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NRG - Pipeline Protection - Earthquake

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Assessment Of Earthquake

14 August 2006 Liquefaction

induced

NRG ENGINEERING

training@nrgengineering.com

General

very complex phenomenon.

to evaluate earthquake-induced liquefaction has

been proposed by Seed (Ref. [1], [2], [3]).

industry and has been verified by field data base.

(CSR) caused by seismic acceleration to the cyclic

resistance ratio (CRR) of the soil.

at that area.

NRG ENGINEERING

27 May 2015

The cyclic stress ratio (CSR), which reflects the stresses

exerted on the soil element by seismic actions is the

average cyclic shear stress (tav) developed on the

horizontal surfaces of sand to the effective overburden

pressure (o).

The CSR ratio can be determined conveniently from the

following relationship (Ref. [4]):

av

amax o

CSR ' 0.65

rd

'

g o

o

NRG ENGINEERING

27 May 2015

Where

tav

o

=

Effective overburden pressure at depth under

consideration (kPa)

o

amax

=

rd

=

value of

Peak Ground seismic acceleration (m/s2)

Stress reduction factor, which decreases from a

1 at ground surface to a value of about 0.9 at a

depth of

g

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10.7m ( - )

Acceleration due to gravity (m/s2)

27 May 2015

Cyclic resistance ratio (CRR) is the ratio of normalized soil

shear resistance (tav) to the effective overburden pressure

(o) at a given depth.

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27 May 2015

for a given mean grain size

D50 from Figure 1, where qc

is the tip resistance (in bars)

at a given depth from CPT,

and N60 is the penetration

resistance in blows per foot

and corresponds to a transfer

of approximately 60% of the

theoretical free-fall hammer

energy to the stem.

between the SPT test data

and CPT test data proposed

by Robertson (Ref. [5]).

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STANDARD BLOW (qc / N60) VS MEAN GRAIN

SIZE, D50

27 May 2015

Substitute the qc value obtained from the CPT results to the

qc / N60 ratio to determine the N60 value.

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27 May 2015

resistance of soil (N1)60

The blow counts N60 is then corrected to the normalized

SPT blow count, (N1)60 where (N1)60 is the penetration

resistance the soil would have under an effective

overburden pressure of 1 ton per sq ft.

NRG ENGINEERING

27 May 2015

resistance of soil (N1)60

determined by multiplying

N60 by the effective stress

correction factor, CN

(obtained from Figure 2, (Ref.

[4])) as follows:

(N1 ) 60 C N N 60

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27 May 2015

CORRECTION COEFFICIENT CN VS

Power to Deliver #9

EFFECTIVE OVERBURDENThe

PRESSURE

Ratio (CRR)

(CRR) at a given depth for a

7.5 earthquake magnitude on

Richter scale for silty sands

can be predicted by using the

correlation between the field

liquefaction behaviour of

sands and the normalized SPT

blow count for three contents

of fines (Figure 3, (Ref. [4])).

FIGURE 3 CYCLIC RESISTANCE

RATIO (CRR) VS CORRECTED SPT

(N1)60 FOR A EARTHQUAKE

MAGNITUDE OF 7.5 ON RITCHER

SCALE FOR SILTY SAND

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27 May 2015

Assessment Methodology

NRG ENGINEERING

27 May 2015

General

The CPT results show a wide range of various soil

parameters within the layer of soil concern. These variables

include the percentage of fines, mean grain size, relative

density and depth of soil.

As such, limiting tip resistance for liquefaction to occur for

various soil parameters due to seismic acceleration of

0.23g, for example, is determined.

These limiting tip resistances are compared with the

average tip resistances from the CPT results and

conclusions are drawn for the liquefaction potential of the

soil layer being studied.

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27 May 2015

Assume that the cyclic stress ratio (CSR) for seismic

acceleration equates to 0.23g.

This CSR ratio corresponds to the CRR ratio and are plotted

on Figure 3 to determine the limiting (N1)60 values at the

respective peak ground acceleration. This is illustrated in

Figure 4.

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27 May 2015

MAGNITUDE OF 7.5 ON RITCHER SCALE FOR SILTY SAND FOR SEISMIC

ACCELERATION OF 0.23g

(contd)

Table 1 presents the corresponding limiting (N1)60 values

determined for seismic acceleration of 0.23g.

LIQUEFACTION

Seismic Acceleration

0.23g

26

21

17.5

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27 May 2015

The qc / N60 ratio for a given mean grain size D50 of the

soil layer of interest can be obtained from Figure 1.

Table 2 presents the mean grain size (D50) and their

corresponding qc / N60 ratio for a range of D50 from

0.001mm to 1.0mm.

TABLE 2 QC / N60 RATIO

qc / N60

0.001

0.01

2.2

0.1

3.8

1.0

8.0

NRG ENGINEERING

27 May 2015

Determination of CN Value

The effective overburden pressure (o) for soil depth of

interest or a range, for example, from 1m to 5m, is

determined and the corresponding effective stress

correction factor, CN are obtained from Figure 2.

TABLE 5.3 CN VALUES FOR SOIL DEPTH 1M TO 5M

Soil Depth

(m)

Effective Overburden

Pressure (kips/sq

ft)

CN for Dr = 40 to

60%

CN for Dr = 60 to

80%

0.2

1.6

1.6

0.4

1.6

1.6

0.6

1.6

1.6

0.8

1.55

1.53

1.0

1.35

1.36

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27 May 2015

Value

With the given CN and (N1)60, the N60 term can be

determine from the penetration resistance of soil

relationship.

The N60 term is then used to determine the various limiting

tip resistance value, qc, for liquefaction to occur for various

depth (1m to 5m), mean grain size (0.001 to 1mm),

percentage fines (< 5% to 35%) and relative density (40 to

60% and 60% to 80%) and are illustrated in Figures 5 to 10.

NRG ENGINEERING

27 May 2015

SEISMIC ACCELERATION, DR = 40 TO 60% AND PERCENTAGE FINES < 5%

0.23g SEISMIC ACCELERATION, DR = 40 TO 60% AND PERCENTAGE FINES = 15%

0.23g SEISMIC ACCELERATION, DR = 40 TO 60% AND PERCENTAGE FINES = 35%

0.23g SEISMIC ACCELERATION, DR = 60 TO 80% AND PERCENTAGE FINES < 5%

0.23g SEISMIC ACCELERATION, DR = 60 TO 80% AND PERCENTAGE FINES = 15%

FOR 0.23g SEISMIC ACCELERATION, DR = 60 TO 80% AND PERCENTAGE

Regions

With the soil relative density, Dr, and percentage of fines of

the soil in the region of interest, the appropriate graph in

Figure 5 to 10 is selected.

A comparison of the soil tip resistance can then be made

against the limiting soil tip resistance value, qc, for

liquefaction to occur in the appropriate graph, based on the

mean grain size of the soil, to determine the propensity of

the soil region of interest to liquefy during earthquake.

Soil liquefaction would most likely occur if the soil tip

resistance is lower than the limiting value.

NRG ENGINEERING

27 May 2015

REFERENCES

Liquefaction Potential, Journal of the Soil Mechanics and Foundations

Division, ASCE, Vol. 97, No. SM9, September, 1971.

Seed, H. B. (1979), Soil Liquefaction and Cyclic Mobility Evaluation for Level

Ground during earthquakes, Journal of the Geotechnical Engineering

Division, Vol. 5 No. GT2

Potential using Field Performance Data, Journal of Geotechnical

Engineering , Vol. 109, No. 3, March, 1983.

Seed, H. B., Tokimatsu, K., Harder, L.F. and Riley M. Chung (1985), Influence

of SPT Procedures in Soil Liquefaction Resistance Evaluations, Journal of

Geotechnical Engineering, Vol. 111, No. 12, December, 1985.

Sands using CPT, Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, Vol. 111, No. 3, 1985.

NRG ENGINEERING

27 May 2015

Any questions?

NRG ENGINEERING

training@nrgengineering.com

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