You are on page 1of 169
3. VECTOR ANALYSIS Ruzelita Ngadiran

3. VECTOR ANALYSIS

Ruzelita Ngadiran

Overview

Basic Laws of Vector Algebra Dot Product and Cross Product Orthogonal Coordinate Systems: Cartesian, Cylindrical and Spherical Coordinate Systems Transformations between Coordinate Systems Gradient of a Scalar Field Divergence of a Vector Field Divergence Theorem Curl of a Vector Field Stokes’s Theorem Laplacian Operator

This chapter cover CO1

Ability to describe different coordinate system and their interrelation.

Scalar

A scalar is a quantity that has only magnitude

E.g. of Scalars:

Time, mass, distance, temperature, electrical potential etc

Vector

A vector is a quantity that has both magnitude and direction.

E.g. of Vectors:

Velocity, force, displacement, electric field intensity etc.

Basic Laws of Vector Algebra

Cartesian coordinate systems

Basic Laws of Vector Algebra  Cartesian coordinate systems

Vector in Cartesian Coordinates

A vector

A

in Cartesian Coordinates

maybe represented as

OR

A

A , A , A

x

y

z

A xˆA yˆA zˆA

x

y

z

Vector in Cartesian Coordinates

Vector A has magnitude A = |A| to the direction of propagation.

Vector A shown may

be represented as

x

yˆA

y

zˆA

z

A xˆA

The vector A has three component vectors, which are

Vector in Cartesian Coordinates  Vector A has magnitude A = | A | to the

Laws of Vector Algebra stop

Laws of Vector Algebra sto p Unit vector magnitude magnitude Unit vector

Unit vector

Laws of Vector Algebra sto p Unit vector magnitude magnitude Unit vector

magnitude

Laws of Vector Algebra sto p Unit vector magnitude magnitude Unit vector

magnitude

Laws of Vector Algebra sto p Unit vector magnitude magnitude Unit vector

Unit vector

Example 1 : Unit Vector

Specify the unit vector extending from the origin towards the point

G2,2,1

Solution :

Construct the vector extending from origin to point G

G 2xˆ 2 yˆ zˆ

Find the magnitude of

2 G  2  2 2  1 2      3
2
G 
2
2
2
1
2
3

Solution :

So, unit vector is

a

G

 G G
G
G

  • 2 x ˆ

  • 2 z ˆ

ˆ

1

3

y
3 3

 
 

ˆ

0.667 x

0.667 ˆ

y

0.333

z ˆ

Properties of Vector Operations

Equality of Two Vectors

Properties of Vector Operations Equality of Two Vectors

Vector Algebra

For addition and subtraction of A and B,

   C  A  B  x A ˆ  B  
C
A
B
x A
ˆ
B
y A
ˆ
B
z A
ˆ
B
x
x
y
y
z
z
ˆ
ˆ
D
A
B
x A
B
y A
B
z A
ˆ
B
x
x
y
y
z
z
Hence,
Commutative
property

Example 2 :

If

A 10xˆ 4yˆ 6zˆ

B 2 x ˆ

Find:

(a)

The component of

  • (b) The magnitude of

A

along

3AB

 

  • (c) A unit vector

C

along

A2B

Solution to Example 2

  • (a) The component of

A

y

 4

along

(b)

3A

B

3 10,

4,6

2,1,0

30, 12,18

2,1,0

28, 13,18

28xˆ

13yˆ

18zˆ

is

Cont

Hence, the magnitude of

3AB

is:

3 A B

Cont Hence, the magnitude of   3 A  B is: 3 A  B

28

2

13

2

18

2

35.74

(c)

Let

C

A

2B

10,

4,6

4,2,0

14,

2,6

14xˆ

2yˆ

6zˆ

Cont

So, the unit vector along

is:

c ˆ

C  14,  2,6   C   2 2 2 14  
C
14,
2,6
C
2
2
2
14
2
6
14
2
6
x
ˆ
y
ˆ
z
ˆ
15.36
15.36
15.36
0.911 x ˆ
0.130
y
ˆ
 0.391
z
ˆ

Position & Distance Vectors

Position Vector: From origin to point P

Position & Distance Vectors Position Vector: From origin to point P Distance Vector: Between two points
Position & Distance Vectors Position Vector: From origin to point P Distance Vector: Between two points

Distance Vector: Between two points

Position & Distance Vectors Position Vector: From origin to point P Distance Vector: Between two points
Position & Distance Vectors Position Vector: From origin to point P Distance Vector: Between two points

Position and distance Vector

 r  3a  4a  5a P x y z
r
 3a
 4a
 5a
P
x
y
z

Example 3

Point P and Q are located at

and

3,1,5

. Calculate:

0,2,4

  • (a) The position vector P

  • (b) The distance vector from P to Q

  • (c) The distance between P and Q

  • (d) A vector parallel to

PQ

with magnitude of 10

UNIVE

UNIVERSITI

RSITI MALAYSIA

MALAYSIA PERLIS

P ERLIS

Solution to Example 3

22

(a)

(b)

(c)

r

P

0a

x

2a

y

r

PQ

r

Q

r

P

4a

z

2a

y

4a

z

(a)

The position vector P

(b)

The distance vector from P to Q

3,1,5

0,2,4

 

3 a

x

a

y

a

z

(c)

The distance between P and Q

(d)

A vector parallel to

with magnitude of 10

Since

r

PQ

is a distance vector, the distance

between P and Q is the magnitude of this

distance vector.

UNIVE

UNIVERSITI

RSITI MALAYSIA

MALAYSIA PERLIS

P ERLIS

Solution to Example 3

23

Distance, d

d

r

PQ

 3 2  1 2 1 2    
3
2
1
2
1
2

3.317

  • (d) Let the required vector be

A Aa

A

A

then

 

Where

A 10

is the magnitude of

A

Solution to Example 3

UNIVE

UNIVERSITI

RSITI MALAYSIA

MALAYSIA PERLIS

P ERLIS

24

A

PQ

Since

is parallel to

, it must have or

PQ

r

QP

the same unit vector as

r

a

A

r

PQ

r

PQ

  3,1,1

3.317

So,

A

1,1

10

3,

3.317

UNIVE

UNIVERSITI

RSITI MALAYSIA

MALAYSIA PERLIS

P ERLIS

Multiplication of Vectors

25

When two vectors

A

and

B

are multiplied,

the result is either a scalar or vector,

depending on how they are multiplied. Two types of multiplication:

Scalar (or dot) product Vector (or cross) product

A B A B

UNIVE

UNIVERSITI

RSITI MALAYSIA

MALAYSIA PERLIS

P ERLIS

Scalar or Dot Product

26

The dot product of two vectors,

A

and

B

is

defined as the product of the magnitude of

the magnitude of

B

and the cosine of the

A

,

smaller angle between them.

A B

A B

cos

AB

UNIVE RSITI MALAYSIA PERLIS Scalar or Dot Product 26 • The dot product of two vectors,

UNIVE

UNIVERSITI

RSITI MALAYSIA

MALAYSIA PERLIS

P ERLIS

Dot Product in Cartesian

27

The dot product of two vectors of Cartesian coordinate below yields the sum of nine scalar terms, each involving the dot product of two unit vectors.

A

B

A

x

a

x

A

y

a

y

A

z

a

z

B

x

a

x

B

y

a

y

B

z

a

z

UNIVE

UNIVERSITI

RSITI MALAYSIA

MALAYSIA PERLIS

P ERLIS

Dot Product in Cartesian

28

Since the angle between two unit vectors of

the Cartesian coordinate system is then have:

90

  • 0 , we

a

x

a

y

a

y

a

x

a

x

a

z

a

z

a

x

a

y

a

z

a

z

a

y

0

And thus, only three terms remain, giving finally:

A

B

A B A B A B

x

x

y

y

z

z

UNIVE

UNIVERSITI

RSITI MALAYSIA

MALAYSIA PERLIS

P ERLIS

Dot Product in Cartesian

29

The two vectors,

A

and

B

are said to be

perpendicular or orthogonal (90°) with

each other if;

A

B

0

UNIVE

UNIVERSITI

RSITI MALAYSIA

MALAYSIA PERLIS

P ERLIS

Laws of Dot Product

30

Dot product obeys the following:

Commutative Law Distributive Law

A B B A

AA

A

2

A

2

A

 

BC

 

A

B

A

C

UNIVE

UNIVERSITI

RSITI MALAYSIA

MALAYSIA PERLIS

P ERLIS

Properties of dot product

31

Properties of dot product of unit vectors:

a

x

a

x

a

y

a

y

a

z

a

z

1

a

x

a

y

a

y

a

z

a

z

a

x

0

Vector Multiplication: Scalar Product or ”Dot Product”

Vector Multiplication: Scalar Product or ”Dot Product” Hence:
Vector Multiplication: Scalar Product or ”Dot Product” Hence:
Vector Multiplication: Scalar Product or ”Dot Product” Hence:
Vector Multiplication: Scalar Product or ”Dot Product” Hence:
Vector Multiplication: Scalar Product or ”Dot Product” Hence:
Vector Multiplication: Scalar Product or ”Dot Product” Hence:
Vector Multiplication: Scalar Product or ”Dot Product” Hence:

Hence:

UNIVE

UNIVERSITI

RSITI MALAYSIA

MALAYSIA PERLIS

P ERLIS

Vector or Cross Product

33

The cross product of two vectors,

A

and

B

is a

vector, which is equal to the product of the

magnitudes of

A

and

B

and the sine of smaller

angle between them

A B n ˆ

A B sin

AB

Vector or Cross Product

34

A B n ˆ

A B sin

AB

Direction of

nˆ

is

perpendicular (90°) to the plane containing A and B

Vector or Cross Product 34   A  B  n ˆ A B sin

UNIVE

UNIVERSITI

RSITI MALAYSIA

MALAYSIA PERLIS

P ERLIS

Vector or Cross Product

35

It is also along one of the two possible perpendiculars which is in direction of

advance of right hand screw.

UNIVE RSITI MALAYSIA PERLIS Vector or Cross Product 35 It is also along one of the

UNIVE

UNIVERSITI

RSITI MALAYSIA

MALAYSIA PERLIS

P ERLIS

Cross product in Cartesian

36

The cross product of two vectors of Cartesian coordinate:

A

B

A

x

a

x

A

y

a

y

A

z

a

z

B

x

a

x

B

y

a

y

B

z

a

z

yields the sum of nine simpler cross products, each involving two unit vectors.

UNIVE

UNIVERSITI

RSITI MALAYSIA

MALAYSIA PERLIS

P ERLIS

Cross product in Cartesian

37

By using the properties of cross product, it gives

AB A B A B a A B A B a A B A B a

y

z

z

y

x

z

x

x

z

y

x

y

y

x

z

and be written in more easily remembered form:

AB

a

x

A

x

B

x

a

y

A

y

B

y

a

z

A

z

B

z

UNIVE

UNIVERSITI

RSITI MALAYSIA

MALAYSIA PERLIS

P ERLIS

Laws of Vector Product

38

Cross product obeys the following:

It is not commutative

It is not associative

A B B A

A

B

ABC

 

C

It is distributive

A

 

BC

 

A

B

A

C

UNIVE

UNIVERSITI

RSITI MALAYSIA

MALAYSIA PERLIS

P ERLIS

Properties of Vector Product

39

Properties of cross product of unit vectors:

a a a ,a a a ,a a a

x

y

z

y

z

x

z

x

y

Or by using cyclic permutation:

UNIVE RSITI MALAYSIA PERLIS Properties of Vector Product 39  Properties of cross product of unit

Vector Multiplication: Vector Product or ”Cross Product”

Vector Multiplication: Vector Product or ”Cross Product”
Vector Multiplication: Vector Product or ”Cross Product”
Vector Multiplication: Vector Product or ”Cross Product”
Vector Multiplication: Vector Product or ”Cross Product”
Vector Multiplication: Vector Product or ”Cross Product”
Vector Multiplication: Vector Product or ”Cross Product”

UNIVE

UNIVERSITI

RSITI MALAYSIA

MALAYSIA PERLIS

P ERLIS

Example 4:Dot & Cross

  • 41 Product

Determine the dot product and cross product of the following vectors:

A

2

a

B

 

a

x

x

3 a 5 a

y

y

4 a 6 a

z

z

UNIVE

UNIVERSITI

RSITI MALAYSIA

MALAYSIA PERLIS

P ERLIS

Solution to Example 4

42

The dot product is:

A

B

A B

x

x

A B

y

y

A B

z

z

(2)(

1)

(3)(

5)

(

4)(6)

  41

Solution to Example 4

UNIVE

UNIVERSITI

RSITI MALAYSIA

MALAYSIA PERLIS

P ERLIS

43

The cross product is:

     

a

x

a

y

a

z

 

a

x

a

y

a

z

A

B

A

x

B

A

y

B

A

z

B

 

2

1

3

5

4

6

 

x

y

z

 

 
 

(3)(6)

(

4)(

5) a

x

 
 

(2)(6)

(

4)(

1) a

y

(2)(

5)

(3)(

1) a

z

 

 

2

a

x

8

a

y

7

a

z

UNIVE

UNIVERSITI

RSITI MALAYSIA

MALAYSIA PERLIS

P ERLIS

Scalar & Vector Triple Product

44

A scalar triple product is

ABCBCACAB

A vector triple product is

ABCBACCAB

known as the “bac-cab”

rule.

Triple Products

Scalar Triple Product

Triple Products Scalar Triple Product Vector Triple Product
Triple Products Scalar Triple Product Vector Triple Product

Vector Triple Product

Triple Products Scalar Triple Product Vector Triple Product
Triple Products Scalar Triple Product Vector Triple Product

UNIVE

UNIVERSITI

RSITI MALAYSIA

MALAYSIA PERLIS

P ERLIS

Example 5

46

Given

A xˆ yˆ zˆ2

.

B yˆ zˆ

,

and

C  xˆ2 zˆ3

Find (A×BC and compare it with A×(B×C).

Solution to Example 5

UNIVE

UNIVERSITI

RSITI MALAYSIA

MALAYSIA PERLIS

P ERLIS

47

 

ˆ

ˆ

ˆ

 

x

y

z

   

ˆ

ˆ

 

A

B

1

1

2

 

ˆ3

x

y

z

 

0

1

1

 
 
 

ˆ

ˆ

ˆ

 

A

B

C

x

3

y

1

z

1

 

ˆ3

x

ˆ7

y

ˆ2

z

 

2

 

0

3

 

A similar procedure gives

A BC xˆ2 yˆ 4 zˆ

Cont’

Hence :

Cont’  Hence :

Example From Book

Example From Book Scalar/ dot product

Scalar/ dot product

Solution

Solution
Solution

Solution

Solution

Cont’

Cont’

UNIVE

UNIVERSITI

RSITI MALAYSIA

MALAYSIA PERLIS

P ERLIS

Coordinate Systems

53

Cartesian coordinates

(x, y, z)

Circular Cylindrical coordinates

(, , z)

Spherical coordinates

(r, , )

UNIVE

UNIVERSITI

RSITI MALAYSIA

MALAYSIA PERLIS

P ERLIS

Cartesian coordinates

54

Consists of three mutually orthogonal axes

(x, y, z)

and a point in space is denoted

UNIVE RSITI MALAYSIA PERLIS Cartesian coordinates 54  Consists of three mutually orthogonal axes ( x

P(x, y, z)

as

UNIVE

UNIVERSITI

RSITI MALAYSIA

MALAYSIA PERLIS

P ERLIS

Cartesian Coordinates

55

a

Unit vector of

x

,a

y

,a

z

in the direction

of increasing coordinate value.

UNIVE RSITI MALAYSIA PERLIS Cartesian Coordinates 55 a  Unit vector of x , a y

UNIVE

UNIVERSITI

RSITI MALAYSIA

MALAYSIA PERLIS

P ERLIS

Cartesian Coordinates

56

Differential in Length

z
z

dL dxa dya

x

dza

y

UNIVE

UNIVERSITI

RSITI MALAYSIA

MALAYSIA PERLIS

P ERLIS

Cartesian Coordinates

57

Differential Surface

UNIVE RSITI MALAYSIA PERLIS Cartesian Coordinates 57  Differential Surface

UNIVE

UNIVERSITI

RSITI MALAYSIA

MALAYSIA PERLIS

P ERLIS

Cartesian Coordinates

58

Differential Surface

d S  dydz a x x d S  dxdz a y y d S
d
S
dydz
a
x
x
d
S
dxdz
a
y
y
d
S
dxdy
a
z
z

UNIVE

UNIVERSITI

RSITI MALAYSIA

MALAYSIA PERLIS

P ERLIS

Cartesian Coordinates

59

Differential Volume

z y x
z
y
x

dV dxdydz

Cartesian Coordinate System

Differential length vector

Differential area vectors
Differential area vectors

UNIVE

UNIVERSITI

RSITI MALAYSIA

MALAYSIA PERLIS

P ERLIS

Circular Cylindrical

  • 61 Coordinates

z y x
z
y
x

UNIVE

UNIVERSITI

RSITI MALAYSIA

MALAYSIA PERLIS

P ERLIS

Circular Cylindrical

  • 62 Coordinates

Form by three surfaces or planes:

Plane of z (constant value of z)

Cylinder centered on the z axis with a

radius of .

r

. Some books use the notation

Plane perpendicular to x-y plane and

rotate about the z axis by angle of

a

,a

,a

z

Unit vector of

in the direction

of increasing coordinate value.

UNIVE

UNIVERSITI

RSITI MALAYSIA

MALAYSIA PERLIS

P ERLIS

Circular Cylindrical Coordinates

63

Differential in Length

dL d a

d a dza

z

UNIVE RSITI MALAYSIA PERLIS Circular Cylindrical Coordinates 63  Differential in Length d L  d

UNIVE

UNIVERSITI

RSITI MALAYSIA

MALAYSIA PERLIS

P ERLIS

Circular Cylindrical

  • 64 Coordinates

Increment in

length for direction is:

d

d

is not increment in length!

UNIVE RSITI MALAYSIA PERLIS Circular Cylindrical 64 Coordinates  Increment in  length for direction is:

UNIVE

UNIVERSITI

RSITI MALAYSIA

MALAYSIA PERLIS

P ERLIS

Circular Cylindrical

  • 65 Coordinates

Differential Surface

  • d

S

d dz

  • d d dz

S

  • d

S

z

d d

UNIVE RSITI MALAYSIA PERLIS Circular Cylindrical 65 Coordinates  Differential Surface d  S  

UNIVE

UNIVERSITI

RSITI MALAYSIA

MALAYSIA PERLIS

P ERLIS

Circular Cylindrical

  • 66 Coordinates

Differential volume

dV dddz

UNIVE RSITI MALAYSIA PERLIS Circular Cylindrical 66 Coordinates  Differential volume dV   d 

Calculus Basic

y

2

x

dy

dx

2

2dx 2

dx 2 x

y

2

x

2

dy

dx

2

x

2

x

xdx

2

x

2

Cylindrical Coordinate System

Cylindrical Coordinate System
Cylindrical Coordinate System
Cylindrical Coordinate System

Cylindrical Coordinate System

Cylindrical Coordinate System
Cylindrical Coordinate System

UNIVE

UNIVERSITI

RSITI MALAYSIA

MALAYSIA PERLIS

P ERLIS

Example 6

70

A cylinder with radius of

and length of

L

Determine:

  • (i) The volume enclosed.

(ii) The surface area of that volume.

UNIVE

UNIVERSITI

RSITI MALAYSIA

MALAYSIA PERLIS

P ERLIS

71

FORMULA

Differential volume

dV dddz

UNIVE RSITI MALAYSIA PERLIS 71 FORMULA  Differential volume dV   d  d 

UNIVE

UNIVERSITI

RSITI MALAYSIA

MALAYSIA PERLIS

P ERLIS

Solution to Example 6

72

(i) For volume enclosed, we integrate;

V

dV

 

v

2

z

L

 

d

 

0

0

z

0

 

2

2

 
 

0

2

0

 

   

2

2

  

2



L



2

L

 

d

dz

z

L

0

z

UNIVE

UNIVERSITI

RSITI MALAYSIA

MALAYSIA PERLIS

P ERLIS

FORMULA

• Differential Surface

  • d

S

d dz

  • d d dz

S

  • d

S

z

d d

UNIVE RSITI MALAYSIA PERLIS FORMULA • Differential Surface d  S   d dz 

UNIVE

UNIVERSITI

RSITI MALAYSIA

MALAYSIA PERLIS

P ERLIS

Solution to Example 6

74

(ii) For surface area, we add the area of each surfaces;

S

2

L

d dz

0

0

 

z

 

2

d d

0

 

0

 

 

0

L

d dz

z

0



sides

bottom

top

2

z L

z 0

z

0

2

2

2

0

0

z L

z 0

z

2



L



2

L

2



L



2

L

UNIVE

UNIVERSITI

RSITI MALAYSIA

MALAYSIA PERLIS

P ERLIS

75

Example 7

The surfaces

3,

5,

100

0

,

130

0

,

z

3,

z

4.5

define a closed surface. Find:

  • (a) The enclosed volume.

  • (b) The total area of the enclosing surface.

UNIVE

UNIVERSITI

RSITI MALAYSIA

MALAYSIA PERLIS

P ERLIS

Solution to Example 7

76

(a) The enclosed volume;

V

5

3

2.269 4.5

d d dz

1.745

z

3

5

3

2

2

2.269

1.745

4.5

3

z

(8)(0.524)(1.5)

6.288

Must convert into radians

UNIVE

UNIVERSITI

RSITI MALAYSIA

MALAYSIA PERLIS

P ERLIS

Solution to Example 7

77

(b) The total area of the enclosed surface:

Area

2

2.269

1.745

5

d d

3

4.5

z

3

4.5

  20.7

z

3

2.269

5

d dz

1.745

2

4.5

z

3

2.269

3

d dz

1.745

5

d dz

3

From Book

From Book

From Book

EXERCISE

  • 1 A circular cylinder of radius r = 5 cm is concentric with the z-axis and extends between z = 0 cm and z = 3 cm. find the cylinder’s volume.

= 471.2 cm^3

2

EXERCISE 1 A circular cylinder of radius r = 5 cm is concentric with the z-axis
EXERCISE 1 A circular cylinder of radius r = 5 cm is concentric with the z-axis

UNIVE

UNIVERSITI

RSITI MALAYSIA

MALAYSIA PERLIS

P ERLIS

Spherical Coordinates

81

UNIVE RSITI MALAYSIA PERLIS Spherical Coordinates 81

UNIVE

UNIVERSITI

RSITI MALAYSIA

MALAYSIA PERLIS

P ERLIS

Spherical Coordinates

82

Point P in spherical coordinate,

P(r, , )

r

distance from origin. Some books use

R

the notation

angle between the z axis and the line from origin to point P

angle between x axis and projection

in z=0 plane

UNIVE

UNIVERSITI

RSITI MALAYSIA

MALAYSIA PERLIS

P ERLIS

Spherical Coordinates

83

Unit vector of

a

r

,a

,a

in the direction of

increasing coordinate value.

UNIVE RSITI MALAYSIA PERLIS Spherical Coordinates 83  Unit vector of a r , a 

UNIVE

UNIVERSITI

RSITI MALAYSIA

MALAYSIA PERLIS

P ERLIS

Spherical Coordinates

84

Differential in length

dL

dra

r

rda

r

sin

da

UNIVE RSITI MALAYSIA PERLIS Spherical Coordinates 84  Differential in length d L  dr a

UNIVE

UNIVERSITI

RSITI MALAYSIA

MALAYSIA PERLIS

P ERLIS

Spherical Coordinates

85

Differential Surface

UNIVE RSITI MALAYSIA PERLIS Spherical Coordinates 85  Differential Surface

UNIVE

UNIVERSITI

RSITI MALAYSIA

MALAYSIA PERLIS

P ERLIS

Spherical Coordinates

86

Differential Surface

d

S

r

r

2

sin

d d

d

S

r

sin

drd

d

S

rdrd

UNIVE RSITI MALAYSIA PERLIS Spherical Coordinates 86  Differential Surface d S r  r 2

UNIVE

UNIVERSITI

RSITI MALAYSIA

MALAYSIA PERLIS

P ERLIS

Spherical Coordinates

87

Differential Volume

dV

2

r sindrdd

UNIVE RSITI MALAYSIA PERLIS Spherical Coordinates 87  Differential Volume dV  2 r sin 

UNIVE

UNIVERSITI

RSITI MALAYSIA

MALAYSIA PERLIS

P ERLIS

Spherical Coordinates

88

However, the increment of length is different from the differential increment previously, where:

dr

rd

distance between two radius

rsind

distance between two angles

distance between two radial planes at angles

Spherical

Coordinate

System

Spherical Coordinate System

UNIVE

UNIVERSITI

RSITI MALAYSIA

MALAYSIA PERLIS

P ERLIS

Example 8a

90

A sphere of radius 2 cm contains a volume charge density ρ v given by;

v

4

C/m

3

Find the total charge Q contained in the sphere.

Solution: Example 8a

UNIVE

UNIVERSITI

RSITI MALAYSIA

MALAYSIA PERLIS

P ERLIS

91

Q

v

dv

v

2

0