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# MEC427

Data Provided:
The Little Book of Thermofluids by S B M Beck et al

urbulence

Semester 2010
2010-2011

2 hours

## Attempt ALL questions.

All symbols and notations have their usual meaning unless otherwise stated.

MEC427
1.
(a) Explain why Navier-Stokes equations are
i) non-linear
[2 marks]
ii) non-local,
[3 marks]
iii) and are not differential equations, but a set of integro-differential
equations.
[2 marks]
(b) What is meant by energy cascade in turbulence?
[4 marks]
(c) What is meant by space ergodicity?
[3 marks]
(d) Define the integral time scale from the velocity autocorrelation function.
[4 marks]
(e) What is the main advantage of laser anemometry over hotwire anemometry?
[4 marks]
(f) What is the main difference between a mathematically defined fractal and
fractal objects found in nature?
[2 marks]
2. State whether the following statements are false or true.
(a) The vorticity measures the global rotation of the fluid.
[2 marks]
(b) If a turbulent flow has an integral length scale L and a rms velocity fluctuation
u then its energy dissipation rate depends on its viscosity only.
[2 marks]
3. For a flow velocity given by

U ( x) = 3 sin (20 x + 5)
where x is the horizontal direction,
find the Fourier transform of U(x).
[6 marks]

MEC427

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MEC427
4)
(a) Find the Fourier transform of the velocity v(t) = sin (2 fot) + sin (2 f1t).
[2 marks]
(b) Plot its amplitude and phase spectra.
[2 marks]
5. Find the fractal dimension of Cantor dust (figure Q5).
[8 marks]

Figure Q5
6. A turbulent flame is burning fuel in a cylinder, assuming that
- locally the flame propagates with its laminar speed ul = 0.3 m s-1,
- its thickness is not altered by turbulence l = 1 mm,
- it has a fractal shape D = 2.4
- the largest scale involved is the piston diameter (10 cm)
- the smallest scale involved is the flame thickness
- the fuel density is = 0.5 kg m-3
(a) What is the burning rate?
[8 marks]
(b) If the turbulence Reynolds number were to be increased, explain which
hypothesis (es) would be invalid.
[2 marks]

MEC427

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MEC427
7. From measurement of a turbulent air flow, an integral length scale L= 0.1 m and a
rms value of the velocity fluctuation u = 10 m s-1 are found.
Find the smallest length-scale of turbulence to be expected.
[2 marks]
END OF QUESTION PAPER

MEC427

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