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STEM

Women Are All Over It

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STEM
Women Are All Over It
Created by SMLX Good, Inc.

X

SML
GOOD

About the Project
In January 2015, writer and designer Elly Zupko raised over $33,000
via Kickstarter to fund the creation of a design that would feature over
50 notable women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics—fields collectively known as STEM. She crowdsourced nominations of women to be included in the design, narrowing down a pool
of hundreds of candidates to the 51 who appear in the final design.
This repeating design currently appears on shirts, fabrics, wallpaper,
wrapping paper, and posters. This booklet provides brief biographical information on all the women included on the design.
Zupko subsequently started a non-profit organization, SMLX Good,
to ensure funds raised from this project would be used to continue
education and activism across a spectrum of social causes, including
closing the gender gap in STEM fields. For more information about
this project and SMLX Good, please visit us on the web at www.
STEMshirt.org.

SMLX Good Board of Directors
Elly Zupko
Maryah Converse
Jessica Goodyear
Gabriel Kabik
Sharyn Blum

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.

Ada Lovelace
École Polytechnique
Émilie du Châtelet
Jocelyn Bell Burnell
Kalpana Chawla
Maria GoeppertMayer
Shirley Ann Jackson
Emmy Noether
Caroline Herschel
Annie Jump Cannon
Mae Jemison
Hedy Lamarr
Jane Goodall
Alice Ball
Gertrude Elion
Margaret Hamilton
Dorothy Hodgkin

18. Barbara McClintock 36. Melba Roy
19. Joan Roughgarden
37. Mary Somerville
20. Sally Ride
38. Rita Levi-Montalcini
21. Stephanie Kwolek
39. Marie Maynard Daly
22. Sofja Kowalewskaja
40. Hypatia of Alexandria
23. Rosalind Franklin
41. Temple Grandin
24. Lise Meitner
42. Ruby Payne-Scott
25. Grace Hopper
43. Yvonne Cagle
26. Elizebeth Friedman
27. Henrietta Swan Leavitt 44. Liu Yang
28. Marie Curie
45. Ellen Ochoa
29. Katherine Lathrop
46. Chiaki Mukai
30. Christine Darden
47. Helen Quinn
31. Tilly Edinger
48. Valentina Tereshkova
32. Fay Ajzenberg-Selove
49. Chien-Shiung Wu
33. Lynn Conway
34. Mary Anning
35. Rachel Carson

50. Margaret Dayhoff
51. Meg Lowman

1. Ada Lovelace

Augusta Ada King, Countess of
Lovelace (1815–1852) was an
English mathematician known
for her work on the Analytical Engine, Charles Babbage’s
proposed mechanical computer.
Lovelace is credited with creating the first algorithm intended
to be carried out by a machine.
In other words, Ada Lovelace
was the first computer programmer. Her writings, called simply
“Notes,” are an essential part of
the history of computer programming. She described herself
as an “analyst and metaphysician,” and was interested in how
society interacts with technology.

Fourteen women were killed in
an anti-feminism massacre at the
École Polytechnique in Montreal,
Quebec on December 6, 1989.
Thirteen of the fourteen victims
were pursuing degrees in STEM
fields. We include this plaque in remembrance of these young women in STEM: Geneviève Bergeron,
Hélène Colgan, Nathalie Croteau,
Barbara Daigneault, Anne-Marie
Edward, Maud Haviernick, Maryse
Laganière, Maryse Leclair, AnneMarie Lemay, Sonia Pelletier, Michèle Richard, Annie St-Arneault,
Annie Turcotte, and Barbara
Klucznik-Widajewicz.

2. École
Polytechnique

1

3. Émilie du Châtelet

Gabrielle Émilie Le Tonnelier
de Breteuil, marquise du Châtelet (1706–1749) lived in France
during the Age of Enlightenment and was a mathematician,
physicist, and author. She is most
famous for her translation and
commentary on Principia Mathematica by Isaac Newton, which
remains today as the standard
French translation. A true polymath with skills in math, science,
languages, and arts, she also used
her math talents to become a
successful gambler, and some
credit her with the invention of
modern financial derivatives.

Jocelyn Bell Burnell (1943–) is
a Northern Irish astrophysicist
who discovered the first radio
pulsars as a postgraduate student
at Cambridge. She also helped
to construct the four-acre radio telescope that enabled the
discovery. Despite being the first
to observe and precisely analyze
the pulsars in 1967, her professor
and an associate received the Nobel Prize for the discovery. Bell’s
is one of the highest profile cases
of sexism in science; however,
she herself has not been critical
of her omission from the prize.
She has since become active
against sexism in scientific fields.

4. Jocelyn Bell Burnell

2

5. Kalpana Chawla

Kalpana Chawla (1962–2003)
was the first Indian-American
astronaut and the first woman of
Indian descent to visit space. Her
first flight was among the crew
of the Space Shuttle Columbia,
where she served as a mission
specialist and primary robotic
arm operator. Later responsibilities included microgravity experiments, advanced technology development, and astronaut health
and safety. Over her lifetime, she
traveled 10.67 million kilometers—the equivalent of 252 times
around the Earth. She was killed
in the 2003 Columbia disaster
with six other crew members.

Maria Goeppert-Mayer (1906–
1972) was a German-born American theoretical physicist and
the second woman to receive
the Nobel Prize in Physics. She
received the prize for proposing
the nuclear shell model of the
atomic nucleus. In 1930, Goeppert-Mayer theorized the possibility of two-photon absorption by
atoms, which couldn’t be verified
until 31 years later. Today, the
unit for the two-photon absorption cross section is named the
Goeppert-Mayer (GM) unit. Goeppert-Mayer was also a member
of the Manhattan Project and
wrote programs for ENIAC.

6. Maria GoeppertMayer

3

7. Shirley Ann
Jackson

Shirley Ann Jackson (1946–) is
an American physicist and the
first African-American woman to
earn a doctorate from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where she was one of fewer
than twenty African-American
students and the only one studying theoretical physics. She is
the 18th (and current as of this
writing) president of the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, and is
the first woman and first African
American to hold this position.
While president, Jackson has
helped to raise over $1 billion
in donations for philanthropic
causes.

Amalie Emmy Noether (1882–
1935) was a German mathematician who has been called “the
most important woman in the
history of mathematics” by a
number of luminaries, including
Albert Einstein. “Noether’s [first]
theorem,” which explains the connection between symmetry and
conservation laws, has become
a fundamental tool of modern
theoretical physics. In mathematics, Noether developed theories
of rings, fields, and algebras. She
is also known for her extensive
work on noncommutative algebra, linear transformations, and
commutative number fields.

8. Emmy Noether

4

9. Caroline Herschel

Caroline Herschel (1750–1848)
was a German-British astronomer. Herschel was a significant
aid to her brother, William
Herschel, in his position as the
King’s Astronomer to George III,
polishing mirrors and performing the extensive calculations that
enabled the functionality of his
telescopes. She eventually began
making observations on her own,
notably discovering M110—the
second companion of the Andromeda Galaxy—and eight comets, including the periodic comet
35P/Herschel-Rigollet. She was
the first woman to be paid for her
contributions to science.

Annie Jump Cannon (1863–1941)
was a deaf American astronomer
and progenitor of modern stellar
classification, having classified
around 500,000 stars. She is cocredited with creating the Harvard
Classification Scheme—the first
serious attempt to organize stars
based on temperature. Cannon
was one of “Pickering’s Women”
at Harvard, where she aided the
lab by examining data, performing astronomical calculations, and
cataloging photographs—while
being criticized for working outside the home. Cannon discovered 300 variable stars, five novas,
and one spectroscopic binary.

10. Annie Jump
Cannon

5

11. Mae Jemison

Mae Jemison was the first African-American woman to travel in
space. A medical doctor, Jemison
was selected by NASA in 1987 to
join the astronaut corps and went
into orbit 5 years later on the
Space Shuttle Endeavor. Jemison
holds nine honorary doctorates
in areas including science, engineering, letters, and humanities.
She has also appeared on Star
Trek: The Next Generation, and
cites Lieutenant Uhura from Star
Trek as her inspiration for joining NASA. Jemison retired from
NASA in 1993 to start a technology company and teach.

In addition to being a glamorous
film star who acted in 35 movies,
Hedy Lamarr was an Austrian
and American inventor credited
with co-inventing the technology for spread spectrum and
frequency hopping communications that enables modern wi-fi
and Bluetooth. The technology
aided America’s military during
World War II because it was used
in controlling torpedoes. Lamarr
was inducted into the National
Inventors Hall of Fame in 2014
and also has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. She is also
credited with appearing in the
first ever sex scene in a film.

12. Hedy Lamarr

6

13. Jane Goodall

Jane Goodall (1934–) is an English primatologist, ethologist, and
anthropologist, know chiefly for
her work with primates, and particularly chimpanzees—a subject
in which she is considered the
world’s foremost expert. Goodall
conducted a 55-year study of the
social and familial interactions of
wild chimpanzees in Tanzania,
eschewing strict scientific convention and instead observing
the chimpanzees in a more empathetic and personal way. She is
a UN Ambassador of Peace and
one of the world’s top conservation and animal welfare activists.

Alice Ball (1892–1916) was a
pharmacist and chemist who
developed and introduced a new
treatment of Hansen’s disease
(also known as leprosy) that was
used until the 1940s. Ball was
the first African American and
first woman to graduate from the
University of Hawaii with a Master’s degree, but the university did
not recognize her work for nearly
90 years. February 29 is now
Alice Ball Day and is celebrated
every 4 years, and she was the recipient of the 2007 University of
Hawaii Board of Regents’ Medal
of Distinction.

14. Alice Ball

7

15. Gertrude Elion

Gertrude Elion (1918–1999) was
an American biochemist and
pharmacologist. The daughter of
immigrants, she received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1988 for her work developing a multitude of new drugs.
Elion and her research partner
George Hitchings used innovative research methods that would
eventually lead to the development of the drug AZT, which
was the first U.S. governmentapproved treatment for HIV and
the first breakthrough in AIDS
therapy. Elion was awarded the
National Medal of Science in 1991.

Margaret Hamilton (1936–) is an
American computer scientist and
software engineer. She is wellknown for her work as the Director of the MIT Instrumentation
Laboratory, which developed
on-board flight software for the
Apollo space program. Her team
was responsible for helping pioneer Apollo on-board guidance
software that enabled humans to
land on the moon, and her work
creating an ultra-reliable architecture directly prevented an abort
of the Apollo 11 Moon landing.
She is depicted standing next to
programming code she wrote as
part of this team.

16. Margaret
Hamilton

8

17. Dorothy Hodgkin

Dorothy Hodgkin (1910–1994)
was a British biochemist who
won the 1964 Nobel Prize in
Chemistry for developing protein
crystallography. Hodgkin was
one of the pioneer scientists in
the field of X-ray crystallography,
which is used to determine the
three-dimensional structures of
biomolecules. One of her most
influential discoveries was to
confirm the structure of penicillin as had been earlier surmised;
other discoveries included the
structure of vitamin B12, which
garnered her the Nobel Prize,
and of insulin.

Barbara McClintock (1902–1992)
was an American cytogenicist
who received the Nobel Prize
in Physiology or Medicine in
1983 for discovering genetic
transposition. She is (as of 2015)
the only woman to receive an
unshared Nobel Prize in that
category. Early in her career, she
became a leader in the development of maize cytogenics, a field
on which she would focus the
remainder of her career. In her
pioneering work, she developed
the technique for using microscopic analysis to demonstrate
fundamental genetic ideas, including transposition.

18. Barbara
McClintock

9

19. Joan Roughgarden

Joan Roughgarden (1946–) is an
American evolutionary biologist and one of the world’s most
influential theoretical ecologists.
She is well known for her critical
studies on Darwin’s theory of
sexual selection, and in her 2004
book Evolution’s Rainbow, she posited an alternative social-selection
theory. Roughgarden was assigned male at birth, but publicly
transitioned to female in 1998.
Her identity as a transsexual has
influenced her scientific interests
and inquiries into the nature of
biological categorization, gender,
and sex roles.

Sally Ride (1951–2012) was an
American physicist and astronaut. She was the first woman in
space and remains (as of 2015)
the youngest American astronaut
to travel to space. Ride flew twice
on the space shuttle Challenger,
before continuing her career in
physics research. She was the
only person to serve on both
the committees investigating the
Challenger and Columbia disasters, respectively. She founded
Sally Ride Science, which creates
entertaining science programs
and publications for elementary
and middle school students, with
a particular focus on girls.

20. Sally Ride

10

21. Stephanie Kwolek

Stephanie Kwolek (1923–2014)
was an American chemist best
known for inventing Kevlar, an
achievement for which she was
awarded the DuPont company’s
Lavoisier Medal for outstanding
technical achievement. She is the
only female DuPont employee to
have received that honor (as of
2015). With her workgroup at DuPont, Kwolek had been searching
for a lightweight but strong fiber
to be used in tires when she discovered the polymer that would
lead to Kevlar, which is five times
stronger than steel. One million
Kevlar bullet-resistant vests were
sold in her lifetime.

Sofja Kowalewskaja (1850–1891)
was the first major female Russian mathematician, responsible
for important original contributions to analysis, differential
equations, and mechanics, and
the first woman appointed to a
full professorship in Northern
Europe. She also became one of
the first women to work for a scientific journal as an editor, when
she was appointed editor of Acta
Mathematica in 1884. After much
lobbying on her behalf, she was
granted a Chair in the Russian
Academy of Sciences, but was
never offered a professorship in
Russia.

22. Sofja
Kowalewskaja

11

23. Rosalind Franklin

Rosalind Franklin (1920–1958)
was an English chemist and Xray crystallographer who made
contributions to the understanding of the fine molecular structures of DNA, RNA, and more.
Franklin is considered a high-profile example of sexism in science;
Francis Crick and James Watson
used Franklin’s image of DNA—
known as Photo 51—without
her knowledge, and from it, were
able to deduce DNA’s structure, a
discovery for which they received
the Nobel Prize. Franklin’s contributions to the discovery were
significantly downplayed until
well after her death.

Lise Meitner (1878–1968) was an
Austrian physicist who worked on
radioactivity and nuclear physics.
Meitner was part of the HahnMeitner-Strassmann team that
worked on transuranium-elements,
which led to the radiochemical
discovery of the nuclear fission
of uranium and thorium in 1938,
an achievement for which her colleague Otto Hahn was awarded
the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in
1944. Meitner is often mentioned
as one of the most glaring examples of women’s scientific achievement overlooked by the Nobel
committee. Element 109, meitnerium, is named in her honor.

24. Lise Meitner

12

25. Grace Hopper

“Amazing Grace” Hopper
(1906–1992) was an American
computer scientist and U.S. Navy
rear admiral. She was of the first
programmers of the Harvard
Mark I computer in 1944, and
invented the first compiler for
a computer programming language. Hopper helped popularize
the idea of machine-independent
programming languages, which
led to the development of COBOL, one of the first high-level
programming languages. She is
credited with popularizing the
term “debugging,” inspired by
removing an actual moth from a
computer.

Elizebeth Friedman (1892–1980)
was an American cryptanalyst and
author, and a pioneer in U.S. cryptography. She has been dubbed
“America’s first female cryptanalyst.” She introduced her husband, William F. Friedman, to the
field, who went on to make numerous contributions. Friedman
served at Riverbank Laboratories,
one of the first facilities in the
U.S. to seriously study cryptography, then later left to serve the
U.S. War Department, Navy, and
Department of the Treasury. Her
work was instrumental in the fight
against international smuggling
and drug running at the time.

26. Elizebeth
Friedman

13

27. Henrietta
Swan Leavitt

Henrietta Swan Leavitt (1868–
1921) was an American astronomer who discovered the relation
between the luminosity and
the period of Cepheid variable
stars. She began her career as
a “computer” at the Harvard
College Observatory in 1893,
examining photographic plates
in order to measure and catalog
the brightness of stars. Though
she received little recognition in
her lifetime, it was her discovery
that first allowed astronomers
to measure the distance between
the Earth and faraway galaxies,
and later led to the determination
that the universe is expanding.

Marie Skłodowska-Curie (1867–
1934) was a Polish and naturalized-French physicist and chemist who conducted pioneering
research on radioactivity. She was
the first woman to win a Nobel
Prize, and the only person to win
twice (at the time). Curie coined
the term “radioactivity” and her
achievements included techniques
for isolating radioactive isotopes,
and the discovery of two elements, polonium and radium.
Marie Curie literally gave her life
for science when she died in 1934
from aplastic anemia brought on
by exposure to radiation.

28. Marie Curie

14

29. Katherine Lathrop

Katherine Lathrop (1915–2005)
was an American nuclear medicine pioneer and member of
the Manhattan Project. Lathrop
is credited with seminal research on the biological effects
of radiation, and the invention
of radiotracers, including Iodine-125, Palladium-103, and
Technetium-99m. The latter of
these is still used about 20 million times a year worldwide in
nuclear medicine scans designed
to identify tumors or abnormal
metabolism. Lathrop was one of
the first members of the Society
of Nuclear Medicine when it was
formed in 1955.

Christine Darden (1942–) is an
American aeronautical engineer
who researches sonic booms at
NASA, including supporting
efforts to reduce noise pollution
and the depletion of the ozone
layer. Darden began her career
at NASA in 1967 at Langley
Research Center, performing calculations for engineers as one of
NASA’s “human computers.” She
openly questioned the sexism she
saw in her work environment, as
men with the same experience
and educational background were
being promoted ahead of her,
and was subsequently promoted
to an aerospace engineer in 1973.

30. Christine Darden

15

31. Tilly Edinger

Tilly Edinger (1897–1967) was a
German-American paleontologist
and the founder of paleoneurology, the study of brain evolution. Edinger’s founding work
of paleoneurology, Die Fossilen
Gehirne (Fossil Brains), was based
on her discovery that mammalian brains left imprints on fossil
skulls, allowing paleoneurologists
to discern their anatomy. Being
Jewish, Edinger worked in secret
from 1933–1938, until the Nazis
discovered her and she fled to
London. She later moved to
the U.S. to take a position at the
Harvard Museum of Comparative Zoology.

Fay Ajzenberg-Selove (1926–2012)
was an American nuclear physicist.
She was known for her experimental work in nuclear spectroscopy of light elements, and for
her annual reviews of the energy
levels of light atomic nuclei. She
was a recipient of the 2007 National Medal of Science. Ajzenberg-Selove was the only woman
in her undergraduate class of 100
at the University of Michigan, and
she was the first full-time female
faculty member at Haverford College. She later successfully fought
gender discrimination at the University of Pennsylvania and was
hired into a tenured position.

32. Fay
Ajzenberg-Selove

16

33. Lynn Conway

Lynn Conway (1938–) is an American computer scientist, electrical
engineer, inventor, and transgender activist. Conway is notable
for a number of achievements,
including the Mead & Conway
revolution in VLSI design, which
incubated an emerging electronic
design automation industry. She
worked at IBM in the 1960s and
is credited with the invention of
generalized dynamic instruction
handling, a key advance by most
modern computer processors to
improve performance. IBM fired
Conway after she revealed her
intention to transition to a female
gender role in 1968.

Mary Anning (1799–1847) was
a British fossil collector, dealer,
and paleontologist who became
known around the world for
important finds she made in
Jurassic marine fossil beds in the
cliffs along the English Channel
in Dorset County. Her findings
contributed to important changes
in scientific thinking about
prehistoric life and the history
of the Earth. Her discoveries
included the first ichthyosaur
skeleton correctly identified, the
first two plesiosaur skeletons
found, the first pterosaur skeleton located outside Germany,
and important fish fossils.

34. Mary Anning

17

35. Rachel Carson

Rachel Carson (1907–1964) was
an American marine biologist
and conservationist whose book
Silent Spring and other writings
are credited with advancing the
global environmental movement.
After publishing success in the
early 1950s, Carson turned her
attention to conservation, and
particularly environmental issues
she believed were caused by pesticides. Silent Spring spurred a reversal in national pesticide policy,
led to a ban on DDT and other
pesticides, and inspired a grassroots movement that resulted in
the creation of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

Melba Roy (1929–1990) was
Assistant Chief of Research
Programs at NASA’s Trajectory
and Geodynamics Division in
the 1960s and headed a group
of NASA mathematicians called
“computers.” Starting as a mathematician, she was head mathematician for Echo Satellites 1 and
2, and she worked up to being
a Head Computer Programmer
and then Program Production
Section Chief at Goddard Space
Flight Center. At NASA, she
received an Apollo Achievement
Award and an Exceptional Performance Award.

36. Melba Roy

18

37. Mary Somerville

Mary Somerville (1780–1872)
was a Scottish science writer
and polymath, at a time when
women’s participation in science
was discouraged. She studied
mathematics and astronomy, and
was nominated to jointly be the
first female member of the Royal
Astronomical Society at the same
time as Caroline Herschel (page
5). Somerville’s writings were
immensely influential, including
inspiring John Couch Adams to
look for and discover Neptune.
Somerville supported the women’s
suffrage movement in the U.K.,
which would not be fully successful until 56 years after her death.

Rita Levi-Montalcini (1909–2012)
was an Italian Nobel Laureate
honored for her work in neurobiology. She was awarded the
1986 Nobel Prize in Physiology
or Medicine jointly with colleague
Stanley Cohen for the discovery
of nerve growth factor (NGF).
Levi-Montalcini lost her university
job in 1938 due to anti-Semitism,
but continued her work in a genetics laboratory in a bedroom at
her home. In the 1990s, she was
one of the first scientists pointing
out the importance of the mast
cell in human pathology, and her
research led to the development
of new anti-inflammatory drugs.

38. Rita
Levi-Montalcini

19

39. Marie Maynard
Daly

Marie Maynard Daly (1921–2003)
was an American biochemist
and the first African-American
woman in the U.S. to earn a Ph.D.
in chemistry. She spent a portion
of her career in cancer research,
and later researched the effects of
aging, hypertension, and atherosclerosis, supporting research that
identified the relationship between
high cholesterol and clogged arteries. She spent her teaching career
advocating for increasing the
number of minority students enrolled in medical schools. In 1988,
she established a scholarship for
African-American chemistry and
physics majors at Queens College.

Hypatia (c. 360–415) was a Greek
mathematician, astronomer, and
philosopher in Egypt. She is
renowned as the first woman to
make a substantial contribution
to the development of mathematics. She was the head of
the Neoplatonic school at Alexandria, where she taught philosophy and astronomy. Hypatia
came to symbolize learning and
science which the early Christians
identified with paganism, and she
was brutally murdered by a sect
of Christian extremists, an event
considered to be the beginning
of the decline of Alexandria as a
center of learning.

40. Hypatia of
Alexandria

20

41. Temple Grandin

Temple Grandin (1947–) is an
American professor of animal
science, best-selling author, autism activist, and a consultant to
the livestock industry on animal
behavior. Grandin invented the
“hug box,” a device used to calm
people on the autism spectrum.
Grandin is a prominent proponent of animal welfare and
designed adapted curved corrals,
intended to reduce stress, panic,
and injury in animals being led to
slaughter. Grandin, who herself
is on the autism spectrum, was
one of Time’s 100 most influential people in 2010.

Ruby Payne-Scott (1912–1981)
was an Australian pioneer in radiophysics and radio astronomy,
and was the first female radio
astronomer. She is considered
one of the most outstanding
Australian physicists, and her
groundbreaking work in radio
astronomy created what is now a
fundamental part of the modern
lexicon of science. Payne-Scott
discovered solar type I and type
III radio bursts, the signature of
propagating beams of nonthermal electrons in the solar atmosphere and the solar system. She
was also an early advocate for
women’s rights in Australia.

42. Ruby
Payne-Scott

21

43. Yvonne Cagle

Yvonne Cagle (1959–) is an
American NASA astronaut.
Currently Cagle is on faculty and
serves as the NASA liaison for
exploration and space development with Singularity University.
During the workshop, Cagle was
embedded with the crew as a crew
training consultant and advisor,
providing insights and feedback
to both crew and study team from
the viewpoint of an astronaut,
flight surgeon, space development expert, and science liaison.
Cagle designed the first useful
product to be 3-D printed aboard
the International Space Station, a
compression strap buckle.

Liu Yang (1978–) is a Chinese
pilot and astronaut who became
the first Chinese woman in
space in 2012. Liu was selected
for the crew of Shenzhou 9,
the first manned mission to the
Chinese space station Tiangong
1, along with Jing Haipeng, the
first repeat Chinese space traveller, and Liu Wang. The mission was launched on June 16,
2012, 49 years to the day after
the first female space traveller,
cosmonaut Valentina Tereshkova
(page 24) was launched. During
this manned space mission, Liu
performed experiments in space
medicine.

44. Liu Yang

22

45. Ellen Ochoa

Ellen Ochoa (1958–) is a former
astronaut and the current director of the NASA Johnson Space
Center. She is the Center’s first
Hispanic and second female
director. She became the first
Hispanic woman to go to space
when she served on a nine-day
mission aboard the shuttle Discovery in 1993. A veteran of four
space flights, Ochoa has logged
nearly 1,000 hours in space. As a
pioneer of spacecraft technology,
Ochoa patented an optical system to detect defects in a repeating pattern, and is a co-inventor
on three other patents.

Chiaki Mukai (1952–) is a Japanese cardiovascular surgeon and
JAXA astronaut. She was the
first Japanese woman in space,
and was the first Japanese citizen
to have two spaceflights. Both
were Space Shuttle missions, and
in total she has spent 23 days in
space. As a physician, Mukai has
been staff/in-residence as part
of the surgery departments at six
hospitals, and has been credited
with sixty publications. Mukai is
well-known as a space ambassador in Japan, and is active in
encouraging public engagement
with space exploration.

46. Chiaki Mukai

23

47. Helen Quinn

Helen Quinn (1943–) is an Australian-born particle physicist whose
contributions to the search for a
unified theory for the three types
of particle interactions have been
recognized with multiple honors,
including the Dirac Medal of the
International Center for Theoretical Physics. Her contributions in
the field include demonstrating
how the physics of quarks can be
used to predict certain aspects of
the physics of hadrons, a useful
property now known as quarkhadron duality. Quinn is active in
education and works directly with
teachers to engage more students
with the study of physics.

Valentina Tereshkova (1937–)
is a Russian former cosmonaut,
and the first woman and first
civilian to have flown in space.
As the pilot of Vostok 6 in
1963, she orbited the earth 48
times and spent almost 3 days in
space. With a single flight, she
logged more flight time than the
combined times of all previous
American astronauts. Tereshkova
also took photographs of the
horizon, which were later used to
identify aerosol layers within the
atmosphere. In 2013, she offered
to go on a one-way trip to Mars
if the opportunity arose.

48. Valentina
Tereshkova

24

49. Chien-Shiung Wu

Chien-Shiung Wu (1912–1997)
was a Chinese American experimental physicist who made significant contributions in the research
of radioactivity. Wu worked on
the Manhattan Project, where she
helped develop the process for
separating uranium metal into the
uranium-235 and uranium-238
isotopes by gaseous diffusion. She
is best known for conducting the
Wu experiment, which contradicted the law of conservation of
parity. This discovery earned the
1957 Nobel Prize in physics for
her male colleagues but not for
her, making Wu another prominent casualty of sexism in science.

Margaret Dayhoff (1925–1983)
was an American physical chemist and professor, who has been
called “the mother and father of
bioinformatics.” Dayhoff was a
noted research biochemist at the
National Biomedical Research
Foundation where she pioneered
the application of mathematics
and computational methods to
the field of biochemistry. She
dedicated her career to applying the evolving computational
technologies to support advances
in biology and medicine, most
notably the creation of protein
and nucleic acid databases and
tools to interrogate the databases.

50. Margaret
Dayhoff

25

“Canopy Meg” Lowman (1953–)
is an American biologist, educator, ecologist, writer, explorer,
and public speaker. Her expertise
involves canopy ecology, canopy
plant-insect relationships, and
constructing canopy walkways.
Nicknamed the “real-life Lorax,”
Lowman pioneered the science
of canopy ecology. She has
designed hot-air balloons and
walkways for treetop exploration
to solve mysteries in the world’s
forests, especially insect pests and
ecosystem health. She works to
map the canopy for biodiversity
and to champion forest conservation around the world.

51. Meg Lowman

Those included on the “STEM:
Women Are All Over It” design
represent merely a cross-section of
the phenomenal women who have
contributed to the advancement of
science, technology, engineering,
and mathematics. Many women
have long worked in anonymity,
and even in hostile environments.
But through education, inspiration, and the focused creation of
equal opportunity, we can close the
gender gap in STEM. Women are
intrinsic to the successful advancement of our ability to understand
and protect the world we live in.
Who will be the next person to
change the world? It could be you.
26

Who’s Next?

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Attribution for Photographs
All photographs used in this booklet and in the “STEM: Women Are
All Over It” family of designs are public domain, licensed under the
Creative Commons, or used by permission. Photographs may have
been digitally altered to remove backgrounds, change colors to blackand-white, and/or to balance contrast levels. Public domain photographs may be re-used freely. Photographs under Creative Commons
licences may be re-used under the same terms as their original licenses. Other photographs may not be re-used without permission.
The following attributions apply:
Ajzenberg-Selove, Fay: AIP Emilio Segre Visual Archives, Physics
Today Collection.
Anning, Mary: Public domain.
Ball, Alice: Public domain.
Burnell, Jocelyn Bell: Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.0 Generic license. Attribution: Roger W. Haworth.
Cagle, Yvonne: Public domain.
Cannon, Annie Jump: Public domain.
Carson, Rachel: Public domain.
du Châtelet, Émilie: Public domain.
Chawla, Kalpana: Public domain.
Conway, Lynn: Courtesy of the subject.
Curie, Marie: Public domain.
Daly, Marie Maynard: Public domain.
Darden, Christine: Public domain.
Dayhoff, Margaret: Public domain.
École Polytechnique: Public domain.
Edinger, Tilly: Public domain.
Elion, Gertrude: Licensed under the Creative Commons AttributionShare Alike 4.0 International license. Attribution: Wellcome Images.

Franklin, Rosalind: Public domain.
Friedman, Elizebeth: Public domain.
Goeppert-Mayer, Maria: Public domain.
Goodall, Jane: Licensed under the Creative Commons AttributionShare Alike 3.0 Unported license. Attribution: Floatjon.
Grandin, Temple: Courtesy of the subject.
Hamilton, Margaret: Public domain.
Herschel, Caroline: Courtesy of Webster Institute for the History of
Astronomy.
Hodgkin, Dorothy: AIP Emilio Segre Visual Archives, Physics Today
Collection.
Hopper, Grace: Public domain.
Hypatia of Alexandria: Public domain.
Jackson, Shirley: Courtesy of the subject.
Jemison, Mae: Public domain.
Kowalewskaja, Sofja: Public domain.
Kwolek, Stephanie: Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license. Attribution: Chemical Heritage
Foundation.
Lamarr, Hedy: Public domain.
Lathrop, Katherine: Courtesy of the subject’s family.
Leavitt, Henrietta Swan: Courtesy of the subject.
Levi-Montalcini, Rita: © Presidenza della Repubblica Italiana. Used
with permission.
Lovelace, Ada: Public domain.
Lowman, Meg: Courtesy of the subject.
McClintock, Barbara: Courtesy of the Smithsonian.
Meitner, Lise: Public domain.
Mukai, Chiaki: Public domain.

Noether, Emmy: Public domain.
Ochoa, Ellen: Public domain.
Payne-Scott, Ruby: Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license. Attribution: Peter Gavin Hall.
Quinn, Helen: Courtesy of the subject.
Ride, Sally: Public domain.
Roughgarden, Joan: Courtesy of the subject.
Roy, Melba: Public domain.
Somerville, Mary: Public domain.
Tereshkova, Valentina: Public domain.
Wu, Chien-Shiung: AIP Emilio Segre Visual Archives, Physics Today
Collection.
Yang, Liu: Public domain.

INDEX
Ajzenberg-Selove, Fay...............16
Anning, Mary..............................17
Ball, Alice.......................................7
Burnell, Jocelyn Bell.....................2
Cagle, Yvonne.............................22
Cannon, Annie Jump...................5
Carson, Rachel............................18
du Châtelet, Émilie.......................2
Chawla, Kalpana...........................3
Conway, Lynn.............................17
Curie, Marie.................................14
Daly, Marie Maynard..................20
Darden, Christine.......................15
Dayhoff, Margaret......................25
École Polytechnique....................1
Edinger, Tilly..............................16
Elion, Gertrude............................8
Franklin, Rosalind......................12
Friedman, Elizebeth...................13
Goeppert-Mayer, Maria...............3
Goodall, Jane................................7
Grandin, Temple........................21
Hamilton, Margaret.....................8
Herschel, Caroline........................5
Hodgkin, Dorothy.......................9
Hopper, Grace............................13
Hypatia of Alexandria...............20
Jackson, Shirley.............................4
Jemison, Mae.................................6
Kowalewskaja, Sofja..................11
Kwolek, Stephanie.....................11

Lamarr, Hedy................................6
Lathrop, Katherine.....................14
Leavitt, Henrietta Swan.............14
Levi-Montalcini, Rita.................19
Lovelace, Ada................................1
Lowman, Meg.............................26
McClintock, Barbara....................9
Meitner, Lise...............................12
Mukai, Chiaki..............................23
Noether, Emmy............................4
Ochoa, Ellen...............................23
Payne-Scott, Ruby......................21
Quinn, Helen..............................24
Ride, Sally....................................10
Roughgarden, Joan.....................10
Roy, Melba...................................18
Somerville, Mary........................19
Tereshkova, Valentina................24
Wu, Chien-Shiung......................25
Yang, Liu......................................22

X

SML
GOOD