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Marcell, A. V., Eftim, S. E., Sonenstein, F. L., & Pleck, J. H. (2011).

Associations of family and


peer experiences with masculinity attitude trajectories at the individual and group level in
adolescent and young adult males. Men and Masculinities, 14(5), 565-587.
doi:dx.doi.org/10.1177/1097184X11409363
This research was comprised of 845 males in the National Survey of Adolescent Males, aged 1517. The males were then followed up 2.5 and 4.5 years later. MRM and STA models were
used to measure males perspective on masculinity. There was an oversampling of black and
Hispanics. The research seeks to provide better understanding of gender intensification and
cognitive development processes during adolescence. It helps to provide insight into when
intervention is needed to reduce risks that come along with masculine attitudes. The research
looked at other research that has been done. Specifically, how birth order effects attitudes, as
well as parental attitudes, gender of siblings, and time spent with same sex peers. It seeks to
find a connection between family and peers and the development of masculinity. The
research measured masculinity by roles attitude scales, family context scales, peer context
scales, and socioemographic background characteristic. Their findings were that attitudes
about masculinity declined with age. Meaning, attitudes became less traditional. Family
dynamics, such as a change of who you reside with correlated with attitudes about
masculinity. Another finding was that uncommitted heterosexual relationship correlated with
higher attitudes of masculinity.
Chu, J. Y., Porche, M. V., & Tolman, D. L. (2005). The adolescent masculinity ideology in
relationships scale: Development and validation of a new measure for boys. Men and
Masculinities, 8(1), 93-115. doi: dx.doi.org/10.1177/1097184X03257453
This research sought to create a new scale to measure how adolescent boys for their perceptions
of what masculine norms are. The scale is created by integrating other scales and research to
create a new and modified one. Its goal is to use the Adolescent Masculinity Ideology Scale,
to define masculinity in terms of relationships. The method they used was collecting direct
narratives to help explain their perceptions. The research hypothesized that masculinity
norms may pose a threat to their psychological health due to its confined perimeters of what
the norms are. The norms include physical toughness, emotional stoicism, projected selfsufficiency, and heterosexual dominance over women. The research wanted to know how, on
an individual level, masculine norms become apparent in their lives. The scale they
developed was called Empirical and Theoretical Roots of the AMIRS. Through interpersonal
relationships, adolescents may succumb to masculine norms, relating their masculinity to
their relationships. The scale tries to show how male characteristics: emotional stoicism,
power, and toughness, can affect the persons interpersonal relationships. Through qualitative
observation and interview data, they drew upon boys own narratives. The results showed that

toughness, emotional stoicism, and power are found in boys perception of masculinity. It also
showed that these characteristics manifest in relational to their personal relationships.
Connell, R.W. (2005). Growing up masculine: rethinking the significance of adolescence in the
making of masculinities. Irish Journal of Sociology, 14(2), 11-28
This article seeks to provide the readers with a more collaborative information on the research
that has been done concerning adolescence youth and masculinity. Pulling from other research,
the article is aimed at defining the development of adolescence and masculinities role in such.
The research analyzed is about many factors including, race, socioeconomic status, and of course
gender. From the research method, which is analyzing prior research on the subject matter, the
findings were that development of masculinity in a persons life is not linear but has room for
growth. I believe this research will be helpful in my helping me with my research paper by
provided me with a collective count of search on this topic
Trillo, M. Vanesa and Redondo, M. Lourdes. 2013. The Role of Gender Identity in Adolescents
Antisocial Behavior. Psicothema. P. 507-513
This article seeks to research the connection between gender identity and delinquent
behavior. The research provides evidence that supports males socialization in a cultural context
as being a risk factor for delinquent behaviors. It adds that the identity males associate with their
gender contribute to the risk factor. The research aims to explain the connection between male
gender identity and delinquency. The study consisted of 920 adolescents of both sexes. They
were all from urban populations and ranged from 12-18 years of age. The research was
conducted by a series of questionnaire surveys regarding antisocial behavior, personal attributes,
substance abuse, parental attachments, as well as many others. The findings were that there was
evidence to support gender identity and antisocial behavior. These finding help me with my
research question by giving evidence that gender identity influences a particular kind of
behavior. However, I am curious as to how particular factors contribute to gender identity
Hauge, Mona-Iren and Havvind, Hanne. 2011. Sports, Education, and Society: Boys Bodies and
the Constitution of the Adolescent Masculinities. P. 1-16
This article seeks to provide evidence that biology is not the only determining factor
when defining adolescence. The article focuses on the persons ability to actively seek out ways
to change their bodies in order to define the development into adolescence. There is a strong
emphasis on how boys achieve adolescence through performing activities that enhance the body.
The research was conducted by a longitudinal study through the means of interviews. 14 boys
and 18 girls when they turned 12 and were interviewed 3-4 times during their 7th years of
primary school and 2-3 times during their 8th year. A smaller group of boys were interviewed 2
years later. One way of interviewing was by using the Life Mode Format, which sought to ask
questions about their everyday routines and then reflect on such. Their findings concluded that

within the realm of masculinity boys perception of their body give meaning to their
developmental stage as an adolescent.