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By Hananto (Maintenance Technical Staff) Sugeng P. (Maintenance Section Head) Department of Maintenance & Kaizen Machining Division PT. Toyota Motor Manufacturing Indonesia
Abstract: Toyota as an automotive market leader in Indonesia with 30% market share, always strives to do Kaizen “continuous improvement” on each of their activity. One of the realization kaizen in manufacturing side which becomes Proactive Maintenance Method to make no breakdown machine on production time is zero breakdown activity. This activity is nearly based on TPM concepts but many modification strategies have conduct to reach its goal. First thing that revolutionary is Mieruka concept, how to know the process and machine problem using coverless strategy. To get commitment from production side who become the owner of machine, PM-Production Maintenance which emphasized on qualified production member knowledge transfer to others and SM-Self Maintenance which move to find the root cause of problem both productions, maintenance and engineering, also present. Senmonginou (Special skill Training) is a method to fulfill maintenance & production skill to solve machine fault and abnormality. Others new strategies that become proactive maintenance method will described clearly in this paper. Examples of implementation programs in TMMIN (Toyota Motor Manufacturing Indonesia) will be presented.
Proactive Maintenance Concepts
Based on the first terminology of proactive maintenance, it is stated that proactive maintenance is a maintenance method that commissions corrective actions aimed at the sources of failure. It is proposed to extend the life of mechanical machinery as opposed to 1) making repairs when often nothing is broken, 2) accommodating failure as routine and normal, and 3) preempting crisis failure maintenance1. But, when we generally discuss about proactive maintenance, broader aspect could be included just like when we have a program that assists in scheduling preventive maintenance at the recommended intervals and monitors when those tasks are performed, it becomes proactive. We are also proactive when we repair and replace components before they are getting failure. Training plant operators is also programmed to recognize components when they are showing signs of failure and having procedures to report those are also proactive2.
Kaizen versus Proactive Approach to Maintenance
In a simple definition, kaizen means continuous improvement taken from Japanese word Kai means change, and Zen means good3. Thus, activities are dressed by kaizen pursuing a status (supply chain) which continues to move. Proactive approach to maintenance becomes one of the realizations of continuous improvement or Kaizen. It appears from step by step maintenance improvement methods starting from preventive & predictive maintenance, then developed to focus on how to avoiding the underlying conditions that lead to machine faults and degradations.
TPM as Windows to Reach Zero Breakdowns
One of the TPM (Total Productive Maintenance) objectives is reducing cost. An overall production cost, including how cost-saving happened by finding the root causes of machine worn out and failure then implement a precise countermeasure is also the proactive one. If we study in a short time to reach zero breakdowns, preventive maintenance cannot eliminate breakdown alone.
According to the principles of reliability engineering, the causes of equipment change with the passage of time refer to bathtub curve (figure 1) 4. The causes of early period failure are design and manufacturing errors. To combat them, the engineering design must conduct test runs at the earliest stage. Furthermore, maintainability improvement should be pursued to discover and treat weakness design and manufacturing. Accidental failures are caused primarily by operation errors, so the most effective countermeasure is to ensure that operators use equipment properly.
Wear-out failures are due to the limited natural life span of equipment parts. Equipment life can be extended by preventive maintenance and by maintainability improvement (through changes in design). This will reduce the wear-out failure rate.
Figure 1. Bathtub curve4 Maintenance prevention is an effective countermeasure for all three types of breakdown. A maintenance-free equipment design must be incorporated at the planning/design stage to prevent early period, accidental, and wear-out failures.
Depicted on that illustration, preventive maintenance alone cannot eliminate breakdowns. All departments cooperated to do TPM, and maintenance as well as engineering and production must be involved in the breakdowns elimination. Based on effort to eliminate failures, it could be categorized into five countermeasures: 1. Maintaining well-regulated basic conditions (cleaning, lubricating, and tightening) 2. Adhering to proper operating procedures 3. Restoring deterioration 4. Improving weakness in design 5. Improving operation and maintenance skills
Figure 2 illustrates the relation between these five countermeasures. As this figure illustrates, breakdowns can be eliminated by carrying out simple procedures in a simple manner and its
aim to be zero breakdown. In another words, activity done to reach zero breakdown which involving all departments to gain no breakdown machine is derivative from TPM activity. And this activity also based on pillars of TPM which prior on jishu hozen or autonomous maintenance, kobetsu kaizen or conduct continuous improvement, planned maintenance, honshitsu hozen or quality maintenance and training maintenance which also motivate to bring strategic and systematic ways to step ahead towards breakdown elimination. This concept could be mathematic as:
dTPM (Q, C , D, S , M ) = 0, dt
Zero Breakdown Machine (second)………………………. (eq.1)
It means that when TPM was running well with third stage implementation; preparation, implementation and stabilization on its company system especially on its maintenance side the ideal machine condition could be achieved. And the business supply chain also affected both on its upper and downstream.
On the next page, implementation of zero breakdowns activities in TMMIN (Toyota Motor Manufacturing Indonesia) will be described and illustrated, the method and sampling taken from its engine plant. We refer to TMMIN Ltd. Because this company has been applied the very well known methods: Total Productive Maintenance to achieve zero breakdowns in their plant. However, The TPM here is the unique one because they also implemented Kaizen and Mieruka system so we called it as “Proactive Maintenance”, a new approach to Maintenance Word Methods.
Figure 2. Relationships between breakdown countermeasures4
Zero Breakdown Activity Basic Idea
Getting out zero breakdown activity means there are many efforts that gradually bring machine condition into the ideal one. These activities start from having the best machine construction and design because it really influences the next operation while the design of machine tend to be falling day by day, following it’s operating condition. However, it doesn’t stop until here. There must be a way to display problem of machine and easier to monitor the tendency of breakdown. On the earlier phase, machine condition just likes a black box which raw material come into it’s opening door, process, then come out become a different shape or measure. The process becomes hazy and it really makes maintenance and productions are getting hard to analyze what has been happened on the machine when trouble occurred. These matters can be eliminated using Mieruka Machine Concepts. Eliminating failures in equipment being operated is conducted by mapping its problem into minor stoppages, medium stoppages and major stoppages. A minor stoppage is a kind of waste in which the machine keep stopping and starting, breaking the rhythm of the process. Minor stoppages last less than 5 minutes to 15 minutes and tend to consist of following types of mishaps5: 1. Work piece gets caught on something, jams up, stick together, or gets lodged in a tube during conveyance. There may be a parts shortage or an oversupply or undersupply of work. Work may fall of the conveyor or shutter or not be inserted at the proper time. 2. Work piece improper placement on its jig when loading starting. 3. Unconfirmed measuring values that affect the next process become stop waiting it could be coming from its measurement or coming from tooling. 4. Sensors, however area sensor, proximity switch or limit switch may give a faulty reading due to problems when its element part has been touching or incidentally contact with any medium.
Medium and major stoppages forcing the line stop for a longer time. Medium stoppages last 15 minutes to 1 hour whereas major stoppages last more than an hour. All these three parameters could be strictly prevent using zero breakdown activity circle which illustrated on Figure 3. Goal of TPM is displayed on this scheme which trying hard to extend MTBF and shorten MTTR. The main activity is major support the self maintenance which conducts autonomously by production members.
Task Force Activity - The yellow box on the top called task force because It is only held when there is so many problems that makes machine/equipment line could not reach its overall effectiveness equipment (OEE) up from 85%. Task force activity is coordinated by
engineering department and also supports by maintenance and production which having evidence of machine problem source. Developed Method is speed up by gemba genchi gembutsu (go, see, and analyze through the site). After that, what is really happened is discussed both of them to find the root cause of problem. The appeared problem is taken from bottle neck of machine/equipment which contribute unexhausted target of efficiency. Because the engineering has a wide scope to countermeasure the problem, they could make an easy communication with machine builder to describe what the problem countermeasure is. It is done when many effort and action that has been tried could not reach its goal: finding a problem root cause.
Figure 3. Zero breakdowns activity scheme6 Mogura - The yellow box on the bottom called mogura, means field mouse. Why it is called field mouse? Because many machine problems grasp to be under surface and it can not be detected directly. One thing that must be realized is the phenomenon of problem not yet catches up so the countermeasure could not total. By clearly defined phenomenon, the physical analysis can be conducted well and then the problem also could be solved thoroughly. This activity emphasized on countermeasure a sporadic and chronic problem. Based on TPM Meeting that evaluate the entire worst machine, mogura team is formed from production, maintenance and engineering. But, it is mainly done or coordinated by
maintenance groups because many physical quantities which tend to open many various parts of a machine interlock. Through this activity, a hard problem can be arrested.
Skill Up – Maintenance department as the main supporting of zero breakdowns activity has a big responsibility to educate both maintenance and production members. Maintenance must also have a clear stratum what will their member be after working for years. It is familiar called by Maintenance Man Power Life Plan. For an example: a member with a 10 years experience working, he must have difference knowledge and skill treatment with the new ones. Not only skill up system, its training kit must be also fulfill and manage well. Special skill training that is developed in Toyota is called senmonginou, which completely manage member training thorough syllabus. When someone entered the company, the basic skill training has been fully equipped. It is very helpful to the next cadre of both maintenance and production. As the time goes on, the member can add their skill and knowledge by “problem handling” related to machine problem and special training which given by Technical assistance. Technical assistance is a technical support from TMMIN Mother Company, Toyota Motor Corporation (TMC). It is needed because of many boundaries on technology between the subsidiaries and its mother company. It is also a duty for maintenance section to make a good communication with TMC to get any input and suggestion for doing skill up.
Self Maintenance – In another version, self maintenance is called autonomous maintenance. Self maintenance which geared towards developing production operators to be able to take a care of small maintenance task, thus freeing up the skilled maintenance people to spend time on more value added activity and technical repairs. The operators are responsible for upkeep of their equipment to prevent it from deteriorating. This feeling can appear with joining all level management starting from top management to bottom management. They work together to solve machine problem, then give a thrust to operator to maintain by himself after they pass a kind of machine operation setting skill test. On its development, many tools and methods are used to speed up the skill level of operator to take a good care for machine. In the next step of self maintenance, FMEA (Failure Mode Effect Analysis) methods has been started to analyze the problem. It is held by maintenance together with production and engineering, and its impact really felt to reduce machine problem moreover reach no breakdown machine on production time. Moreover, another method to level up production side to do well self maintenance is using ProductionMaintenance mechanism. This logo does not only raise up the spirit of production to do maintain their machine hardly but also on maintenance side which feel that they have to study more and more to level up their skill because the next demand will be different
whereas maintenance not just stand to fixed up a simple problem but drive to be a specialist one.
AM and PM Board – Autonomous Maintenance (AM) board and Preventive Maintenance (PM) Board is the output of the entire activity that will be done. Both of them have a difference task lists. Using Zero Breakdown activity, the content of AM Board has a huge weights factor. The item checks is not coming for inspection only but also repaired and analyzed machine tendency which originate from development of FMEA method. The power of item check can prevent minor stoppages and medium stoppages although it still used an easy tools or using their five senses. This item check is fully equipped with the proper one point lesson and instruction manual coming from physical analysis of trouble phenomenon. It is also valid for preventive maintenance board. This board scope has a higher stratum to prevent medium stoppages and major stoppages because preventive maintenance check items has pushed to used a diagnose tools based on high technology that needs a special skill to operate. Many physical measurement could be taken using the proper diagnose tools, example: the used of clamp measurement tool which measure the force tension on spindle system. By using this equipment, the tendency of clamp force could easily monitor and when its reach its minimum point, maintenance personnel could change its component inside the case clamp spring or just make a little setting to adjust the clamp force to its normal condition. PM-Board also facilitated with a column where operational side could communicate with technical engineering when they need the replacement of unpredictable part. The column then feed back to maintenance planner to make an adjustment of spare part order point.
On the next topic, the detail implementation from mieruka to maintenance training concepts will be illustrated.
Machine Mieruka a Model Based on Visualization
Mieruka coming from Japanese words means could it be seen or it could be visualized. The concept of mieruka could not be separated with visualization concept that will improve the transfer knowledge and provoke action. However machine visualization is not an easy ways as it might look likes in a primary evaluation, many effort has been done to get the best visualization. A development and evaluation method to communicate machine knowledge becomes one of the important things to educate not only production member but also a novice to understand the machine structure easily.
A good machine mieruka have many advantages like:
1. Machine mechanisms easily blow up so it means skill up. Mieruka on its cover belt could make any worried and more care to production member. Mieruka on its control panel side make it views of ON-OFF PLC relay easily monitored. 2. Fast heat transfer brought element part has a longer life time. The surface boundaries are reduced so surrounding air enters its motion mechanism that also reduces heat generation. 3. Contamination source slightly catch up thus condition based maintenance easily done. 4. Abnormal sounds like vibration also easily get caught.
At the beginning, machines with mieruka concept was implemented in the old line machining however it becomes a base for new machining line which has total mieruka machine. The basic thinking is stated that step by step process and machine movement could detect and monitor easily with machine mieruka. And it has brought easier analysis for taking the right countermeasure of machine problem. Here we attached the sample of mieruka which has implemented:
Figure 4. Belt cover, hydraulic tank, control panel and grease mieruka
Self Maintenance Activity as a New Role
Self maintenance is maintenance activity participating top management; general manager, manager, middle management; supervisor, staff, bottom management; line leader, group leader and finally touch the operator level using cleaning, inspection and repair problem which aim to arise machine ownership towards operation level. Self maintenance has a target to reach ZERO ABCD, accident, breakdown, cost and defect. This activity also make good and conducive work climate. The same with conduct an autonomous maintenance, on develop self maintenance one basic management policy should be commit. Company goal also socialized to grow up the motivation of entire level company component more over department who tightly related with. By implement this activity, skill of machine maintenance could be increased and moral could be arisen due to the ownership one. For more systematic aim herewith blueprint of self maintenance purpose that clearly illustrated on figure 5.
Figure 5. Self maintenance purpose schematic7
So self maintenance basically change production and maintenance paradigm by kaizen ability, skill and knowledge taken from its major activity : cleaning, repair problem which emphasized on education by practice. At the beginning, production side just thought that they’re only made a product, did not care with their machine. Using self maintenance, they act like a mother to their machine. Machine ownership seems dominantly effect their thinking pattern. It’s finally made production side trying hard to understand the operation of machine, structure and machine construction and last they have a built in responsibility to maintain
their children which is represented with a machine. Their machine skill finally increase so sharp because the impact of self maintenance.
And so do maintenance side, they are speeded up because self maintenance implementation is not only changing their skill but also working pattern. Self maintenance push maintenance side increasing their skill directly to machine physical analysis not just turns in symptoms and temporary action. This activity really forces maintenance to find the root cause of problem.
Self maintenance also easier to develop because it’s only have a fewer step than others activity. It’s distributed into three steps that correlated one another. Herewith the step of self maintenance activity :
1. Cleaning machine and find a defect or trouble. Purpose: a) By cleaning and checking, operator could easily understand the function and mechanism of machine and also memories the machine operation b) Make eyes accustomed to watch and see a problem or defect. And on the next day, by watching only, operator could detect the abnormality of machine Effect: As the gathering medium between production and maintenance to understand what is the purpose of self maintenance
2. Repair defect and trouble. Purpose: a) Increasing kaizen ability, skill and knowledge by repairing machine b) Increasing self confidence by implant on their mind that machine repair is usual activity and it could be done by themselves Effect: By implementing step 1 and 2, trust ability, self confidence, responsibility and ownership naturally could growth up.
3. Maintain a unit that has been improved and activate daily maintenance. Purpose: a) Make own rule or standardization that must be obey by themselves and continue reviewing the standard b) Have a consciousness to do repair autonomously. Effect: Make everyone understand the importance of cleaning and routine inspection
What could be reaching when self maintenance runs continuously? Mutual trust, achievement feeling, machine ownership, self confidence, improvement feeling, ambition to discover a new thing, and team work naturally achieved by running this activity.
On its journey, self maintenance activity adopts FMEA (Failure Mode Effect Analysis) as a tool to prevent the occurrence of problem. FMEA trying to expose the problem clearly and then suggests what kind of countermeasure must be taken. This tool finds the potential failure and describes how this failure affects the overall system. Problem that prior to be the most significance impact then breakdown into detail and part by part testing to know what part would contribute machine trouble and its becomes FMEA jobs. Figure 6, will described FMEA form that implement on TMMIN.
On this sheet described that, after the problem surface appear, the next step is confirm to the element part that involved and then retest the element part by descript problem that must be happened on that part. On this session maintenance side give a detail occurrence and then they writes down what will happen on that part. Beyond the element part, problem cause then suspected and perhaps not only a single cause but it could be more than one cause. After that discussion is take placed between production side and maintenance side to determine what will periodic inspection done. By considering the operation and its checking method, the check item purposed will classified even become AM (Autonomous Maintenance) item check or be included in PM (Preventive Maintenance) item check. The decision even depend on is quite hard to solve or slightly solve, if the check item is quite hard to reach its place and used a special tools, maintenance side take its portion. But contrary when it’s easy to reach, visually monitor and have no deal with diagnose equipment, the check item belongs to production side. The check item then decided it’s become daily, weekly, monthly even yearly and also duration of checking and its standard check also writes down.
However the problem is still occurred sometimes and majority many tools did not provide a space to make a troubleshooting even countermeasure to correct the problem. On this sheet, troubleshooting method is available. Description of troubleshooting method and who was in charge to do troubleshooting clearly attached. So, reviewing FMEA sheet gave a space for improvement both on taking physical analysis, the methods, and also its countermeasure. And it means level up for skill and knowledge both of production and maintenance side.
Figure 6. FMEA (Failure Mode Effect Analysis sheet) 7
Conduct FMEA reflects the third step of self maintenance. The following phase colored implementation of FMEA : 1. The worst machine on each line was selected from SAP-PM data (SAP is business process software which has maintenance control module). 2. Maintenance side explains the detail of problem on that machine and then chooses most significance problem that contributes the longest downtime, mostly frequent stoppages. This explanation is based on flow process of machine and then clarify each part that related with problem 3. Self maintenance forum that present by production, maintenance and engineering then do a gemba, go to site for reconfirm the process and simulate the problem occurrence. 4. Using FMEA sheet, this group then explore the problem and trying guess what is the major problem cause. 5. Then drawn description of operation that could less more solve the problem and determined the best checking method to know who will responsible with this item check, AM or PM. 6. Set up the troubleshooting method if the problem appear incidentally although the item check has been done
Realized or not self maintenance also has an obstacle problem. And the most significance obstacle is skill problem. Why it’s become very bothersome? To drive self maintenance really requisite good machine knowledge. When it’s become lack, self maintenance could not reach its optimum target. Skill problem is attacking production member, they daily operate machine but only a little who understand the structure and mechanism of machine. Moreover the right operation machine, when the basic machine doesn’t understand well how
they could maintain their machine. To avoid skill problem becomes acute, there was a method to reduce skill problem for production side that’s call Production’s maintenance.
Production’s Maintenance a Way to Speed up Self Maintenance
As described above, skill problem is the most significance problem that hamper self maintenance implementation. A way to increasing skill is using Production’s Maintenance. Production’s Maintenance born to fulfill zero breakdown challenge. There were two basic idea that inspire the born of Production’s Maintenance 1) The abnormality that appear need a constrain to solve by the machine owner-production member 2) Some spare part machine stocks only available on its limit value. So breakdown at once must be known by production member. Based on that inspiration, Production’s Maintenance term is conducted to improve skill and bring good communication and good partnership from all related department especially between production and maintenance. Everyone related with machine or equipment operation must work together to eliminate the failures, so do Production’s Maintenance main job. Responsibilities of Production and Maintenance Department scheme clearly illustrated on figure 7 and it also place production department as the key factor.
Production’s Maintenance takes places as a bridge that connect production and maintenance department. And herewith, production maintenance profile’s; 1. Production member who able to do machine maintenance, both autonomous maintenance and preventive maintenance. 2. Able to do small till medium repair when machine problem occurred. 3. Able to transfer knowledge about maintain machine to the next production mate.
Figure 7. Responsibilities Production and Maintenance Department8
Production’s Maintenance have a several job that reflect a window between production and maintenance to prevent the occurrence of problem beside a harmonized between two department to reach its zero breakdown goal. 1. As a spear point which directly did autonomous maintenance : a) Do checking and evaluating autonomous maintenance that has been done by production member. b) Make and evaluate one point lesson for autonomous maintenance. 2. Do preventive maintenance on the low till medium level 3. Improvement and countermeasure the source of contamination that has found 4. Repair small and medium problem based on skill and experience that has gained 5. Make a report problem (FMEA Sheet) – as a production member who intensive closely stand near the machine and have a maintenance skill, production’s maintenance could illustrated a detail about problem and also it caused. 6. Support maintenance and production activity 7. Skill up production member – make a training to production member about machine structure and mechanism, machine operation and machine maintenance that becomes routine job of production
These jobs reflect that production’s maintenance was fully equipped with skill and maintenance tools to finish their activity. And once again, Production’s Maintenance is coming from production’s department basically but to make an acceleration, Production’s Maintenance people is originate from maintenance member who stand on level good technician to skill up production member. The blue print is stated on figure8,
Maintenance member who becomes Production’s Maintenance is coming from senior technician with a good maintenance skill and reliable to teach production about machine operation. He has fulfill with senmonginou C-level and B-Level (senmonginou: special skill training). On the next day, means that production member also enrolled as a trainee same with maintenance member.
Figure 8. Maintenance level and strata8
Thus, to finish its cycle all related department should have enthusiasm to success self maintenance that will bring zero breakdown in front of them. As described above, self maintenance has three components supporter that work simultaneously to make sure the zero breakdown goal reached based on target and schedule. These three major components is task force, mogura and maintenance department which responsible to increase skill level and cauldron to get maintenance machine experience. Task force and mogura are a media to prevent major and medium stoppages and that are already explained above. The role of maintenance department will described later, especially maintenance training who acts as a back bone how zero breakdown goal could be achieved.
Senmonginou as an agent to reach zero breakdowns
The Sixth pillar of TPM is training. Education and training are investment in people that yield multiple returns. A company implementing TPM must invest in training that will enable employees to manage their equipment properly. Its aim to have multi-skilled revitalized employees whose morale is high and who has eager to come to work and perform all required functions effectively and independently. Education is given to operators to upgrade their skill. It is not sufficient know only "Know-How" by they should also learn "Know-why". The content of technical education and operational training must be appropriated with individual requirement in their work place.
In TMMIN, training for their production and maintenance member called “senmonginou” taken from Japanese word means special skill training. This training has conducted with leveled model. The level separate into 4 training, begin with senmonginou C, B, A and finally end to Special level. The training level and system effect the man power planning of organization especially maintenance department. The distribution of training level illustrated clearly on figure 9.
Figure 9. Maintenance level and objective training
Senmonginou C-level, teach a basic foundation about maintenance emphasizing the importance of safety and basic maintenance, machine element, basic operating oil and lubricant, handwork, welding etc. that scope is on the basic operation of maintenance. Senmonginou C-level goal is giving a new comer of maintenance member how to be a good maintenance with the capability the basic machine operation and maintenance. C-level has 4 weeks in class training and 1 year on job training.
Senmonginou B-level is a medium level of special skill training. Deepening of senmonginou C-level, B-level start to divide a member to be electrician or mechanic specialist. Its training item has a general training like maintenance for leader, advanced safety but it also has a special skill training for electric specialist like NC, PC, assembly control panel and for mechanic specialist like advance mechanical element machine etc. This training duration is 6 ~ 8 weeks in class training and 2 year OJT.
Senmonginou A-Level is the top special training activity. It makes maintenance member become specialist. When someone interest with grinding machine, they could be grinding machine specialist and it stated on A-level syllabus. This A-level has no strictly duration, it coming from training that done in machine maker and experience when they handle the machine in frequent period. Thus, when one machine trouble, like milling machine and no one could repair it, maintenance specialist with milling machine could guarantee that this machine running well again.
Senmonginou S-Level, do not move in the machine area(operational side) but in the supervisory area like how leader give a right advise to its subordinate, follow up, control and monitoring. Someone who has a chance to follow S-level is just supervisor or section head level, so responsibility to lead a section is increased by entering S-level. This training doesn’t always do inside the company but it could be done by other organization.
The correlation between training and man power planning is really closed. Example, when someone will promote to be section head they must follow S-level to make sure that they could lead their section well. And to get a good education and training, there must be a step to do: 1. Setting policies and priorities and checking present status of education and training. 2. Establish of training system for operation and maintenance skill up gradation. 3. Training the employees for upgrading the operation and maintenance skills. 4. Preparation of training calendar. 5. Kick-off of the system for training.
6. Evaluation of activities and study of future approach.
Using a step by step implementation bring senmonginou implementation come to be real. Senmonginou has a different method to running its command. To strengthen its educational background which done by practice, it is introduced mieruka on its training kit. Good training kit displayed will motivate member and accelerate knowledge transfer. The power of display is illustrated on figure 10.
It so hard to explain to a novice what is maintenance, what must take care when working with machine, what must they done, what is the element of machine and what must stated to activate machine. The entire question could be answered quickly with the proper display, senmonginou emphasized on display knowledge. After that the training processes depend on complete training kit. Grasp the machine situation could be quickly understood when there are machine kit and so do the machine problem simulation. The training process must strictly control to make sure that personnel skill that wanted could be achieved. The evaluation is done weekly and monthly to get the tendency of student capability. When it tends to be drop, senmonginou program manager will give a coaching and counseling to bring their moral back to the first spirit.
The final destination of maintenance method is zero breakdowns, and TPM methods that we’ve known well could not answered the challenge thoroughly now. It needs modification and improvement on it ways to reach zero breakdowns. Beyond this paper, writer wants to give a new sight of TPM wished to be a key of unsolved problem, like hidden problem that hard to detect, lack of skill, stagnancy on maintenance PDCA circle etc. We introduced proactive maintenance new generation of TPM model purpose to disappear the sporadic and chronic maintenance problem.
Two pillars explored more in this paper are kaizen and mieruka. These two pillars have been conducted on TPM however the exploration still can be optimized through the activities introduced in this paper. This activity actually has not been known well in maintenance word. However, the evidence in TMMIN ltd can represent the effectiveness of Proactive Maintenance.
1. Fitch, James C. PE.,” Proactive Maintenance can Yield More than a 10-Fold Savings Over Conventional Predictive/Preventive Maintenance Programs,” Noria Corporation 2. Huber, Bill,” Balancing Proactive and Reactive Maintenance,” 3. J., Venkatesh, “An Introduction to Total Productive Maintenance (TPM),“ Plant Maintenance Resources Center, 2003 4. Nakajima, Seiichi, “Introduction to TPM,” Productivity Press, Inc. Cambridge, Ma 02140 1988 5. Sekine, Ken’ichi and Arai, Keisuke, “TPM for The Lean Factory,” Productivity Press, Inc. Portland, Oregon 1998 6. Hananto,” TPM activity in TMMIN machining division,” Jakarta March 2005 7. Hananto,” Self Maintenance, Aktivitas Zero Breakdown,” Jakarta October 2004 8. Hananto,” Production’s Maintenance, A way to speed up Autonomous Maintenance,” Jakarta December 2004 9. Shirose, Kunio and Y Kimura, Yoshifumi, “PM Analysis,” Productivity Press, Inc. Portland, Oregon 1995 10. Fujita, Seiichi, “Kaizen Activities in Industrial Systems,” Sanno-daigaku Syuppan. Tokyo 1996: pp. 15-31 11. Hananto,” Jiritsuka Maintenance Management For SVP TR Line Preparation.” Jakarta March 2004
About the Author:
Hananto was graduated from the Sepuluh Nopember Institute of Technology in 2001 and has worked as an Engineer, Engineering Supervisor in the automotive Industry for 4 years with PT. Toyota Motor Manufacturing Indonesia (PT. TMMIN). In TMMIN, Hananto is responsible for spare part, Enterprise Resources Planning and training system in Maintenance Department of Machining Division. He is also a Person in Charge for many International Standardization Programs in Machining Division, such as: ISO 9001 and ISO 14001.
R. Sugeng Prayitno was born in Bangka Island. He received his Bachelor Degree from National Industry Academic of Jogjakarta. He got several Maintenance Trainings from
Kamigo Plant, Toyota Motor Corporation (TMC) Japan for more than 2 years. Now, He is still active for coaching and consulting in Maintenance Department of TMMIN and TMC.
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