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Chapter 2

Fundamentals of the World Wide Web


and Internet

Discovering
Computers 2012
Your Interactive Guide
to the Digital World

ObjectivesOverview

Discusstheevolutionofthe
Internet

DescribethepurposeofanIP
addressanditsrelationshiptoa
domainname

SeePage73
forDetailedObjectives

Identifyandbrieflydescribe
variousbroadbandInternet
connectionsandstate
differencesbetweenbroadband
Internetconnectionsanddial
upconnections

DescribethetypesofInternet
accessproviders

ExplainthepurposeofaWeb
browserandidentifythe
componentsofaWebaddress

Describehowtouseasearch
enginetosearchfor
informationontheWeband
differentiatebetweenasearch
engineandasubjectdirectory

DiscoveringComputers2012:Chapter2

ObjectivesOverview

DescribethetypesofWeb
sites

ExplainhowWebpagesuse
graphics,animation,audio,
video,virtualreality,and
plugins

Identifyandbrieflydescribe
thestepsrequiredforWeb
publishing

Describethetypesofe
commerce

Explainhowemail,mailing
lists,instantmessaging,
chatrooms,VoIP,
newsgroupsandmessage
boards,andFTPwork

Identifytherulesof
netiquette

SeePage73
forDetailedObjectives

DiscoveringComputers2012:Chapter2

TheInternet
TheInternet isaworldwidecollectionofnetworks
thatlinksmillionsofbusinesses,government
agencies,educationalinstitutions,andindividuals

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Figure21

DiscoveringComputers2012:Chapter2

EvolutionoftheInternet
TheInternetoriginatedasARPANETinSeptember
1969andhadtwomaingoals:
Allowscientistsat
differentphysical
locationstoshare
informationandwork
together

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Functionevenifpartof
thenetworkwere
disabledordestroyed
byadisaster

DiscoveringComputers2012:Chapter2

EvolutionoftheInternet
1986 NSF
connects
NSFnet to
ARPANETand
becomes
knownasthe
Internet

1969
ARPANET
becomes
functional

1984
ARPANEThas
morethan
1,000
individual
computers
linkedas
hosts
Pages75 76

1996
Internet2is
founded

1995 NSFNet
terminates
itsnetwork
onthe
Internetand
resumes
statusas
research
network
DiscoveringComputers2012:Chapter2

Today More
than550
millionhosts
connectto
theInternet

EvolutionoftheInternet
Eachorganizationisresponsibleonlyfor
maintainingitsownnetwork
TheWorldWideWebConsortium(W3C)oversees
researchandsetsguidelinesandstandards

Internet2connectsmorethan200universities
and115companiesviaahighspeedprivate
network

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DiscoveringComputers2012:Chapter2

EvolutionoftheInternet
Manyhomeandsmallbusinessusersconnectto
theInternetviahighspeedbroadbandInternet
service

Cable
Internet
service

Page76

DSL

Fiberto
the
Premises
(FTTP)

Fixed
wireless

Cellular
Radio
Network

DiscoveringComputers2012:Chapter2

WiFi

Satellite
Internet
Service

EvolutionoftheInternet
Anaccessprovider isabusinessthatprovidesindividuals
andorganizationsaccesstotheInternetfreeorforafee

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Figure22

DiscoveringComputers2012:Chapter2

EvolutionoftheInternet
ISP (Internet
service provider)

Onlineservice
provider(OSP)

WirelessInternet
serviceprovider

RegionalISPs
provideInternet
accesstoaspecific
geographicalarea

Hasmanymembers
onlyfeatures

Provideswireless
Internetaccessto
computersand
mobiledevices

NationalISPs
provideInternet
accessincitiesand
townsnationwide

PopularOSPsinclude
AOL(America
Online)andMSN
(MicrosoftNetwork)

Mayrequirea
wirelessmodem

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EvolutionoftheInternet

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11

EvolutionoftheInternet
AnIPaddress isanumberthatuniquelyidentifieseach
computerordeviceconnectedtotheInternet
Adomainname isthetextversionofanIPaddress
Topleveldomain(TLD)

ADNSserver translatesthedomainnameintoits
associatedIPaddress

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12

EvolutionoftheInternet

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13

TheWorldWideWeb
TheWorldWideWeb,orWeb,consistsofa
worldwidecollectionofelectronicdocuments
(Webpages)
AWebsite isacollectionofrelatedWebpages
andassociateditems
AWebserver isacomputerthatdelivers
requestedWebpagestoyourcomputer
Web2.0 referstoWebsitesthatprovideameans
foruserstointeract
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14

TheWorldWideWeb
AWebbrowser,orbrowser,allowsusersto
accessWebpagesandWeb2.0programs

Internet
Explorer

Firefox

Safari
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Opera

Google
Chrome

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TheWorldWideWeb

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TheWorldWideWeb
Ahomepageisthefirst
pagethataWebsite
displays
Webpagesprovidelinks to
otherrelatedWebpages

SomeWebpagesare
designedspecificallyfor
microbrowsers

SurfingtheWeb

Downloading isthe
processofreceiving
information

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TheWorldWideWeb
AWebpagehasauniqueaddresscalledaURL or
Webaddress

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TheWorldWideWeb
Tabbedbrowsing allowsyoutoopenandviewmultiple
WebpagesinasingleWebbrowserwindow

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TheWorldWideWeb
Twotypesofsearchtoolsaresearchenginesand
subjectdirectories

Search
engine
Findsinformation
relatedtoa
specifictopic
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Subject
directory
ClassifiesWeb
pagesinan
organizedsetof
categories

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TheWorldWideWeb

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TheWorldWideWeb
Asearchengineishelpfulinlocatingitemssuch
as:
Images

Videos

Maps

Page85

Audio

Peopleor
Businesses

DiscoveringComputers2012:Chapter2

Publications

Blogs

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TheWorldWideWeb

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TheWorldWideWeb
SomeWebbrowserscontainanInstantSearch
boxtoeliminatethestepsofdisplayingthesearch
enginesWebpagepriortoenteringthesearch
text

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TheWorldWideWeb
Searchoperatorscanhelptorefineyoursearch

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TheWorldWideWeb
TherearethirteentypesofWebsites

Portal

News

Informational

Business/Marketing

Blog

Wiki

OnlineSocial
Network

Educational

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26

TheWorldWideWeb

Entertainment

Advocacy

Content
Aggregator
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Figure215

Web
Application

Personal

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Video:TellYourStoriesviaVlog

CLICKTOSTART
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28

TheWorldWideWeb
Informationpresented
ontheWebmustbe
evaluatedforaccuracy
Nooneoverseesthe
contentofWebpages

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TheWorldWideWeb
Multimedia referstoanyapplicationthat
combinestextwith:

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TheWorldWideWeb
Agraphic isadigital
representationof
nontext information
Graphicformatsinclude
BMP,GIF,JPEG,PNG,
andTIFF

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TheWorldWideWeb
Athumbnailisasmall
versionofalarger
graphic

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32

TheWorldWideWeb
Animation istheappearanceofmotioncreated
bydisplayingaseriesofstillimagesinsequence

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TheWorldWideWeb
Audio includesmusic,speech,oranyothersound
Compressedtoreducefilesize

Youlistentoaudioonyourcomputerusingaplayer
Streaming istheprocessoftransferringdataina
continuousandevenflow

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TheWorldWideWeb

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TheWorldWideWeb
Video consistsofimagesdisplayedinmotion

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TheWorldWideWeb
Virtualreality (VR)istheuseofcomputersto
simulatearealorimaginedenvironmentthat
appearsasathreedimensionalspace

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37

TheWorldWideWeb
Aplugin isaprogramthatextendsthecapability
ofaWebbrowser

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38

TheWorldWideWeb
Webpublishing isthedevelopmentand
maintenanceofWebpages

Plana
Website

Page98

Analyze
and
designa
Website

Createa
Website

Deploya
Website

DiscoveringComputers2012:Chapter2

Maintain
aWeb
site

39

ECommerce
Ecommerce isabusinesstransactionthatoccurs
overanelectronicnetwork
Mcommerce identifiesecommercethattakesplace
usingmobiledevices

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40

ECommerce
Business
to
consumer
(B2C)

Ecommerce
Business
to
business
(B2B)

Pages98 99

Consumer
to
consumer
(C2C)

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41

ECommerce

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42

OtherInternetServices
Email isthe
transmissionof
messagesandfilesviaa
computernetwork
Anemailprogram
allowsyoutocreate,
send,receive,forward,
store,print,anddelete
emailmessages
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Figure226

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OtherInternetServices

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Figure227

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OtherInternetServices
Amailinglist isagroupofemailnamesandaddresses
givenasinglename
Subscribing addsyouremailnameandaddress
Unsubscribing removesyourname

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OtherInternetServices
Instantmessaging(IM)isarealtime Internet
communicationsservice

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OtherInternetServices
Achat isarealtime
typedconversationthat
takesplaceona
computer
Achatroom isa
locationonanInternet
serverthatpermits
userstochatwitheach
other
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OtherInternetServices
VoIP (VoiceoverIP)
enablesuserstospeak
tootherusersoverthe
Internet
AlsocalledInternet
telephony

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OtherInternetServices
Anewsgroup isan
onlineareainwhich
usershavewritten
discussionsabouta
particularsubject
Typicallyrequiresa
newsreader

Amessageboard isa
Webbasedtypeof
discussiongroup
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OtherInternetServices
FTP (FileTransferProtocol)isanInternetstandard
thatpermitsfileuploading anddownloadingwith
othercomputersontheInternet
ManyoperatingsystemsincludeFTPcapabilities
AnFTPserverisacomputerthatallowsusersto
uploadand/ordownloadfilesusingFTP

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Netiquette
Netiquette isthecodeofacceptableInternet
behavior

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Summary

Historyandstructureof
theInternet

WorldWideWeb

OtherInternetservices:
email,instant
messaging,chatrooms,
VoIP,newsgroupsand
messageboards,andFTP

Page109

Browsing,navigating,
searching,Web
publishing,and
ecommerce

Rulesofnetiquette

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Chapter 2
Fundamentals of the World Wide Web
and Internet

Discovering
Computers 2012
Your Interactive Guide
to the Digital World

Chapter2Complete