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(SCR, TRIAC, DIAC, UJT, PUT)


.................................................................................................................................. 4
(SCR).............................................................. 6
................................................................................................... 6
V - I .............................................................................................................. 10
........................................................................................................... 13

.................................................................................................. 21
................................................................................................. 21
V-I .............................................................................................................. 23
.............................................................................................................................. 26

...................................................................... 30
................................................................................................. 30

VI ......................................................................................................... 32
............................................................................................................................ 33
(UJT) ........................................................................................... 35
........................................................................................................................ 37
19: UJT
........................................................................................................... 38
............................................................................................................................ 39
V-I ........................................................................................................ 44
UJT .............................................................................................................. 45
UJT (PUT)......................................................................................... 48


(Thyristor)

""
.
(on)
(off) , , ,
. ,
, ,
, .
, , ,
DC AC. , ,
,
,

,
. , , ,
"" ""
,
.

(FET). ,
FET ,
.
,
, FET , ,
.
,
4

. ,
, .
, , (SCR),
(TRIAC), (DIAC),
(PUT).

.

(SCR)


. , , SCR.
, , SCR
. ,
, , , .
, , (turn on)
(turn off), , .
, SCR. ' ,

.

SCR , ,
- . , ,
, .
SCR ,
- .

SCR 1-.
SCR (PNPN) , ,
. , , , .
, .

1 : SCR

SCR, ,
, 1-.
, SCR ,
, 1-.
, , PNP
,
1-. ,
, 1-.
, 1-,
SCR, 1-. ,
,
. , ,
,
. , ,
,
.

SCR , ,
.
SCR , ,
,
. , ,
, ,
. , , ,
, . ,
, ,
.
,
.
,
.
SCR
, - ,
.
, .
SCR 1- ,
1-. , SCR
, . SCR
, .
, , ,
, .
SCR, , ,
2. , ,
, .
,
SCR . ,

A, G. & K, 2.
()

(G)

()

2 : SCR

, , SCR , , 3.
(S)
,
R G . ( G ),
. - SCR
, (R L )
A

IA

R1
S

G
K
RG
+

3 : , , SCR

, , , SCR,
, , , SCR
, (
) , ).

V - I

SCR ,
- (V-I), 4.
V-I SCR.
, -
SCR, SCR. ,
. SCR, ,
, ,
4. - SCR V F , .
V F , SCR
( F ), .
V F , F ,
, F V F
( ). V F ,
,
(forward break-over voltage). V F , SCR
F ,
, . SCR
, , . V F
SCR
.

10

SCR ,
V F , F (
). , SCR
, F . F
, SCR
. F , SCR
, (holding current) SCR
. 4,
, (
).

IF

+
VF

VR

VF

VF

VR

VR

IR

IR

4 : V - I SCR

SCR, 4,
, ,
. (V R ) SCR ,
( R ) ,
. , V R ,

11

SCR. , I R , V R
, (
). (V R ),
SCR, (reverse breakdown voltage)
SCR. SCR,
, , . ,
, , , SCR

.
V-I 4 V F I F ,
SCR . , SCR
, . ,
4 , .
,
SCR . ,
SCR,
5. , V-I ,
( I G )
SCR . " G =0" V F
I F , ,
,
4. I G1 , ,
, . ,
" G =0", (
V F ). I G2
, .
, ,
.
5 SCR
. ,

12

, ,
,
.
,
.
5
SCR. ,
, ,
SCR. ,
SCR, ,
. , , ,
.

IF

IG2

IG1

IG0

VF

5 : SCR,


, SCR ,
SCR ,
. ,
13

, , SCR
, . ,
, .
SCR, , , ,
, . SCR,
, , ,
.
SCR, , DC AC
, .

.
. SCR, 3,
, DC (R 2 ),
SCR ,
, . , ,
, , SCR.
, , SCR
- . SCR,
SCR.
SCR 6. ,
.
, SCR 1 DC ,
R 1 SCR 2 , (C) (R 1 ),
.
SCR 1 , DC
R 1 . , ,
(C) , R 1 . ,
, .
SCR 2 ,
, SCR 1 .
SCR 1 .

14

, SCR 1 ,
, SCR 1
R 1 . , ,
SCR 1 , ,
SCR 2 , .

+V

R1

R1

+
SCR2

SCR1
G
K

ON

OFF

6 : DC SCR

SCR DC ,
, ( SCR),
.
, .
SCR AC
, . , AC ,
AC .
AC 7. SCR

15

, ,
. , S ,
SCR . R 1
D 1
, SCR,
.
S, SCR
AC ,
R 1 . S , SCR ,
AC . ,
SCR, , AC
. ,
SCR,

R1

, ,


D1

AC

SCR

AC
G
K

, SCR
S

7 : AC SCR

AC .
,

,
AC , . , AC
, ,
, SCR . ,
. DC .
16

, 6 7,
. ,
, SCR
.
, ,
. SCR , ,
. , SCR,
. ,
, ,
.
SCR ,
, , .
, ,
60 Hz AC. AC ,
SCR, 8.
(half- ware phase control
circuit). SCR AC ,
R 1 .

R1

R1

D2

SCR
AC

G
K

D1

C
+

8 : SCR

AC , 8,

17

120 volts, 60 Hz .
9-.
, C D 2
SCR , .
, , D 1
SCR.
, SCR
, , R 1 ,
, . ,
SCR R 1 C.
R 1 ,
, D 2 ,
AC . , ,
, R 1 .
R 1 , C
C ( SCR D 1 )
, SCR.
, R 1 , SCR
R 1
, SCR
AC .
R 1 , 9-.

18

+
O

+
O

+
O

9 : SCR

R 1 , C
, ,
. ,
C ,
SCR. , SCR,
.
SCR

19

, .
R 1 , 9-.
R 1 ,
SCR,
. 9- R 1 R 1
, SCR 9-
R 1 . R 1
, SCR R 1 .
9,
, .
, ,
50% AC .
, SCR, ,
AC , ,
, AC ,
( ),
SCR. ,
AC , SCR,
, .
SCR .
AC , , ,
AC .

20

(SCR), ,
, ,
. SCR ,
. ,
AC , SCR
AC .

SCR
AC , DC ,
SCR.
AC
,

. triac. triac ,
, , SCR, ,
. triac
SCR , .
, , triac
.


triac 10-.
,
1, 2 . 1
2 , .
, ,
1. ,
1 2,
. , triac

21

,
. , SCR,
, . SCR
8-10.
triac
. ,
, , SCR
. SCR
, .
10- triac.
, , .
SCR , ,
, , triac
.

10 : triac

SCR,
, triac
. triac , AC
22

.
triac, ,
SCR.
, ,
,
. SCR, ,
. , triac
, .
, , ,
triac 11.
, ,
. , , , ,
, , 1 2 ,
:
2
( 2 )

(G)

1
( 1 )

11 : triac

V-I
- (V-I) triac,
12.

23

, ( +
- ) ,
( +V -V). ,
triac 1
, .

+IT
MT2

IH

- V - VBO
+ VBO

+V

IH
MT2

-IT
12 : V-I triac

12 ( 2 )
1 ( +V),
(+ ) , +V
(+V BO ) . , triac
+ , ,
. triac
, +
( ), . , SCR
, .

24

MT 2 1 , triac
V-I , (- )
, -V (V ) . , triac
, - .
V-I 12, , triac
SCR, . ,
, triac .
SCR , triac (
) ,
, . ,
. ,
SCR triac.
SCR , triac
. , triac (
) ,
, 1 , .
, , ,
. ,
, .
SCR, triac ,
( ).
, , ,
. ,
(+ - ) .
triac , +V + ,
. ,
, +V.

.
triac,

25

, ,
( ),
.
, (+V
-V). ,
triac,
. SCR,
, , triac.

triac ,
AC .
AC AC
, . ,
AC , 13.
R1

R1
MT2
AC

MT1

13 : AC

,
R 1 , S
, . S , triac
AC .

26

triac,
. , S ,
R 1 triac, ,
. triac, ,
, SCR
( 7)
.
.
triac,
AC , , 14.
(full-wave
phase, control circuit) SCR ,
8. triac
AC ,
SCR 8, . ,
triac
.
C R 1 ,
R1

MT2

R1
G

AC

MT1

14 :

, AC .
, triac ,

27

C . ,
1 triac. ,
,
. ,
,
, .
. ,
,
, .
, C
, .
, triac
. ,
triac ,
.
triac, ,
R 1 . R 1 , triac
AC R 1 .
R 1 ,
.
, 9,
R 1 , triac, (
).
, triac
,
.
triac.
,
, ,
.
R 1 C,

28

, ,
triac, , .
(
).
triac

, SCR. ,
triac SCR
,
. triac (
), 25 amperes. , SCR
( ),
700 800 amperes SCR .
,
.
triac
. , SCR,
. triac
, ,

. , triac (50 400
Hz), SCR 30 Hz. ,
, AC , SCR
, triac,
.

29

,
triac, triac .
triac,
,
diac.
, ,
. ,
triac.


diac , ,
. , , , ,
15-. , ,
, ,
.
. diac - ,
,
. , ,
, .
, diac
, ,
. , ,
. , ,
, diac
, .
15-.

30

P
N
P

To diac (
) , ,
,
. ,
,
, . diac, ,
, ( )
.
, ,
diac, 15-.
triac, .

31

VI

(V-I), diac,
16.
, (+ & -)
, (+V & -V).
16 , diac,
, ,
, . ,
diac, diac
+V BO & -V BO , 16. +V BO & -V BO ,
, 28 36 Volts.
+V BO & -V BO , diac ,
. , ,
diac ,
. ,
diac .
+II

-V

- VBO
BO
+ VBO
BO

+V

-I

16: V-I diac

diac h ,
(+V BO -V BO ) . +V BO -V BO ,
.

32

diac, , triac,
, (
. 17.
,
, 14. diac
, , . ,
C 1
. C 1
+V BO -V BO , diac
. diac,
triac .
, C 1 , ,
1 triac, diac.
, ,
C 1 , diac ( )
MT 1 , triac.
,
, diac & triac,
, .
( C 1 ) diac, ,

,
triac.

33

R1
MT2
R1
AC

TRIAC
DIAC

MT1

C1

17: , diac
triac.

diac , triac,
AC . , ,

. ,
, , .
, ,
.
,
,
,
. diac - triac,
,
triac.
diac triac,
,
.
,
diac,
.

34

diac
.

(UJT)
,
UJT. UJT
,
diac & triac, . UJT ,
, ,
. , UJT
,
,
.
, UJT
. , ,
PUT. PUT , ,
UJT,
.

UJT
. , PUT
, UJT.
,
18. SCR,
110 amperes , ,
SCR . SCR
4,5 amperes. ,
, triac 50 amperes.

35

18: (courtesy of
Amperex Electronic Corp.)

36

, (UJT)
. , , (block)
, ,
, 19-.
- , ,
1 2.
.
, , 1 , 2 , .

, .
, 1 2,
. UJT (
1 2 ), 5 Kohms 9 Kohms.
, ,

UJT , 19-.
(R B1 & R B2 ) ,
. UJT
,
UJT 19-.

UJT 19-. ()
, UJT .
, .

37

2
2
2

R 2

()

R 1

1
1

19: UJT .

38

UJT ,
. 20 UJT
.
(V BB ) 1 2 , 2
1 . (V S )
1 , 1 .
V S
. ,
.

B2

RB2
+
VBB

+
VS

RB1 VB1

VE

B1

20: UJT.

V S ,
, ,
(R B1 & R B2 )
1 2. , , ,
Ohm, V BB ,
1 2 (R B1

R B2 ). V BB

R B1 & R B2 . R B1 ( V B1 )
39

(V BB ) (intrisic standoff ratio)


().
, :
() = V B1 /V BB

R B1 R B2 ,
, , R B1
, 1 2 (R B1+ R B2 ).
, :

= R B1 / R B1 + R B2

, ,
.
, V BB V S .
UJT
, 0,5 0,8. ,
, , R B1 (V B1 )
(V BB ). ,
, :

V B1 = V BB

, , R B1 (V B1 )
V BB . , UJT
0,5 V BB 20 volts,

40

R B1 10 volts.
UJT , V S
, . ,
UJT , V S ,
. , V S ,
, 0,7 volts.
, R B1 (V B2 )
, (V E ).
, V E 0,7 volts V B1 ,
, , .
V E ,
(peak voltage) V p . V p
V BB ,
. , :
(V p ) = V BB + V F

, , V
, ,
(V F ). , ,
V UJT, V BB . ,
UJT () 0,6 V BB 10 volts, :
V = 0,6 (10) + 0,7
V = 6 + 0,7
V = 6,7 volts
, V
6,7 volts.

41

V ,
, . ,
V , ,
. (
) , ,
. ,
()
1 , .
,
() 1 , R B1 .

,
R B1 . .
, V . UJT
.
(V S ) , ,
, . V S ,
, R B1 . ,
R B1 V E , 1 ,
. UJT, ,
, .
V S , ,
, , V E
, , .
. ,
V E .
,
1 , UJT . R B1 ,
, R B2 ,
,

()

42

. ,
R B2 , R B1 .
(R B1 + R B2 ) , UJT
,
V BB . ,, R B2
.
1 .
UJT, .

V
, .

43

V-I

1
UJT, 21. , ,

UJT ( ) 1
( V E ). ,
, 20. V E

, V S .

VE
V

-IE

+IE

21: V-I 1 UJT

21 V E ,
(- ) .
, , (
20), R B1 (V B1 ). V E V B1 ,
V E
(+ ), , .
V E (V p ), UJT
. , (peak current)
, 21.

44

Vp, V , + ,
, .
, V . , V
,
(valley voltage) V.
(valley current) . V, V
, + UJT , ,
.

UJT
UJT ,
. , ,
, 22. , ,
(relaxation oscillator) UJT
, .

R1

R2

VBB

B2

B1
+

VE

R3

ER3

22: UJT

S , C

45

R1, . C
Vp UJT, UJT 1
. C R3
UJT( R3 ). C , , V
UJT UJT .
UJT, C
Vp. UJT,
, C , Vv .
C , , Vp ,
, Vv. , 1 UJT,
23 - .
, ,
Vv Vp.
, ,
, R3.
R3 ( 3 ) .
C . ,
. R3,
UJT ( 1 2),
.
,
( ), ,
R1. R1 , C
.
R1 , C
Vp . , , ,
C .
,
.

46

VE
V

V
(t)

R3

(t)

23: UJT , ,
1.

, UJT
,
, . , UJT , ,
, . , UJT
( )
,
. , ,
. UJT ,
SCR, ,
8. , C 8
UJT UJT ,
,
SCR .

47

UJT (PUT)
UJT PUT
. UJT (
), ,
, , , UJT. , PUT
- , , .
, UJT PUT,
(Vp) PUT . UJT, Vp
. PUT
, , , 1 UJT
, , , . ,
V - I , 1 UJT.

, .
, Vp PUT ,
, ,
, .

( )

(G )

( )

24: PUT.

PUT ,
48

, 25.
PUT ,
23. (
), R1,
, R3 R4.
R2. R2
.
, PUT ,
( )
, ( 0,7 volts). ,
Vp .

R1

R3

ES

G
+

R2

R4

25: PUT .

C,
(5), R1.
22. C Vp,
PUT C
R2. C Vv PUT,
.
R2.
23. ,
49

, R1
C. ,
R3 R4. PUT,
Vp. R4 , R3
, Vp.
Vp , ,
PUT .
.
R3 , R4 ,
.
PUT 25, ,
R3 R4, Vp PUT.
,
R3 R4
PUT. (p) (v)
R3 R4, (V5). ,
R3 R4 , Vp
( V5). , R3
R4, p v PUT,
V5.
, (R3 R4)
p v . ,
, p v, R3 R4.
R3 R4 (R G ) PUT,
:

RG

R 3R 4
R 3 R 4

V5, p n , R G
. , ,
p n,
50

, ,
.
,
, , ,
, 25.
, , PUT
, PUT.
, , , PUT ,
, SCR.
, PUT
, UJT
, , SCR,
. PUT, ,
( 25),
. ,
, ,
. ,
, Vp
() .
PUT

, UJT. PUT , ,
UJT . ,
UJT , UJT ,
.

51