"Peer Group Effects on Academic Achievement

"
Of Government Girls High School Khyaban-e-Sirsyed Rawalpindi

By Aneela Majeed 669-FSS/MAEDU2/FO8

Department Of Education Faculty of social Science International Islamic University Islamabad

II

2010

"Peer Group Effects on Academic Achievement"
Of Government Girls High School Khyaban-e-Sirsyed Rawalpindi

By Aneela Majeed 669-FSS/MAEDU2/FO8

A Project submitted for the partial Fulfillment of the degree of Master of Arts in Education (MA Education)

Department Of Education Faculty of social Science International Islamic University Islamabad 2010

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IV

Allah Almighty
I asked for strength… And Allah gave me difficulties to make me strong I asked for wisdom… And Allah gave me problems to solve I asked for prosperity… And Allah gave me brain and brawn to work I asked for courage… And Allah gave me danger to overcome I asked for love… And Allah gave me troubled people to help I asked for favors… And Allah gave me opportunities I received nothing I wanted… I received everything I need

V

Dedicated To
First of all to Allah and Holy Prophet Mohammad (Peace Be Upon Him), to my dearest Grandmother, my beloved Parents, to my loving siblings and friends. May Allah’s blessing upon them in this world and hereafter (Amen)

VI

Acknowledgement
In the name of Allah The Most Beneficent and Most Merciful. I have no words to express my deepest sense of gratitude to Almighty Allah, the only one who be praised, without His help and blessings; I was unable to complete this project. I also pay Darood-o-salam from the core of my heart to His beloved Prophet Mohammad (Peace Be Upon Him) the ocean of knowledge, guidance and the messenger of peace for the whole universe. Upon to complete of this project, I wish to record my highest appreciation to my respective supervisor Miss Zarina for her diligence and kindness for me to complete this project. She guided me and supervised my work through every phase of this research work. Indeed her constructive criticism has been of great value to me in the preparation of this project. I’m very thankful to my grandmother who remembered me in her prayers and motivated and encouraged me in studies. My thanks also go to my parents for giving me such worth while, motivation, financial support and love throughout my thick and thin. And who also have been a source of inspiration. I further extend my thanks to my siblings and friends for their indirect contribution and helping me in completing this project. Last but not the least the special thanks to Sir Ikram and my younger brother Junaid without their generosity it would have been very difficult for me to accomplish this task. May Allah bless you all .Thank you.

VII

Abstract
The study was designed to measure the effects of peer group on their Academic Achievement. In order to achieve the objectives of the study survey method was employed. For this study population consisted of Government Girls High School Khyaban-eSirsyed Rawalpindi. A sample of 70 students was selected for the study. The data was collected through questionnaire. Questionnaire was distributed personally from the students. Data collected was analyzed and interpreted. Percentage was used for this purpose. The major findings of the research in terms of percentage was; Agree (64%), Disagree (29.24%) and Undecided (6.74) In the light of the findings the following conclusions were drawn: The values of the peer group with whom the high school student spends the most time are a stronger factor in the student's level of academic success Academic achievement is closely linked to peer influences. Students in peer groups that do not value education lack the stimulation and reinforcement needed to encourage personal learning. Peer group encourages education and learning, and then the individual student within that group will value learning, because the individual is reinforced, or rewarded, for behavior that indicates the learning is valued. Students agreed with the questions ask in research at 64%. They disagreed at 29.24% and undecided percentage was 6.74%.

VIII

At the end researcher made some recommendations on the basis of conclusions. Following were these major recommendations: The student should choose the right peers in order to improve their lifestyle, attitudes, academic achievement and so on. The student are encourage analyze the attitudes of their friends before they become close. It is because the positive peer can influenced and motivated them to be good in studies. Teachers should arrange groups of students in class in such a way that it should comprise of bright and dull students. In this way dull students will be able to get benefit from the bright students and it will be add to their academic acumen. Parents should interact with their children with love, kindness, respect,

consistency, time, boundaries and encouragement. They should take interest in their child’s activities. This allows parents to know their child’s friends and to monitor behavior , which is crucial in keeping children out of trouble.

IX

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Chapter 1...................................................................Error: Reference source not found 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.7.1 1.7.2 1.7.3 1.7.4 1.7.5 1.7.6 1.7.7 Introduction:....................................................Error: Reference source not found Statement of the problem:.............................Error: Reference source not found Objective:........................................................Error: Reference source not found Theoretical frame work:..................................Error: Reference source not found Significance of the study:.............................Error: Reference source not found Research Question:........................................Error: Reference source not found Methodology:..................................................Error: Reference source not found Population:..............................................Error: Reference source not found Sample:....................................................Error: Reference source not found Sample technique:..................................Error: Reference source not found Research Instruments:............................Error: Reference source not found Data Collection:.....................................Error: Reference source not found Data Analysis:........................................Error: Reference source not found Delimitation:...........................................Error: Reference source not found

Chapter II.................................................................Error: Reference source not found 2 Review of Related Literature:......................Error: Reference source not found 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.4.1 2.5 2.6 found Definition of Peer:...........................................Error: Reference source not found Definition of Peer Group:...............................Error: Reference source not found Peer Pressure:.................................................Error: Reference source not found Peer group Education:...................................Error: Reference source not found Definitions...............................................Error: Reference source not found Peer Relationships in Education:.................Error: Reference source not found Peer Pressure Affect learning and motivation:....Error: Reference source not

X 2.7 2.8 2.9 found 2.9.1 found 2.9.2 2.10 2.10.1 not found 2.10.2 2.10.3 2.11 found 2.11.1 not found 2.11.2 2.11.3 2.11.4 2.11.5 2.11.6 2.11.7 Encourage positive relationships between significant adults and teens. Error: Reference source not found Encourage diverse relationships..............Error: Reference source not found Support parent education programs for families with teenagers..........Error: Equip youth with the skills necessary to resist negative behaviors, as well Teaching youth exit strategies or ways to say ‘no’ to negative pressures. Error: Reference source not found Review of Related Research Articles:. .Error: Reference source not found Nurture teens’ abilities and self-esteem so that they are equipped to foster positive peer relationships and deflect negative pressures......Error: Reference source Facts about the teen-parent relationship during the teen years:...........Error: Facts about peer friendships:...................Error: Reference source not found Reference source not found Effective Strategies for Coping with Peer Pressure. .Error: Reference source not When Parents Don’t Approve:................Error: Reference source not found Teenage Peer Pressure:.................................Error: Reference source not found Facts about Friendships, Peers, and Adolescence:. .Error: Reference source Specifically Parents can show support by:...Error: Reference source not Positive Effects of Peer Pressure:..............Error: Reference source not found Negative Effects of Peer Pressure:...........Error: Reference source not found Encourage Healthy and Positive Relationships:....Error: Reference source not

Reference source not found as to make good decisions.......................................Error: Reference source not found

Chapter III................................................................Error: Reference source not found 3 Methodology and Procedure............................Error: Reference source not found

XI 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 Population of the study:...............................Error: Reference source not found Sample of the study:.....................................Error: Reference source not found Research instrument:......................................Error: Reference source not found Data collection:..............................................Error: Reference source not found Data Analysis:................................................Error: Reference source not found

Chapter IV................................................................Error: Reference source not found 4 Analysis and Interpretation of Data...........Error: Reference source not found Summary, Findings, ConclusionError: Reference source not founds and Recommendations.....................................................Error: Reference source not found Summary.....................................................................Error: Reference source not found Findings.......................................................................Error: Reference source not found Conclusions:................................................................Error: Reference source not found Recommendations.......................................................Error: Reference source not found Bibliography................................................................Error: Reference source not found Appendixes................................................................Error: Reference source not found Permission Letter:.....................................................Error: Reference source not found8 Covering Letter:........................................................Error: Reference source not found9 Respondents List..........................................................................................................100 Survey Questionnaire …………………………………………………………………..Error: Reference source not found4

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LIST OF TABLES
Table 1:...................................................................Error: Reference source not found Table 2: .................................................................Error: Reference source not found Table3: ..................................................................Error: Reference source not found Table 4: …………………………………………………………………………… Error: Reference source not found Table 5: …………………………………………………………………………… Error: Reference source not found Table 6: …………………………………………………………………………… Error: Reference source not found Table 7: …………………………………………………………………………… Error: Reference source not found Table 8: . ................................................................Error: Reference source not found Table 9: .................................................................Error: Reference source not found Table 10: ...............................................................Error: Reference source not found Table 11: ...............................................................Error: Reference source not found Table 12: ................................................................Error: Reference source not found Table 13: .............................................................Error: Reference source not found Table 14: ...............................................................Error: Reference source not found Table 15: ...............................................................Error: Reference source not found Table 16:.................................................................Error: Reference source not found Table 17: …………………………………………………………………………… Error: Reference source not found Table 18: ...............................................................Error: Reference source not found Table 19: ...............................................................Error: Reference source not found Table 21: ...............................................................Error: Reference source not found Table 22:.................................................................Error: Reference source not found Table 23: ...............................................................Error: Reference source not found Table 24: ...............................................................Error: Reference source not found Table 25: ...............................................................Error: Reference source not found Table 26: ...............................................................Error: Reference source not found

XIII Table 27:.................................................................Error: Reference source not found Table 28: ...............................................................Error: Reference source not found Table 29: ...............................................................Error: Reference source not found Table 30: ...............................................................Error: Reference source not found

14

Chapter 1
1.1 Introduction:

Children are socialized by the people with whom they associate through daily interaction over the course of many years, acceptable social customs are taught and promote. In school, children learn the skills

of interpersonal interaction. They learn to share, to take turns, and to compromise with their peers.

The peer group exerts a most powerful social influence on the child. The peer group is composed of status equals; that is, all children within a given peer group are the same age and come from the same social status. A child must earn his/her social position within the peer group; this position does not come naturally, as it does in the family. Interaction with a peer group loosens the child's bonds to the family; it provides both an alternative model for behavior and new social norms and values.

Peer effects are central to many important issues facing higher and lower education. Within the educational system school choice, positive action, distance learning, mainstreaming, selective admissions and the rise of merit scholarships schools, all acquire the potential to alter the distribution of students. . At the micro level, these policies can change the composition of one’s classmates along various dimensions. For example can make them more or less racially, socially,

15 geographically, or intellectually diverse. These changes may effect among other things, student’s attitudes, values or academic performance. In short, changes in the distribution of students may produce peer effects. (c.f. Winston (1998)).

Other children as well as adults can have a great impact on a broad range of issues in the child's life including achievements in school. Student achievement is effected in many ways by the effects of a peer group. These effects may be members of a group interaction in learning, helping each other in their studies, share important information and so on.

Influences on student learning in an academic environment can be numerous and contradictory. The interactions among peers are normal and essential part of the learning process that influences the lifelong learning habits of students. The potential effects of peer relationships are reciprocal. Some students are more receptive than others. On one extreme, for example is the student who values and seeks peer input on every decision. On the other is the social isolate who avoids interaction in and out of the classroom. Students may learn better when in the company of other strong students. Peer groups have significant impacts on student achievement, depending on the magnitude of peer influences. Measuring peer effects is difficult. Student outcomes depend on numerous factors other than the characteristics of one’s peers, and isolating peer influences is particularly problematic since people typically choose those with whom they associate. Indeed, when students select a college to attend, they are importantly

16 choosing the peers with whom they will live and learn for the duration of their college life.

1.2 Statement of the problem:
The study was designed to measure the effects of peer group on academic achievement of the students.

1.3 Objective:
The objective of the study was to measure the effects of peer group in Academic Achievement.

1.4 Theoretical frame work:
Peer grouping and its effects /outcomes variable. Peer grouping is

independent and academic achievement is dependent variable. There is positive relationship between both variables because if peer relationship is strong then automatically it effects on the studies are positive.

1.5 Significance of the study:
The study will be helpful in the field of education. It is important for students, parents, educators and policy makers in understanding the way social

interactions affect academic achievement. In particular academic achievement and

17 the often corresponding level of the educational attainment tend to predict the average earnings an individual may secure over a lifetime. For this reason, isolating the peer effects on academic achievement will make a significant contribution to education reform.

1.6 Research Question:
The research question is given below. Is there any significant effect of peer group on academic achievement of the students?

1.7 Methodology:
The following research methodology was used for the study.

1.7.1 Population:
The population of the study was the students of Govt Girls High School of Khyaban-e-Sir Syed Rawalpindi.

1.7.2 Sample:
Seventy students who were between the age of 14 to 18 years old of Govt Girls High School of Khyaban-e-Sirsyed Rawalpindi was the sample of the study.

18

1.7.3 Sample technique:
Convenient sampling technique was used to select sample.

1.7.4 Research Instruments:
The instrument used to collect the data was questionnaire. A set of questionnaire containing 30 questions was developed. The questionnaire was checked by Miss Zarina to asses its validity before it was distributed.

1.7.5 Data Collection:
Data was collected through personal visit.

1.7.6 Data Analysis:
Data was analyzed in the light of the objective of the study. Percentage was calculated for this purpose.

1.7.7 Delimitation:
Keeping in view the available resources of the study was delimited to Govt Girls High School of Khyaban-e-Sirsyed Rawalpindi.

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Chapter II 2 Review of Related Literature

20

2.1 Definition of Peer:
• A person of the same legal status: a jury of one's peers.

A person who is equal to another in abilities, qualifications, age, background, and social status.

Something of equal worth or quality: a sky-scraper without peer.

A member of any of the five degrees of the nobility in Great Britain and Ireland (duke, marquis, earl, viscount, and baron).

Archaic. A companion.

2.2 Definition of Peer Group:
A social group, consisting of people who are equal in such respects as age, education, or social class Teenagers usually prefer to spend time with their own peer group.

2.3 Peer Pressure:
Peers are people who are part of the same social group, so the term "peer pressure" refers to the influence that peers can have on each other. Although peer

21 pressure does not necessarily have to be negative, the term "pressure" implies that the process influences people to do things that may be resistant to, or might not otherwise choose to do. So usually the term peer pressure refers to socially undesirable behaviors, such as tastes of fashion, music, television and academic success etc

The level of peer influence generally increases as children grow, and resistance to peer influence often declines as children gain independence from the family or caregivers, and before they fully form an adult identity. Pre-school children tend to be the least aware of peer pressure, and are the least influenced by the need to conform. However with more social interactions outside the home and more awareness of others, the influence of peers increases.

Pre-teens and teenagers face many issues related to conformity and peer pressure. They are pulled between the desire to be seen as individuals of unique value and the desire to belong to a group where they feel secure and accepted. The result is that often teens reject family or general society values, while feeling pressure to conform rigidly to the values of their peer group. An example of this phenomenon is seen when young people join gangs. In joining the gang they are rejecting the community's way of dressing and behaving. Yet to belong to the gang, they must conform to the gang's own style of dress, behavior, and speech. The changing ways of life of our peers often force us to change our ways of looking at life and leading it. It’s a human tendency to do what the crowd does.

22 Few have the courage to resist the peer pressure and be their own selves rather than being one among the lot.

2.4 Peer group Education:
2.4.1 Definitions
Peer group: Technically a peer group is any collectivity in which the members share some common characteristics, such as age or ethnicity. It most commonly refers to age groups in general, but more specifically to adolescent groups where members are closely bound together by youth culture. Adolescent peer groups tend to have: • A high degree of social solidarity,

Hierarchical organization,

A code which rejects, or contrasts with, adult values and experience.

From

an

adult

perspective,

peer

groups

are

often

deviant

because

delinquency is supported by the rewards of group membership.' (A peer is a member of a peer group.) (Abercrombie, 1988)

23 'Peer group education is a method of information transference or role modeling where a particular type of behavior is promoted or information

transferred. The peer educators closely match the target group in some manner; whether it is by age, gender, etc.' (Brammer/Walker 1995)

2.5 Peer Relationships in Education:
With entrance into education, the influence of the family plateaus, if not decreases, as the importance of peers increases. Adolescence marks the peak of peer influence. The demands and opinions of friends can overwhelm the needs of family and, at times, can overwhelm the individuals themselves. As the individual matures biologically and cognitively, the culture of education also changes, moving the student through a system marked by a single class in early elementary school to a system of hour-long classes in middle and high school. Student peer preferences also change during these years. Friendships of two to three students give way to larger group networks.

It comes as no surprise, then, that the relative consistency of peers allows them to take precedence over academics and educators in later education. In addition to school structure, factors such as biology, home life, and increased personal responsibilities have also been explanations for students' decreased academic motivation and increased receptivity to peer influence. Whatever the

24 causes, the subculture of the peer group can be very telling in determining students' motivation to succeed in academics.

In short, the relative influence of peers or peer groups typically increases with the age and development of the student. So, too, do the multiple functions of peers increase. A younger student may be able to find the motivation and desire to learn apart from classmates and friends, looking instead to values from home and teacher. Older students are more apt to seek out those who have similar interests and values.

2.6 Peer Pressure Affect Learning and Motivation:
Age of the student is one consideration in weighing the importance and application of motivation to learn. Human relationships have varying degrees of importance in motivational and learning theories. Most approaches tend to agree, however, that students who surround themselves with peers and influences who

value learning and the educational process will also value their own learning and strive to enhance their education.

Abraham H. Maslow viewed the need for love and belongingness as a step toward achievement in his hierarchy of motivation model, which he described in 1954. In this view, the deprivation of more basic needs hinders progress along the path to achievement. In Maslow's model, people must have love and

belongingness issues satisfied in order to address needs of achievement . For

25 example , a student with deprived relationship concerns will be less able to participate in classroom learning opportunities . The ability to learn is built on a foundation of comfortable relationships with others , including peers and family , and classroom learning is all about learning with and in the presence of others.

"Expectancy by value " theories define motivation as the product of the amount of success on a task that an individual expects to earn times the amount of value the individual places on the task . Thus , a task that the individual values and expects to be successful at will be motivating compared to a task with lower expected success or value . Whereas past experience can predict the expectancy aspect of this model (e.g., the student has done well on prior essay exams ), the value placed on the task is more mediated by outside factors , such as peers and family ( e.g., the student's opinions are respected ). Related motivational theories include the incentive or rewarding aspects of motivation , which may also stem from relationships with others .

Behaviorism

provides

one

way

to

explain

the

association

between

motivation to learn and peer interactions. In basic behaviorist theories , relationships between people affect learning only as much as people reinforce each other ( or not ) in the academic arena . For example , if the peer group encourages education and learning , then the individual student within that group will value learning, because the individual is reinforced, or rewarded, for behavior that indicates that learning is valued . Students in peer groups that do not value education lack the

26 stimulation and reinforcement needed to encourage personal learning. These peer groups presumably stimulate and reinforce other values.

Albert Bandura's social learning theory speaks precisely to the human interactions involved in learning . Observational, or "vicarious" learning is based upon learning by watching then "modeling" or acting similarly to others . If the student views and works with people who appreciate learning by engaging in learning activities, then the student too will engage in learning and might work harder at learning. Peers with positive attitudes and behaviors toward education will allow and teach each other to set goals that include opportunities to learn and achieve. If peer models do not convey positive attitudes toward learning, then the students observing these models will not prioritize learning in their own lives . They will learn to prioritize other goals.

In 1978 Lev Vygotsky also presented ideas on the facilitation of learning through experiences mediated by other people . In his explanations, the learner cannot reach full potential without the aid of others . The processes of guiding the learner to higher stages of cognitive functioning rely on interactive human more capable peers – can raise the

relationships . Mentors– for example, teachers or

student's competence through the zone of proximal development (ZPD). ZPD is defined as the gap between what a student can do alone and what the student can achieve with assistance. In this view assistance is transitional, a "scaffold"

27 that is removed when it is no longer needed and the student has internalized another's support.

In sum, varied theories agree that the values and attitudes of

the peer

group are essential elements in motivation and learning. Students who surround themselves with academically focused, goal oriented peers will be more likely to appreciate, internalize, and exhibit these features themselves.

2.7 Positive Effects of Peer Pressure:
Peer pressure is not always bad. It can help you analyze yourself and contemplate on your ways of life. You may be able to change yourself for the better. Looking at what others do, can help you bring about a positive change in your way of thinking. If you can pick selectively, peer pressure can actually result in a positive change in your way of life. If you are fortunate to get a good peer group , your peers can play a vital role in the shaping of your

personality. Their way of looking at life may influence you to change for betterment. Some of your peers are your close friends, who do not pressurize you to do things but rather inspire you to change yourself. Your peer group may actually persuade you to bring about a constructive change in your personality .

Peer pressure can lead you to make the right choices in life. Good peer pressure is being pushed in to something that you didn't have the courage to do or just didn't cross your mind to do. Good peer pressure can also be a situation

28 when your friends convince you not to do something you were going to do because it wasn't in your best interest. Good peer pressure is when you get pushed in to something that you didn't want to do and it turned out well.

2.8 Negative Effects of Peer Pressure:
When you do not like a particular idea or when you have no inclination towards a particular field, it is obvious that you won't like to go by it. For sure, you won't like to go that way . But it is you peer group, which may compel you on doing something you hate. In such cases, there are chances that you won't do well in those things. Things you do not enjoy doing cannot fetch you success. You cannot emerge successful in something you have never liked doing. So , it is important that you do not lose happiness of your life by succumbing to peer pressure.

Many a time, it so happens, that we are forced to lead a certain kind of lifestyle due to peer pressure. You may not like partying on every weekend, using drugs and smoking, but peer pressure may make you do all that you had never wished to There are many teenagers who experience great pressure from their peer group that forces them to take to drinking. You may take to something as

grave as drug use , and that too, only because of peer pressure. In such cases, being overly pressurized by you peers can be detrimental to your living. Some teenagers literally spoil their lives by giving in to peer pressure.

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Peer pressure can lead to a loss of individuality. Extreme peer pressure may lead you to follow what your peers feel right. Their pressure may compel you to go by everything they think right. You tend to blindly imitate the masses; you adopt their tastes of fashion, clothing, hair, music and general living . Peer pressure can actually lead you to lose you tastes of life and force yourself to begin liking what they like. Peer pressure is the human tendency to join the bandwagon, in which, the person loses his/her original way of looking at life. Bad peer pressure is being talked into doing something that you didn't want to do because your friends said that you should. Bad peer pressure is usually the result of wanting to be accepted by your peers.

2.9 Encourage Healthy and Positive Relationships:
It is important to encourage friendships among teens. We all want our children to be with persons who will have a positive influence, and stay away from persons who will encourage or engage in harmful, destructive, immoral, or illegal activities.

Parents can support positive peer relationships by giving their teenagers their love, time, boundaries, and encouragement to think for themselves.

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2.9.1 Specifically Parents can show support by:
Having a positive relationship with your teen. When parent-teen

interactions are characterized by warmth, kindness, consistency, respect, and love, the relationship will flourish, as will the teen’s self-esteem, mental health, spirituality, and social skills.

Being genuinely interested in your teen’s activities. This allows parents to know their teen’s friends and to monitor behavior, which is crucial in keeping teens out of trouble. When misbehavior does occur, parents who have involved their children in setting family rules and consequences can expect less flack from their children as they calmly enforce the rules. Parents who, together with their children, set firm boundaries and high expectations may find that their children’s abilities to live up to those expectations grow.

Encouraging independent thought and expression. In this way, teens can develop a healthy sense of self and an enhanced ability to resist peer.

2.9.2 When Parents Don’t Approve:
You may not be comfortable about your son or daughter's choice of friends or peer group. This may be because of their image, negative attitudes, or serious behaviors (such as alcohol use, drug use, truancy, sexual behaviors).

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2.10

Teenage Peer Pressure:
Teenage is that phase of life when you are exposed to the world outside.

These are the years when you spend most of your time with your friends. Teenage is the phase of beginning to become independent in life; the years of forming your ideals and principles, the years that shape your personality and the years that introduce you to your own self. Adolescents often spend most of their daily time with friends and owing to this vulnerable age, they tend to imitate their friends. The people around you are bound to influence you. However, the effect of the influences of the masses is greater during your teen years. Parents have a vital role to play during this phase of a person's life. Parents and teachers need to be careful while dealing with teenagers, as they are most susceptible to succumb to peer pressure during these years of their life. Teenage individuals need to be taught to distinguish between the good and the bad, the right and the wrong and should be taught to be thoughtful in life.

A strong support from family, an ability to differentiate between the positive and the negative and a skill to choose friends from the peers - this three – pronged strategy is the best way to keep away from negative peer pressure.

Friendships are very much an important aspect of the teen years. Understanding the nature of peer influence can help support youth as they enter into this period and follow the path towards close friendships that are hallmarks of adolescence.

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Adolescence is a time when peers play an increasingly important role in the lives of youth. Teens begin to develop friendships that are more intimate, exclusive, and more constant than in earlier years. In many ways, these friendships are an essential component of development. They provide safe venues where youth can explore their identities, where they can feel accepted and where they can develop a sense of belongingness. Friendships also allow youth to practice and foster social skills necessary for future success.

Nonetheless, parents and other adults can become concerned when they see their teens becoming preoccupied with their friends. Many parents worry that their teens might fall under negative peer influence or reject their families’ values and beliefs, as behaviors. well as be pressured to engage in high-risk and other negative

In actuality, peer influence is more complex than our stereotype of

the

negative influences from friends. First, peer influence can be both positive and negative. While we tend to think that peer influence leads teens to engage in unhealthy and unsafe behaviors, it can actually motivate youth to study harder in school, volunteer for community and social services, and participate in sports and other productive endeavors. In fact, most teens report that their peers pressure them not to engage in drug use and sexual activity.

33 Second, peer influence is not a simple process where youth are passive recipients of influence from others. In fact, peers who become friends tend to already have a lot of things in common. Peers with similar interests, similar

academic standing, and enjoy doing the same things tend to gravitate towards each other. So while it seems that teens and their friends become very similar to each other through peer influence, much of that similarity was present to begin with.

2.10.1

Facts about Friendships, Peers, and Adolescence:

Friendships that emerge during adolescence tend to be more complex, more exclusive, and more consistent than during earlier childhood. New types (e.g., opposite sex, romantic ties) and levels (e.g., best friends, cliques, and “crowds”) of relationships emerge, and teens begin to develop the capacity for very close, intimate, and deep friendships. The adult perception of peers as having one culture or a unified front of dangerous influence is inaccurate. More often than not, peers reinforce family values, but they have the potential to encourage problem behaviors as well. Although the negative peer influence is overemphasized, more can be done to help teenagers experience the family and the peer group as mutually constructive environments.

34

2.10.2

Facts about the teen-parent relationship during the teen

years:
• Parent relationships are not necessarily undermined by peer relationships. During adolescence, relationships between parents and teens are more often renegotiated rather than rejected. During adolescence, teens become increasingly autonomous and take on more adult roles. They also develop their own ideas and start mapping their own lives. They begin to spend more time with and value their friends more than they used to. Thus, it might seem as if they are starting to cut ties with parents and reject their ideals. In fact, rather than cutting off ties, teens are just renegotiating the parent-child relationship. What this means is that they are beginning to shift the relationship to incorporate their increasing independence and maturity. As teens become more mature, the type of relationship they have with their parents naturally begin to shift as the teen begins to mature.

While it seems that teens are influenced by their peers, parents continue to be the most influential factor in their lives. Despite fears parents have about their teens rejecting their values and beliefs,

parents continue to be of significant influence. Teens report having political, religious, and general beliefs similar to their parents, and consider their parents as being highly

35 significant and influential in their lives. Positive relationships between parents and teens also equip youth to have healthy relationships with friends. Teens who have high quality relationships with parents also report having a positive relationship with their peers.

Parent-adolescent conflict increases between childhood and early adolescence; although in most families, its frequency and intensity remain low. Typically, conflicts are the result of relationship negotiation and continuing

attempts by parents to socialize their adolescents, and do not signal the breakdown of parent-adolescent relations. Parents need to include adolescents in decision-making and rule-setting that affects their lives.

Parents who continue to communicate with their teens, even when there are conflicts, actually maintain closer relationships. While it might seem futile to talk to teens when it leads to conflicts and

disagreements, most teens continue to report having a close relationship with their parents, and as mentioned earlier, they still report parents as being a significant influence on their lives. So parents need to continue talking to their teens and maintaining an open line of communication, rather than simply trying to avoid disagreements.

2.10.3

Facts about peer friendships:

Teens often have multiple layers and groups of friendships. Unlike in childhood, when friendships usually meant two or more close friends, teens

often have multiple friends and belong to multiple groups. They might have intimate and close relationships with one or a handful of individuals, and might also belong to one or

36 more ‘cliques’ or groups of friends that have similar demographics (sex, race, socioeconomic status), orientation towards school, and other interests.

Peer friendships are dynamic. This simply means that peer friendships may change. For instance, while teens can

have friendships that are long term, they often move from one clique to another, and they might develop new friendships and lose others.

Peers tend to choose those who are similar to themselves. Whether it is gender, age, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, or interests, teens tend to

gravitate towards those who are more similar to them.

Peer friendships can be a healthy venue for positive youth development. Peer friendships can be a safe place for youth to explore their identity, learn about

social norms, and practice their autonomy. Healthy friendships provide youth with social support for dealing with some of the challenges of adolescence, and can also provide youth with some of the most positive experiences during those years. Many teens report having some of the happiest and most fun moments with their peers, likely due to shared interests as well close relationships.

37

2.11 Effective Strategies for Coping with Peer Pressure
While the point has been made here that peer influence and peer pressure do not necessarily have to be negative, peer pressure can lead youth towards unhealthy and unsafe behaviors. To minimize the negative effects of peer pressure, youth, parents, school and community leaders must come together to establish workable and effective strategies to guide teen behavior and to support their transition from children to mature, responsible adults. Here are several strategies to consider (partly based on Brown, 1990):

2.11.1Nurture teens’ abilities and self-esteem so that they are equipped to foster positive peer relationships and deflect negative pressures.
Adolescents with positive self-concept and self-worth will be less likely to be easily swayed to follow others’ negative influences. It is essential that these aspects of positive development should be encouraged in youth.

2.11.2

Encourage positive relationships between significant

adults and teens.
Parents, teachers, school counselors, other relatives and professionals should try to have constructive and positive relationships with teens. These can serve as good models for healthy relationships, and can be a venue through which the teens can feel valued and where they can develop positive views about themselves. Youth should know that they can go to these caring adults for help or advice about their peer relationships.

38

2.11.3 Encourage diverse relationships.
Parents, teachers, community leaders, and clergy can model appreciation for ethnic, gender, socioeconomic status, religious, and other differences and support crossgroup friendships. Schools and youth organizations can assist by encouraging youth from diverse backgrounds to work and play together.

2.11.4 Support parent education programs for families with teenagers.
Parents need to be better informed about the dynamics of adolescent peer groups and the demands and expectations teenagers face in peer relationships. Information is available through various sources including books, some parenting magazines, and other publications such as this one. Keep your eye out for programs particularly targeted towards families and teen issues that might be available. Seeking information is not a sign of weakness, and showing interest in these issues might actually show your teens that you are concerned about them.

2.11.5 Equip youth with the skills necessary to resist negative behaviors, as well as to make good decisions.
Teens will inevitably be confronted with situations where they will have to make a decision whether or not to engage in certain behaviors, whether to give in to peer pressure, and also to make other difficult decisions. It is essential that youth are given the necessary skills to analyze the situation and make the appropriate decision. This includes helping youth develop the skills for ‘costs vs. benefits’ analysis — teaching them to look at both the negative and positive sides to making a decision. For instance, if being

39 pressured to smoke, the teen should be able to think about what the possible desired outcomes are (e.g., peer acceptance, looking “cool,” feeling excitement about trying something new) with the possible undesirable outcomes (e.g., becoming hooked, the health issues, smelling bad, the financial costs).

2.11.6 Teaching youth exit strategies or ways to say ‘no’ to negative pressures.
It is best to try to deal with peer pressure before it even happens. Talk to youth about potential scenarios, and think through strategies together on how to deal with those scenarios if they arise. This could be done by discussing hypothetical scenarios or even role-playing. It is helpful to think about these things ahead of time rather than dealing with situations as they occur or trying to recover after they happen.

2.11.7

Review of Related Research Articles:

 Epple, Newlon, and Romano (2002) states grouping students in classrooms by ability can likewise have significant impacts on student achievement, depending on the magnitude of peer influences.

(Epple, Elizabeth Newlon, and Richard Romano. 2002. “Ability Tracking, School Competition and the Distribution of Educational Benefits.” 83 Economics, 1-48.)

Journal of Public

40

 Figlio (2005) focuses on the effects of peer behaviour on student outcomes. Employing data from a single large Florida school district, he estimates the impact of peer disruptive behaviour on individual student behaviour and test scores. He controls for student heterogeneity via student fixed effects, but does not include time-varying student covariates or teacher controls. He employs a novel identification strategy; the fraction of boys with female-sounding names in a classroom is used as an instrument for peer behaviour. He finds that peer disruptive behaviour is associated with both an increased likelihood that a student is suspended and a reduction in achievement test scores.

(Figlio. 2005. “Boys Named Sue: Disruptive Children and Their Peers.” NBER working paper no.11277. Cambridge, MA: NBER.)

 Betts and Zau (2004) estimate classroom-level effects on standardized test-score gains in San Diego, controlling for student fixed effects and for several observed teacher characteristics, but they do not employ teacher fixed effects. They also limit their tests to elementary school students, on the grounds that only elementary students spend most of their time in a single classroom and therefore, presumably, are more susceptible to the influence of classroom peers than are students who move across classrooms throughout the day.

41

(Betts, and Andrew Zau. 2004. “Peer Groups and Academic Achievement: Panel Evidence from Administrative Data.” unpublished manuscript)

 Stinebrickner and Stinebrickner (2001) found “compelling evidence of peer effects in first semester grades” for women, but not men, at Berea College (p. 8). They speculated that women may be more accepting of roommates with different backgrounds.

(Stinebrickner, R., & Stinebrickner, T. (2001) Peer effects among students from disadvantaged backgrounds. Mimeo)

 Zimmerman (1999, 2001) found there were somewhat contradictory to Goethe results but again it proved that students performance depends on number of different factors, it says that weak peers might reduce the grades of middling or strong students.

 Sacerdote’s (2000) study with Dartmouth students found that roommates in the top 25% on academic indices lift one’s own grades, and no gender differences were reported.

42 (Sacerdote, B. (2000) Peer effects with random room assignment: results for Dartmouth roommates. NBER working paper no. 7469)

 Devadoss and Foltz (1996) report significant positive effects of class attendance on student performance from a survey-based analysis of students, across for US universities. Kirby, A and B. McElroy (2003), The Effect of Attendance on Grade for First Year Economics Student in University College Cork, The Economic and Social Review, 34, 311-326.

(Devadoss, S. and Foltz, J. (1996), “Evaluation of factors influencing student class attendance and performance”, American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 78, 499-507)

 Romer (1993) presented quantitative evidence on absenteeism and performance in economics courses at 3 universities in the US. Romer reported absenteeism to be ‘rampant’, with an overall absence rate of about one-third. Romer also reported evidence consistent with the hypothesis that absence affects student performance adversely, while acknowledging that no causal effect had been demonstrated given the endogenous nature of the relationship between attendance and performance.

43 (Romer, D. (1993) “Do students go to class? Should they?” Journal of Economic Perspectives, 7,167-174)

 Martins and Walker (2006) find no significant effects of class attendance on performance for students in the Economics Department at a leading UK University, and also find no significant effects of smaller classes on improved performance.

(Martins, P. and Walker, I. (2006) “Student achievement and education production: a case study of the effect of class attendance”)

 Tony Schwartz (1999) clarifies the strongest correlation that exists to future success is family income. This should come as no surprise. Children who grow up in more affluent or highly educated families enjoy advantages that begin at birth with a more intellectually stimulating environment. They go on to attend better schools, enjoy more cultural opportunities and travel more widely. Their parents also have the educational background and resources to help them along the way and to expose them to a culture of high expectations and high achievement. (Tony Schwartz (1990, January 10), What really Mattters, The New York Times, p.30)

44  Zajonc (1976) describes family background variables are investment in human capital. Zajonc found that more educated parents would transfer some of their skills and knowledge to their children.

(Zajonc, R. B., "Family Configuration and Intelligence," Science, 2 April 1976, 227-236)

 Schmidt (1983) measured the impact of time commitments by students to various course activities on the students' performance in the given class. The most valuable and important time commitment in a course was the time actually spent in the classroom. That time was the most important determinant of student success and each unit of time in the class itself provided, among all the class related activities, the greatest improvement in student performance. The next most important time spent on a class was any time spent in discussion sections that accompanied the lectures. Third in importance was any time spent studying outside of class preparing for the class session itself.

(Robert M. Schmidt, "Who Maximizes What? A Study in Student Time Allocation" American Economic Review, May, 1983, pp. 23-2)

 Kirby and McElroy (2003) clarifies that attending lectures yields a positive and significant impact on exam performance. They found that the

45 average effect of absences on performance is modest, but that there are substantial adverse effects when absence exceeds certain threshold levels.

(Kirby, A and B. McElroy (2003), The Effect of Attendance on Grade for First Year Economics Student in University College Cork, The Economic and Social Review, 34, 311-326.)

 Park and Kerr (1990) found the role of class attendance was statistically significant in explaining student grades in those classes. (Kang H. Park and Peter M. Kerr, “Determinants of Academic Performance: A Multinomial Logit Approach” The Journal Of Ecnomic Education,Spring1990,pp.101-111)

Chapter III 3 Methodology and Procedure
This unit present the method and procedure which was used to conduct the study.

46

3.1 Population of the study:
For this study population consisted of Government Girls High School Khyaban-e-Sirsyed Rawalpindi.

3.2 Sample of the study:
Keeping in view the resources in terms of time and money available with the researcher the following were taken as sample;

Seventy students of 9th and 10th class of Government Girls High School Khyaban-e-Sirsyed Rawalpindi were selected by using technique.. convenient sampling

3.3 Research instrument:
The instrument used to collect the data was questionnaire. A set of questionnaire containing 30 questions was developed keeping in view the objectives

47 of the study. The questionnaire was checked by Miss Zarina to asses its validity before it was distributed.

3.4 Data collection:
The researcher personally visited the target area. The questionnaire was filled by the students in class.

3.5 Data Analysis:
In order to make the study meaningful, the collected data was presented in the tabular form. Percentage was calculated to analyze the data the whole data was analyzed and interpreted in the light of the objectives of the study.

Chapter IV 4 Analysis and Interpretation of Data

48 This chapter deals with presentation, analysis and interpretation of data.

4.1 Presentation & Analysis of the Questionnaire for Students:

4.1.1 Table 1: Friendship plays a part in studies
Agree Responses Percentage 65 92.857 Undecided 4 5.714 Disagree 1 1.429 Total 70 70

Table no 1 shows that most 92.857% students were agreed, 5.714% students undecided and 1.429% were not agreed that friendship plays a part.

4.1.2 Table 2: Friendship plays a key role in studies

49 Agree Responses Percentage 15 21.429 Undecided 17 24.286 Disagree 38 54.286 Total 70 70

Table no 2 shows that most 54.286 % students were not agreed, 21.429% were agreed and 24.286 % students undecided that friendship plays a key role in studies.

4.1.3 Table3: You give value to your friend’s suggestions

50

Agree Responses Percentage 57 81.429

Undecided 3 4.286

Disagree 10 14.286

Total 70 70

Table no 3 shows that most 81.429 % students

give value , 14.286 %

students not give value to their friend’s suggestions and 4.286 % students undecided that they give value or not.

51

4.1.4 Table 4: You feel that group study is more effective than individual study

Agree Responses Percentage 48 68.571

Undecided 6 8.571

Disagree 16 22.857

Total 70 70

Table no 4 shows that most 68.571% students were agreed,

22.857%

students were not agreed and 8.571% students undecided that group study is more effective than individual study.

52

4.1.5 Table 5: Group projects are more creative than individual work

Agree Responses Percentage 65 92.857

Undecided 3 4.286

Disagree 2 2.857

Total 70 70

Table no 5 shows that most 92.857 % students were agreed, 2.857 % students were not agreed and 4.286 % students undecided that group projects are more creative than individual work or not.

53

4.1.6 Table 6: You Gossip more when you are in group study.

Agree Responses Percentage 58 82.857

Undecided 6 8.571

Disagree 6 8.571

Total 70 70

Table no 6 shows that most 82.857 % students were agreed,

8.571 %

students were not agreed and 8.571 % students undecided that they gossip more or not when they are in group study.

54

4.1.7 Table 7: You generate more ideas in group study rather than in individual study

Agree Responses Percentage 56 80

Undecided 8 11.429

Disagree 6 8.571

Total 70 70

Table no 7 shows that most 80% students were agreed, 8.571% students were not agreed and 11.429% students undecided that they generate more ideas in group study rather than in individual study or not.

55

4.1.8 Table 8: You think problem can solve more easily in group study

Agree Responses Percentage 46 65.714

Undecided 4 5.714

Disagree 20 28.571

Total 70 70

Table no 8 shows that most 65.714%

students were agreed, 28.571%

students were not agreed and 5.714% students undecided that they think problem can solve more easily in group study or not.

56

4.1.9 Table 9: You get bore during group study

Agree Responses Percentage 29 41.429

Undecided 4 5.714

Disagree 37 52.857

Total 70 70

Table no 9 shows that most students 52.857 % students were not agreed, 41.429% students were agreed and 5.714 % students undecided that they get bore

during group study or not.

57

4.1.10

Table 10: You believe that problem can solve more easily in

group study

Agree Responses Percentage 50 71.429

Undecided 3 4.286

Disagree 17 24.286

Total 70 70

Table no 10 shows that most 71.429 % students were agreed, 4.286 % students were not agreed and 4.286 % students undecided that they believe that problem can solve more easily in group study or not.

58

4.1.11

Table 11: You believe that your skill set can improve more in

group studies

Agree Responses Percentage 64 91.429

Undecided 1 1.429

Disagree 5 7.143

Total 70 70

Table no 11 shows that most 91.429 % students were agreed, 7.143 % students were not agreed and 1.429 % students undecided that skill set can

improve more in group studies or not.

59

4.1.12

Table 12: You believe the consumption of time is less in a

group study is time saving.

Agree Responses Percentage 18 25.714

Undecided 12 17.143

Disagree 40 57.143

Total 70 70

Table no 12 shows that 25.714% students were agreed, 57.143 % students were not agreed and 17.143% students undecided that group study is time saving or not.

60

4.1.13

Table 13: You have the habit of make friends only those

students who are only good in studies.

Agree Responses Percentage 8 11.429

Undecided 8 11.429

Disagree 54 77.143

Total 70 70

Table no 13 shows that the most 77.143% students were not agreed, 11.429 % students were agreed and 11.429% students undecided that they have the habit of make friends only those students who are good in studies

61

4.1.14

Table 14: You believe that interest in studies may develop

more on seeing your friend effort on studies

Agree Responses Percentage 58 82.857

Undecided 1 1.429

Disagree 11 15.714

Total 70 70

Table no 14 shows that most 82.857% students were agreed,

15.714%

students were not agreed that interest may develop more on seeing friend efforts on studies and 1.429% students undecided that interest may develop or not on seeing friend effort on studies.

62

4.1.15

Table 15: You are more interested in knowing about your

friend’s completion of work in studies.

Agree Responses Percentage 60 85.714

Undecided 4 5.714

Disagree 6 8.571

Total 70 70

Table no 15 shows that most 85.741% students were agreed,

8.571 %

students were not agreed that they are more interested in knowing about their friend’s completion of work in studies and 5.714% students undecided.

63

4.1.16

Table 16: You share your books, ideas and study material

with your friends.

Agree Responses Percentage 51 72.857

Undecided 1 1.429

Disagree 18 25.714

Total 70 70

Table no 16 shows that most 72.857% students were agreed, 25.714% students were not agreed that they share books, ideas and study material with their friends and 1.429% students undecided that they share ideas, books and materials or not.

64

4.1.17

Table 17: You will help your friend incase if he/she is not

good in studies

Agree Responses Percentage 65 92.857

Undecided 2 2.857

Disagree 3 4.286

Total 70 70

Table no 17 shows that most 92.857% students were agreed,

4.286%

students were not agreed and 2.857% students were undecided that they will help their friend incase if they were not good in studies.

65

4.1.18

Table 18: You will help your friend incase if you find your

friend finding difficulty in an examination.

Agree Responses Percentage 56 80

Undecided 5 7.143

Disagree 9 12.857

Total 70 70

Table no 18 shows that most 80% students were agreed, 12.857% students were not agreed and 7.143% students were undecided that they will help their friend incase if they found friend finding difficulty in an examination.

66

4.1.19

Table 19: You will remain quite if you find your friend

bunking the class

Agree Responses Percentage 40 57.143

Undecided 1 1.429

Disagree 29 41.429

Total 70 70

Table no 19 shows that most 57.143% students were agreed, 141.429% students were not agreed that they will remain quite if found friend bunking the class and 1.429 % students were undecided.

67

4.1.20 class

Table 20: You will forbid your friend incase if he/she bunks the

Agree Responses Percentage 46 65.714

Undecided 3 4.286

Disagree 21 30

Total 70 70

Table no 20 shows that most 65.714% students were agreed, 30 %students were not agreed that they will forbid their friend incase if he/she bunks the class and 4.286% students undecided that they will forbid their friend or not.

68

4.1.21

Table 21: You will warn your friends incase if her attitude is not

serious in class (laughing, playing, mischievous etc)

Agree Responses Percentage 33 47.143

Undecided 5 7.143

Disagree 32 45.714

Total 70 70

Table no 21 shows that most 47.143% students were agreed, 45.714% students were not agreed that they will warn their friends incase if their attitude is not and 7.143% students are undecided.

69

Table 22: You believe that helping friends in exams by copying and passing is good

Agree Responses Percentage 21 30

Undecided 6 8.571

Disagree 43 61.429

Total 70 70

Table no 22 shows that 30% students were agreed, 61.429% students were not agreed and 8.571% students undecided that helping friends in exams by copying and passing is good.

70

4.1.22

Table 23: You feel proud if your friend tops the Rank in

studies

Agree Responses Percentage 57 81.429

Undecided 0 0

Disagree 13 18.571

Total 70 70

Table no 23 shows that most 81.429% students were agreed,

571%

students were not agreed and 0% students were undecided that they feel proud if their friend tops the rank in studies

71

4.1.23

Table 24: You will congratulate with heart your best friend

who tried her best to push you back in this exam

Agree Responses Percentage 52 74.286

Undecided 5 7.143

Disagree 13 18.571

Total 70 70

Table no 24 shows that most 74.286% students were agreed,

18.571%

students were not agreed and 7.143% students are undecided that they will congratulate with heart their best friend who tried their best to push you back in this exam.

72

4.1.24

Table 25: You feel selfish and envy at your friend’s success

in studies

Agree Responses Percentage 27 38.571

Undecided 6 8.571

Disagree 37 52.857

Total 70 70

Table no 25 shows that most 52.857% students were not agreed, 38.571% students were agreed and 8.571% students undecided that they feel selfish and

envoy at their friend’s success in studies.

73

Table 26:

You feel happy at your friend’s success in studies

Agree Responses Percentage 59 84.286

Undecided 1 1.429

Disagree 10 14.286

Total 70 70

Table no 26 shows that most 84.286% students were agreed, 14.286 % students were not agreed studies and 1.429% students undecided happy at their friend’s success. that they feel

74

Table 27: You want someone at your academic level to compete with you in Class

Agree Responses Percentage 43 61.429

Undecided 7 10

Disagree 20 28.571

Total 70 70

Table no 27 shows that most 61.429% students were agreed, 28.571% students were not agreed and 10% students undecided that they want someone at their academic level to compete them in Class.

75

4.1.25

Table 28: Competition among your friends affects your

personal relationship

Agree Responses Percentage 27 38.571

Undecided 5 7.143

Disagree 38 54.286

Total 70 70

Table no 28 shows that most 54.286% students were not agreed, 38.571% students were agreed and 7.143% students undecided that competition among friends can affect personal relationships.

76

4.1.26

Table 29: You think friends can be a leg pusher in studies

Agree Responses Percentage 29 41.429

Undecided 8 11.429

Disagree 33 47.143

Total 70 70

Table no 29 shows that most 47.143% students were not agreed, 41.429% students were agreed and 11.429% students undecided that friends can be a leg pusher in studies.

77

4.1.27

Table 30: You would like to be have a sole of KING in

your class

Agree Responses Percentage 41 58.571

Undecided 3 4.286

Disagree 26 37.143

Total 70 70

Table no 30 shows that most 58.571% students were agreed, 37.143% students were not agreed and 4.286% students undecided that they would like to be have a sole of KING in their class.

78

Chapter V

Summary, Findings, Conclusion & Recommendations

79

Summary
The study was designed to measure the effects of peer group in their

Academic Achievement. In order to achieve the objectives of the study survey method was employed.

For this study population consisted of Government Khyaban-e-Sirsyed study. Rawalpindi. A

Girls

High

School

sample of 70 students was selected for the

The data was collected through questionnaire. Questionnaire was distributed personally from the students.

Data collected was analyzed and interpreted. Percentage was calculated for this purpose.

80

Findings

Question no 1 shows

that most 92.857% students were agreed and

1.429%

were not agreed that friendship plays a part in studies.

Question no 2 shows that most 54.286 % students were not agreed and 21.429% were agreed that friendship plays a key role in studies .

Question no 3 shows that most 81.429 % students give value and 14.286 % students not give value to their friend’s suggestions.

Question no 4 shows that most 68.571% students were agreed and 22.857% students were not agreed that group study is more effective.

Question no 5 shows that most 92.857 % students were agreed and 2.857 % students were not agreed that group projects are more creative than individual work.

81 • Question no 6 shows that most 82.857 % students were agreed and 8.571 % students were not agreed that they gossip more when they are in group study.

Question no 7 shows that most 80% students were agreed and

8.571%

students were not agreed that they generate more ideas in group study rather than in individual study.

Question no 8 shows that most 65.714% students were agreed and 28.571% students were not agreed that they think problem can solve more easily in group study.

Question no 9 shows that most students 52.857 % students were not agreed and 41.429% students were agreed that they get bore during group study

Question no 10 shows that most 71.429 % students were agreed and 4.286 % students were not agreed that problem can solve more easily in group study.

Question no 11 shows that most 91.429 % students were agreed and 7.143 % students were not agreed that skill set can improve more in group studies.

82

Question no 12 shows that 25.714% students were agreed and 57.143 % students were not agreed that group study is time saving.

Question no 13 shows that the most 77.143% students were not agreed and 11.429 % students were agreed that they have the habit of make friends only those students who are good in studies.

Question no 14 shows that most 82.857% students were agreed and 15.714% students were not agreed that interest may develop more on seeing friend efforts on studies.

Question no 15 shows that most 85.741% students were agreed and 8.571 % students were not agreed that they are more interested in knowing about their friend’s completion of work in studies.

Question no 16 shows that most 72.857% students were agreed and 25.714% students were not agreed that they share books, ideas and study material with their friends.

Question no 17 shows that most 92.857% students were agreed

and 4.286%

students were not agreed that they will help their friend incase if they are not good in studies.

83

Question no 18 shows that most 80% students were agreed

and 12.857%

students were not agreed that they will help their friend incase if they found friend finding difficulty in an examination.

Question no 19 shows that most 57.143% students were agreed

and 141.429%

students were not agreed that they will remain quite if found friend bunking the class .

Question no 20 shows that most 65.714% students were agreed

and 30

%students were not agreed that they will forbid their friend incase if he/she bunks the class.

Question no 21 shows that most 47.143% students were agreed

and 45.714%

students were not agreed that they will warn their friends incase if their attitude is not serious in class.

Question no 22 shows that (30%) students were agreed

and 61.429% students

were not agreed that helping friends in exams by copying and passing is good.

Question no 23 shows that most 81.429% students were agreed

and 571%

students were not agreed that they feel proud if their friend tops the rank in studies.

84

Question no 24 shows that most 74.286% students were agreed

and 18.571%

students were not agreed that they will congratulate with heart their best friend who tried their best to push you back in this exam.

Question no 25 shows that most (52.857%) students were not agreed and 38.571% students were agreed that they feel selfish and envoy at their

friend’s success in studies. • Question no 26 shows that most (84.286%) students were agreed and 14.286 % students were not agreed studies that they feel happy at their friend’s success in

Question no 27 shows that most (61.429%) students were agreed and 28.571% students were not agreed that they want someone at their academic level to compete them in Class.

Question no 28 shows that most 54.286% students were not agreed and 38.571% students were agreed that competition among friends can affect personal relationships.

Question no 29 shows that most 47.143% students were not agreed and 41.429% students were agree that friends can be a leg pusher in studies.

85 • Question no 30 shows that most 58.571% students were agreed and 37.143% students were not agreed that they would like to be have a sole of KING in their class.

86

Conclusions:
1) The findings show that most of the respondents were agreed that friendship plays a part in studies but they don’t believe that it plays a key role in studies.

2) Based on findings, majority suggestions.

of the students give value to their friend’s

3) Majority of the respondents were agreed that group study is more effective than individual study. Because group projects are more creative and it generates more ideas. But they think that students gossip more in group study.

4) The study has shown that most of the students were agreed that problem can solve more easily in group study and they don’t get bore during group study.

5) Most of the students were agreed that skill set can improve more in group studies.

87 6) The findings show that most of the respondents were not agreed that the consumption of time is less in a group study is time saving.

7) Based on findings, majority of the students don’t have the habit of make friends only those students who are only good in studies.

8) Most of the students were

agreed

that interest in studies may develop and they take interest in

more on seeing your friend effort on studies

knowing about their friend’s completion of work in studies.

9) From the finding found that majority

of the students share their books,

ideas and study material with their friends. They help their friend if their friend find any difficulty in studies and examination.

10) Most of the students remain quite when their friend bunking the class but sometimes students forbid their friend and also warn incase if their

friend’s attitude is not serious during class.

11) Majority of the students was disagreed that helping friends in exam by copying and passing is good.

12) Most of the students congratulate with heart their best friend who tried her best to push her back in exam.

88 13) From the finding found that majority of the students feel proud if their friend tops the rank in studies. They don’t feel envoy and selfish at their friend success in studies.

14) The study shown that the most of the students want someone compete them at their academic level.

15) Majority of the students was disagreed that competition among their friends affect their personal relationship.

16) The findings show that most of the respondents was disagreed that friends can be a leg pusher in studies.

17) Based on findings, majority of the students like to have a sole king in their class.

89

Recommendations

Based on the conclusion I recommend the following; 1) The student should choose the right peers in order to improve their

lifestyle, attitudes and so on. The student are encourage analyze the attitudes of their friends before they become close. The positive peers can influence them to be better person.

2) Student should choose the right peers. It is because the positive peer can influenced and motivated them to be a good person

3) Teachers should arrange groups of students in class in such a way that it should comprise of bright and dull students. In this way dull students will be able to get benefit from the bright students and it will be add to their academic acumen.

4) Parents should interact with

their children with love, kindness, respect,

consistency, time, boundaries and encouragement. They should take interest in their child’s activities. This allows parents to know their child’s friends and to monitor behavior , which is crucial in keeping children out of trouble.

90

Bibliography

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file:///F:/related%20literature%20of%20pper.htm file:///F:/report%20writing/Peer%20Relations%20and%20Learning%20-%20Peer %20Relationships,%20Learning%20Motivation%20and%20Relationships, %20Classroom%20Dynamics.htm

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http://www.eycb.coe.int/domino/links_05.html file:///F:/zip%20of%20peers/Peer%20Effects%20–%20FREE%20Peer%20Effects %20information%20_%20Encyclopedia.com_%20Find%20Peer%20Effects %20research.html

97 • http://www.buzzle.com/articles/negative-and-positive-effects-of-peerpressure.html • http://www.buzzle.com/chapters/home-and-lifestyle_friendships-and-familialrelationships.asp

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6VB94X315K32&_user=10&_coverDate=08/25/2009&_rdoc=1&_fmt=high&_orig=search&_so rt=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0& _userid=10&md5=1afaae4337afe88782d8be3ca854f28c

98

Appendixes

99

Permission Letter:

The Principal, Govt Girls High School Khyaban-e-Sirsyed Rawalpindi. Subject: PERMISSION LETTER for the Administration of Research Questionnaire.

Dear Ma’am, I have to conduct a study on the “Peer Group Effects on their Academic

Achievement”. This undertaking is part of the requirements for the completion of the subject on Research Project. The respondents of this study are the students of your school. I would like to give the questionnaire to those who will be randomly chosen to be the respondents of the research. In connection with this, I would like to request your approval to allow me to schedule the administration of the research. Looking forward for your much needed approval on this request. Sincerely, Aneela Majeed The researcher

Date___________

Signature___________

100

Covering Letter:

Dear……………,

I have the honor to request your participation in the study presently conducted by the researcher in Govt Girls High School Khyaban-e-Sirsyed Rawalpindi.

The study wants to know the effects of your friendship on your academic performance. Its respondents are the students of your school. Such study is a requirement for the completion of the subject on Research Project.

I’m therefore requesting you to give this questionnaire your utmost attention. Rest assured that your responses here will only be used for the study and therefore are confidential from other persons not related in any way to the study.

Thank you very much. Sincerely, Aneela Majeed The researcher

Date___________

Signature___________

101

Respondents List

Sr # 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16)

Students Names Iqra Majeed Nadia Kousar Asma khan Sajda Ali Kainat Majeed Iqra ishaq Rida Bibi Rimsha Sabeen Maimona Ijaz Sidra Shezadi Meehreen Maria Parveen Fatima Batool Hira Naz Almas Mirza Saima Bibi

Classes 9th 9th 9th 9th 9th 9th 9th 9th 9th 9th 9th 9th 9th 9th 9th 9th

Age 14 14 15 14 15 14 14 14 15 15 14 15 15 15 15 14

102 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) Saira Saqeeq Sania Zareen Rida Asghar Habiba Ayesha Nazeer Saba Niaz Sitara Rafeeq Asma khan Lubna khan Aroosa Nasir Izat Begum Samra Noor Shaheen Bibi Quratulain Ayesha Binarus Arooj Ali Sana Gull Anum Ishaq Zaiba Banarus Amber Ali khan Hasiba Bibi Kiran khursheed 9th 9th 9th 9th 9th 9th 9th 9th 9th 9th 9th 9th 9th 9th 9th 9th 9th 9th 9th 9th 9th 9th 15 15 15 15 15 14 15 14 15 17 16 16 15 15 16 14 14 14 14 15 14 14

103 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) Faiza Abbasi Murrium butt Sapna khan Sadaf Sayyab Ayesha Ghazal Seher khan Yusra Saurwar Saba Amjad Shaista Bibi Shabeera Bibi Kinza Ehsan Maria Ajmal Saima khan Ambreen Ayub Qalsoom Begum Mehrunisa Mehmoona Rafeeq Amina Waqar Saba Amjad Binesh Sadeeq Huma Parvez Khansa Tariq 9th 9th 10th 10th 10th 10th 10th 10th 10th 10th 10th 10th 10th 10th 10th 10th 10th 10th 10th 10th 10th 10th 14 15 15 15 15 15 16 16 16 18 15 16 18 15 17 17 17 16 16 16 17 17

104 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) 67) 68) 69) 70) Hina kalsoom Maria Sheikh Ayesha Arshad Iram khan Murrium Amina Butt Ayesha Irshad Banish Naseer Madiha Saleem Fariha khanam 10th 10th 10th 10th 10th 10th 10th 10th 10th 10th 17 15 15 16 17 16 16 16 16 15

105

Survey Questionnaire
Name: ______________ Age: ______________ Class: _____________ Date: _____________

Direction: Please put check (  on the space that corresponds to what you are actually ) doing, thinking, and feeling regarding the statement. Rest assured that your answers will be treated in strictest and will be used only for this study.

• • •

Agree Undecided Disagree

S# 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Questions Friendship plays a part in studies Friendship play a key role in studies You give value to your friends suggestions You feel that group study is more effective than individual study Group projects are more creative than individual work You Gossip more when you are in group study You generate more ideas in group study rather than in individual study

Agree

Undecided

Disagree

106 8. 9. You think problem can solve more easily in group study You get bore during group study

10 You believe that problem can solve more easily . in group study 11 You believe that your skill set can improve . more in group studies 12 You believe the consumption of time is less in . a group study is time saving 13 You have the habit of make friends only those . students who are only good in studies 14 You believe that interest in studies may . develop more on seeing your friend effort on studies 15 You are more Interested in knowing about your . friends completion of work in studies 16 You share your books, ideas and study material . with your friends. 17 You will help your friend incase if he/she is . not good in studies 18 You will help your friend incase if you find . your friend finding difficulty in an examination 19 You will remain quite if you find your friend . bunking the class 20 You will forbid your friend incase if he/she . bunks the class 21 You will warn your friends incase if her . attitude is not serious in class (laughing, playing, mischievous etc) 22 You believe that helping friends in exams by . copying and passing is good 23 You feel proud if your friend tops the Rank in . studies

107 24 You will congratulate with heart your best . friend who tried her best to push you back in this exam 25 You feel selfish and envy at your friend’s . success in studies 26 You feel happy at your friend’s success in . studies 27 You want someone at your academic level to . compete with you in Class 28 Competition among your friends affect your . personal relationship 29 You think friends can be a leg pusher in . studies 30 You would like to be have a role of KING in . your class

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