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NIAGARA COLLEGE GIS-GM

Digital Image
Processing
Geometric Correction, Orthorectification
and Mosaicking Assignment #3
By: Marc Michael Mancino
For: Janet Finlay

Technical Memorandum
Project
:

Geometric Correction, Orthorectification and Mosaicking

Client:

Janet Finlay

Subject
:

GISC9216D3 Submission Digital Image Processing

Date:

March 19th, 2015

Prepared By: Marc Mancino

Triplem Inc.

Questions
A) After entering 4 GCPs or more for the polynomial geometric
correction, the prediction process for assigning a good localization of
the GCP that was entered was actually very accurate. Only slight
adjustments to some of the points were needed. Previous work
involving georeferencing proves that only three of the same points on
two of the same images is all that is required to align them
sufficiently for analysis. After the third point, a prediction process
can be used to make the process for assigning GCPs more
convenient, since most of the alignment is complete after only
assigning three points.
B) The sum of the total RMS (Root Mean Square) for all of the GCPs is
ideal at around 0.050. Since this assignment was strongly influenced
by learning, the sums of the RMS values were much higher than
0.050. The closer the values are to 0.050, the more accurate the
assignment of GCPs was. The RMS Error for each of the GCPs in
Photo 1 is indicated by the red indicator circle in Figure 1. The sum
of the RMS Error was calculated to be 0.248. The RMS Error for
each of the GCPs in Photo 2 is indicated by the red indicator circle in
Figure 2. The sum of the RMS Error was calculated to be 0.182. The
RMS Error for each of the GCPs in Photo 3 is indicated by the red
indicator circle in Figure 3. The sum of the RMS Error was
calculated to be 0.115.

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Figure 1 - Data Table displaying GCP Information for Photo 1 using ERDAS Imagine 2014

Figure 2 - Data Table displaying GCP Information for Photo 2 using ERDAS Imagine 2014

Figure 3 - Data Table displaying GCP Information for Photo 3 using ERDAS Imagine 2014

C) The pixel size for all 3 corrected photos were different because in
order to mosaic the photos together, the features need to be in the
same proportion. This is done by adjusting the pixel size. Stretching
or warping the photos by adjusting pixel size is how fitting them
together is accomplished so smoothly. If the photos were mosaicked
using the same pixel size, there would be tons of misalignment and
disproportionalities. For instance, a feature split between two photos
would look bigger on one half than the other. The cell sizes for
Photos 1, 2 and 3 are encompassed by the red circle indicators in
their respective Figures: Figure 4, Figure 5, and Figure 6.

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Figure 4 - ERDAS Imagine menu displaying resampling parameters and output cell size

Figure 5 - ERDAS Imagine menu displaying resampling parameters and output cell size

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Figure 6 - ERDAS Imagine menu displaying resampling parameters and output cell size

D) Two mosaics geometrically corrected using the polynomial model


were created using two different seamline methods and produced
slightly different results in regards to the areas of overlap as
addressed below in Table 1. This is another example of a
misalignment but it is also an example of the difference between the
two seamline methods. The Most Nadir Seamline demonstrates a
straight line to show the divide between the two mosaic images
whereas the Weighted Seamline shows a very irregular and more
hidden divide (black indicator arrows). The misalignment of the road
network, however, is less obvious in the Most Nadir Seamline and
more obvious in the Weighted Seamline.
Table 1 A Comparison of a Distinct Feature between both Seamline Methods Across a
Mosaic Divide

Most Nadir Seamline

Weighted Seamline

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Road and building shape files were laid atop the mosaic imagery and posed
issues of misalignment as indicated below in Table 2. The cause of the shift
between the features of the mosaic imagery and the road and building
shape files is the total amount of error or the sum of the RMS Error from
assigning the GCPs. The error is basically used to show how the imagery
needs to be adjusted in order to align with the shape files.
Table 2 - Evidence of Misalignment between the Mosaic Imagery and the Shape Files

Evidence of Misalignment

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