P. 1
Frequency Modulation and Demodulation

# Frequency Modulation and Demodulation

|Views: 1,013|Likes:
Telemetry lab
Telemetry lab

See more
See less

01/25/2013

pdf

text

original

# Frequency modulation and demodulation

Frequency Modulation In angle modulation, the amplitude of the signal is held constant and the phase is being varied with the message. An angle modulated signal is of the form: (1 ) The instantaneous phase of xc(t) is given by (2 ) and the instantaneous frequency is given by (3 )

Using this approach, if the message is proportional to φ(t), which is the phase deviation, then we have phase modulation. If the message is proportional to , which is the frequency deviation, then we have frequency modulation. In order to have phase modulation, (4 ) where kp is known as the deviation constant. For frequency modulation, (5 )

where kf is known as the frequency deviation constant. Consequently, an FM modulated signal is of the form (6 )

An FM signal is shown in Figure 1

Figure 1: Frequency modulation

Frequency Demodulation There are several ways to demodulate an FM signal. The simplest way is to use a differentiator followed by an AM detector do demodulate and FM signal as shown in Figure 2

Figure 2: Frequency discriminator

In order to implement the above the frequency discriminator, we need to design a differentiator. Circuit diagram:

Experimental results: Carrier signal Peak to peak Amplitu de (V) Frequency 1.6 Modulating signal 3.6 FM signal 1.55 Demodulat ed signal 1.2

24.39 KHz

625 Hz

1.846 KHz

Wave forms seen in Oscilloscope:

Discussion: 1. FM technique is more reliable than AM technique as, FM signal is noise immune. 2. As the signal power of FM signal is low, this signal cannot be transmitted to large distances.

scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->