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Name: Markus Kempin

Class: 7-A
Social Studies Research Skills: Narrowing the Focus

Date: April 24th, 2015

Forming Meaningful Research Questions

Stages of Research Process:

Choosing a topic
Surveying Research Potential
Evaluating Research Potential
Developing Research Question(s) (*Based on potential)
Researching & Note taking (*Answering the research question(s))
Editing & Revising

1. You have chosen a research topic in Ancient History. Record it here:

Specific Topic: Ancient Greek mythology and religion (Birth- Silver ages)Civilization: Greece

2. Getting to know your topic: Brainstorm what you know about the following in relation to your topic.
Look in a few sources for ideas.
Places important to my
-The Parthenon

Things or artifacts
important to my topic
-Zeus Lightning bolt
-Poseidons Trident
-Hades Fork

People important to my

Events important to my

-Zeus (King of the gods)

-Hera (Queen of the
-Poseidon (God of the
-Hades (God of the
-Demeter (Goddess of
-Hestia (Goddess of
-Athena (Goddess of
-Apollo (God of the sun)
-Atremenis (Goddess of
the moon
-Ares (God of war)
-Aphrodite (Goddess of

-Birth of the world:

*1788- Chaos gives birth
to Gaia
*1770- Gaia gives birth
to Uranus
*Uranus and Gaia have
relations and the Titans,
Cyclopes and
Hecatonchires are born.
-Golden Age:
*1705-1675 Cronus
becomes ruler of Greece
and imprisons
Hecatonchires and
Cyclopes in Tartarus.
*1703- Cronus is warned

Name: Markus Kempin

Class: 7-A

Date: April 24th, 2015

-Hephaestus (The god of
metal working)
-Dionysus (God of
-Hermes (Messenger of
the gods)
-Theseus- According to
legend he killed the
Minotaur of Crete.
-Jason- He sailed across
seas in search of treasure
and fighting enemies
along the way.
-Hercules- Son of Zeus
and fought monsters and
impossible tasks. Killed
the hydra
-Philolaus- He was
among the first
philosophers to start
writing about religion.
-Homer-Wrote many
hymns about the gods.

by his wife Rhea that if

they have children one
will overthrow him. He
ignores her and she gives
birth to Hestia, Demeter,
Hera, Hades, Poseidon,
and Zeus. Cronus
swallows all the kids to
prevent prophecy. Rhea
hides Zeus and is hided
in Crete.
*Zeus grows up and
makes Cronus drunk,
causing him to vomit his
brothers and sisters.
*1684- Zeus and his
brothers fight Cronus.
Some Titans side with
Zeus, e.g. Prometheus
and Epimetheus. Atlas is
commander of the Titans
loyal to Cronus. The War
lasts 10 years. The Gods
release the Hekatonchires
and the Cyclopes from
imprisonment in Tartarus,
and they become their
*1684- Inachus becomes
king and judges that the
land of the Peloponnese
belongs to Hera
*1674- Zeus takes his
sister Hera as a wife.
*1674- Birth of
Hephaestus, Ares, Eris.
*1674- Zeus wins.
Cronus is exiled to Elysia

Name: Markus Kempin

Class: 7-A

Date: April 24th, 2015

or Sicily. Zeus rules the

heavens, Poseidon the
sea and Hades the
underworld. The land is
common to all of the
* 1674-67
Births of Apollo,
Artemis, Hermes, Athena
by different mothers.
*1667-Prometheus is
chained to the rocks after
stealing the secret of fire
from the Gods and giving
it to man
*1667- Zeus has affair
with Io the daughter of
Inachus and carries her
off to Egypt where she
marries Telegonus.
*1664- Heracles the
Dactyl holds the first
Olympic Games
*1659- Phoroneus son of
Inachus, the first man,
rules over the entire
Peloponnese from
Phronocium later to
become Argos
*1654- Epimetheus is
given Pandora to be his
wife. Pandora is given a
jar as a wedding present
and told not to open it.
Pandora opens it and
mankind suffers the
consequences of
*1645-Epaphus the son
of Io rules in Egypt.

Name: Markus Kempin

Class: 7-A

Date: April 24th, 2015

**1640- Gigantomachy
The Battle of the Gods
and Giants erupts and
Porphyrion is defeated.
*1628- Epaphus is
murdered. The Titans
attempt to regain power
but fail. Being made to
carry the heavens on his
shoulders punishes Atlas.
Typhon is defeated and
imprisoned under a
volcano. The Ogygian
Deluge occurs.
(14 royal tombs at
Mycenae date between
*1650-1550 BC. Thera
volcano erupts in 1628
BC. Minoan palace at
Knossos destroyed by
earthquakes c.1600 BC.)

The above terms will help you when you search for information in an index or through a web browser.

3. Writing research questions: It is very important to use one or several well-written questions to guide
your research. These should be open-ended essential questions or big idea questions:



Questions starting with who, what, when, and where are important to support answers to your essential
questions, but they are not research questions by themselves.
Here are some ways that good research questions might begin:

How did people [do something]... ?

Why did [something] happen... and what impact did it have?
Why did [someone] build [something]?
How did [something] ?
How were [something] and [something] similar and how did they differ?

Name: Markus Kempin

Date: April 24th, 2015

Class: 7-A

If you use who or what questions, you must combine them with other thinking skills:

Who was more influential in [something] and why?

What is the relationship between [something and something]...?
What points of view were held by [someone] regarding [something]?

Now, write your own research questions. Write several, combining why and how with who, what, when, where.
As you write them, you will see many different ways to approach your topic. Restate them until you have
something that is challenging and can be accomplished in the time given and with the resources available to

Write a HOW question:


How were humans created according to Greek Mythology?

How did people worship the gods in ancient Greece?
How were Male gods different to Women Gods?
How did the Gods affect the world according to Greek Mythology?

Write a WHY question:


Why did people worship the gods who supposedly caused so many disasters?
Why did the gods live in Olympus?
Why did the gods let out their anger on earth?
Why is Greek mythology very different?

Formulating the Research Question:

Read through each question, and sort them by like topics. You should have 3-4 clusters of questions. From the
questions in each cluster, combine them into one big picture, open-ended research question; one from each
cluster. From these 3-4 questions (from the 3-4 clusters of questions) select one to serve as your research
1. Why are there so many different myths explaining how something happened (birth of the world, creation
of man etc.)?
2. How did male gods differ to women gods and how did that affect the world?
3. How did the gods affect humans and the environment they lived in?
4. How did people prevent gods from getting angry?

From the questions you wrote, select one as your research question.
Research Question:

How did the gods affect the environment of humans, and how did they react?

Test your question: There should be

your question open-ended? If not, revise and



more than one way to answer your question. Is

rewrite it.

Name: Markus Kempin

Broad Topics:

Class: 7-A

Date: April 24th, 2015

Start by choosing a broad topic below

Shang dynasty*
Zhou dynasty*
Qin dynasty*
Han dynasty*
The Silk Road

Athenians (Athens)*
Democracy in Athens
Spartans (Sparta)*
Persian Wars
Peloponnesian War
Alexander the Great


The Roman republic

The Punic Wars
Julius Caesar (Roman
Augustus (Octavian)
Gladiatorial games
Pax Romana (Roman

Specific Topics

Narrowing your focus and brainstorming research questions


How did geography influence the growth of the civilization? Why didnt Egypt expand
more into neighboring territories? How did geography limit the growth of the
civilization? How did geography affect the outcome of the battle?


How did religion effect daily life? What roles did the gods have, and why? What were the
values of the civilization, and why might they have been created? How dedicated to their
religion were the average people? Why, or why not?


Why/How were these achievements important to the people of this civilization? How did
the achievement(s) change life?


How did the government enforce laws? Why did Ramses the great sign a peace treaty
with the Hittites? Was anyone able to participate in government? Why or why


How did the civilization accumulate wealth? Why did trade decline during this time?
Why did trade expand during this time?

Social Structure

How was the society structured, and why? Why were priests held so highly within the
Egyptian social structure?

Rise & Fall

How did the civilization rise, and what factors led to its beginning? How did the
civilization fall, and what factors led to its end?

Important Person

How did ______________ gain power? What impact did ____________ have, and
why? How was ___________ able to overcome his/her obstacles?

Important Event

Why was the battle fought? How did the outcome of the battle change their relationship?

Poseidon was the god of the sea

when Markus
angry caused
When Poseidon was happy he
offered calm seas and created

When he was mad he caused

huge waves, floods,
earthquakes and drowning

To prevent shipwrecks people

would drown horses as a

Zeus was the weather god

When mad made thunderstorms

In history the Greeks sacrificed

Ares the god of war was said to
be fierce in battle. In order to
have a good battle Spartan men
would sacrifice puppies for his
Hades tricked Persephone into
staying with him half of the
year. This caused Demeter to
make seasons (When she was
home= spring, when she
wasnt= winter)

Athena made spiders as a

consequence of disobeying her.
She also was the virgin goddess
and had rituals for virgin girls
Hephaestestus was said to be
the god of metal working and
made most weapons for gods.

He stole fire and gave it to the

humans and also his forge
underground produced volcanic

Poseidon was known as the god of the sea. He had a nickname

7-A Shaker because Date:
, 2015
known as
the Earth
when he
got 24
he would
cause earthquakes.
When Poseidon was in a good mood he created new islands and
offered calm seas. When he was not worshiped he struck the
ground with his trident and caused chaotic springs, earthquakes,
drowning and shipwrecks.
To prevent all of this, people would drown horses as a sacrifice.
Zeus was the weather god and king of Olympus/ King of the gods.
Zeus would punish people who disobeyed the law, lied or betrayed
Zeus when he got mad would make huge thunderstorms
In order to prevent storms people would pray to Zeus, as well as
not disobey the law, lie or betray.
In a famous myth the Greeks sacrificed Iphigenia in order for the
Greek ships sail to Troy.
Ares was said to be the god of war and battle. He was said t be
overwhelming and insatiable in battle. Many armies would provide
human sacrifices in order to have a good battle. In Sparta young
men would sacrifice a puppy to his son (Enyalios) in order to be
successful I the ritual of fighting at the Phoebaeum (like a
Hades was the god of the underworld. He fell in love with
Persephone (daughter of Demeter). Hades abducted Persephone
and forced her to live with him. Hermes said that if she did not eat
anything than she must be returned to Olympus. Hades tricked her
into eating a pomegranate seed. Therefore she lived half a year in
the underworld and another half in Olympus. Demeter was the god
of harvest. Therefore when she didnt have Persephone she didnt
let things grow (winter) and when she did she allowed crops to
grow (summer)
Athena was the goddess of skilled work (wisdom too), particularly
of needlework and weaving. Particularly protective of the skill of
weaving, Athena is said to have punished the maiden Arachne for
her hubris in daring to challenge Athena's supremacy in the craft.
In a contest between the two, although they were evenly matched,
Athena was affronted by the content of Arachne's tapestry: the
many infidelities of the Olympians, and thus Athena turned the
arrogant maiden into a spider as punishment. Therefore people
always respected Athena and never challenged her or said her
name in vane.
Athena was known as the virgin goddess and never had any
relations with anybody. Therefore many virgins would perform
rituals to her. Arrephoria, in which two young aristocratic girls
would walk from the Parthenon and descend into the underground
sanctuary of the goddess Aphrodite in order to deposit unknown
Hephaestus is the god of metalworking. He was said to work
underground and forge many weapons and armor. He was banished
by his mother Hera for being ugly. He then made her a throne of
gold which when she sat on she could not stand up. This made him
return to Olympus free her and remain there. He also stole some

Name: Markus Kempin

Class: 7-A

Date: April 24th, 2015

Further research:
How did the gods affect the environment of humans, and how did they react?

1. What is the underworld and who rules it?

2. What is Olympus and where is it located?
3. Why did Poseidon create the horse?
4. How did Ares affect war?
5. How did Hera affect people?
2 Partner Questions:

How did the angry gods affect the world?

- Did they help the people?

Name: Markus Kempin

Class: 7-A

Poseidon created the horse to impress


Hades rules the underworld which is

divided in 3 main sections

Mount Olympus is home of the gods

Hera is the protector of women +

Child birth

Ares was the god of war and many

soldiers praised him.

Date: April 24th, 2015

When Poseidon desired Demeter he became eager to gain

her love. Demeter to put him off told him to create the
most beautiful animal the world has ever seen. In this
quest he created many animals but never got the perfect
animal. By the time he accomplished his goal and created
the horse his love for Demeter had faded.
Hades rules the underworld. The underworld was
connected to the living world by the river of Styx. Charon
rowed dead spirits through the river of Styx. There is
Tartarus, which is for the very bad. There is the Asphodel
Meadow for the neutral people. Then there is the Elysian
Fields which are for the heroes, kings and holy mortals.
Mount Olympus is an actual mountain near the
Thermaikos Gulf. It is said that above that mountain there
is a kingdom known as Olympus. It is where the gods live
and Zeus rules. They say its the most holy place on arth
and id infested with gods, saints etc. NOT ALL GODS
She was the protector of women and and presided over
marriage and childbirth. She punishes offending
husbands. Women prayed to her to have a baby or to help
with marital troubles.
Ares fought wirh people who did not wrhsip god or
mocked the existence of one. He also introduced the
wearing f armor to mortal men. Warriors would call and
pray to Ares in the middle of battle to give them strength
and to help them fight their enemy.

Main Idea:

Gods live in many places but all help us become better and more spiritual people.

Name: Markus Kempin

Zeus among other divine deities were

said to cause disease and death as well as
heal it.

Class: 7-A

People had 2 main ways of healing

Direct- Intentional rituals and sacred

treatments conducted at your will and
your idea.

Indirect- When you received instructions

by the gods to do something through
dreams or visions

Date: April 24th, 2015

Many greeks thought that disease and death occurred

through divine agencies. They believed that Zeus would
Send diseases. They believed that Zeus declared: Alas,
how forsooth, do mortals reproach the gods! For they say
that their evils are from us, whereas they themselves,
through their own infatuations, suffer grief beyond what
is destined." In the Odyssey
The people would use the gods for healing, using
customary and routinely rituals, hymns, prayers and
sacrifice. The healing cures of the greeks consisted of 2
main ways:
Direct- Through divine intervention, commonly transiting
divine power into body (through substance or object) The
healing power of the gods was transmitted by simple
divine presence, by the laying-on of hands, through some
sacred object, or through the channel of a priest or sacred
An example is Marinos who tells of Procious and how the
as suffering from arthritis. He had covered the fingers in
cloth and the sacred sparrow picked away at it. When the
cloth was off so was the disease.
Gaining power to cure oneself by touching the image of
the god, or his altar, was often used. For example, the
statues of Theagenes in Thasos, Pulydamas at Olympia,
and the Corinthian general Pelichos was thought to
possess healing powers for fevers.
Indirect cures- obtained by following directions gotten
through dreams and visions. Fragments from the shrine at
Lebena records cures of remedies indicated by the gods
in visions. Therapies included mild and innocent
purgatives, roots, herbs, diets, fasts, rubbing with
ointments, baths, and gymnastics

People believed that gods caused disease but could also cure it through rituals and direct/indirect