LEADERSHIP THEORIES

AFTER THIS PRESENTATION WE WILL ABLE TO KNOW SOMETHING ABOUT: LEADERSHIP  TRAIT THEORIES  BEHAVIORAL THEORIES  CONTINGENCY THEORIES  LEADER -MEMBER EXCHANGE THEORIES  SITUATIONAL THEORIES  DECISION THEORIES

LEADERSHIP

The ability to influence a group or individual toward the achievement of a vision or set of goal.

TRAIT THEORIES
It basically differentiate leaders from non-leaders by focusing on their personal qualities and characteristics. Some common traits are: Ambition and energy  The desire to lead  Honesty and integrity  Self-confidence  Intelligence  High self-monitoring and  Job-relevant knowledge

SUMMARY

It basically helps in the emergence of a leader. But it was very difficult to say that he/she works effectively. Leaders born with the qualities by which people use to predict them, it can’t be taught. They were fail to lead in different situations.

So, in the search of effective leaders behavioral studies of people started and it changes the beliefs and reached us to the conclusion that we can make effective leaders for us.

BEHAVIORAL THEORIES

Theories proposing that specific behaviors differentiate leader from nonleaders. Trait theory: Leaders are born, not made. Behavioral theory: Leadership traits can be taught.

OHIO STATE STUDIES
Initiating structure

consideration

The extent to which a leader is likely to define and structure his or her role and those of sub-ordinates in the search for goal attainment.

The extent to which a leader is likely to have job relationships characterized by mutual trust, respect for subordinate’s ideas, and regard for their feelings.

UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN STUDIES
Employee-Oriented Leader

Production-Oriented Leader

Emphasizing interpersonal relations; taking a personal interest in the needs of employees and accepting individual differences among members.

One who emphasizes technical or task aspects of the job.

MANAGERIAL GRID
The Managerial Grid (Blake and Mouton)

SUMMARY OF TRAIT THEORIES AND BEHAVIORAL THEORIES
 Leaders

who have certain traits and who display consideration and structuring behaviors, do appear to be more effective. theories and behavioral theories should be integrated. leaders may have the right traits or display right behaviors and still fail

 Trait

 Some

CONTINGENCY THEORIES
Fiedler’s Contingency Model The theory that effective groups depend on a proper match between a leader’s style of interacting with subordinates and the degree to which the situation gives control and influence to the leader. Least Preferred Co-Worker (LPC) Questionnaire An instrument that purports to measure whether a person is task- or relationship-oriented.

FIEDLER’S MODEL: DEFINING THE SITUATION
Leader-Member Relations d Theegree of confidence, trust, and respect subordinates have in their leader. Task Structure The degree to which the job assignments are procedurized. Position Power Influence derived from one’s formal structural position in the organization; includes power to hire, fire, discipline, promote, and give salary increases.

FINDINGS FROM FIEDLER MODEL

COGNITIVE RESOURCE THEORY
A theory of leadership that states that stress can unfavorably affect a situation and that intelligence and experience can lessen the influence of stress on the leader. Research Support: : Research Support
••Less intelligent individuals perform better in Less intelligent individuals perform better in leadership roles under high stress than do more leadership roles under high stress than do more intelligent individuals. intelligent individuals. ••Less experienced people perform better in leadership Less experienced people perform better in leadership roles under low stress than do more experienced roles under low stress than do more experienced people. people.

PATH-GOAL THEORY
The theory that it is the leader’s job to assist followers in attaining their goals and to provide them the necessary direction and/or support to ensure that their goals are compatible with the overall objectives of the group or organization.

THE PATH-GOAL THEORY

LEADER-MEMBER EXCHANGE THEORY (LMX)
The leader-member exchange theory of leadership focuses on the two-way relationship between supervisors and subordinates leader-member exchange focuses on increasing organizational success by creating positive relations between the leader and subordinate.

 The

leader-member exchange theory argue that, because of time pressures, leaders establish a special relationship with small group of there followers. These individuals make up in-group and other follower fall in the out-group.  The in group member are trusted, get more leader attention, and are more likely to receive special privilege.  On the other hand out group member get less of the leader time, get fewer of the preferred rewards.

 The

quality of the LMX relationship varies. It is better when the challenge of the job is extremely high or extremely low. theory can also work upwards as well. The leader can gain power by being a member of his or her manager's inner circle, which the leader can then share with subordinates.

 The

SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP THEORY BY-PAUL HERSEY AND KENNTH BLANCHARD

Situational leadership requires…
 Leader’s

focus on task behavior (i.e. giving guidance & direction) to subordinates. focus on relationship behavior and maturity in performing their tasks.

 Their

ACCORDING TO THE AUTHORS……
The relationship between leaders and subordinates moves to four steps which are as follows….  Directing or telling phase managers directing the goals to employees and make familiar them with the culture and rules of the organization where they suppose to work.

Selling or coaching phase After coming into the organization its managers responsibility to coach the subordinates wherever need arise.  Participating or supporting phase Gradually the subordinates becomes mature and start taking the responsibility, the manager will no longer need to directive to them because they themselves will be on the verge of becoming manager.

Delegating phase In this stage manager can reduce the amount of support and encouragement as subordinate gradually become more confident , self –directing and experienced.

THE SITUATIONAL THEORY OF LEADERSHIP
HIGH
High relationship and low task
Su st pp yl o r e tin g

High relationship and high task
g y st le

n lli Se

RELATIONSHIP BEHAVIOR

S3

S2

Di c re

De l sty egat in le

g

g tin y st

LOW

Low relationship and low task S4 M3

low relationship and high task S1 M2 M1

le

M4
(HIGH) (MATURE)

(MODARATE) (MUTURITY OF FOLLOWERS)

(LOW) (IMMATURE)

DECISION -MAKING THEORIES
Proposed by vroom- yetton.  A leader examines certain factors in the situation to determine which decision –making style is most effective.  The vroom yatton identifies five decision-making styles, each reflecting a different degree of participation by group member.  Autocratic l(Al)  Autocratic ll(All)  Consultative l(l)  Consultative ll(ll)  Group ll(ll)

CONCLUSION……….
“THEY FOLLOW THEIR OWN RULES MAKE THEIR OWN NORMS FEROCIOUS THEY ARE LETHAL IN ANY FORM TAMERS OF TIDES THEY PLAY WITH THE STROMS YES….YOU GUESSED IT RIGHT THEY ARE THE MEN WITHOUT UNIFORM”.

CONCLUSION……..
Some rules which most leader’s follows……. The saftey,honour & welfare of their organization come first, always and every time The safety & welfare of the people they command or live with, come next Their own ease, comfort & welfare come last, Always and every time.

THANK YOU

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