Analysis of business portfolio of a beverage company using BCG matrix MB0030 Assignment

This is Marketing Management MBA assignment of SMU. The subject code is MB0030 which is related to marketing management assignment. Question of assignment is ± ³Analyze the business portfolio of a beverage company using BCG matrix´. Now, follow to the answer for ³Analyze the business portfolio of a beverage company using BCG matrix´ below The current business portfolio of the company is analyzed by the business in which it operates. To make it clearer, let me take an example of ITC group. The company operates in FMCG, hotels, paper boards, specialty papers and packaging and agribusiness. These business are independent from each other and here their mission and objectives separately. These subsidiaries of organization or called as strategic business units (SBU). Strategic business unit: The unit of the company that has separate mission and objectives and that can be planned independently from other business. Strategic planning models used in assessing the existing business. BCG matrix: (Boston Consultancy Group) BCG matrix: This model is used to identify company¶s SBU¶s position in the market. This model identifies the SBU¶s strength, weakness, opportunities and threats on the basis of market growth rate and relative market share. The model is also known as growth share matrix. Axis components: 1. Market growth rate: The rate at which market is growing 2. Relative market share: Market share of the SBU divided by the market share of the largest competitor. Model Components: Star: This category represents the high market share and high industry growth. SBU¶s in this category require large investment to defend their position. SBU will return as cash cow after some time. Cash Cows: This category represents the low growth rate and high

market share which is the characteristic of SBU operating in mature industry. Here company needs less investment to hold their position. Hence it generates more cash or in management terms we say cash cow can be milked. Question Mark: This category repre sents high market growth and low market share. SBU¶s in this category has tow options, either to invest heavily and bring them to star position or divest/liquidates from that position. Dogs: SBU¶s in this category less cash for the company as it operates in low growth and low market share usually companies will not invest is this category and try to liquidates or divest. BCG Matrix Industry growth rate: 24% Company growth rate: 50%

Analysis of business portfolio of a beverage company using BCG matrix MB0030 Assignment This is Marketing Management MBA assignment of SMU. The subject code is MB0030 which is related to marketing management assignment. Question of assignment is ± ³Analyze the business portfolio of a beverage company using BCG matrix´. Now, follow to the answer for ³Analyze the business portfolio of a beverage company using BCG matrix´ below The current business portfolio of the company is analyzed by the business in which it operates. To make it clearer, let me take an example of ITC group. The company operates in FMCG, hotels, paper boards, specialty papers and packaging and agribusiness. These business are independent from each other and here their mission and objectives separately. These subsidiaries of organization or called as strategic business units (SBU). Strategic business unit: The unit of the company that has separate mission and objectives and that can be planned independently from other business.

Strategic planning models used in assessing the existing business. BCG matrix: (Boston Consultancy Group) BCG matrix: This model is used to identify company¶s SBU¶s position in the market. This model identifies the SBU¶s strength, weakness, opportunities and threats on the basis of market growth rate and relative market share. The Axis model is also known as growth share matrix.

components:

1. Market growth rate: The rate at which market is growing 2. Relative market share: Market share of the SBU divided by the market share of the largest competitor. Model Components:

Star: This category represents the high market share and high industry growth. SBU¶s in this category require large investment to defend their position. SBU will return as cash cow after some time. Cash Cows: This category represents the low growth rate and high market share which is the characteristic of SBU operating in mature industry. Here company needs less investment to hold their position. Hence it generates more cash or in management terms we say cash cow can be milked. Question Mark: This category represents high market growth and low market share. SBU¶s in this category has tow options, either to invest heavily and bring them to star position or divest/liquidates from that position. Dogs: SBU¶s in this category less cash for the company as it operates in low growth and low market share usually companies

will not invest is this category and try to liquidates or divest. BCG Industry growth Company growth rate: 50% rate: Matrix 24%

Figure (2): BCG Product Portfolio Matrix

Source: The Author

³A business model is a conceptual tool that contains a big set of elements and their relationships and allows expressing the business logic of a specific firm. It is a description of the value a company offers to one or several segments of customers and of the architecture of the firm and its network of partners for creating, marketing, and delivering this value and relationship capital, to generate profitable and sustainable revenue streams.´ Osterwalder, Pigneur and Tucci (2005)

Business excellence has been embedded in the Tata Group through a holistic

methodology that enables the group to paying attention on quality. The Tata Business Excellence Model (TBEM) is adopted by the group in the early 1990¶s from the renowned ³Malcolm Baldrige´ to achieve chiselled degrees of business excellence. TBEM is a model determining the quality movement in the group. The Model works under the protection of Tata Quality Management Services (TQMS), ³an in-house organisation mandated to help different Tata companies achieve their business objectives through specific processes.´ The TBEM methodology has been influenced to deliver strategic focus and aim business melioration. ³TBEM holds elements that enable the group to capture the best of global business processes and practices. It translates into an ability to evolve and stay in step with ever-changing business performance parameters,´ (Osterwalder, Pigneur and Tucci, 2005).

Furthermore; the Tata¶s business model takes care the value proportion of what is proposed to the market; and makes sure that the target customer segments are also addressed by the value proposition. For example; the Tata¶s recent announcement, of launching the cheapest cars for the Indian market for the target market of two wheeler

owners such as motorcycle and scooter. The group developed the effective distribution channels to reach customers to offer the value proposition and to establish the relationship with the customers. The group uses the core capacities needed to make the business model possible, and effectively configure the activities to implement the business model. An excellent business model should be able to generate the effective competitive advantage and the value chain of a company, in order to fit with the company¶s strategies.

Tata¶s competitive advantage and value chain

Hard work, preparation, research, thinking, getting the value proposition right and serving the customer better, can take care of the economic challenges. When things change, reacting appropriately to the change helps. Moraes (2006) said that, ³The house of Tatas is, I think, amazingly placed. Owing to our Indian base, we have a core competitive advantage --our people. We have more high quality people available at a lower cost than most of our competitors in the international market place.´ µPorter¶ identifies two type of competitive advantage, ³one is to compete on the basis of lower

cost then their rivals, or on the basis of differentiation where they provide some unique and superior value, Stated Stacy (1993, p 57). Furthermore Stacy (1993, p 57); Robson (1997, p-52); Thompson, (2001, p 312) indicated that the firms can use these competitive advantages either in a broad or narrow way, with their competitive scope.´ In figure (3) µPorter¶ had suggested four kinds of strategies. In Tata¶s case, such as steel industry where the industry structure is that low cost is the source of competitive advantage, then the group may success only if they takes a broad approach and goes for cost leadership. In case of Tata automobile parts industry, the standardisation of product will help the group to achieve the lowest cost of products and while adopting the cost focus strategy. Cost focus strategy will also help the group to sweep out the highest cost producer competitors from the market. In differentiation strategy the group will succeed only if they take a broad approach and differentiate its whole range of products; for example Tata¶s Automobile; the launch of lowest cost car in Indian market.
Strategy Formulation
You have been given the BCG matrix on two divisions of your company - the appliance and electronics divisions. It appears that the electronics division can be located in the upper right quadrant of the matrix and the appliance division appears in the lower left quadrant of the matrix. You need to offer a strategic recommendation based on these findings. Include an opinion on how much

reliance the company should have on these findings, what these findings suggest, what recommendations you would make, and wha t other measurements should be used to help reinforce or negate these findings. Support your answer. I have included some reading.
Attached file(s):

Strategy Formulation.doc View File

Attachment Content Summary (Note: view attachment at the above link before purchasing. Actual attachment content may vary slightly from that shown below.) Strategy Formulation.doc Strategy Formulation Introduction Today's competitive business environment necessitates budget -oriented planning or forecast -based planning methods for a large organization to survive and prosper. The firm must engage in strategic planning that plainly defines objectives and evaluates both the int ernal and external state of affairs to devise strategy, execute the strategy, assess the advancement, and fine -tune as necessary to stay on track. Strategy Formulation Based on the information from the environmental scan, the organization should match its strengths to the opportunities identified, while dealing with its weaknesses and external threats. To realize exceptional profitability, the company seeks to foster a competitive advantage over its competitors. A competitive advantage can be based on co st or differentiation. Michael Porter identified three industry-independent generic strategies from which the firm can choose⼴cost leadership, differentiation, and focus. Strategy Implementation The chosen strategy is executed by way of programs, budge ts, and procedures. Execution involves organization of the company⼌s resources and motivation of the staff to attain the objectives. The means by which the strategy is executed can have a major impact on whether it will be successful. In a large organiz ation, those who put the strategy into practice likely will be different people from those who created it. Care must be taken to convey the strategy and the logic behind it. Otherwise, the execution might not succeed if the strategy is misinterpreted or if managers decline to accept its implementation because they do not comprehend why the particular strategy was chosen. SWOT Analysis

Scanning the internal and external conditions is an important part of the strategic planning process. Environmental factor s internal to the organization typically can be documented as strengths (S) or weaknesses (W), and those external to the firm can be classified as opportunities (O) or threats (T). Such a study of the strategic environment is referred to as a SWOT analysis . The SWOT analysis provides information that assist matching the company⼌s resources and capabilities to the competitive environment in which it operates. It is therefore vital in strategy formulation and selection. Strengths. A company⼌s strengths are its resources and means for developing a competitive advantage. Strengths might include: Patents Strong brand names Good reputation among customers Cost advantages from proprietary know -how Exclusive access to high grade natural resources Favorable access to distribution networks Weaknesses. A company might also have certain weaknesses. Each of the following might be considered a weakness: Not having patent protection An unimpressive brand name Mediocre reputation among clients High cost structure Lack of access to the best natural resources Lack of access to key distribution channels A strength could also be a weakness in certain situations. For example, a firm's large amount of manufacturing capacity might be considered a strength because it is not shared by its competitors, but that strength also may be considered a weakness if the large outlay in manufacturing capacity prevents the company from reacting quickly to strategic environmental changes. Opportunities. The external environmenta l analysis may reveal certain new opportunities for profit and growth. Some examples of such opportunities include: An unfulfilled customer need Arrival of new technologies Loosening of regulations

Removal of international trade barriers Threats. Exte rnal environmental changes also may present threats to an organization. Some examples of such threats include: Fluctuates in consumer tastes away from the company's products Surfacing of replacement products New regulations Increased trade barriers Pursuing the most lucrative opportunities may not be the best strategy for a company. A firm may have a better opportunity at devising a competitive advantage by identifying a fit between the firm's strengths and upcoming opportunities. The firm can, in some cases, overcome a weakness to ready itself to pursue a compelling opportunity. Source: QuickMBA.com. "The Strategic Planning Process." 2003. http://www.quickmba.com/strategy/strategic -planning

Questions and Answers Question #1 What is Porter⼌s Competitive Strategy? A firm positions itself by taking advantage of its strengths. Michael Porter claimed that a company⼌s strengths eventually fall into either cost advantage or differentiation categories. Companies can use these strengths to pursue three generic strategies: cost leadership, differentiation, and focus. Companies apply these strategies at the business unit level. They are called generic strategies, because they are not firm or industry dependent. Cost Leadership Strategy This strategy calls for the low-cost maker in an industry for a certain level of quality. The company sells its goods at an average industry price for a profit higher than that of competitors, or below the average industry prices to gain market share. With price wars, an organization can maintain a modest profit, while the rivals suffer losses. Even without a price war, as the industry becomes seasoned and prices decrease, the companies that can manufacture less expensively will remain profitable for a longer period of ti me. The cost leadership strategy usually targets a board market. Differentiation Strategy A differentiation strategy is developing a product or service that offers distinctive characteristics that customers value and perceive as better and different from the products of the rivals. A company can charge a premium price for the value added by the exclusivity of the product. The firm hopes that the higher price will more than cover the extra costs incurred in offering the unique product. Because of the

product⼌s unique attributes, suppliers increase their prices in hopes that companies may be able to pass along the costs to its customers who cannot find substitute products easily. Focus Strategy The focus strategy focuses on a limited segment, and within that segment attempts to achieve either a cost advantage or differentiation. The belief is that the needs of the group can be better served by focusing on it entirely. A firm using a focus strategy often enjoys a high degree of customer loyalty, and this w ell-established loyalty dissuades other companies from competing directly. Source: Porter⼌s Generic Strategies. Internet Center for Management and Business Administration, Inc. http://www.quickmba.com/strategy/generic.shtml Question #2 What are retre nchment strategies? A firm emphasizes efforts to reduce internal costs to counterbalance the potential or real loss of income or grant monies. Examples include increasing staff workloads, increasing part time or volunteer workforce, abolishing services or programs, or reducing non-fixed expenses such as training or supplies. Retrenchment occurs when an organization regroups through cost and asset reduction to reverse declining sales and profits. Retrenchment is sometimes called a turn around or reorganiza tion strategy and is designed to strengthen a struggling organization⼌s distinctive competencies. During retrenchment, a company is forced to work with limited resources and confronts pressures from the stakeholders. Organizations may need to sell off la nd and buildings to raise needed cash, pruning product lines, closing marginally profitable businesses, closing obsolete factories, automating processes, reducing the number of employees, and instituting expense control systems. Retrenchment usually occurs when changes occur in top management. Sources: What is a strategic plan? Evergreen State Society. http://www.nonprofits.org/npofaq/03/23.html Sturges, D. L. Strategic Management. http://www.baclass.panam.edu/mana6390/flashreports/FR3B.htm Question #3 How is a BDC Growth-Share Matrix used? The Boston Consulting Group (BCG) invented this portfolio management matrix. Using this growth-share approach, a company classifies all its Strategic Business Units (SBUs). The model is explained with the help of a grid. On the vertical axis, market growth rate measures market attractiveness. On the horizontal axis, relative market share indicates the company strength in the

market. The matrix is divided into four quadrants: Stars: These are high growth products th at need heavy investment. Over time, their growth slows down turning them to cash cows. Cash Cows: These are low growth, high market share products. They require less investment to hold onto their market share, such as products from reputed companies like Johnson & Johnson, Proctor & Gamble, etc. Cash Cows support other SBUs because of their goodwill and market share. Question Marks: These are low market share business units in high growth markets. Investment is needed to hold their share, building them i nto stars. Dogs: Low growth and low market share businesses and products. They generate just enough cash to maintain themselves. They are generally being phased out. Four strategies will determine what role each SBU will play in the future: Invest in one or more SBUs to build a share. Invest just enough to maintain a share in the market. Harvest the SBU just to generate profits. Finally it can sell the SBU. SBUs can change their positions in the matrix. For instance, question marks turn to stars, becoming cash cows if the market growth falls, leading to dogs towards the end of the cycle. SBUs do not have to follow this order. A star may turn into a dog, or a question mark into a dog, or even a cash cow back into a star with a change in the marketplace . Source: BCG Growth-Share Matrix , C & K Management Ltd. http://www.themanagementor.com/enlightenmentorareas/mrkt/Bps/BCG.htm Question #4 What is marketing strategy planning? Market strategy planning is identifying attractive opportunities and developing profitable marketing strategies. Market strategy specified a target market and a related marketing mix. It is a â¼ big pictureâ¼ of what a company will do in some market. Two interr elated parts are needed: A target market: a fairly homogeneous (simi lar) group of customers to whom a company wishes to appeal. A marketing mix: the controllable variables, which the organization puts together to satisfy this target group. The importance of target customer is that the customer is surrounded by controllable variables called the â¼ marketing mix.â¼ A typical marketing mix includes some product at a price, with some promotion to

tell potential customers about the product, and the place whe re it is available. Hanes Corporation⼌s strategy for L⼌eggs hosie ry focused is marketing at convenience -oriented young women in urban areas with a consistently high quality product that comes in unique packaging. The strategy calls for the product to be offered at as many grocery and drug stores as possible. While its p ricing is more or less competitive, the Hanes supports the whole effort with much promotion⼴including advertising to final consumers, person selling to retailers, and sales promotion to both consumers and retailers. Source: McCarthy, E. J., Perreault, W. D. Jr. (1984). Basic Marketing. Homewood, IL: Richard D. Irwin, pp. 43 -44. Question #5 What is an information technology strategy? An information technology strategy is designed to align with the organization⼌s strategic objectives and based on pro prietary communications networks. Companies gain strategic advantage through systems linking them with suppliers, dealers, or government agencies. Firms may also achieve strategic advantage by personalizing products or services to meet the requirements of customers. How does an organization maintain its competitive advantage? Competitors may quickly copy applications. Organizations need to determine the likelihood that its product will be copied and the sustainability of its application. Employees can be h ired away by competitor or customers or others may acquire a good understanding of the system operations. A strategy that a firm may use is to patent its products, get copyright protection, maintain high levels of secrecy, or create a complex application. One company, Advanced Manufacturing Technology (AMT) impacted corporate operations worldwide by integrating computer-integrated design and manufacturing principles. Sources: Ives, B. Strategic Use of Information Systems. In C. L. Cooper and C. Argyris (Eds.) Encyclopedia of Management (pp. 639 -640). Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers. Whellen, T. and Hunger, J. D. (2003). Strategic Management and Business Policy. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall (p. 171). Question #6 What is an operations strategy? An organization uses an operations strategy to determine how and where a service or product should be manufactured, what level of vertical integration in the production process, and the deployment of physical resources. The firm considers what the optimum level of technology to use in its operations processes. There are four steps to implementing an operations strategy: Segment the markets by product groups

Identify product requirements, demand patterns and profit margins for each group Determine market qualifying and order winning attributes for each product group Convert these attributes into specific performance characteristics most focus will be on order winning. To ensure that a company continuously defines, monitors and refines operations strategies, it should: Align the operations strategy with the business strategy and the pace of change in the industries in which you sell, compete and buy. Address the challenges caused by customer demands, technology, industry restructuring, globalization and business continuity risks by developing agility and resiliency into processes, organization, products and services, infrastructure and relationships Sources: Operations Strategy and Process. http://www.uoguelph.ca/~dsparlin/strategy.htm Whellen, T. and Hunger, J. D. (2003). Strategic Management and Business Policy. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall (p. 171). Markham, B. Is your operations strategy obsolete? http://www.eds.com/about_eds/homepage/home_page_markham.shtml Question #7 What are some basic strategy issues that should be considered for all cases? Following management processes for strategy development will contribute to successful strategy management. Management must develop and maintain strategy guides to promote this success. Topics that should be included in these guides are business aspects, technical issues, organizational concerns, financial matters, and personnel considerations. Management must, at all times, keep sight of and strive to support business goals and business objectives. They must monitor and support business processes to ensure that these goals and objectives are met efficiently and smoothly. Management must realize they are the driving force behind a business. They are the leaders behind the vision and the integrat ion of new strategies. They must prove by example the efficiencies and necessities of new strategies to promote the business⼌ strategic and competitive edge in the market. Not everyone in an organization may share the same vision and foresight as managem ent. There may be some who are not open to change, regardless of the benefits that may occur. Management must understand the organizational structure, so they will know how to best initiate and implement change. For example, to obtain funding for projects, management must be aware of the business⼌ financial standings, processes, and proposal guidelines. The management goal should be conservative with the spending, but optimal with the benefits. Lastly, to attract high -performance and skilled employees, management must have great vision, advanced strategies, and advanced technology.

Question #8 What are some common statistical tests, and what are their conclusions? There are various statistical testing techniques used to draw various conclusions. Some ex amples of these techniques include hypothesis testing, non-parametric statistics, and multivariate statistics. Hypothesis testing is one of the fundamental concepts in both scientific research and business decision -making. It involves establishing a hypothesis about the outcome of an event or experiment. Evidence or data is then gathered to make a decision whether to accept or reject the hypothesis. The null hypothesis is what is tested. Keep in mind that the final result of a hypothesis test is either a re jection or acceptance of the null hypothesis. Some examples of using hypothesis testing to address business problems are: "Should we change our advertising campaign?" "Does Trucking Company D provide more reliable service than Trucking Company E?" "Do the computers from Manufacturer A really run faster than the computers from Manufacturer B?" Non -parametric statistical tests are tests that use categorical data (nominal or ordinal), or interval or ratio data that are not normally distributed. Non-parametric statistical tests do not make assumptions about data distributions. A data distribution is a summary of the probability of all possible outcomes for an event. Normal distribution means that a distribution is â¼ taller in the middleâ¼ with symmetrically de creasing tails at either end. Examples include the IQ of all people in the U.S., the height or weight of a large population, the number of weekly calls to a computer help desk, or the pro duction output of a large manufacturing business. A common parametric technique is analysis of variance (ANOVA). It is a method to test whether several different groups have the same mean. The null hypothesis for ANOVA is that the means are the same; the alternate hypothesis is that the means are different. There are one -way and two-way ANOVA techniques. A one -way ANOVA has one treatment or factor. A two -way ANOVA allows you to see whether another factor, called a blocking variable, affects the group means. Treatments could include department, location, machine, or shift. Blocking variables are a way to sub -divide each treatment option: such as a machine within a plant, a department within a shift, a gender within a job class, or an age category within an office. Multivariate statistics, as the name implies, allows the analys t or researcher to examine many different variables at the same time to find the relationships between them. These techniques allow the analyst to summarize and describe data with fewer variables. They rely upon interrelationships between variables, so one variable is not necessarily dependent on the others, or predicted from them. These techniques are used to develop groupings or classifications of elements, or to generate and test hypotheses about how variables are related. The three most common multivariate techniques are factor analysis, cluster analysis, and multidimensional scaling (MDS). Factor analysis --the most common multivariate technique --is used to analyze the interrelationships among a large number of variables, and explain these variables usin g a fewer number of â¼ factors.â¼ It is descriptive, rather than inferential, because its main purpose is to summarize, not predict. For example, when a Human Resources department needs to create a job description, there may be many items to list, but the items can be grouped into major categories that will fulfill the requirements for all the items. Cluster analysis is the newest of the multivariate techniques, and research is still being conducted on this methodology. It organizes information into clusters, so that members within a cluster are very similar to each other, and different from members of other clusters. The output is both numerical and visual, so that you can see which members belong to which

clusters, how close the clusters are to each other , and how close members are to each other. This technique is also somewhat more flexible than factor analysis, because it can be used with more kinds of data. A common application of cluster analysis is for a company to determine how their products are pos itioned relative to competitive offerings and consumer⼌s views about the kind of people most likely to own the product. It allows you to see the relationships between different kinds of entities; for example, product attributes, brands, and consumers. Th e visual output of a cluster analysis is a tree diagram, with elements that are more related appearing in closer proximity in the tree. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) gives the analyst a spatial representation of the relationships that make them easier to interpret. MDS is sometimes called perceptual mapping, and originated with the study of perceptions and preferences. A common use of MDS is to show a perceptual map of how consumers think of different brands. Question #9 How can one analyze large amounts of quantitative data? It is common, when analyzing large amounts of quantitative data, to create categories and transform them into ordinal, qualitative data. Appropriate cut-off points for each category are chosen, so that approximately an equal number of responses fall into each category (or there exists a pre -determined reason for choosing the cut -off values). For example, number of hours worked is a quantitative ratio variable. Categories can be assigned for part -time (under 40) or full -time (over 40). Human Resources must distinguish between part -time and full-time employees; this is known as data aggregation and reduction. Variables that are collected in categories can also be collapsed even further into fewer categories. An example is a variable on age that gives respondents ten categories from which to choose. These ten categories can then be further collapsed into five categories with wider ranges. Graphical representation of numeric data is an effective method to achieve and display data relations hips and conclusions. There are numerous types of graphs and charts, but each must be used with the appropriate set of data. Pie Chart⼴illustrates the relationship of parts to the whole. All parts must be mutually exclusive. If there are too many slices for the pie to be legible, then an alternate graph for this type of data is the column or bar graph Histogram, Column, or Bar Graph⼴illustrates differences between categories of data. Categories need not be mutually exclusive. It is usually helpful to sort the categories in ascending or descending order. If the data is in counts or frequencies for each category, then be sure to calculate percentages before graphing Stacked Bar Graph⼴illustrates differences between categories of data over time Line Chart⼴illustrates quantitative data that represents observations taken over time at equal intervals (hours, days, weeks, months, quarters, years). The time dimension is on the x -axis Scatter Plot⼴illustrates the direction and the amount of correlation between two variables It is important to add descriptive text to your graphs and charts. Any

particular graph or chart can illustrate a variety of things. It is important that you add descriptive titles to your graph or chart, not only for the graph or ch art, but also for the data variables. Also, it is important to add text headlines to let the audience know how to interpret your particular graph or chart. Question #10 What are some typical units that are used when analyzing data? Some typical units us ed when analyzing data are the individual, the dyad, the group, divisions, industries, and countries. If a project manager wants to know how many team members want to attend the company picnic, then the unit of analysis is the individual. If a Human Resources manager wants to know the benefits of a new -employee mentoring program, then the unit of analysis would be the dyad (the mentor and new-employee) If the CEO wants to analyze how many employees from each department use the new imaging process system, th en the unit of analysis would be the group (the groups from each department that utilize imaging processing system). If Hair Products for You wants to analyze which division of hair products (in other words, mousse, shampoo, conditioner, gel, or hairspray) is the most profitable, then the unit of analysis is division. If the job placement office wants to know which industry employed most of their graduating students, then the unit of analysis would be industry.

ï÷ "Creating An Integration Strategy" (http://www.ebizq.net/topics/int_sbp/features/2928.html) Article about integration in the technology sector, by Beth Gold-Bernstein, an e -business consultant [ebizQ]. ï÷ "Ansoff Matrix" (http://www.quickmba.com/strategy/matrix/ansoff/) Article about market growth strategies [QuickMBA]. ï÷ "Competitive Strategy: The Basics a la Michael Porter" (http://home.att.net/~nickols/competitive_strategy_basics.htm) У к У kd Overview" (http://www.accel-team.com/human_resources/hr_strategy_00.html) This article provides a step-by-step process for developing a human resource management strategy within an organization.

ï÷ City Mayors Economics s/economics_content.html) City Mayors deals with economic, financial, and business issues affecting towns and ci ties.

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