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Chapter 19

ANSWERS TO TERMINOLOGY SECTION

549

Chapter Nineteen

Answers to Terminology Section

(textbook pages 821823)

Terminology

Meaning

alveolar

Pertaining to tumor growth in small microscopic sacs (descriptive of connective


tissue tumorssarcomas).

cachexia

General ill health and malnutrition associated with chronic disease such
as cancer.

carcinoma in situ

Localized tumor growth.

electrocauterization

Burning tissue to destroy it (using electricity).

chemotherapy

Treatment using drugs.

cryosurgery

Destruction of tissue using cold temperatures.

cystic tumor

Tumor forms with large open spaces filled with fluid.

fibrosarcoma

Malignant tumor of fiber-producing cells (flesh or connective tissue origin).

follicular

Pertaining to microscopic description of tumor growth in small gland-type sacs.

fungating tumor

Mushrooming pattern of growth in which tumor cells pile one on top of another
and project from the tissue surface.

medullary tumor

Large, soft, fleshy tumor.

mucositis

Inflammation of mucous membranes.

mutation

Change in the genetic material of a cell.

mutagenic

Pertaining to producing mutation.

necrotic

Tumor containing dead cells.

neurofibromatosis

Tumors of fibrous connective tissue surrounding nerve cells (neurofibromas). This


is a genetic disorder.

oncology

Study of tumors.

papillary

Pertaining to tumors that grow in small nipple-like or finger-like pattern.

dysplastic

Pertaining to abnormal growth of cells but not clearly cancerous.

pleomorphic

Pertaining to tumors that contain a variety of cell types.

protocol

Detailed plan for treatment of illness.

polypoid tumor

Tumors that grow as projections extending outward from a base.

radiation

Use of radioactive substances in the diagnosis and treatment of disease.

osteosarcoma

Malignant tumor (flesh tissue) of bone.

scirrhous

Pertaining to hard, densely packed tumors, overgrown with fibrous tissue.

xerostomia

Conditions of dry mouth.

retinoblastoma

Tumor of the retina of the eye (embryonic cells); congenital and hereditary
tumor.

neuroblastoma

Cancerous tumor of embryonic nervous tissue; a sarcoma composed of neuroblasts


and affecting infants and children up to 10 years of age. The tumor usually arises
in the autonomic nervous system.

angiogenesis

Formation of blood vessels.

adenocarcinoma

Cancerous tumor of glandular tissue.

hyperplasia

Condition of increased growth of cells (in numbers).

neoplasm

New growth (tumor).

myelosuppression

Stopping or inhibiting the growth of bone marrow tissue. This means that blood
cells (leukocytes, erythrocytes, and platelets), normally formed in bone marrow,
are not produced.

radiotherapy

Ionizing radiation used to treat malignancies.

anaplasia

Reversion of cells to a more embryonic type (as happens in malignancy).

Copyright 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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Chapter 19

ANSWERS TO TERMINOLOGY SECTION

apoptosis

Programmed cell death.

brachytherapy

Implantation of small sealed containers or seeds of radioactive material directly or


near tumors.

epidermoid

Resembling epidermal tissue (tumors that arise from aberrant epidermal cells).

metastasis

The spread of a malignant tumor from its original location to a distant site.

metaplasia

Abnormal transformation of adult differentiated cells to differentiated tissue of


another kind.

teletherapy

Radiation therapy using high-energy beams from a distant (tele-) source, such as a
linear accelerator or cyclotron (proton therapy).

Copyright 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.