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Computer Communications 5

Computer Communications 5

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Published by Neel Kanak
Lan Bridges
Lan Bridges

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Published by: Neel Kanak on Feb 10, 2010
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LAN Bridges

Hubs, Bridges & Routers

Hub: Active central element in a star topology


Twisted Pair: inexpensive, easy to insall Simple repeater in Ethernet LANs “Intelligent hub”: fault isolation, net configuration, statistics Requirements that arise:
User community grows, need to interconnect hubs Hubs are for different types of LANs
Hub

?
Two Twisted Pairs

Hub

Two Twisted Pairs

Station

Station

Station

Station

Station

Station

Hubs, Bridges & Routers

Interconnecting Hubs

Repeater: Signal regeneration  All traffic appears in both LANs Bridge: MAC address filtering  Local traffic stays in own LAN Routers: Internet routing  All traffic stays in own LAN

Higher Scalability

?
Hub
Two Twisted Pairs Two Twisted Pairs

Hub

Station

Station

Station

Station

Station

Station

General Bridge Issues
Network Network LLC 802.3 802.3 802.3 802.3 802.3 CSMA/CD

LLC
MAC PHY

802.5
802.5 802.5 Token Ring

802.5
802.5

MAC PHY

Operation at data link level implies capability to work with multiple network layers However, must deal with

 

Difference in MAC formats Difference in data rates; buffering; timers Difference in maximum frame length

Bridges of Same Type
Network LLC MAC Physical MAC Physical Bridge Network LLC MAC Physical

MAC
Physical

Common case involves LANs of same type Bridging is done at MAC level

BRIDGE

TRANSPARENT BRIDGE
SOURCE ROUTING BRIDGE
BASIC FUNCTIONS

FORWARD FRAMES FROM ONE LAN TO ANOTHER

LEARNS WHERE STATIONS ARE ATTATCHED TO THE LAN PREVENTS LOOPS IN TOPOLOGY

Transparent Bridges
 

Interconnection of IEEE LANs with complete transparency Use table lookup, and

 

S1

S2 LAN1

S3

discard frame, if source & destination in same LAN forward frame, if source & destination in different LAN use flooding, if destination unknown
observe source address of arriving LANs handle topology changes by removing old entries

Bridge LAN2

Use backward learning to build table
 

S4

S5

S6

S1

S2

S3

S4

S5

LAN1

LAN2

LAN3

B1
Port 1 Port 2 Port 1

B2
Port 2

Address Port

Address Port

S1→S5
S1 S2
S3 S4 S5

S1 to S5
LAN1

S1 to S5
LAN2

S1 to S5

S1 to S5
LAN3

B1
Port 1 Port 2 Port 1

B2
Port 2

Address Port S1 1

Address Port S1 1

S3→S2
S1 S2
S3 S4 S5

S3S2
S3S2
LAN1 B1 Port 1 Port 2

S3S2

S3S2
LAN2 B2 Port 1 Port 2

S3S2
LAN3

Address Port S1 S3 1 2

Address Port S1 S3 1 1

S4S3
S1 S2
S3 S4

S5

S4

S3

S4S3
LAN1 B1

S4S3
LAN3

S4S3
Port 2

LAN2 B2

Port 1

Port 1

Port 2

Address Port S1 S3 S4 1 2 2

Address Port S1 S3 S4 1 1 2

S2S1
S1 S2
S3 S4

S5

S2S1
LAN1

S2S1
B1

LAN2 B2

LAN3

Port 1

Port 2

Port 1

Port 2

Address Port S1 S3 S4 S2 1 2 2 1

Address Port S1 S3 S4 1 1 2

Adaptive Learning

In a static network, tables eventually store all addresses & learning stops In practice, stations are added & moved all the time

Introduce timer (minutes) to age each entry & force it to be relearned periodically If frame arrives on port that differs from frame address & port in table, update immediately

Avoiding Loops
LAN1

(1)
B1 (2)

(1)

B2
B3

LAN2

B4

LAN3 B5

LAN4

Spanning Tree Algorithm
1. 2.

Select a root bridge among all the bridges.

root bridge = the lowest bridge ID.
root port = port with the least-cost path to the root bridge In case of ties, root port is the one with lowest port ID

Determine the root port for each bridge except the root bridge

3.

Select a designated bridge for each LAN

• •

designated bridge = bridge has least-cost path from the LAN to the root bridge. In case of ties, designated bridge is the one with the lowest bridge ID. designated port connects the LAN and the designated bridge

4.

All root ports and all designated ports are placed into a “forwarding” state. These are the only ports that are allowed to forward frames. The other ports are placed into a “blocking” state.

LAN1 (1) (1) B2 (2)

B1 (2) LAN2 (1)
B4 (2) LAN3

(1)
B3 (2)

(3)

(1) B5

(2) LAN4

LAN1 (1) (1) B2 (2)

B1 (2) LAN2 (1)
B4 (2) LAN3

Bridge 1 selected as root bridge
(1)
B3 (2)

(3)

(1) B5

(2) LAN4

LAN1 (1)
R (1)

B1 (2) LAN2
R (1)

B2 (2)

R

(1)
B3 (2)

Root port selected for every bridge except root bridge
(3)

B4 (2) LAN3
R (1)

B5

(2) LAN4

LAN1
D (1) R (1)

B1
D (2)

B2 (2)
R (1)

R

(1)
B3

Select designated bridge for each LAN
(3)
D

LAN2

D (2)

B4 (2) LAN3
R (1)

B5

(2) LAN4

LAN1
D (1) R (1)

B1
D (2)

B2 (2)
R (1)

R

(1)
B3

All root ports & designated ports put in forwarding state
(3)
D

LAN2

D (2)

B4 (2) LAN3
R (1)

B5

(2) LAN4

Source Routing Bridges

To interconnect IEEE 802.5 token rings Each source station determines route to destination Routing information inserted in frame
Routing control Route 1 Route 2 designator designator 2 bytes 2 bytes Route m designator 2 bytes

2 bytes

Destination Source Routing address address information

Data

FCS

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