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Chapter 9 Bloodborne Pathogens, Universal Precautions, and Wound Care

CHAPTER 9
Bloodborne Pathogens, Universal
Precautions, and Wound Care
OVERVIEW
As a health care provider, it is always important to maintain an environment that
is as clean as possible. Health care providers also need to stay knowledgeable
about bloodborne pathogens and how to prevent their transmission.
HBV, HCV, and HIV are bloodborne pathogens to which individuals are at risk of
being exposed. OSHA has set guidelines for exposure, how to reduce the risk of
transmission, and what steps to take if exposed.

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

After reading Chapter 9, the student should be able to:


Explain what bloodborne pathogens are and how they can infect health care
providers.
Describe the transmission, signs, symptoms, and treatment of the hepatitis B
virus (HBV).
Describe the transmission, signs, symptoms, and treatment of the hepatitis C
virus (HCV).
Describe the transmission, signs, symptoms, and treatment of the human
immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
Describe ways to reduce the risk of HIV infection.
Demonstrate proper glove removal.
Identify universal precautions as mandated by the Occupational Safety and
Health Administration (OSHA)
Describe the different types of skin wounds.
Describe the signs and symptoms of a wound infection.
Describe how to initially cleanse a wound and apply an appropriate dressing.

KEY TERMINOLOGY

Abrasion Skin is scraped against a rough surface, removing the top layer of
skin and exposing numerous blood capillaries
AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) - A disease that acts on the
immune system and makes an individual susceptible to the smallest of infections
Avulsion Skin is torn from the body
Bloodborne pathogens - Microorganisms that can cause disease that are present
in blood and other bodily fluids
Disinfectants Cleaning solutions that contain agents which inactivate viruses.
This solution should be used to clean tables, floors, and work areas.
HBV (hepatitis B virus) - A virus that is transmitted through blood and other
bodily fluids that causes inflammation of the liver.
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2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any
manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

Chapter 9 Bloodborne Pathogens, Universal Precautions, and Wound Care

HCV (hepatitis C virus) A virus that causes acute and chronic liver disease,
which is transmitted by contact with blood of an infected person.
HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) - A virus that is transmitted through blood
and other bodily fluids that leads to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.
Incision A wound with smooth edges
Laceration A wound with a jagged edge appearance
OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration) - The organization
responsible for health and safety in the workplace
Puncture Wound Direct penetration of the tissues by a pointed object
Retrovirus - A virus that enters a host cell and changes its RNA to a proviral DNA
replica
Sharps A sharp object such as a needle, razor blade, or scalpel
Tetanus A bacterial infection usually related to puncture wounds that cause
fever and convulsions
Virus - A submicroscopic parasitic organism that is dependent on the nutrients
within cells

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

What is HIV and how does it lead to AIDS?


What are the implications for HIV testing?
What are the signs and symptoms of HIV and AIDS?
What are the signs and symptoms of HBV?
What are the signs and symptoms of HCV?
Discuss the preventative measures taken to inhibit the transmission of HIV and
HBV.
7. What does OSHA require of employers?
8. What are the signs and symptoms of an infected wound?
9. Discuss the difference in types of wounds and how to initially treat them.

CLASS ACTIVITIES
1. Have a representative from OSHA come to speak to the class.
2. Have a laboratory technician come in and discuss the various testing procedures
for HIV.
3. Practice initial treatment of skin wounds and application of dressings, along with
proper glove removal.

WORKSHEET ANSWERS
Matching
1.
2.
3.
4.

g
d
h
a

5.
6.
7.
8.

f
c
e
b

Short Answer
IM-9 | 2
2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any
manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

Chapter 9 Bloodborne Pathogens, Universal Precautions, and Wound Care

9. Pain, heat, redness, swelling, fever, pus formation in area and disordered
function
10.Punctures, severe lacerations, avulsions
11.12 hours
12.1 part bleach to 10 parts water

Listing
13.Use of mouthpieces
14.Showering immediately after practice or competition
15.Documentation of the exposure route
16.Identification of the source individual
17.Blood test
18.Counseling
19-21.Refer to Focus Box 9-1, Page 161
Essay
22-26.

Abrasion: Skin is scraped against a rough surface, wearing away the


top layer of skin exposing numerous blood capillaries
Avulsion: Skin is torn from the body
Laceration: A wound that has a jagged edge appearance
Incision: A wound that has smooth edges
Puncture wound: Direct penetration of tissues by a pointed object

27-36.See table 9-1, Page 161


HBV: Flu like symptoms, jaundice, direct and indirect contact, infectious
materials include blood, saliva, semen, feces, also food, water, and other
products.
HCV: Some have no signs or symptoms, those that are symptomatic may be
jaundiced and/or have mild right quadrant abdominal pain, loss of appetite,
nausea, fatigue, muscle or joint pain and dark urine. It is spread by contact
with blood of an infected person, sharing needles, body piercing, tattoos, and
razors/toothbrushes if blood is on them.
HIV: Fever, night sweats, weight loss, diarrhea, severe fatigue, swollen lymph
nodes, lesions; direct and indirect contact; infectious materials include blood,
semen, vaginal fluid.

IM-9 | 3
2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any
manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

Chapter 9 Bloodborne Pathogens, Universal Precautions, and Wound Care

NAME _________________
SECTION ______________

CHAPTER 9 WORKSHEET
Bloodborne Pathogens, Universal Precautions, and Wound Care
MATCHING: Match each item with the appropriate response.
______
______
______
______
______
______
______
______

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

HIV
HBV
HCV
Disinfectant
Bloodborne pathogens
OSHA
Tetanus
Sharps

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.

A cleaning solution that inactivates


a virus
Objects such as needles, scalpels,
and razor blades
The organization that is responsible
for safety in the workplace
A viral infection that causes
swelling, soreness, and loss of
normal liver function
A bacterial infection usually
associated with puncture wounds
that causes fever and convulsions
Include HBV, HIV, hepatitis C,
hepatitis D, and syphilis
A viral infection that has potential
to destroy the immune system
A viral infection that can be acute
or chronic and affects the liver.

SHORT ANSWER: Answer the following questions with a brief response.


9. What are the signs and symptoms associated with an infected wound?
10.Which three types of wounds should be referred to a physician?
11.Wounds that need suturing should be referred to a physician within __________
hours.
12.What is the ratio of bleach to water in a disinfectant?
LISTING: List two ways an athlete can prevent exposure to a bloodborne pathogen.
13.
14.
List the four things that are done when reporting an exposure.
15.
16.
17.
IM-9 | 4
2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any
manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

Chapter 9 Bloodborne Pathogens, Universal Precautions, and Wound Care

18.
List three ways to reduce the risk of HIV infection.
19.
20.
21.
ESSAY:
22.26.Describe the different types of skin wounds.

27-36.Describe the signs, symptoms, mode of transmission, and infectious


materials involved in HBV, HCV and HIV.

IM-9 | 5
2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any
manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.