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Competence No.6 (Course covered 6.2)6.2/9.
Theoretical knowledge of construction and operation of marine boilers including materials used.
A boiler is a closed pressure vessel wherein steam is generated by boiling distilled water / feed water under pressure. All boilers have a furnace or combustion chamber where fuel is burnt to release its energy. Air is supplied to the boiler furnace to enable combustion of the fuel to take place. A large surface area between the combustion chamber and the water enables the energy of combustion, in the form of heat, to be transferred to the water. Boilers are fitted with one steam drum and one water drum each to ensure steam and water can be separated. There must also be a variety of fittings and controls to ensure that fuel oil, air and feed water supplies are matched to the demand for steam.
Requirement of a Marine Boiler: • It should be capable of generating the maximum quantity of steam with minimum fuel consumption • It should be light in weight and should not occupy much space • It should have safe working conditions • The initial cost, installation cost and maintenance cost of the boiler should be low. • It should be accessible for easy inspection and repair. • It should be capable of quick starting and should be able to meet rapid variations of load. Types of boilers: • Fire tube boilers • Water tube boilers Fire tube boilers: In fire tube boilers, the hot gases pass though the tubes that are surrounded by water. The water is heated up and converted into steam. E.g. Cochran, Scotch boiler & Clarkson boiler. The FTB is usually chosen for low-pressure steam production on vessels requiring steam for auxiliary purposes. Operation is simple and feed water of medium quality is used.
Water tube boilers: In water tube boilers, water is circulated though the tubes and hot flue gases flow outside the tubes. e.g. Bobcock & Wilcox, Admiralty three drum, Y-160 and Foster wheeler D-type. The water tube boiler is employed for high pressure, high temperature, high capacity steam applications, e.g. providing steam for main propulsion turbines of cargo pump turbines. Firetube boilers are used for auxiliary purposes to provide smaller quantities of low pressure stem on diesel engine powered ships.
a. Smoke uptake b. Economizer A heat exchanger that transfers heat from Boiler Flue Gases to Boiler Feedwater. c. Steam outlet Saturated steam from the Steam Drum to the Superheater d. Cyclone A device inside the steam drum that is used to prevent water and solids from passing over with the steam. e. Stay tube for superheater f. Stays for superheater tubes g. Superheated steam outlet h. Superheater A bank of tubes, in the exhaust gas duct after the boiler, used to heat the steam above the saturation temperature. i. Superheater Headers Distribution and collecting boxes for the superheater tubes. j. Water drum k. Burner l. Waterwall Header Distribution box for waterwall and downcomers.
m. Footing n. Waterwall Tubes welded together to form a o. p. q. r. s. wall. Waterwall Header Distribution box for waterwall and downcomers. Back side waterwall Boiler hood Waterwall Header Collecting box for waterwall and risers. Riser Tubes in which steam is generated due to high convection or radiant heat. The water-steam emulsion rises in these tubes toward the steam drum. Downcomer A tube through which water flows downward. These tubes are normally not heated, and the boiler water goes through them to supply the generating tubes. Steam drum separates the steam from the water. Economizer Header Distribution box for the economizer tubes.
Construction of boilers: The construction of water tube boiler, which use small-diameter tubes and have a small steam drum, enables the generation or production of steam at high temperatures and pressures. The weight of the boiler is much less than that of the fire tube boiler and steam raising process is much quicker. This boiler has two drums namely steam drum (bigger in size) and water drum (smaller in size) and an integral furnace. This furnace is at the side of the two drums and is surrounded on all sides by walls of tubes. Between these two drums, large numbers of smaller diameter generating tubes are fitted. Tubes neighboring furnace are called fire row tubes of screen tubes which act as an upriser. Large bore down comer pipes are fitted between steam drum and water drum to ensure good natural circulation of water. In this arrangement, super heater is located between the drums, protected from the very hot furnace gases by several rows of screen tubes. Refractory material or brick work is used on the furnace floor and the burner wall. The double casing of the boiler
provides a passage for the combustion air to the control of register surrounding the burner. The furnace side, the floor and roof tubes are welded into the steam and water drums. The lower water wall headers are connected by external down comer from the steam drum and upper water wall header are connected to the steam drum by riser tubes. The gases leaving the furnace pass through screen tubes which are arranged to permit flow between them. The large number of tubes results in considerable heat transfer before the gases reach the secondary superheater. The gases then flow over primary superheater and the economizer before passing to exhaust. Fig.3 Water circulation: In the steam generation process the feed water enters the boiler where it is heated and becomes steam. The feed water circulates from the steam drum to the water drum and is heated in the process. The water from the water drums rise up to the steam drum due to the thermo-convection current through uprisers consisting of generator row tubes and screen tubes. The downcomers fitted on each boiler bring down the relatively cooler water from the steam drum to the water drum to establish a positive circulation during normal operation. Some of the feed water passes through tubes surrounding the furnace, i.e. water wall and floor tubes, where it is heated and returned to the steam drum (in case furnace is cooled by water filled tubes). Large bore downcomer tubes are used to circulate feed water between the drums. The downcomer tubes pass outside of the furnace and join the steam and water drums. The steam is produced in a steam drum and drawn of as a ‘saturated steam’ which contains small quantities water particles. Alternatively the steam may pass to a superheater which is located within the boiler. Here steam is further heated and dries, i.e. all traces of water are converted into steam. This superheater steam then leaves the boiler for use in the system. The temperature of this steam will be above that of the steam in the drum. An attemperator may be fitted in the system to control the temperature of the superheated steam as per requirements. Materials Used in Boiler Construction. Component Material Boiler Casing Mild steel plates (low carbon) Steam Drum Mild steel plates (low carbon) TS-430-490MN/m2 Fire Row & Gen. Cold drawn seamless (low Row Tubes carbon steel)
Composition & Description C, Si, Mn, (Hot finished rolled plates) C, Si, Mn (Hot finished) C, Si, Mn, S, P (cold drawn)
blogspot. Mn (hot finished rolled plate) Water Drum Mild steel plates (low carbon) 6.2/10. Mi (cold finished) C. S (hot finished) C. Sea chests tracer lines for pipeline heating) • For cargo heating • For fuel treatment plant tank coil heating • For deck machineries • For running Cargo pump turbines • For operating bilge. Mn. used. Si. Si. Pressures used: The working pressure used in marine boilers will vary from boiler to boiler as required. Galley. Ni. • For fresh water generation (Evaporators) • For fire major fighting (steam drenching) • For heating duties (ME fuel oil heater. Mo (cold finished) C.com/ . Mo. P (stud resistance welded to tubes) C. Si.S/H Tubes S/H Tube Support Steam Piping (S/H range upto 9500F) Economiser Tubes Cr. Mn. C. Ni.. Purifier. • For using as a steam ejector media for ejector pumps and vacuum devices • For Driving steam driven deck machineries like winches etc. P. Still the normal working pressure of boilers used is as below:For Steam ships High pressure 60 bar and above For Motor ships Low pressure 6-15 bar Medium pressure 17-30 bar For Tanker Vessels Medium pressure 17-30 bar. Si. Mn. Si. stripping and other steam driven pumps. Cr. • For tank washing in tanker ships and general cleaning. Calorifier. Accommodation heating. Galley supply. Molybdenum alloy steel Heat resistant austenitic steel Cr-Mo low carbon alloy steel Cold drawn seamless steel Cr. Mn. http://marinenotes. • • List the services provided by boilers and the typical pressures For main engine propulsion/turbines (in case of steam ships) For power generation (to run steam turbo generators) • For running auxiliaries (in case of steam ships) • For soot blowing and for the steam atomized burners. Cr. P. S.
b. In addition suitable control equipment will also be required.g. Fire tube boilers Hot flue gases pass through tubes which are immersed in water Pressure range is limited to 25 bar Water tube boilers Water is circulated through tubes that are surrounded by hot flue gases This can generate steam at a pressure of 200 bar http://marinenotes. The FTB is usually chosen for low-pressure steam production on vessels requiring steam for auxiliary purposes. water is circulated though the tubes and hot flue gases flow outside the tubes.com/ . intermittent steam demands are to be met. Water tube boilers: In water tube boilers. Admiralty three drum. The water tube boiler is employed for high pressure.6.g. feed water system and pump. e. Define a) Fire tube boiler b) Water tube boiler c) Packaged boiler and briefly explain the differences and why one type of boiler is preferred over other Fire tube boilers: In fire tube boilers. Scotch boiler & Clarkson boiler. Foster wheeler D-type. the hot gases pass though the tubes that are surrounded by water. Operation is simple and feed water of medium quality is used. Package boiler: Where relatively small. high temperature. Fully automatic controls are provided and located in a control panel at the side of the boiler. This package now only needs connections Fig. together with a forced draught fan. Bobcock & Wilcox. use is often made of package boilers. This term is usually applied to self contained units mounted on a single bedplate and comprising a steam generating section.blogspot. The water is heated up and converted into steam.2/11. Y-160. e.4 to the ship’s electrical supply and other necessary services to become operational. Differences between fire tube and water tube boilers: S No a. Cochran. and high capacity steam applications. fuel oil system and pump.
k. g. d.com/ . The drums are protected form flame impingement or direct heat. any flat surfaces must be stayed or of sufficient thickness to resist the pressure without undue distortion. hence the force acting per unit area gets distributed and load bearing capability is increased. i. Explain why shells of cylindrical forms are preferred and why end plates of spherical types are to be preferred over flat end plates When a force is applied to a curved plate as shown in fig. Whereas in case of flat plate the force applied tries to bend the plate until equilibrium is obtained. The cylindrical end joint need not be as strong as longitudinal joint. thus comes the requirement of stays.blogspot. j. e.c. Raising of steam is slow Reduced evaporation since heating surface area is less Bursting of even one tube affects the function of boiler very much The chances of bursting is less Suitable for rapid changes in load like locomotive boiler Space occupied per kg of steam generation is less It is not suitable for power plants since reduced evaporation Construction of this boiler is costlier and difficult Raising of steam is more rapid Evaporation rate is high since water is circulated though tubes Bursting of one or two tubes does not affect the function of the boiler very much The chances of bursting is more Preferable for large load fluctuations extending over longer durations Space occupied per kg of steam generation is more It is best suitable for power plants Cheaper for the same capacity of fire tube boilers. The stress acting on a circumferential area will be equally distributed throughout its area. http://marinenotes.2/12. f. 6. internal forces are set up which enable the plate to withstand the force without undue distortion. The cylindrical shape has an advantage of reduction in space consumption and no supporting stays are required. h. The pressure vessels are often given hemispherical ends but. if this is not possible.
2/13. Girde r Stays http://marinenotes.5 Stress in a curved plate Internal stays Hemispherical end plates no Flat end plates internal stays must be internal stays required fitted to support them 6.Forc Bursting Stress acts perpendicular to any radius Component of stress to balance Fig.blogspot. transmitting the bending stresses from the top wrapper plate onto the vertical tube plate and back plate of the chamber. Types of Stays: • Girder stays • Gusset stays Girder stays: Girder stays are used to support the top of the combustion chamber.com/ . What are different types of stays used in boiler and why? Stay tubes are used in marine boilers to support boiler tubes in construction to resist the pressure without undue distortion.
In this boiler. They must project through the tube plate by at least 6mm. Various types of corrugation are available. Gusset stay 6. the combustion chamber top requires support. http://marinenotes. the arrangement also gives increased heating surface area as compared to a plain furnace of similar dimensions.2/15. such as down comers. and this is provided by means of a gusset stay which transfers the stresses from the flat top of the chamber into the boiler shell.Gusset stays: The Cochran is typical tank boiler of vertical type suitable for producing small amounts of low pressure steam for auxiliary purposes. The tube ends must be cleaned. Explain the advantages of using corrugated furnaces Furnaces are corrugated for strength.com/ . but the suspension bulb type is preferred since for a given working pressure and furnace diameter the material thickness can be less than any other form of corrugation. In most cases the generating.a) Plain tube b) Stay tube c) Single flow tube (d) Swirl flow tube (e) Thimble tube Attachment of tubes in water tube boilers Tubes can be attached to drums and headers by expanding or by welding. hence heat transfer will be improved.blogspot. and then carefully drifted. or roller expanded into the holes in the tube plate. they must be bell-mouthed. 6. screen and water wall tubes are expanded into plain seats. Describe how tubes are expanded in tube plates and explain the differences in following:. above this the tubes are often attached by welding. and then bell mouthed. In case of tubes with larger diameters. To prevent tubes pulling out of the tube plate. it is usual to use grooved seats.2/14. Super heater tubes are also usually expanded and bell-mouthed up to steam temp of about 450⁰ C.
Steam pipes or pipes in systems with considerable temperature variation may be supported on spring hangers which permit a degree of movement and are called ‘load hangers’. Plain tube The plain or common tubes are used in the boiler between steam and water drum to generate steam and are expanded into the tube plates at both ends.Piping systems Machinery space pipe work is made up of assorted straight lengths and bends joined by flanges with an appropriate gasket or joint between or very small bore piping may use compression couplings. The piping material will be chosen to suit the system conditions. which together with a number of tubes provide the necessary support is called stay tubes.com/ . Expansion of pipes An expansion piece is fitted in a pipe line which is subject to considerable temperature variations. but must not be less than 5mm the base of the thread. The front end of the tube often swelled out to allow for easier tube removal.blogspot. These tubes being screwed and then expanded into both tube plates. Swirl flow tube http://marinenotes. The tubes have a diameter of about 65mm with a thickness of 5mm. Stay tubes Fire tube boiler has a number of flat surfaces which require support. The fitting must be selected according to the variation in system temperatures and installed to permit the expansion and contraction required in the system. nuts are usually fitted at the front end but not in the combustion chamber to avoid overheating. The pipes are supported and held in by hangers or pipe clips in such a way as to minimize vibration. An alternative to spring hangers is the use of expansion loops of piping or an expansion joint. Stays are fitted in the steam drum and in the annular water space. One type consists of a bellows arrangement which will permit movement in several directions and absorb variation. The back end of the tube is bell-mouthed after expansion. Welding can be used after screwing the stay tubes into the tube plates but the tubes must be expanded before and after welding. The thickness of these stay tubes varies according to the load to be supported. or may be spot-welded. After the tubes has been screwed and then expanded into the tube plates.
The formation of scale will subject the thimble tubes to a certain amount of overheating. they have a special twist along the greater part of their length. only a short portion at each end being left plain to allow for expansion. Thimble tube The boiler was developed to generate steam by causing a prolonged series of spasmodic ebullitions to take place in a series of horizontal tapered thimble tubes heated externally.The vertical smoke tubes are known as swirlyflow tubes. Stay tube.com/ . it is very difficult to remove. screwed into plate fitted with nut and expanded Stay tube within nest.blogspot. It enhances the heat transfer between the tubes and feed water to produce steam. if an undue amount of scale forms inside the thimble tubes. expanded before and after welding http://marinenotes. Thus reasonable quality of feed water should be provided. These boilers will operate for long periods without internal cleaning although. without any special means being provided for circulation within the tube. These are expanded and bell-mouthed into a cylindrical tube plate forming the combustion chamber. The tubes have a diameter of about 100mm. It is claimed that these tubes are more efficient than normal plain smoke tubes in that they cause the gases passing through to swirl so coming into more intimate contact with the tube wall and therefore increasing the rate of heat transfer. It consists of an outer shell enclosing a cylindrical furnace surmounted by the combustion chamber into which the thimble tubes project.
5 Scotch boiler tubes 6.com/ . expanded before and after welding [[[[[ Plain tube. expanded Fig.2/16. Sketch the path of water circulation and gas paths in boilers Path of Water circulation and gas paths: http://marinenotes.Margin stay tube.blogspot.
So automatic feed regulator are fitted to control the flow of water into the boiler and maintain the water level at its desired value.blogspot. or indirectly. Saturated steam stop valve steam. blow down cocks. boiler sampling cocks and soot blowers. super heater header drain valves. the boiler water cannot be back into the feed line. and one on the super heater outlet header. (a) Safety valve. pressure gauges. If it is too low. As per international regulations. Those attached directly to the pressure parts of the boiler are referred to as boiler mountings which are being performed either directly. but in practice it is usual to fit three safety valves – two on the steam drum. and enables the boiler to be isolated from the steam drum. at least two safety valves are fitted to each boiler. Fitted on the steam drum to supply saturated (d) (e) Feed check valve To give final control over the entry of feed water into the boiler and they must be SDNR valve so that in the event of a loss of feed pressure. spindles. water gauges. The regulator is http://marinenotes. main steam stop valves. Boiler Mountings fitted on boiler are safety valves. by means of extended rods. main feed check valve. (f) Feed water regulator. List all boiler mountings: a) on shell b) internal and describe briefly their purposes Boiler Mountings Various valves and other fittings are required for the proper working of the boiler. This too of SDNR type. damage may result from overheating. aux sup steam stop valves. air cocks. (c) Auxiliary superheated steam stop valve Fitted to supply steam to auxiliary superheated steam range to run the auxiliaries and TAs and may be utilized to augment steam to the main steam range means for turbines through a suitable cross connection valve in case of an emergency. robot feed regulator. Two may be fitted to control the passage of steam from the boiler to the main steam range and of SDNR type to prevent steam flowing into a damaged boiler in the event of loss of pressure due to a burst tube. too high and priming can occur with resultant carry-over of water and dissolved solids into superheaters steam lines. running down valves.6. These are fitted to protect the boiler form the effects of overpressure. sat steam stop valve. Main and aux feed checks are fitted with extended spindles so that checks can be operated easily and quickly from the operator’s convenient positions. This is fitted to release excess steam pressure from the boiler.com/ .2/17. The water level in a boiler is critical. (b) Main steam stop valves This is mounted on the superheater outlet header. aux feed check valve.
fitted in the feed line (after the feed heater if provided) before the main feed check valve. (m) Boiler water sampling cocks The main purpose of the ‘sampling cock’ is to take samples of the boiler water to calculate the alkalinity and salinity of the boiler water. It requires to be cleared at frequent intervals while steaming to prevent subsequent blockage thereby reducing the boiler output. Water drum is provided with one sampling valve which allows the sampling water to pass through a cooling coil which reduces its temperature. Blow down cocks There are mostly two blow down cocks fitted on each boiler. superheaters and economisers. (i) Pressure gauges Each boiler is fitted with two pressure gauge tappings on steam drum.com/ . and a remote reading indicator placed at a convenient position. (g) Air cocks or Air vents. Superheater header drain valves These are fitted as required to boiler superheater header. The soot blowing routine is undertaken as required. or raising steam. These ‘air cocks’ are fitted to purge out the air when the boiler is being topped up we have to release air while raising steam and also during ‘run down’ of a boiler. Soot blowers consist of a steam nozzle which when operated directs a jet of steam through the tube banks. The DOT demand that at least two water level gauges must be fitted on each boiler steam drum. (n) Soot blowers Soot tends to accumulate between the tubes of the boilers. These cocks are fitted in series with two other valves i.blogspot. The main purpose of these cocks is to blow down the boiler water deposits when the boiler is steaming thereby reducing density. These valves are fitted in connection with a steam trap to drain off water from the headers. (k) (l) http://marinenotes. In practice the usual arrangement consists of two direct reading water level gauges mounted on the steam drum. The sensing pressure gauge tapping after steam drum further branches to indicate drum pressure in boiler room and a remote position.e. These are fitted to the upper parts of the boiler as required to release air from drums and headers either when filling the boiler. (j) Running down valves The purpose of these valves is to run down the water from the water drum when there is a need to lower the level of water in the steam drum before steaming or to drain the boiler when it has to be emptied. (h) Water level indicators. One is for direct reading pressure gauge and the other for sensing pressure gauge. the “intermediate blow down valve” and the “overboard blow down valve”.
blogspot. they are:(a) Mechanical type (b) Thermostatic type (c) Thermodynamic type Mechanical type Mechanical (operated by changes in fluid density) . 6. In the 'ball float trap'. valve seat and spindle of steel or bronze. Explain purpose and working of a a) reducing valve b) steam straps c) drains Reducing valve: Reducing valve is used for the reduction of steam or air pressure. As steam passes through the valve no work is done since the reduction process is the throttling.(o) Chemical Dosing valve. These valves discharge into the blow down line. Steam traps: A steam trap is a special type of valve which prevents the passage of steam but allows condensate to pass. The reducing valve would normally have a body of cast steel or iron. the inverted bucket floats when steam reaches the trap and rises to shut the valve. hence the total heat before and after pressure reduction is nearly the same. They are mounted on the steam drum. These steam traps include 'ball float traps' and 'inverted bucket traps'. It works automatically and is put into drain lines so that these drain off condensate automatically without passing any steam.This range of steam traps operates by sensing the difference in density between steam and condensate. Choice of materials depends upon operating conditions. Fitted on the discharge side of the valve is a pressure gauge to record the reduced pressure and relief valve to prevent damage to the low pressure side of the system in the event of the reducing valve failing. the ball rises in the presence of condensate. With the 'inverted bucket trap'. These are fitted to the steam drum to enable feed treatment chemicals to be injected directly into the boiler (p) Scum valves. A valve. As its name implies and permits only the passage of condensed steam. opening a valve which passes the denser condensate. having an internal fitting in the form of a shallow pan situated just below the normal water level.com/ . Steam traps of three types. Both are essentially 'mechanical' in their method of operation http://marinenotes. with which to remove oil or scum from the surface of the water in the drum. These should be fitted when there is a possibility of oil contamination of the boiler.2/18.
When the hot condensate reaches the chamber some of it flashes off into low pressure steam (saturated) which is taken away into the exhaust range. A simple bimetal element tends to react to temperature changes in a linear fashion. Fig. The performance of any steam trap can be measured by its response to the steam saturation curve. which may not satisfy the requirements of a steam system possibly operating at varying pressures and temperatures Because the power exerted by a single bimetal strip is small. The remaining condensate drains at low pressure through a ball float trap to the unit drain cooler. Deflection of the bimetallic strip with increasing temperature closes the valve. When steam reaches the trap. The ideal response would closely follow the curve and be just below it.Thermostatic type (Bimetallic steam trap) As the name implies. Simple bimetallic element • • Operation of the steam trap takes place at a certain fixed temperature. a large mass would have be used which would be slow to react to temperature changes in the steam system. Heat loss from the control chamber causes pressure to decrease and this causes the trap disc to open again and discharge condensate. The element deflects when heated. the velocity under the disc is increased and recompression above the seat straps is shut.com/ . There are two important points to consider regarding this simple element: Fig. http://marinenotes. or to a drain tank where there is a cooling element supplied with circulating water from the auxiliary circulating system. Condensate and air raise the trap disc to permit the flow. bimetallic steam traps are constructed using two strips of dissimilar metals welded together into one element. Operation of a bimetal steam trap with two leaf element Thermodynamic type High pressure drain traps are chiefly of the thermodynamic type.blogspot. The drain tank is pumped out to the tank by a suitable pump.
The audible 'click' which occurs as the trap opens and closes makes trap testing very straight forward. Thermodynamic Advantages of thermodynamic steam trap • • • Thermodynamic traps can operate across their entire working range without any adjustment or change of internals. At the same time. The all stainless steel construction offers a high degree of resistance to corrosive condensate. and the pressure above the disc equals the pressure being applied to the underside of the disc from the inner ring subject to a greater force than the underside.blogspot. The disc is raised by the now higher condensate pressure and the cycle repeats (Figure. As the disc is the only moving part. under the disc. the flash steam pressure builds up inside the chamber above the disc. • • • http://marinenotes. They are compact. maintenance can easily be carried out without removing the trap from the line.The thermodynamic trap is an extremely robust steam trap with a simple mode of operation. Fig. The only moving part is the disc above the flat face inside the control chamber or cap. operation in this position may result in wear of the disc edge. as depicted in Figure. and out through three peripheral outlets [Fig (i)]. Eventually the trapped pressure in the upper chamber falls as the flash steam condenses. simple. Hot condensate flowing through the inlet passage into the chamber under the disc drops in pressure and releases flash steam moving at high velocity. However. incoming pressure raises the disc. This high velocity creates a low pressure area under the disc. and cool condensate plus air is immediately discharged from the inner ring. Thermodynamic traps are not damaged by freezing and are unlikely to freeze if installed with the disc in a vertical plane and discharging freely to atmosphere. forcing it down against the incoming condensate until it seats on the inner and outer rings. iv). At this point. as it has a greater surface area. Thermodynamic traps can be used on high pressure and superheated steam and are not affected by waterhammer or vibration. The trap operates by means of the dynamic effect of flash steam as it passes through the trap.com/ . On start-up. lightweight and have a large condensate capacity for their size. the flash steam is trapped in the upper chamber. drawing it towards its seat (Figure ii).
These fittings are placed within a line. sharp bends and loops must be avoided. The pipework is assembled cold with a spacer piece. Expansion arrangements The expansion fitting is one method of accommodating expansion. Explain a) how lengths of steam pipes are joined b) how the pipes are supported c) how expansion is allowed for Pipe Installation Pipe connections should be as direct as possible. This can be a cheaper way to solve the problem. They are commonly called expansion bellows. Provision must be made in pipe systems to accommodate changes in length due to change of temperature. which has to be twisted or bowed when being connected.Drains: The drains are fitted to auxiliary exhaust and low pressure saturated steam systems. but more space is needed to accommodate the pipe. In many cases the flexibility of the pipework system. Pipes should be accurately made and installed with simple supports before being permanently clipped. between two flanges. due to the length of the pipe and number of bends and supports. In other installations. and are designed to accommodate the expansion. 6. the spacer is removed and the joint pulled up tight (see Figure). of length equal to half the expansion. however. When the pipework is fully installed and anchored at both ends. Vibration is the frequent cause of eventual pipe failure but supports and clips to prevent this problem must permit free expansion and contraction. The pipework system must be sufficiently flexible to accommodate the movements of the components as they expand. has inbuilt stress which can lead to ultimate failure. initially the drains are put onto bilges in the boiler /engine room and thereafter may be led into suitable drain tank for use. without the total length of the line changing. One type of expansion joint has an anchored sleeve with a stuffing box http://marinenotes. it will be necessary to incorporate some means of achieving this required flexibility.blogspot.com/ . A pipe. In this system. means that no undue stresses are imposed. The loop could increase turbulence and be the location of an air pocket.2/19. and so prevent undue stress or distortion as pipes expand or contract. Other expansion fittings can be made from the pipework itself.
bellows joints are designed and fitted to accommodate straight line axial movement only and the associated piping requires anchors and guides to prevent misalignment. Maximum and minimum working temperatures must be considered when choosing a bellows piece. eliminate maintenance. Its length must be correct for the temperature change. the end connection will act adequately as anchors and that well designed hangers will be effective guides.4. It will be apparent that.8. Simpler schemes allow for change of length with a right angle bend arrangement or a loop. which must be son installed that it is neither overcompressed nor over-extended. If exposed to the possibility of external damage. to give smooth flow. An indication of the expansion of pipe that can be accommodated by these assemblies is shown in Fig. In usual marine application. Beyond that and for severe corrosive conditions. This is due to the design but causes no misalignment of the flanges. to act as a heat shield and to prevent erosion.and gland in which an extension of joining pipe can slide freely within imposed limits. Normally the bellows has an internal sleeve. It is best fitted horizontally so that the loop and the main are on the same plane. other materials are required. reduce friction and heat losses.4. http://marinenotes.8 Horseshoe or lyre loop Expansion loops The expansion loop can be fabricated from lengths of straight pipes and elbows welded at the joints (Fig). Stainless steel is the usual material for temperatures up to 5000 C. If any of these arrangements are fitted with the loop vertically above the pipe then a drain point must be provided on the upstream side as depicted in Figure 10.blogspot. Fig. Stainless steel bellows expansion joints are commonly used since they will absorb some movement or vibration in several planes.com/ . but there is a very slight straightening out effect. Horseshoe or lyre loop When space is available this type is sometimes used. 10. it should have cover. For high pressures and temperatures with associated greater pipe diameter and thickness other methods may be more appropriate. in certain cases. Pressure does not tend to blow the ends of the loop apart.
10.2/20. should then be closed.4. Fig. Describe correct procedure of raising steam boilers and coupling them to steam system 6. The economizer should be checked to ensure that it is full of water and all air vented off. All vents. The super heater circulating valves or drains should be opened to ensure a flow of steam through the superheater. Raising Steam The forced draught fan should be started and air passed through the furnace for several minutes to ‘purge’ it of any exhaust gas or oil vapours. The boiler should then be filled to slightly below the working level with hot de-aerated water. The air slides (checks) at every register. water and pressure gauge connections should be opened.blogspot.9 Expansion loop 6. The operating burner can now be lit an adjusted to provide a low firing rate with good combustion. The fuel oil should then be circulated and heated.It can be seen from Fig that the depth of the loop should be twice the width. and the width is determined from Fig. All the other boiler drains and blow-down valves should be checked to ensure that they are closed. The fuel oil system should be checked for the correct positioning of valves. any dampers should be operated and then correctly positioned. The operation of the forced draught fan should be checked and where exhaust gas air heaters are fitted they should be bypassed. Describe operation and control Boiler operation The procedure adopted for raising steam will vary from boiler to boiler and the manufacturer’s instructions should always be followed. knowing the total amount of expansion expected from the pipes either side of the loop. The various header vents should be closed as water is seen to flow from them.com/ . A number of aspects are common to all boilers and general procedure might be as follows:Preparations The uptakes should be checked to ensure a clear path for the exhaust gases through the boiler. except the ‘lighting up’ burner. etc.3/7. The fuel oil pressure and forced draught pressure should be matched to http://marinenotes. alarm.
Initially. the pressure remaining in the water level glass will be blown to bilge. The main and auxiliary steam lines should now be warmed through and then the drains closed.blogspot. Describe how to check correctly the water level in steaming boiler. When the steam pressure is about 3 bar below the normal operating value the safety valves should be lifted and released using the easing gear. When a drum pressure of about 2. The water level in the boiler should be carefully checked and the automatic water regulating arrangements observed for correct operation. Boiler manufacturers usually provide a steam raising diagram in the form of a graph of drum pressure against hours after flashing up.ensure good combustion with a full steady flame. drains and bypasses should then be closed. If the water cock is clear it will blow to bilge. (c) Open and close water cock. Open the drain cock. (a) Shut the steam and water cocks. (b) Open and close the steam cock. High water level in boiler (Priming of Boiler) Causes http://marinenotes. (f) Open the steam cock slowly. 6. the boiler is to be flashed up for minimum 24 hrs to ensure the settlement of furnace and correct combustion process. If the steam cock is clear it will blow to bilge. the dangers of low level and high level and corrective actions required in either place. The boiler must be brought slowly up to working pressure in order to ensure gradual expansion and to avoid overheating the superheater elements and damaging any refractory material. After ensuring the correct functioning of gauge glass watch keeper has to monitor closely the boiler water level and any variations in water level to be attended promptly. In addition the water level gauges should be blown though and checked for correct reading.2/21.1 bar has been reached the drum air vent may be closed. The superheater header vents may be closed once steam issues from them. (e) Open the water cock slowly. Checking correct water level in boiler: Following is to be strictly adopted to ensure the correct functioning of gauge glass to check water level in boiler. If the drain is clear. All other vents.com/ . (d) Close the drain cock. Once at operating pressure the boiler may be put on load and the su0perheater circulating valves closed.
Put all drains to bilges. Low water level in boiler (Tube leak / tube failure) Causes (a) Flame impingement due to badly aligned burners.blogspot. (c) Low water level in boiler tubes by means of valve stuck/partial open . The unaffected boiler water level is maintained using the main feed check valve. (e) Vibrations. the main engine throttles are shut. Symptoms (a) Dimming of lights. Monitor and check feed water tanks for contamination. (f) Very high firing rate in the beginning that causes steam blanketing and ultimately tube burst. but the affected shaft can be expected to trail.(a) High water level in boiler (b) Feed regulator non-operational (c) Auxiliary feed check valve opened accidentally (d) Rapid increase in power (e) High salinity of boiler water (f) Addition of excess boiler compound (g) Underwater explosion close to the ship. (b) Sudden drop in steam temperature. (b)Heavy loss of feed water. Symptoms (a) Leakage will result in high rushing noise of water. (b) Lack of circulation in boiler tubes. Burners are taken off the affected boiler and all steam stops are shut. http://marinenotes. Gauge glass showing dropping water level. (e) Impurities in feed water. (b) In the engine room. Drains of FD blowers and TAs are opened. noise and leaks in steam system due to water hammer Actions (a) Upon symptoms boiler controls are taken over to servo manual and appropriate valve pertaining to control the feed to be operated. (d) External corrosion of tubes. (d) High water level in boilers. (c) Drop in speed of main machinery.com/ .
An excess of alkaline salts in a boiler. Any water present in the steam entering a turbine will do considerable damage. It has been estimated that a 3mm thickness scale increases the fuel consumption by 16% and 6mm by 50%. which can result in local overheating and failure of the tubes. All steam stops on the affected boiler are shut. Explain how water treatment is provided and why is it necessary Purity of Boiler Water Most ‘pure’ water will contain some dissolved salts which come out of solution on boiling. The bicarbonates of calcium and magnesium are decomposed by heat and come out of solution as scale-forming carbonates.Actions (a) Boiler controls are taken on servo manual and boiler is flamed out immediately. The presence of dissolved oxygen and carbon dioxide in a boiler feedwater can cause considerable corrosion of the boiler and feed systems. The chlorides. to some extent sulphur. an excess of salts or oil. This is actual cracking of the metal which may lead to serious failure. together with the effects of operating stresses. This is a foam or froth which collects on the water surface in the boiler drum. magnesium and. These alkaline salts are known as temporary hardness. The auxiliary feed pump is started on cold suction and the affected boiler is flooded with cold water. sulphates and bicarbonates of calcium.blogspot. Salts whose solubility decreases with increase in temperature are those that form scale upon heating surfaces . These salts then adhere to the heating surfaces as a scale and reduce heat transfer. sulphates and nitrates are not decomposed by boiling and are known as permanent http://marinenotes. These dissolved salts in water make up what is called the ‘hardness’ of the water.com/ . Other salts remain solution and may produce acids which will attack the metal of the boiler. Boiler is fed with water till the furnace becomes black. (b) All clear evaporators are changed over to MUF. 6. This proves that the effect is not a straight line gradient but is exponential.2/22. When boiler water is contaminated by suspended matter. (c) Shaft restrictions may be imposed. Foaming leads to ‘priming’ which is the carry over of water with the steam leaving the boiler drum. will produce a condition known as ‘caustic cracking’. then ’foaming’ may occur. Calcium and magnesium salts are the main causes of hardness. Salts whose solubility increases with increase in temperature do not normally form scale upon heating surfaces. Common impurities found in the boiler water are chlorides.
hardness. remove oxygen from water. When handling. By careful use of oil heating arrangements (close watch on steam drains). effective pre-commission cleaning and maintaining the steam and condensate systems in a non-corrosive condition. sand. It is usual to carry a reserve of chemicals in the boiler water in order to deal with any ingress of dissolved oxygen that may result due to mal-operation of the deaerating equipment. Total hardness is the sum of temporary and permanent hardness and gives a measure of the scale-forming salts present in the feed water Necessity of boiler water treatment (a) To (b) To (c) To (d) To (e) To (f) To (g) To amines prevent scale formation in the boiler give alkalinity and minimize corrosion condition sludge (by sodium aluminate). Deaeration can be accomplished either mechanically or chemically. protective clothing should be worn. well ventilated place since it is a fire hazard.treat in the same way as caustic soda. etc. Hence de-aeration of the feed water is essential. the boiler of foreign matter such as oil. reduce risk of carry over of foam (by antifoam) minimize feed and condensate system from corrosion and filming Feed water treatment: Feed water treatment is achieved by adding suitable chemicals with the boiler water in appropriate quantities and is as below:(a) Prevention of scale formation in the boiler and feed system by (i) using distilled water or (ii) precipitating all scale forming salts into the form of a non-adherent sludge. or a combination of both.com/ . iron oxides copper particles. reduce risk of caustic cracking. De-aeration It has been stated for corrosion to take place O 2 must be present to accomplish the formation of metal oxides. Hydrazine should be stored in a cool. waste.blogspot. mill-scale. (b) Prevention of corrosion in the boiler and feed system by maintaining the boiler water in an alkaline condition and free from dissolved gases. http://marinenotes. (c) Control of the sludge formation and prevention of carry over with the steam (d) Prevention of entry into. The chemicals used for this purpose are usually sodium sulphate or hydrazine. weld spatter. or some other circumstances.
most ships nowadays use the more economical diesel or heavy fuel engines. and eventually absorb enough to change into a gaseous state . These types of boilers are most common because of their ability to deliver large quantities of steam. it burns to produce heat. Boiler makers have developed various designs to squeeze the most energy out of fuel and to maximized its transfer to the water.3/6. Thousands of tubes are placed in strategic location to optimize the exchange of energy from the heat to the water in the tubes. http://marinenotes.com/ . Describe the steam plant as fitted on board the ship including the design Steam Plants Water in the form of steam has the ability to store great amounts of energy. But it all boils down.2/21. where electrical machines would prove to be a hazard as in the oil industry. The water tube boiler As you can see. From there. Duties like heating cargo. The water absorbs the heat. the Babcock Marine Water Tube Boiler (below) looks very complicated. Steam Theory Within the boiler.blogspot.steam. steam brought the advent of power to the shipping world. Some ships also use boilers for auxiliary power. To the left is the basic theoretical design of a modern boiler. Describe the construction of steam plants as fitted on board the ship 6. Although boilers may no longer be commonplace for ship propulsion they are almost guaranteed to be one boiler for various duties on board a ship. Such as deck winches and pumps. fuel.6. pardon the pun. However it's time as passed. fuel and air are force into the furnace by the burner. and accommodations. the heat (flue gases) travel throughout the boiler. to the basic design shown here. There. With its ease of control and delivery. high power shaft requirements to propel the ship. There are still some steam powered vessels such as ULCC ( Ultra Large Crude Carrier ) where steam turbines can provide the necessary.
As well. or shut it down. which untreated. Feedwater is not your regular drinking water. rusting them. The water heats up and flows back to the steam drum where the steam collects. FIG.blogspot. sensors control the amount of water entering the boiler. The ht water naturally circulates through the tubes down to the lower area where it is hot. preheated. along with numerous other readings. this water is know as feedwater. Water enters the boiler. the control system is taking the temperature of the steam drum. It is treated with chemicals to neutralize various minerals in the water. The hundreds of tube start and eventually end up at the steam drum.11 http://marinenotes. Not all the water gets turn to steam. so the process starts again. Water keeps on circulating until it becomes steam. Meanwhile. You could call it the heart of the boiler. That's where the steam collects before being discharged from the boiler.com/ . at the top. would cling to the tubes clogging or worst. This would make the boiler expensive to operate because it would not be very efficient. to determine if it should keep the burner burning. Rear/Front Water wall headers Steam drum Flue gas Water wall tubes Super heater Super heaters tubes Burner Water drum Header DRUM TYPE BOILER.The large tube like structure at the top of the boiler is called the steam drum.
Auxiliary boiler On smaller ships the auxiliary boiler can be a stand alone unit and would most likely be of the fire tube boiler arrangement as described above. once enough pressure has built up the engineer will open main steam outlet valve slowly. Heat . On a modern ship. fuel tanks. In water tube boilers that could be as low as 1. or be as high as 600 .On the fire side of the boiler. pressure builds up within the boiler. which looks like a lance.flue gases . This blowing action of the steam "scrubs" the outside of the water tubes. such as the one pictured above.5 t/hr to as high as 2500 t/hr.blogspot.travels through three different sets of tubes. has a tip at the end which "blows" steam. The performance of boiler is generally referred to as tons of steam produced in one hour. supplying steam for service. know as superheated steam or dry steam (all water particle have been turn to a gaseous state). As the water turns to steam.650 degrees Celsius. But on a larger vessel it is more efficient for the auxiliary boiler to take advantage of the main engine's flue gases to heat the water. carbon deposit resulting from improper combustion or impurities in the fuel can accumulate on the outer surface of the water tube. Water tube boilers can have pressures from 7 bar (one bar = ~15 psi) to as high as 250 bar. This is the original design of boiler which brought the tide of power to the marine world. and accommodation heating system. Fire tube boilers are also known as "smoke tube" and "donkey boiler". cleaning the carbon build up. The steam temperature's can vary between saturated steam. three pass type fire tube boiler. The fire tube boiler This type of boilers started it all. Basically this means that the hot gases from the main engine must pass through a heat exchanger http://marinenotes. At a specified time the engineer uses a long tool and inserts it into the fire side of the boiler. This device. To remedy this problem the engineer will carry out soot blowing. All the tubes are surrounded by water which absorbs the heat. the fire tube boiler meet the ship's heating needs and is generally not used for deck machinery. 100 degrees Celsius steam with particle of water. The steam produced will circulate through coils in the cargo tanks.com/ . This creates an insulation which quickly decreases the energy transfer from the heat to the water. They are generally supplied as a complete package. This is a single furnace.
3/9. the flow of flue gases from the engine is controlled by a damper. Describe preparations to be made for putting the steam plant in operation Before closing up the boiler inspect the internal surfaces to ensure they are clean all openings to the boiler mountings clear obstruction buy means of search http://marinenotes.(the auxiliary fire tube boiler) before exiting to the atmosphere. the burner would automatically come on and provide heat for the water to absorb. Fig. The auxiliary boiler also has a burner assembly which can be operated while the ship is in port or when the flue gases are not hot enough to provide the necessary steam. As you can imagine if the ship's main engine was not running. there would be no hot flue gases to make steam. 9 6. With this Cochran type boiler. It is called the "cargo heating boiler". It would do so until the controls of the damper allowed the flue gases to flow through the boiler providing the necessary heat for the water. Should the damper not allow engine flue gases through.com/ BOILER FEED HEATER CONDENSER Fig.3/8. Describe circuit of generated steam ECONOMISER 6.blogspot. the burner would then shut down. 10 SCHEMATIC ARRANGEMENT OF STEAM PLANTS IN BOILER ROOM TURB INE EXTN PP MAIN FD PP .
the superheater circulating and drain valves are closed. which are then replaced. using the recirculating line to get the heated oil through the system. and ensure that all air checks operate correctly and that the forced draught fans are in working order. At a pressure of bout 1400 kN/m2 open the drains on the auxiliary steam lines.blogspot. Check the fuel oil system to ascertain it is in good order. this being done byu means of ignition equipment or a paraffin torch. crack open the auxiliary stop valve and warm the auxiliary line through. use gas oil until sufficient steam is available to heat the residual fuel oil normally used. Start the forced draught fan. When the steam pressure reached a value of about 300 kN/m2 blow through the water level gauges to ensure they are working correctly. when issuing strongly. The boiler is now ready to commence raising steam. and operate over their correct traverse.com/ . If gas air heaters are fitted that should be by-passed. Leave them closed or in mid-position as necessary. Replace any internal fittings which have been removed.balls. Now close all the air checks except for the burner to be flashed up. Operate any gas or air control dampers fitted to ensure they move freely for their full travel. http://marinenotes. flexible wires. Check the gas side of the boiler is clean and in good order. Check that all other drains and blow down valves are closed. Open the direct reading water level gauge isolating cocks. Heat the fuel oil to the required temperature. Commence to fill the boiler with hot deaerated water. Carry out a final check to make sure water level gauge cocks are open. turbo-feed pumps. and the indicator placed in service. Various auxiliary equipment such as fuel oil heaters. open the superheater circulating valve and close the air vents. Start up the fuel oil service pumps and check for leaks. air or water jets. alarm and pressure gauge connections. The boiler casing doors are now replaced. and that steam drum and superheater vents are open. together with all boilers. Continue to fill until water just shows in the water level gauges. Adjust about one hour steam should show at the drum and superheater vents and. Now close the drains and fully open the auxiliary stop valve. Remove the funnel cover. Operate all boiler mountings to ensure they work freely. and with all the air checks full open purge the boiler. If no heat is available for this. water is showing in the glass. leaving all the valves in a closed position. checking to ensure they are correctly positioned and secured. Make sure the soot blowers are correctly fitted. The super heater drains are also opened. With the steam pressure at about 1000 kN/m2 follow up the nuts on all new boiler joints. The header handhole plugs and lower manhole doors are now replaced. Use the lowest possible firing rate. can be put into service and. At this stage the initial dose of chemical treatment can be added through the top manhole doors. Close any header vents as water issues. The isolating valves on the remote reading water level indicator can now be opened. making sure any gas control dampers are in mid position so giving a clear air passage. provided this entails a flow of steam through the superheater.
Describe checks to be made during firing up of boilers Inspect the internal surface to ensure they are clean e. It must be noted that.com/ . no tools. keeping the firing rate as steady as possible.3/10. forced draft fan and fuel oil pump http://marinenotes. rags or other things left inside. Check the water level alarms. If the temperature of the superheater goes above the permitted value for the boiler reduce the rate of firing. rags. All opening of the mountings are clean properly. Operate all mounting valves to ensure they work freely and leave all valves in closed position. If new refractory material has been installed carry out the procedure more slowly. Furnace door is replaced with new joint. due to the great variety of water tube boiler designs in use. Soot blowers are correctly fitted and air control dampers move freely for their full travel. which may vary in detail from the basic principles previously stated. Then close the drains and fully open the main stop valve.Bring the boiler up to working pressure. feed water pump. Switch on the power for the combustion control panel.g. and avoiding intermittent flashing up. Only in emergency should it be carried out more rapidly. Ensure all other drain valves are shut. Check gas side of boiler and ensure they are clean e. header boilers with their greater amount of refractory material will require about eight hours to reach full pressure. or other thing left inside. At all times during the raising of steam the superheaters must be circulated with steam to prevent them overheating. alarm and pressure agauge connection valves. water cocks and shut drain cock. The procedure from flashing up to coupling up at full working pressure should take about four to six hours. Open the main steam line drains. for example. The header hand hole cover and bottom manhole door now replaced. the foregoing procedure is only to be taken as a guide. Top manhole door is replaced. Open the gauge glass steam. Mountings to be fixed back with new set of gaskets or joints. Open vent. 6. Ensure all tools are accounted for.g. and crack open the main stop valve and warm through the main steam line. no tools. Thus the engineer should always follow the procedure laid down for his particular boiler.blogspot.
When steam pressure is about 3 bar then blow though the gauge glass to ensure they are working correctly. superheat temperature control etc. secure the boiler units and detect promptly malfunctions and failures. blowdown control. Fire the boiler. Ready for raising steam. (b) Continuously control of the different parameters for water level control. ensure re-circulation is operating. fuel oil temperature control. then shut the vent.blogspot. ensuring air supply is adjusted for best combustion.3/11. controllers & control valves. The automatic control arrangement on a shipboard boiler is divided into two parts: (a) Safety system that controls that all values are within the predetermined limits and give automatic alarm if some of them are not. http://marinenotes. 6. Start the forced draught fan and purge the boiler 3-5 minutes. fuel oil pressure control. When steam c0omes out the vent. and also initiate an automatic burner trip in case of a dangerous situation. Bring the air damper to firing position. Describe automatic control for starting up & shutting down exhaust gas boiler and oil fired boiler Marine boiler plants require adequate control systems to raise steam. Initial chemical dosage can be added. Now commence to fill boiler with hot distilled water until water level below normal water level. steam pressure control. Check all control air is available to the combustion control. Start fuel pump. at lowest possible firing rate. maintain design conditions for steady steaming. As boiler heats up water level rises to about normal level.com/ .
. . . .. .. . . . ..supply .Pressure switch Feed box Fixed limb Variable limb Water level high and low level alarm fuel Photo cell non conducting charging fluid ... dv . . traps dc Level controller and amp feed not – feedback signal lines shown dotted Variable speed motor Centrifugat feed pump AUTOMATIC BOILER CONTROL SYSTEM http://marinenotes.. . ... . .. . . /\/\/\/\/\/\ ..blogspot. . . . . .......com/ air indiactor signal boiler . Master initiatin g relay . mercury Electroform level transmitter … . fuel initiator Solvent valve electrode initiator signal fan signal Electrode relay . .
com/ BOILE R S/BY .blogspot.START AUT O FLAME FAILURE FAIL TO IGNITE FAILURE HIGH HIGH WATER LEVEL HIGH WATER LEVEL LOW WATER LEVEL LOW LOW WATER LEVEL LOW FO TEMP LOW PILOT FO PRES LOW FO PRES LOW STM PRES FD FAN NON START COMBUST AIR PRES LOW BURNER NOT IN POSITION HIGH STEAM PRESSURE FEED WATER PRES LOW ALARM / CONTROL PANEL A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A MAIN BURNER FAIL TO IGNITE FLAME FAILURE NO MANUA L MAUAL RESET LOCK OUT CLEAR PREPURGE 180 SECS POST PURGE FO V/V SHUT PILOT BURNER ON LOCK OUT FLAME ON 5 SECS YES NO NO FLAME ON 5 SECS YES FO V/V SHUT POSTPURG E ON YES BLR SET PRES NO FLAME YES ON STM CUTIN PRESSUR E BOILER MODULATIN G PILOT BURNER OFF http://marinenotes.
(ii) Water level is controlled by an Electroflo type of feed regulator and controller. (d) The master now allows the fuel initiating signal to proceed.com/ .blogspot. if not then fuel is shut off. Obviously failure of any item in the above cycle causes shut down and alarm operation. Sequential level resistors are immersed in conducting mercury or non-conducting fluid.. an alarm bell rings and the cycle is repeated. (i) High or low water levels initiate alarms and allow the master to interrupt and shut down the sequential system. so that with an increased boiler load. In addition the following apply. http://marinenotes. The air feedback confirms ‘air on’ and allows 30 second time delay to proceed. (e) The master now examines the photo electric cell.Automatic boiler control system: (a) The pressure switch initiates the start of the cycle. so deciding pump speed by variable limbs level. (c) The master now allows the arc to be struck by the electrode relay. Such an arrangement makes it possible to minimize the emission of smoke during maneuvering. the air will lead the oil. The switch is often arranged to cut in at about 1 bar below the working pressure and cut out at about 1/5 bar above the working pressure (this differential is adjustable) (b) The master initiating relay now allows ‘air on’. The fixed limb level passes over a weir in the feed box. The ‘arc made’ feed back signal allows a 3 second time delay to proceed. All the classification societies have special requirement for marine applications due to the environment and the fact that one can't escape from an accident nor get service when the ship is sailing at sea. and on a decrease in the boiler load the oil will lead the air. 7 for emergency devices. The more advanced combustion controls transmit the air and oil loading simultaneously but with a slight lag between air and oil. The ‘fuel on’ feed back signal allows a 5 second time delay to proceed (this may be preceded by a fuel heating sequence for boiler oils). The combustion control system maintains constant steam pressure by controlling the flow of air and oil to the burner. If in order the cycle is complete. The solenoid valve allows fuel on to the burner. Things just have to work. Refer to fig.
Change over M/E. Describe safety devices of plant mandatory safety requirements. retract and park hoses. Stop lighting up pump (if provided).blogspot. Take care to establish a controlled rate of increase before the level leaves the top of the gauge glass Check header drains shut.3/12. Hang necessary notices. FO pump. Check all auxiliary master. do not blow down. Reduce boiler pressure as required. steam purge. stop HO and LO purifiers Stop all tanks and tracing steam heating and carry out soot blow Change over from automatic combustion control to manual firing of boiler. feed pump and combustion control panel. Clean boiler room for inspection by Chief Engineer 6. As burners are taken off. Ensure boiler pressures are dropping. Pump up boilers for 30 sec over the top by opening appropriate feed check valve. Switch off power and off the circuit breaker for forced draft fan. A/E and boiler to diesel oil Top up diesel oil service tank.com/ . http://marinenotes.Shutting down procedures of oil fired boiler Following routines are to be carried out assiduously for shutting down of boilers: Inform Chief Engineer and inform duty officer in bridge. Stop firing of boiler. Shut down boiler. throttle and exhaust valves shut on shut down machinery. Let the boiler cool down. Shut main steam stop valves and shut all fuel valves to boilers.
Ventilation systems should also be inspected and maintained to make sure that combustion gases do not build up in the boiler room. Damaged materials should be reported and repaired or removed immediately by a certified asbestos contractor. Detailed logs of boiler operation and maintenance can help ensure boiler safety. or deteriorating.Workers that use. the steam energy is released instantly. wraps. there should be plenty of clearance for workers to move around the room. flaking. proper combustion. and the flame to make sure that it is not too high and not smoky. is operating properly with no leaks. Many older boilers and hot water and steam piping may have asbestos insulation coatings. Boiler operators should ensure that the fuel system.” Workers should periodically inspect these areas to make sure that the materials are not damaged. Spills should be mopped or cleaned up immediately. Boiler rooms can be noisy. special precautions need to be taken. Repair workers should wear personal protective equipment such as hard hats. Because boilers have hot surface areas. and no flammable materials should be stored near any boiler. Boilers should always be brought on line slowly and cold water should never be injected into a hot system. When entering a boiler for service or http://marinenotes. Sudden changes in temperature can warp or rupture the boiler. Make sure that adequate lighting is provided and that malfunctioning light fixtures are repaired immediately. Because many boilers are fire-operated by natural gas. corrosion or other deformities should be repaired by an authorized technician immediately. so the area should be posted and workers should wear hearing protection when working inside the boiler room. or “lagging. heavy-duty work gloves. Though boilers are usually equipped with a pressure relief valve. maintain. the condition of the draft. operation of safety devices and gauges. and service boilers know that they can be potentially dangerous. To prevent furnace explosions. Signs of cracked surfaces. This combination of exploding metal and superheated steam can be extremely dangerous. Only trained and authorized workers should operate a boiler. Boiler repairs are allowed only by authorized boiler repair technicians.com/ .blogspot. The area around the boiler should be kept clean of dust and debris. and tanks. diesel or fuel oil. lines. Boiler operators should frequently inspect boilers for leakage. and other functions. including valves. Workers should be familiar with the boiler manufacturer's operating manual and instructions. it is imperative that boiler operators purge the boiler before ignition of the burner. if the boiler fails to contain the expansion pressure. eye protection and coveralls. Workers should check the fuel to air ratio. bulges. Floors are often sealed concrete and can be very slippery when wet.
water. the entry of the oil or other contaminants.com/ .blogspot. which will prevent over-pressure in any part of the system. Unless overpressure is prevented by the pump characteristics. usually of bronze. or which could be rendered dangerous by the failure of its feed water supply. air supply failure or flame failure. This is fitted to release excess steam pressure from the boiler before a dangerous pressure can be built up. and fuel lines should be relieved by following proper bleed and block or capping procedures. Fusible plugs A fusible plug is a threaded metal plug. brass or gun metal. When the boiler is shut down for repair. usually lead or tin. means shall be provided. (f) Every boiler essential for the safety of the ship and designed to contain water at a specified level shall be provided with at least tow means for indicating its water level. (e) Boilers shall be provided with means to supervise and control the quality of the feed water. at least two safety valves are fitted to each boiler. It is screwed into the crown sheet (the top plate) of a steam engine firebox. with a tapered hole drilled completely through its length. authorized boiler repair workers should treat the vessel as a permit-required confined space. As per international regulations. This hole is sealed with a metal of low melting point. which may adversely affect the boiler. as far as practicable. Pressure setting of one steam drum safety valve should be same as the design pressure of the boiler and the other should be 2-3% more than the design pressure of the boiler. (a) Every steam boiler and every unfired steam generator shall be provided with not less than two safety valves of adequate capacity. (d) Every steam generating system which provides services essential for the safety of the ship. Its purpose is to act as a last-resort safety device in the event of the water level falling dangerously low: when the top of the plug is out of the water it overheats. shall be provided with not less than tow separate feed systems from and including the feed pumps. (b) Each oil fired boiler which is intended to operate without manual supervision shall have safety arrangements which shut off the fuel supply and give an alarm in the case of low-water level. at least one of which shall be a direct reading gauge glass. all sources of energy should be isolated using approved Lock-out / Tag-out procedures and residual pressure in steam. typically extending about an inch into the water space above. Suitable arrangements shall be provided to preclude. the lead core melts away and the resulting noisy release of steam into the http://marinenotes. noting that a single penetration of the steam drum is acceptable. but in practice it is usual to fit three safety valves – two on the steam drum. and one on the super heater outlet header. (c) Water tube boilers serving turbine propulsion machinery shall be fitted with a high water level alarm.repair. Safety valves These are fitted to protect the boiler form the effects of overpressure.
from which historically most fireboxes were made. The temperature of the flue gases in a steam engine firebox can reach 1000 °F (550 °C). drilled in them which leak before they become unsafe. (d) Prevention of entry into the boiler of foreign matter such as oil. (b) Prevention of corrosion in the boiler and feed system by maintaining the boiler water in and alkaline condition and free from dissolved gases. effective pre-commission cleaning and maintaining the steam & condensate system in a non-corrosive condition. physically link the firebox and boiler casing.3/13. called tell-tales. sand weld spatter etc. (c) Control of sludge formation and prevention of carry over with the system. or ties.firebox serves to warn the operators of the danger before the top of the firebox itself runs completely dry. (f) To reduce risk of carry over of foam (by antifoam) (g) To minimize feed and condensate system from corrosion and filming amines The principal objects of boiler feed water treatment should be:(a) Prevention of scale formation in the boiler and feed system by (i) Using distilled water or (ii) Precipitating all scale forming salts into the form of a nonadherent sludge. waste. at which temperature copper. Describe the testing and treatment of boiler feed water What is the purpose of boiler water treatment? (a) To prevent scale formation in the boiler (b) To give alkalinity and minimize corrosion (c) To condition sludge (by sodium aluminate). Stays Stays. the stays may have longitudinal holes.com/ . it is not expected to have any great impact in quenching the fire. Since any corrosion is hidden. http://marinenotes. (e) To reduce risk of caustic cracking. softens to a state which can no longer sustain the boiler pressure and a severe explosion will result if water is not put into the boiler quickly and the fire thrown out. (d) To remove oxygen from water. The hole is too small to have any great effect in reducing the steam pressure and. preventing them from warping. copper particles. iron oxide. as little or no water passes through. mill-scale. 6. By careful use of coil heating arrangements.blogspot.
If a pure blue color develops. Reagents 16 oz.Boiler water should be regularly tested and the treatment of the boiler water should be conducted according to the results obtained from the results.100ml capacity 1-Strirring Rod 1-Brass measuring scoop Procedure 1. 2. graduated. For accurate testing of the boiler water. 10 ml 1-Evaporating Dish 1-Cylinder. Stir until dissolved.com/ . 3. TOTAL HARDNESS TEST Apparatus 1-Burette. 4. Refined tests are being practiced to ascertain the exact quantity of alkalinity and salinity concentrations. Transfer 50 ml feedwater sample to the evaporating dish. automatic. adding the reagent drop by drop with continuous stirring as the red color fades. bottle Drew Dry Total Hardness Indicator Calculations: Total hardness (PPM as CaCO3) equals ml versenate solution X 20. ALKALINITY TEST http://marinenotes. Add one plastic scoop of Drew Dry Total Hardness indicator. The end point is a pure sky blue color without any reddish tinge. Add one brass scoop of Drew Dry Total Hardness indicator. above said tests are inadequate. For low pressure boilers salinometers and litmus paper s are still frequently used as testing equipment. the hardness is zero. bottle Versenate solution Ethylenedimaine Tetraacetate (1ml equals 1 ml as CaCO3) 4 oz. Titrate with standard versenate solution. Stir until dissolved. 5.blogspot. Any reddish color indicates hardness is present. bottle Drew Dry total Hardness Buffer Reagent with plastic scoop 4 oz. If test result is in excess of _____________ add ____________ B according to dosing instructions and investigate source of contamination.
Add 4 drops of phenolphthalein Indicator. the test is ended. Fill burette to 0. B. record Zero phenolphthalein alkalinity. 4.) Do not discard sample do not refill burette 6. sample turns pink or red with Phenolphthalein. Add sulfuric acid. 3. When a permanent. Calculations of results (Ml of N/50 sulfuric acid) X 20 = (ppm phenolphthalein alkalinity). Calculation of result: (Total ml of N/50 sulfuric acid – 0. Proceed to Part B (Total Alkalinity test) 5. Color change will go from green to slate gray to purple. stirring continuously. 2. 3. Discard sample. Record the total alkalinity in the daily log. bottle with burette Phenolphthalein Indicator1 oz dropping bottle Total Alkalinity Indiacator 1 oz.Apparatus 10 ml automatic burette White porcelain evaporating dish 100ml graduated cylinder Stirring rod Reagents Sulfuring acid N/50 16 oz. For convenience use titration chart to get results. 4. pale purple color develops throughout the sample.com/ . drop by drop. Do not refill burette. add N/50 sulfuric acid drop by drop while stirring continuously. Sample will turn a green color.0 mark with N/50 sulfuric acid\ Using graduated cylinder. use the titration chart to get result.blogspot. A purple color will soon begin to form where the drops fall into the sample.6) X 20 = ppm Total Alkalinity. dropping bottle Procedure A. PHENOLPHTHALEIN ALKALINITY TEST 1. measure 50ml of boiler water to be tested. Continue until pink color disappears (sample is back to its original color. Stir. however. Record the Phenolphthalein Alkalinity in the daily log and proceed with Part B TOTAL ALKALINITY TEST 1. For convenience. If no pink or red color develops. The purple color is the end point. 2. http://marinenotes. 7. If. Use the same sample that was used for the Phenolphthalein Alkalinity test and add exactly 4 drops of Total Alkalinity Indicator.
0 mark with 0. Measure 100ml alcohol and add to bottle.0141 N 16 0z. CONTACT WITH EYES Test procedure 1. Fill burette to 0. measure 50 ml of boiler water and transfer into the evaporating dish. 2. amber glass dropping bottle. AVOID http://marinenotes.CHLORIDE TEST Apparatus 10 ml automatic burette White porcelain evaporating dish 100ml graduated cylinder Stirring rod Reagents Mixed Chloride Indicator – Make up fresh every 4 weeks. Stir.blogspot. Amber glass dropping bottle Reagents 1 capsule of mixed chloride indicator (Diphenyl Carbazone Indicator) Methyl alcohol (anhydrous) Procedure 1. Empty capsule of indicator powder into 4 oz.bottle with burette Preparation of mixed chloride indicator Apparatus 100 ml graduated cylinder 4 oz.com/ . 0. Add 10 drops of Mixed Chloride Indicator. 4. Cap bottle. Do not use th4e sample that was used for the Alkalinity tests. dropping bottle Mercuric Nitrate. 2. Discard any indicator that is 4 weeks old. Dissolve powder by swirling or shaking.0141 N Mercuric Nitrate. 3. Make up fresh every 4 weeks. 3. CAUTION! METHYL ALCOHOL IS POISONOUS. DO NOT SWALLOW. Using graduated cylinder. Discard any indicator over 4 weeks old Nitric Acid N/50 1 oz.
Sampling http://marinenotes. To make demineralized water. * Boiler water treatment using “BOILER WATER TEST KIT (FULL SERVICE) SPECTRAPAK 311 This test kit is for phosphate. double the ppm reading. If the results of the phosphate test show a reading above the upper limit of 25 ppm. Proceed with steps 2 through 8 and. Continue until sample just turns yellow.) When this occurs.0141 N Mercuric Nitrate) X 10 = ppm Chloride.4. for results. start continuous blowdown and investigate source. Continue until the color of the sample color appears to be between two standards. Procedure (1) Filter 5 ml of boiler water into the phosphate mixing tube.0141 N Mercuric Nitrate drop by drop while stirring until the sample shows the first permanent violet color. it will be necessary to repeat the testing using a diluted sample. The hydrazine is an optional extra (Spectrapak 312). 6. When a color match is obtained. Dilute to 10 ml with distilled or demineralized* water. 7. NOTE that a comparison can be made only when one of the white lines on the slide is opposite the middle (sample) tube. 5. simply fill plastic bottle with distillate and squeeze though demineralizer cartridge. Then add another 5 drops of the acid. The cartridge is good until the demineralizer beads change color as indicated in the manufacturer’s instructions. while comparing the color of the sample with those of the standards in the slide. The water discharged from the cartridge will be equivalent to distilled water. simply replace the cartridge. 8. the color change is from blue to brown. Compare test result with limit marked on the control chart. Readings below recommended limits require proportionate dosing. Repeat test in 30 minutes. Readings in excess of limits require blowdown. (In the “Deem” cartridge. Place the comparator base slide in its slot the base. the actual reading is 30 ppm). Move the slide form side to side. Read the burette. take the average of both readings. use the titration chart to get results. Add N/5 Nitric Acid drop by drop. If too high. Add 0. while stirring. Refer to dosing instructions. read the test result in ppm phosphate from the numbers on the slide.blogspot. P&M alkalinity chloride and pH.com/ . For convenience. In the latter case. (for example if slide shows 15 ppm with diluted sample. Calculation of results: (Ml of 0. Compare phosphate readings with limit marked on the control chart.
against the date on which the test was taken. 12 tablets = (12 x 20)-10 = 230 ppm CaCO3 • Record the result obtained on the log sheet provided.g. P Alkalinity (PPM CaCO3) • • • • • Take a 200ml water sample in the stopped bottle. If alkalinity is present the sample will turn blue. Always take water sample from the same place. Count the number of tablets used and carry out the following calculations:P Alkalinity.blogspot. Slide the phosphate disc into the comparator. After 10 min place this cell into the right hand compartment of the comparator. one at a time (giving time for the tablet to dissolve). http://marinenotes. against the date on which the test was taken. Record the result obtained on the log sheet provided. crush and mix until completely dissolved.com/ . Rotate the disc until a colour match is obtained. Place one cell in the left hand compartment To the other cell add one phosphate tablet. Hold the comparator towards a light. ppm CaCO3 = (Number of tablets x 20) – 10 e. Filter the water sample into both cells up to the 10ml mark. Repeat the tablet addition. until the blue colour turns to permanent yellow. Allow the water to flow from the sample cock before taking the sample for testing to ensure the line is clear of sediment.A representative ware sample is required. Phosphate PPM PO4 • • • • • • • • • Take the comparator with the 10 ml cells provided. Add one P alkalinity tablet and shake or rush to disintegrate.
For larger steps of ppm chloride use a smaller sample. 4 tablets = (4 x 10) – 10 = 30 ppm For 50ml water sample – Chloride ppm = (Number of tablets x 20)-20 e. until the yellow colour changes to permanent red/brown.blogspot. for low chloride levels use 100ml water sample for higher chloride levels use 50ml water sample • Take the water sample in the stoppered bottle provided. Sample should turn yellow if chlorides are present. Repeat tablet addition. • Add one chloride tablet and shake to disintegrate. 4 tablets = (4 x 20) – 20 = 60 ppm For smaller steps of ppm chloride use a larger sample. http://marinenotes. The higher the chloride level the smaller the size of water sample used – this saves tablets. e. • Count the number of tablets used and perform the following calculations:For 100ml water sample – Chloride ppm = (Number of tablets x 10)-10 e. Count the number of tablets used and carry out the following calculations:M Alkalinity. until the sample turns to permanent red/pink. and 5M. one at a time (giving time for the tablet to dissolve). Alkalinity tablets are used M alkalinity = [(12+5) x 20)]-10 = 330 ppm CaCO3 • Record the result obtained on the log sheet provided. against the date on which the test was taken.g.com/ .g.• Retain the sample for the M Alkalinity test.g. ppm CaCO3 = (Number of P & M tablets x 20) – 10 e. M Alkalinity (PPM CaCO3) • • • To the P alkalinity sample add one M alkalinity tablet and shake or crush to disintegrate. 12 P. • Repeat the tablet addition.g. Chloride (PPM) Cl The range of chloride to be tested determines the size of water sample used. one at a time (giving time for the tablet to dissolve).
Cloudy samples should be filtered before testing. • Record the reading shown as ppm hydrazine. allow to dissolve.5 – 14. Not to be taken internally. • Using the white 0. Keep away from children. against the date at which the test was taken. • Place one cell in the left hand compartment of the comparator. • Record the pH value obtained on the log sheet provided. add one measure of the pH reagent to the water sample. • Slide the hydrazine disc into the comparator. • Select the correct range of pH test strip and dip it into the water sample for approximately 10 seconds.5 – 10. Hydrazine PPM Spectrapak 312 This is an optional extra (order Spectrapak 312).0 For condensate water • Take a 50ml sample of water to be tested in the plastic sample container provided. • To the other cell add one measure of hydrazine powder (using the black 1grm scoop provided) and mix until completely dissolved. • Hold up to the light and rotate the disc until a colour match is obtained.blogspot.Record the result obtained on the log sheet provided.com/ . A cooling coil should be fitted at the sampling point or the sample should be cooled immediately under cold running water. This test must be performed below 210C. Frequent problem observed is that whenever there is sudden load change the boiler drum level control goes haywire leading to http://marinenotes.0 For boiler water 6. • Add the water sample to both cells up to the 10 ml mark. • FAQs on Marine Boilers Question: Boiler drum level control goes haywire We are having 100 tones FBC boilers. • Take the comparator with the 10ml cells provided. Stir if required. Wash hands after use. pH Test 7. against the date on which the test was taken.6grm scoop provided. • Withdraw the strip from the sample and compare the colour obtained with the colour scale on the pH indicator strips container. • Wait 2 minutes and place the cell in the right hand compartment of the comparator. Safety: These reagents are for chemical testing only.
causing problems with turbines and engines.blogspot. be fired with light crude oil directly from the cargo-tanks? Answer: A completely new fuel system is required. equally vented. but even that water caused problem with salt in the boilers although it is supposed to be fresh-water.tripping of boiler and turbine on drum level low or high. Question: Seawater in the boiler If the boiler had to be operated with seawater what would be the result. Salt will son precipitate and accumulate on the bottom and also on the heating surface where it. there have to be ducting enclosing the entire fuel-system with forced draft fans that vent 30 times the volume of the trunking to the outside. Question: Heavy fuel oil viscosity Heavy fuel oil viscosity is defined in the standards as the viscosity at 100°C yet the oils are often described in terms of their nominal 40 or 50°C temperature viscosities. You may also get foam in the boiler that will cause difficulties to maintain the water level and water droplets might follow with the steam. It is very dangerous to operate a boiler with salt in it.g. There are two main contractors who are capable and willing to carry this out: HAMWORTHY-Combustion Engineering in UK and SAACKE in Germany. just as boiler-scales. Loosen the impulse pipes and cleanse the holes into the measuring orifice. Answer: The salinity will rise rapidly since the salt remains in the boiler while the water boils off. After this emergency operation it would be wise to open up the boiler for inspection since seawater further accumulation of scales. from deck to the burner rails of the boiler.5% (boilermakers and classification societies may recommend other values). Naturally there have to be new burners and so is the burner management. Question: Firing light crude oil Can a Main Boiler built to fire 380 cst HFO. and you have to control the salt concentration by frequently blowing off from the bottom of the boiler and form the water surface to keep the salinity below 9. inhibit the heat transmission to the water and causes the metal to overheat and in worst case burst. a G35 oil (35cst at 100°C) is often described as anything from a 350cst to 390cst http://marinenotes. It would also be a good measure to reduce the capacity of the boiler.com/ . Also there have to be a burner hood to be constructed all over the burner roof. Answer: The most common fault with a three-point level controller is the steam flow transmitter. e. To prevent any possibility of gasses leaking from flanges. Our drum level control is 3element control in auto mode. In the old days some ships sailing on lakes used the lakes water as make up water for their boilers.
My question is. you discover oil showing in the water level gauge glass of an auxiliary boiler. It also forms a heat insulating film. The temperature of the heavy fuel oil is very often 130°C to 150°C and water introduced to that temperature would immediately evaporate into steam. This heating cost money. or less.blogspot. Describe the remedial actions you would take. sometimes a carbonized layer. The leaks occur when some part expands more. normal operation pressure before you start high firing. Oil present. Question: Oil showing in the water level gauge glass Whilst on your engine room rounds. Answer: Stop the burner immediately. than the rest of the boiler. in boiler water will cause foaming and moisture carry-over. If you have some waste heat to be used for preheating the combustion air it will pay. over tubes or shell surfaces. Testing aboard ship or in boiler houses appears to test the viscosity at 50°C. Even a http://marinenotes. Refineries blend to control the viscosity at 100°C. When boiling. explaining why such actions must not be delayed. how is the blending of oil in the terminals or on fuel barges controlled? and how reliable is this in achieving the required viscosity? Answer: The values you get from my Fuel Oil Calculation program are normally sufficient for firing a boilers heavy fuel oil burner. it is difficult to make a good correlation between the 50°C and 100°C measurements. or almost to. Question: Heating up a fire-tube boiler Is there a minimum temperature that a fire-tube boiler should reach before going to a high fire state to prevent tubes from leaking? Answer: The important thing is to heat up the boiler slowly so all parts of the boiler expand just as much.com/ . Because of the variation in quality of the residual oil and distillate that make up a heavy fuel oil. This kind of problem is very likely to occur when you change fuel oil tank and some water from a poorly drained pipe mixes with the heavy fuel oil. The situation might be dangerous since the safety valves not are designed for steam. even small quantities. For a diesel engine on the other hand. You will be on the safe side if you slowly heat up the boiler to. Question: Combustion air preheating Please tell me how air inlet temperature affects boiler efficiency. What are the benefits of air preheating? Answer: The combustion air will be heated to the flame temperature.oil. it expands about 1590 times. Question: Water in the heavy fuel oil Is it possible to overheat heavy fuel oil thus causing any water in it to turn to steam and cause problems at the pump and burner? [ Answer: Yes it is. I assume that an automatic viscosity-controller would be indispensable.
The oil manifests itself by forming an oily ring inside the water gauge glasses. This system requires an extra sensor to trip burner at emergency low water level. Question: Emergency low boiler water level You are an officer on watch. & finds the boiler water-level gauge glass to be empty & the burner firing. but not the burner.blogspot. Question: Differential pressure transmitters for the steam drum level Way is the high pressure leg of the transmitter connected to the water side and the low-pressure leg connected to the steam side? Answer: The signal from the transmitter ought to increase when the water level raises and decreases when the level falls. http://marinenotes. However. This signal can be used to control the level as well. and give impulse to stop the burner. it means that there is still a water level in the water leg. To compensate for the water column in the reference leg the output signal's zero-point has to be elevated. with the low pressure side to lower end and the high pressure side to upper end.What is your course of action? (Assuming the gauge glass to be clear & good working order) Answer: Normally a boiler is provided with two independent sensors for emergency low water level burner cut-outs. This is the common method.. The output will increase when the level is raised. Both requirements will be fulfilled if the transmitter is mounted with the high pressure measuring point connected below the lowest water level and the low pressure measuring point connected above the highest water level. in case of transmitter malfunction. but the signal can not be used to stop the burner for emergency low level in case of power failure or cable breakdown. don’t take any chances! Shut off the burners immediately! Before you start raising the level in the boiler you have to find out if any part of the furnace walls has been overheated..very thin layer may result in tube or plate material failure due to overheating. One can of course use the emergency high water level alarm to stop the burner. at the water level. but this is not correct. The emergency high water level shall stop the feed water pump and whenever applicable stop the steam turbine.com/ . Furthermore the signal shall be zero. So this would never happen. If you raise the level over a glowing steel-wall then the boiler might produce more steam than the safety valves can handle and a nasty explosion would be the result. if it does. which is also over the highest heat exchange surface in a firetube boiler. power failure or cable breakdown. A quick test to see if it is safe to put water into the boiler is to temporarily close the steam cock on the gauge glass. If the level rises to the top of the glass. If the transmitter is swapped. then the signal will decrease when the level is raised. The water rises because of the vacuum caused in the glass with condensing steam.
Answer: Check if: • The control valve really is fully open by means of the hand-maneuver device. You can hardly imagine the damage this energy can cause. Answer: Increasing the burners turn down ratio would be a nice solution. • The feed water pump discharge pressure is sufficient. or at least a big steam valve. i.Question: Fluctuating boiler water level The feed water control valve is fully open and the water levels fluctuate at normal boiler load. Transmitters and sensors 40 % Actuators 25 % Controllers 10 % Loss of electric power 5% Others 20 % Question: Open steam valves slowly Why has a steam valve. prevent the burner from increasing the load just after the burner start.. Thermal stress is another reason to be very cautious and drain out water carefully http://marinenotes. • The feed water control valve pressure drop is normal. (>=2 bar or >=30 psi) Question: The burner starts and stops very often The burner starts and stops very often. Then the fan will continue to run during the shortest burner stops and the combustion air fan motor will get a little rest from the start current. bend or other obstacle the speed of the water mass will be converted into pressure.com/ . sometimes every second minute. Answer: When you have problem with a boiler control system you should keep in mind that most faults occur outside the control cubicle.e. At next valve. but it's not always possibly. then you will get a projectile of one kg rushing down the pipe. • All stop valves in the line are fully open. • Run the burner in minimum load. Question: Most likely source of errors In which part of a boiler control system is it most likely to get a failure. to be opened slowly? Answer: If you have a one liter of water standing in the pipe just after the valve and open the valve too fast. An alarming temperature-raise has been observed in the combustion air fans electric motor. Statistically calculated faults in control systems. • The suction filter to the feed water pump is satisfactory clean. • Install a five to ten minutes' time-delay in the fan-motor stop function.blogspot. your problem might not be among the most common. but on the other hand.
Normally one part of the boiler is heated by means of a fuel oil burner and the other part is heated by the exhaust gases from a diesel engine. When this condition occurs we have a serious water carryover problem. A large steam valve ought to have a small by-pass valve to simplify preheating of the pipe. Question: Composite Boilers What is the inherent problem in Composite Boiler? Answer: There are different types of composite boilers. is a measure of the Fuel Oils Ignition Quality. First of all recalculate the control valves.com/ . I look forward to any advise. One single composite boiler does not fulfill normal requirement of redundancy when the steam is used for essential service purpose. Question: Steam valves open causing a sudden large load I have two 82. To start up the line you will need a drain valve on every 30 m (100 ft). occasionally all of the building steam valves open causing a sudden large load on the boilers that lasts for 20 to 30 minutes. three element drum level and oxygen trim.blogspot. Over-sized control valves are very common cause of problems. CCAI What is the CCAI of a fuel oil? Answer: The CCAI.when you open a steam valve. Answer: The steam capacity doesn’t seem to be sufficient to supply all the fully open control valves. Due to an unresolvable characteristic of the building control system. Question: Transport superheated steam Is it possible to transport superheated steam of the order of 45 t/h at 30 bar pressure and temp of 300 deg from a aux boiler to a distance of 1. To avoid water hammering the pipe-line should slop slightly downwards in the steam flowing direction. The demand for steam is not real in that no heat is actually required by the buildings. each with an integrated building management control system. the Calculated Carbon Aromaticity Index.5 Km? Answer: Calculate with a velocity of 15 m/s (49 ft/s).000 lb/hr natural gas fired boiler that is designed for 300 psig and operating at 205 psig (saturated). My question is how can we maintain boiler pressure and water level while either ignoring or controlling the sudden false load. Our combustion control system is a PLC based system. http://marinenotes. Question: Fuel Oil Ignition Quality. metered/cross limited air-fuel ratio . • • Heating of one part of a boiler at the time often causes thermal stress that may lead to leakage. The boilers serve a large campus with numerous buildings. Shall we try to correct thorugh the control algorithm or add backpressure control valves.
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