You are on page 1of 1

[NEURO BLOCK 3 FUNCTIONAL PATHWAYS] Laura Ellson 1

Normal Brain

Huntingtons disease Ballismus (Hemiballismus)

Parkinsons

Disease

SP: Substance P
ENK: Enkephalin
STN: Subthalamic
Nucleus
D1: Excitatory
Direct
D2: Inhibitory Indirect
Basal Ganglion
output via GPm

Indirect Pathway
Damage
Loss of ENK
neurons = less
GABA = less
inhibition of GPL =
more GABA from
GPL = inhibition of
STN = less
glutamine =
inactivation of GPM
= less GABA =
Thalamus not

Indirect Pathway
Damage
Loss of STN = less
glutamine =
inactivation of GPM
= less GABA =
Thalamus not
inhibited =
overstimulation of
cortex

Direct and Indirect


Damage
Damage to substantia
nigra = less dopamine
= less stimulation of SP
= less GABA = less
inhibition of GPM = more
GABA released =
inhibition of thalamus
Less dopamine = less
inhibition of ENK =
more GABA released =
inhibition of GPL = less
GABA = less inhibition
of STN = More