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Advances in Vehicle Design

Advances in Vehicle Design


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Advances in Vehicle Design

To Ruth

Advances in Vehicle Design


John Fenton



Professional Engineering Publishing Limited
London and Bury St Edmunds, UK

First published 1999

This publication is copyright under the Berne Convention and the International
Copyright Convention. All rights reserved. Apart from any fair dealing for the
purpose of private study, research, criticism, or review, as permitted under the
Copyright Designs and Patents Act 1988, no part may be reproduced, stored in
a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic,
electrical, chemical, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without
the prior permission of the copyright owners. Unlicensed multiple copying of this
publication is illegal. Inquiries should be addressed to: The Publishing Editor,
Mechanical Engineering Publications Limited, Northgate Avenue, Bury St
Edmunds, Suffolk, IP32 6B W, UK.

© John Fenton

ISBN 1 86058 181 1

A CIP catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.

The publishers are not responsible for any statement made in this publication.
Data, discussion, and conclusions developed by the Author are for information
only and are not intended for use without independent substantiating investi-
gation on the part of the potential users. Opinions expressed are those of the
Author and are not necessarily those of the Institution of Mechanical
Engineers or its publishers.

Printed and bound in Great Britain by St Edmundsbury Press Limted,
Suffolk, UK


vii Preface

Chapter 1: Materials and construction advances

2 Steel durability and structural efficiency
3 Vigorous development of light alloys
4 Hybrid metal/plastic systems
7 Recycled PET, and prime PBT, for sun-roof parts
10 Material property charts and performance indices
13 Design for self-pierce riveting

Chapter 2: Structure and safety

20 Structure analysis for interior noise
24 Preparing for statutory pedestrian protection
27 Design for the disabled
31 Adaptive restraint technologies

Chapter 3: Powertrain/chassis systems

36 Powertrains: the next stage?
45 Constant-pressure cycle: the future for diesels?
47 Valve arrangements for enhanced engine efficiency
52 Trends in transmission design
58 The mechanics of roll-over
62 Suspension and steering linkage analysis

Chapter 4: Electrical and electronic systems

70 Automotive electronics maturity
76 Navigation system advances
79 Digital circuits for computation
81 Proprietary control system advances
84 Hybrid drive prospects
90 Automation of handling tests

Chapter 5: Vehicle development

96 Mercedes A-class
102 Ford Focus
108 Land Rover Freelander
112 Project Thrust SSC

Chapter 6: Systems development: powertrain/chassis

118 Engine developments
122 Engine induction systems
124 Refinement and reduced emissions
128 Drive and steer systems
133 Suspension development
139 Braking systems

Chapter 7: System developments: body structure/systems

144 Structural systems
144 Controlled collapse
145 Body shell integrity
147 Chassis/body shell elements
151 Car body systems
151 Occupant restraint
155 Doors, windows and panels
159 Trim and fittings
161 Aerodynamics and weight saving
163 CV systems
163 CV chassis-cab configuration
164 Cab/body fittings
168 Advanced bus/ambulance design

173 References
175 Index


This lite'rature survey is aimed at providing the vehicle design engineer with an
update in vehicle and body systems. The author has scanned the considerable
output of technical presentations during 1997- 9 to extract and distil developing
technologies of particular import to the working designer. The easily digestible
presentation, with unusually high dependence on diagrammatic presentation,
continues the popular style used for the original handbooks that were compiled
by the author, and published by Professional Engineering Publishing. These are
listed on the Related Titles page overleaf. Advances in Vehicle Design serves both
as an update to the earlier volumes and as a stand-alone volume. The referenced
leads provided in the text are intended to help designers and engineers from
whatever background discipline. Widespread availability of computing power to
designers and engineers has created the possibility of considerably shortening the
lead-times between design conception and prototype manufacture. Much of the
material covered here will assist in establishing predictive techniques.
Advances in Vehicle Design is an update of vehicle and body systems design
in that it provides readers with an insight into analytical methods given in a wide
variety of published sources such as; technical journals, conference papers, and
proceedings of engineering institutions, for which a comprehensive list of refer-
ences is provided. The analyses are therefore not necessarily fully developed or
rigorously evaluated. Recourse to the original references is necessary particularly
in order to understand the limiting assumptions on which the analyses are based.
Much of the analytical work is centred around impending legislation and, where
this is quoted in the text, it is for illustration only and it is, of course, important to
examine the latest statutes in the locality concerned. The list of references given
at the end of the volume is a key element of the publication, providing where
possible a link to the original publication source. Where the original publication is
not available in bookshops, many of the sources can be found in libraries such as
those of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, London, or the Motor Industry
Research Association, in Nuneaton, UK,as well as the BritishLibrary.Othersimilar
respositories of techincal information should be able to provide a selection of
original source material. Where the source is a company announcement of
techniques and systems, names, but not addresses, of the companies/consultan-
cies are given. Most operate internationally and have different national locations,
best found by enquiry in the country concerned. For the patent reviews in chapters
six and seven, full specifications can be purchased from The Patent Office, Cardiff
Road, Newport, NP91RH, UK.


Related Titles


Editor/Author ISBN/ISSN

Multi-Body Dynamics


Gasoline Engine Analysis

J Fenton
Handbook of Automotive Body Construction J Fenton
and Design Analysis
Cranes - Design, Practice and Maintenance

J Verschoof

Handbook of Automotive Body Systems Design J Fenton
Handbook of Automotive Powertrain and

J Fenton

Chassis Design
Vehicle Handling Dynamics

J Ellis

Handbook of Vehicle Design Analysis

J Fenton

Automotive Braking: - Recent Developments

D Barton

Brakes and Friction Materials

G A Harper

Automotive Engineer Monthly Magazine

W Kimberley
Journal of Automotive Engineering (IMechE Proceedings Part D)

1 80058 122 6
0 85298 634 3
1 86058 073 4

1 86058 130 7

1 86058 067 X
1 86058 075 0

0 85298 885 0
0 85298 963 6

1 86058 131 5

For full details of all Professional Engineering Publications please contact:

Sales Department
Professional Engineering Publishing
Nothgate Avenue
Bury St Edmunds


Telephone: +44 (0)1284 763 277




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