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‘ent name, such 2s, pethaps, an ice-cream cone. The child at this level evaluates ‘a shape to see itt fits her mental model for shapes of that kind. The van Hieles pamed this level the Visual level. Beyond the Visual level, chikiren develop the ability to analyze shapes in terms of their properties. They examine the number Of sides and/or angles in order to determine what a shape woule be called. At this level a child might examine a three-sided shape that is In an unusual orientation snd declare that it is a triangle. "because it has three sides." This level, known as the DescriptivelAnalytic level, is common among children in elementary school, Children who have progressed beyond the Descriptive/Analytic level are able to reason with defiritions of shapes and they are able to make sense of relationships ‘within and among different shapes. Children at this level are said to be at the Ab- stract/Relational level because the relationships between shapes and between parts of shapes ere abstractions, Children at this level understand categories of ‘shapes and how a shape can belong to more than one category ata time. Beyond this, learners develop the ability to use logic and reasoning in regard to geomet- rie relationships. Since high school geometry curricula are built on geometric proofs, this is the level of development that high school studen's need to be atin ‘order to understand high school geometry. The van Hieles named this level the Formal Deduction level. The van Hieles identified one level that is beyond the Formal Deducticn evel and one level that preceeds the Visual level, but these two levels ute Leyou the scope of interest for this particular text All ofthe van Hiele levels and thelr descriptions are shown in Table 5.1. Unlike the siages of cognitive development uncovered by Piaget, progress ‘through the van Hiele levels of development is dependent on experiences with ‘Table 5.1 Tre van Hiele Levels of Geometric Thought (as Articulated by Clements and Batista, 1992) Level 0: Pre-Recognition Children perceive geometric shapes, but are unable to identy many of thet “They can dtinguish between broad categories, such as curvinear and eclinear shape, but they cannot recognize diferent types within hese ‘broad extegories. They do not construct mental representations, oF Wisi rages of chapes. Level 1: Visual CChitdren recognize basic shapes as wholes.They have mental representation ‘of tpes of fhapes. These mental representations are bready concelved ‘aul prototypes. For example, any trlangular shape would fk the rotor, ‘ofa trlangl, even ifthe sdes were curved. child at the visual level Wo tall a curved shape a triangle fad a general vanguar shape. Children use specie properties of shapes, rather than visual wholes, to