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FUNCTIONAL GROUPS IN ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

FUNCTIONAL GROUPS ARE GROUPS OF ATOMS IN ORGANIC MOLECULES THAT ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR THE CHARACTERISTIC CHEMICAL REACTIONS OF THOSE MOLECULES. IN THE GENERAL FORMULAE BELOW, ‘R’ REPRESENTS A HYDROCARBON GROUP OR HYDROGEN, AND ‘X’ REPRESENTS ANY HALOGEN ATOM.

HYDROCARBONS H H R C C R H H
HYDROCARBONS
H
H
R
C
C
R
H
H

ALKANE

Naming: -ane

e.g. ethane O C R H
e.g. ethane
O
C
R
H

ALDEHYDE

Naming: -al

e.g. ethanal R NH 2
e.g. ethanal
R
NH 2

AMINE

Naming: -amine

e.g. ethanamine

SIMPLE OXYGEN HETEROATOMICS

FUNCTIONAL GROUPS IN ORGANIC CHEMISTRY FUNCTIONAL GROUPS ARE GROUPS OF ATOMS IN ORGANIC MOLECULES THAT ARE

HALOGEN HETEROATOMICS

FUNCTIONAL GROUPS IN ORGANIC CHEMISTRY FUNCTIONAL GROUPS ARE GROUPS OF ATOMS IN ORGANIC MOLECULES THAT ARE

CARBONYL COMPOUNDS

FUNCTIONAL GROUPS IN ORGANIC CHEMISTRY FUNCTIONAL GROUPS ARE GROUPS OF ATOMS IN ORGANIC MOLECULES THAT ARE

NITROGEN BASED

FUNCTIONAL GROUPS IN ORGANIC CHEMISTRY FUNCTIONAL GROUPS ARE GROUPS OF ATOMS IN ORGANIC MOLECULES THAT ARE

SULFUR BASED

FUNCTIONAL GROUPS IN ORGANIC CHEMISTRY FUNCTIONAL GROUPS ARE GROUPS OF ATOMS IN ORGANIC MOLECULES THAT ARE

AROMATIC

R R C C R R ALKeNE
R
R
C
C
R
R
ALKeNE

Naming: -ene

e.g. ethene O C R R
e.g. ethene
O
C
R
R

KETONE

Naming: -one

e.g. propanone R C N
e.g. propanone
R
C
N

NITRILE

Naming: -nitrile

e.g. ethanenitrile

R C C R ALKyNE
R
C
C
R
ALKyNE

Naming: -yne

e.g. ethyne O C R OH
e.g. ethyne
O
C
R
OH

CARBOXYLIC ACID

Naming: -oic acid

e.g. ethanoic acid

R 3 N C R R 1 2
R
3
N
C
R
R 1
2

IMINE

Naming: -imine

e.g. ethanimine

R OH ALCOHOL
R
OH
ALCOHOL

Naming: -ol

e.g. ethanol O O C C R O R
e.g. ethanol
O
O
C
C
R
O
R

ACID ANHYDRIDE

Naming: -oic anhydride

e.g. ethanoic anhydride N R C O
e.g. ethanoic anhydride
N
R
C
O

ISOCYANaTE

Naming: -yl isocyanate

e.g. ethyl isocyanate

O R R ETHER
O
R
R
ETHER

Naming: -oxy -ane

e.g. methoxyethane O C R OR
e.g. methoxyethane
O
C
R
OR

ESTER

Naming: -yl -oate

e.g. ethyl ethanoate R 1 N N R 2
e.g. ethyl ethanoate
R 1
N
N
R 2

AZO COMPOUND

Naming: azo-

e.g. azoethane

O R C C 1 R 3 R 2 R 4 Epoxide
O
R
C
C
1
R 3
R 2
R 4
Epoxide

Naming: -ene oxide

e.g. ethene oxide O C R NH 2
e.g. ethene oxide
O
C
R
NH 2

AMIDE

Naming: -amide

e.g. ethanamide R SH
e.g. ethanamide
R
SH

THIOL

Naming: -thiol

e.g. methanethiol

R X haloalkane
R
X
haloalkane

Naming: halo-

e.g. chloroethane O C R X
e.g. chloroethane
O
C
R
X

ACYL HALIDE

Naming: -oyl halide

e.g. ethanoyl chloride

R ARENE
R
ARENE

Naming: -yl benzene

e.g. ethyl benzene

C
C

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BY
NC
ND