"

contamination," but it is a
ideal and a real scene which had
it

The effort to assign a definite


developed independently of each other.
meaning to the double scene is quite misplaced by representing the
dead person in relation to Charon on one side, to surviving mourners
;

on the other

side, the painter

had no such intention

On

in

could achieve n