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OSI AND TXP/IP MODEL

OSI
OSI (open systems interconnection model) is
used by developers to discuss how messages
should be transmitted between specific points
in telecommunication networks.
Layer 1- This is the physical layer. This layer is
to do with movement of data through a
network. This layer also allows hardware to
send and receive date over carrier networks
such as virgin or T mobile.
Layer 2- This is the data link layer. This layer
is to do with creating links across a network;
this is done by getting information and
transferring data in frames.
Layer 3- This is the network layer. This layer is
for creating the address and route for the
data, this ensures that the information is
being delivered to the right location. IP
addresses are the best example of this layer.
Layer 4- This is the transport layer. This layer
is used for sorting the packages of data and
the delivery of said packets to the right locations. A check for errors would
occur in the data once it has been delivered in case it became corrupted
and needed to be sent again.
Layer 5- This is the session layer. This layer deals with the start and
ending of conversations which includes connecting and reconnecting if an
interruption occurs.
Layer 6- This is the presentation layer. This layer is designed to convert
incoming and outgoing data on the network into an understandable
format.
Layer 7- This is the application layer. This layer is to identify partners
which allows data send to be opened and shown.

TCP/IP
TCP/IP (Transmission control protocol/internet protocols0 are a complete
suite of protocols which are used on the internet to connect hosts on to
the World Wide Web. TCP/IP is built into operating systems these days
which makes it a standard for transmitting data over networks. Network

operating systems will have their own protocols; an example of a network


with its own protocols would be NetWare. However these networks with
their own protocols will also support TCP/IP. This model and others similar
to it are maintained by the internet engineering task force. These models
will provide end to end connectivity which shows how data over a network
will be packetized, addressed, transmitted and routed in order for the data
to be delivered to its final destination. The top layer of the model is the
application layer, this layer will define TCP/IP protocols and how programs
are hosted in a network. The IP layer of the model is the transportation
layer, the purpose of this layer is to allow devices to connect and host a
conversation through transporting data. The TCP layer of the model is the
internet layer, the purpose of this layer is to pack data into IP datagrams
so they can be sent across networks. The bottom layer of the model is the
network access layer, this layer defines the details of data that is sent
through the network. It will also deal directly with hardware devices such
as optical fibre wires.

Comparison
Both of the models have many similarities and differences which makes
them each better for different situations and one better than the other in
some situations. One similarity of the two models is that they both will
assume that the packets of data will be switched, meaning that individual
packets of information that are sent over the network may take a slightly
different path so they can reach the same destination. Another similarity
is that they are built in similar ways. This is because both of the models
are constructed with the use of layers, and both models contain an
application layer which has the same task on both models, although both
models use different services depending on which model is used. Both
models also have similar transport and network layers which means that
functions performed between these layers on both models will have a
similar effect and outcome.
A major difference between the two models is the way in which both are
built, the TCP/IP model consist of just 4 layers while the OSI models consist
of 7 layers. This is because the TCP/IP model combines both the
presentation and the session layers into the application layer which are all
separate on the OSI model. The TCP/IP also does this for the physical and
data link layers which are added to the network access layer. Because of
these merges the TCP/IP model seems less complex than OSI as it has
fewer layers. Another major difference between the two models is that
TCP/IP is more credible than OSI as its protocols are the standard to which
the World Wide Web was built. This is because the OSI model only exists
as a guidance tool which models can be built around.