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# STATIC BALANCING VALVES:

## BASIC CONCEPTS AND

APPLICATIONS
VIR - RED-WHITE VALVE CORP.

INDEX OF CONTENTS

PART #1:

## NEED FOR BALANCING: KEY CONCEPTS

DEFINITION OF DRV

PART #2:

## NEED FOR BALANCING:

ENERGY OF A STEADY FLUID FLOW
THE BERNOULLIS THEOREM STATES THAT AT EVERY POINT OF A
CIRCUIT THE LEVEL OF ENERGY OF THE FLUID FLOW (HEAD) CAN
BE EVALUATED AS SUM OF THREE ENERGIES OF DIFFERENT
NATURE:
1. GRAVITATIONAL (RELATED TO SECTION HEIGHT)
2.

3.

## KINETIC (RELATED TO FLUID LOCAL VELOCITY)

p v2
H z

g 2 g
VIR-RWV Static Balancing Series

## NEED FOR BALANCING:

p v2
H z

g 2 g
FLUID FLOW HEAD IS RELATED TO FLUID PRESSURE
BUT AS A GENERAL RULE
FLUID FLOW HEAD IS NOT EQUAL TO FLUID PRESSURE

## NEED FOR BALANCING:

CONCEPT EXAMPLE IN A SIMPLIFIED SITUATION:
STEADY FLOW OF A PERFECT FLUID FREE FROM
VISCOSITY (THE HEAD OF THE FLOW IS A COSTANT).

A1 A2 V1 V2

P2 P1
2
2
p1
p2
p1 v1
p 2 v2
z2

z2

z1
H1 H 2 z1
g
g
g 2 g
g 2 g

Z1 Z 2
Q1 Q2 Q3

A3 A2 A1

V1 V2 V3

P3 P2 P1
2

2
2
p1 v1
p 2 v2
v1
p1 v2
p2
z

H1 H 2 1
2
g 2 g
g 2 g
2 g g 2 g g

## NEED FOR BALANCING:

DOUBLE
IN
REAL FLUIDS VISCOSITY AND THEREFORE FLUID FRICTION
EXISTS
"ELBOW
CURVE
FRICTIONS CAUSES ENERGY LOSSES THAN CAN BE
COIL
DISTRIBUITED (FLUID-TUBE WALLS FRICTION) OR
STRAINER
CONCENTRATED (SHARP VARIATION OF CROSS SECTION, TUBE
CURVES)

v 0
H P
z 0
DUE TO FRICTION THE ENERGY
OF THE FLUID FLOW

DECREASES FROMLONG
POINTTUBE
TO POINT
FLOWING THROUGH THE
LENGTH
WHATEVER THE NATURE ALL THE ENERGY DISSIPATIONS SUM
THEIR EFFECTS, CAUSING HEADLOSS.

## NEED FOR BALANCING:

HYDRAULIC RESISTANCE CONCEPT

3
2

P
L

k
10

cj
6
2

2 10 A D
j

DISTRIBUITED
2

RI

Q
LOSSES
COSTANT
PARAMETER

CONCENTRATED
LOSSES

RI=
RI=number2

number1

## NEED FOR BALANCING:

DEFINITION OF COEFFICIENT Cv
VALUE OF HYDRAULIC RESISTANCE RI OF AN
HYDRAULIC COMPONENT IS A KEY DATA FOR
DESIGNERS.
IN COMMON PRACTICE PARAMETER RI IS NOT
EMPLOYED DIRECTLY: COEFFICIENT Cv IS PROVIDED
AND USED IN ITS PLACE:

COSTANT
CV
RI

GPM

psi

## NEED FOR BALANCING:

UNBALANCED SYSTEM

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BALANCED SYSTEM

## VIR-RWV Static Balancing Series

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DRV:
DEFINITION AND FUNCTIONS
DOUBLE REGULATING GLOBE VALVE:
A GLOBE VALVE FOR THE REGULATION OF FLOW RATE
HAVING AN ESTABLISHED VALVE CHARACTERISTIC AND
PROVIDED WITH INDICATED POSITIONS OF THE VALVE
OPENING AND AN ADJUSTABLE STOP DEVICE TO LIMIT THE
OPENING MOVEMENT SUCH THAT THE VALVE CAN BE
CLOSED FOR ISOLATION PURPOSES AND RE- OPENED TO
THE PREVIOUSLY SET POSITION (BS-7350 STANDARD)

## TWO FUNCTIONS OF A DRV:

BALANCING (REGULATION OF FLOW RATE)
SHUT-OFF ( ISOLATION PURPOSES)
VIR-RWV Static Balancing Series

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DRV:
STRUCTURE AND MAIN FEATURES
MEMORY STOP
DEVICE
VALVE SEAT

HANDWHEEL
INCLUDING DEVICE
CURRENT OPENING
POSITION
REGULATING CONE

END-CONNECTIONS

## VIR-RWV Static Balancing Series

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DRV:
OPERATING PRINCIPLE
FLOW REGULATION
OBTAINED BY
CALIBRATED
THROTTLING BY
MEANS OF
REGULATING CONE

NARROW
SECTION

FLUID
FLOW

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## NEED FOR MEASURING:

BERNOULLIS APPLICATIONS
2

p v
H z

g 2 g
THE BERNOULLIS THEOREM GENERALIZED TO REAL FLUID WITH
HEAD LOSSES IS THE BASIS FOR MANY FLOW RATE MEASURING
METHODS:
2

p1 v1
p2 v2
H1 H 2 H z1

z2

H
g 2 g
g 2 g

p1 p2 P v2 v1

H
g
g
2g
VIR-RWV Static Balancing Series

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## NEED FOR MEASURING:

DIFFERENTIAL MANOMETER

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## FLOW MEASUREMENT DEVICE:

DEFINITIONS AND FUNCTION
FLOW MEASUREMENT DEVICE:
A DEVICE IN WHICH A DIFFERENCE IN PRESSURE IS INDUCED
ACROSS AN ORIFICE, FIXED OR VARIABLE, THE MEASUREMENT
OF WHICH ENABLES THE CORRESPONDING FLOW RATE TO BE
ESTABLISHED BY REFERENCE TO A CALIBRATION CHART
FIXED ORIFICE:
THE PART OF A FLOW MEASUREMENT DEVICE WHICH
INDUCES A DIFFERENCE IN PRESSURE FOR FLOW
MEASUREMENT PURPOSES AND WHICH IS OF FIXED
DIMENSIONS AND GEOMETRY (BS7350)

## ONE FUNCTION OF A MEASUREMENT DEVICE:

MEASURING (DETERMINATION OF FLOW RATE)
VIR-RWV Static Balancing Series

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## FLOW MEASUREMENT DEVICE:

STRUCTURE

UPSTREAM
TEST-POINT

DOWNSTREAM TEST-POINT
FIXED ORIFICE

END
CONNECTIONS

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## FLOW MEASUREMENT DEVICE:

FUNCTIONING
SEC. 2 (NARROW SECTION):
HIGH FLUID VELOCITY
SEC.1 (UPSTREAM):
STANDARD FLUID
VELOCITY

H 2 H1

P2 P1

V2 V1

H3 H2

P3 P1

V2 V1

SEC. 3 (DOWNSTREAM):
STANDARD FLUID VELOCITY
VIR-RWV Static Balancing Series

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## FLOW MEASUREMENT DEVICE:

P
KEY DATA
S

CVS
FLOWRATE
MEASUREMENT

P PS
PS BIG

EASY MEASURING
GOOD ACCURACY

Q CVS PS

P (CV Q) 2
EVALUATION

P
VIR-RWV Static Balancing Series

CV
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## FIXED ORIFICE DRV:

DEFINITION AND FUNCTIONS
FIXED ORIFICE VALVE:
A DOUBLE REGULATING GLOBE VALVE INCLUDING A FIXED
ORIFICE WITH PRESSURE TAPPING POINTS, USED FOR THE
DETERMINATION OF FLOWRATES AND ALSO FOR
REGULATING AND ISOLATING PURPOSES

## THREE FUNCTIONS OF A FO-DRV:

MEASURING (DETERMINATION OF FLOW RATE)
BALANCING (REGULATION OF FLOW RATE)
SHUT-OFF ( ISOLATION PURPOSES)
VIR-RWV Static Balancing Series

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STRUCTURE
DIFF. PRESSURE
TEST POINTS

## HANDWHEEL WITH OPENING

LEVEL INDICATOR
MEMORY STOP

FIXED ORIFICE
REGULATING CONE
VIR-RWV Static Balancing Series

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QMEAS CVS

STRUCTURE
P
S

PS

DRV

METERING
STATION

FLOW

P

Q
P
CV

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## VARIABLE ORIFICE DRV:

DEFINITION AND FUNCTIONS
VARIABLE ORIFICE VALVE:
A DOUBLE REGULATING GLOBE VALVE WITH PRESSURE
TAPPING POINTS, USED FOR THE DETERMINATION OF
FLOWRATES AND ALSO FOR REGULATING AND ISOLATING
PURPOSES (BS7350)

## THREE FUNCTIONS OF A VO-DRV:

MEASURING (DETERMINATION OF FLOW RATE)
BALANCING (REGULATION OF FLOW RATE)
SHUT-OFF ( ISOLATION PURPOSES)
VIR-RWV Static Balancing Series

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## VARIABLE ORIFICE DRV:

STRUCTURE
HANDWHEEL WITH OPENING
LEVEL INDICATOR

PRESSURE TEST
POINTS
(UPSTREAM
AND
DOWNSTREAM)

REGULATING CONE

MEMORY STOP

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P
(SIGNAL)

## VARIABLE ORIFICE DRV:

FUNCTIONING

QMEAS CV P
FUNCTION OF
OPENING
POSITION

P
VIR-RWV Static Balancing Series

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## VIR-RWV Static Balancing Series

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9517 FO-DRV
FLOW RATE MEASUREMENT:
EASY MEASURE
GOOD ACCURACY
FLOW REGULATION:
COMFORT AND EFFECTIVENES
OF REGULATION GUARANTEED
BY CAREFULLY DESIGNED VALVE
CHARACTERISTIC.
INSULATION RELIABILITY:
100% OF THE VALVES TESTED IN
FACTORY FOR SEAT THIGTHNESS.
VIR-RWV Static Balancing Series

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9517 FO-DRV:
STANDARD FLOW - LOWFLOW

## VIR-RWV Static Balancing Series

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DESIGN
FLOWRATE AXIS

9517 FO-DRV:
PRESETTING
JOIN WITH A STRAIGHT LINE
DESIGN FLOWRATE AND DESIGN
FIND DESIGN CV AS
INTERSECTION WITH CV AXIS
DRAW A STRAIGHT ORIZZONTAL
LINE UNTIL THE VALVE
CHARACTHERISTIC
DESIGN

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## VIR-RWV SERIES 9400 M.S.

HIGH ACCURACY FOR FLOWRATE
MEASURMENT
CONNECTIONS
ROBUST DESIGN

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PS

CVS
FLOWRATE
MEASUREMENT

P PS
PS BIG

EASY MEASURING
GOOD ACCURACY

Q CVS PS

P (CV Q) 2