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Introduction

First aid is the immediate care given to the injured or suddenly ill person. It is the temporary assistance that is
rendered until competent medical care, if required, arrives and takes over. This is a basic program that will
concentrate on the first five minutes of care. If your work or lifestyle places you in locations where the EMS
(Emergency Medical System) response time is questionable, we recommend that you participate in a first
responder program. Properly applied first aid can save lives, reduce recovery time, and quite possibly be the
difference between temporary disability or lifelong disability for the victim.

Good Samaritan Law Information


Good Samaritan laws will generally protect you from liability as long as you:
• act in good faith
• are neither reckless or negligent
• act as a prudent person would
• only provide care that is within the scope of your training
You must not abandon a victim once you have initiated care, and you cannot accept anything in return for your services. These
laws vary from state to state. Therefore, you should check with a legal service or with your local library to determine the extent to
which these laws protect you.

Emergency Response
An emergency is an unforeseen event or condition that requires a prompt response. In the event of an injury or
a medical emergency, a victim’s health and/or life may very well depend on your ability to react promptly, make
a quick decision and render an appropriate level of first aid care until emergency medical personnel arrives on
the scene. When you recognize an emergency, you must be prepared to take immediate action, preferably with
an overall plan in mind. This plan must be one that occurs automatically. It should consist of basic steps that will
help to establish control of the emergency scene. You must prepare yourself emotionally. Your own self-control
may help to reduce the level of stress at the emergency scene. Experience has led to the development of a
three-step model for emergency response; 1) Assess, 2) Alert, 3) Attend. Whenever you recognize an
emergency you should:
Assess the emergency scene for safety. Is it safe to approach victim(s)? If scene is not safe, alert
EMS for help. Look for additional bystanders for assistance and make them aware of any existing danger. If you
can approach, assess the victim(s) for life threatening conditions. Assess victims for: Breathing, Circulation,
Hemorrhaging (severe bleeding)
Alert EMS for medical assistance if necessary.
Attend for the victim. Complete a head-to-toe exam and provide the necessary care until advanced
medical help (EMS) arrives and takes over.

You should call EMS if the patient:


• Is or becomes unconscious Respiratory Distress Signals
• Has chest pain or pressure • breathing irregularly
• Has difficulty breathing • wheezing, gurgling or making high-pitched noises
• Is bleeding severely
• Passing/vomiting blood when breathing
• Has slurred speech, severe headache, or seizures • short of breath, dizzy or lightheaded
• Has a head, neck, or back injury • suffering from chest pain, or tingling sensation
• Has possible broken bones in extremities
• Has been poisoned
• Has pain or pressure in the abdomen • flushed, bluish in appearance or pale

Triage
If there is more than one victim at the scene of an emergency, the first aid provider(s) should prioritize or classify the injured
victims. This process is called triage. This process is the best way to help and provide care that will benefit the greatest
number of victims. The first aid provider(s) should classify the victim's priority status into one of four groups:
1. Critical- Life-threatening injuries or illnesses that may be corrected or treated successfully. (Ex., respiratory arrest
or obstruction, suspected heart attack, severe bleeding, unconscious or unresponsive, severe head injuries, open chest
wounds, suspected spinal injury, abdominal wounds, severe burns, severe shock)
Assessment time is critical. The first aider should assess victims in a rapid manner (less than one minute).
2. Serious - Non life-threatening injuries. (Ex., moderate blood loss, moderate burns, fractures, eye
injuries or other injuries or illnesses in which the victim appears to be stable.)
3. Walking Wounded - The victims who appear to be stable or can move to a specified site for
classification. This group should be identified first by announcing: "People who can walk, please move to (a specified area)
a safe location."
4. Fatally injured or dead - Victims who have exposed brain matter, have been decapitated, have
severed trunk or have been incinerated. Also victims who have been in cardiac arrest for over 20 minutes (with
the exception to those that are in cardiac arrest due to severe hypothermia or cold water drowning).

Moving a Victim
A victim should never be moved from the emergency scene unless remaining at that location is life-threatening. Ideally, EMS
should respond to the emergency scene. If life threatening factors do exist by remaining at the emergency scene, the first
aid provider should take extreme care not to cause further injury to the victim during the move. The spinal cord must be
protected from any twisting or unnecessary movement during this effort. If you must position victim face-up, you should roll
victim as a single unit protecting the head and neck from any twisting motion. If possible have another bystander assist you
when rolling a victim.

Head-to-toe Exam - Prior to this exam, the first aider should have already assessed
the scene for safety, for other bystanders that may provide assistance, and the victim for: Open
airway, breathing, circulation, hemorrhaging (severe, uncontrolled bleeding). NEXT...
1. Introduce yourself and ask for permission to provide care. Tell victim that you are going to check for any
possible injuries that may need immediate care. If victim is suffering from an impact injury, or you suspect head,
neck or spinal injury, provide head and neck support.
2. SAMPLE - Follow the SAMPLE chart. These questions are helpful victim assessment steps prior to
checking for the obvious problems
Standard Precautions
The original guidelines issued by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) identified a practice called standard precautions as
the means that should be employed to prevent infection via blood-borne pathogens such as HIV and HBV as well as other
known blood-borne pathogens. Simply stated, standard precautions means all blood and certain body fluids that
may contain blood should be considered potentially infectious, and precautions should be taken to protect yourself against
them. To reduce the risk of infection, you should:
• Always place a barrier between you and someone else's body fluids. (Latex gloves, eyewear, etc...)
• Cover all cuts, scrapes, hangnails, rashes, etc.
• Minimize the splashing of body fluids.
• Handle any sharp object with caution.
• Not handle food, cigarettes, make-up... when around body fluids.
• Ensure that body fluid spills are cleaned and the area is properly disinfected.
• Wash hands or any exposed area immediately and thoroughly after you provide care or clean a spill.
The first aid provider should always use body substance isolation techniques for first aid care and during the cleaning or
handling of body fluids or items that may contain body fluid. First aiders must avoid contact with all body fluids by using
barriers such as gloves, mask, gowns and/or any other protective devices. These items should be readily available at the
work site.

Bleeding Emergencies
It is estimated that the average adult's body holds approximately six quarts of blood. The rapid loss of one quart or more can
lead to shock and death. A child losing one pint of blood is in danger. Severe bleeding must be brought under control.
Classifications of bleeding:
Capillary bleeding- The capillaries are the smallest and most numerous blood vessels in the body. When a
cut or scrape opens capillaries, typically the bleeding will be slow. Your body should be able to control this
bleeding through it's own blood clotting ability. Rarely will you have a rapid or uncontrolled loss of blood in this
situation. First aid for minor wounds includes cleaning the wound with warm soap and water and covering the
wound with a bandage to prevent infection
Venous bleeding- This is usually the result of a deep cut that opens veins. This wound will release blood
that's on its way back to the heart. The blood from this wound will be dark red. It flows steadily. If left untreated,
a life threatening condition may result. You must control this bleeding. If bleeding persists after you provide
bleeding control first aid, stitches will be needed. Transport to medical center or call EMS.
Arterial bleeding- The opening of an artery results in the most serious type of bleeding. When blood is
released from an artery, it is oxygen rich and will look bright red. The blood will often spew forth in rhythmic
spurts that coincide with the heart's contractions. If a major artery is cut and not treated promptly, it is possible to
bleed to death in as little as one minute. Danger! Follow bleeding control sequence and activate the EMS
immediately!
First Aid
To control bleeding, first apply direct pressure to the bleeding area. This should be done while wearing gloves
and placing a dressing between you and the wound. If this dressing becomes soaked with blood, leave it and
place additional layers on top of it. Removing the dressing will disrupt any blood clotting which has occurred. If
the bleeding does not stop, the next step is to elevate the bleeding site above the heart. This will slow down the
blood flow to the wound. The final method for controlling bleeding is using a pressure point. Applying pressure
on an artery above the bleeding site will cut off the blood flow to the wound and will stop bleeding.

Internal Bleeding
Signs and symptoms First Aid Care
• Bleeding from body orifices • Care for shock. Shock will develop from internal
• Bruise or contusion bleeding
• Rapid pulse rate • Watch for vomiting
• Cool and/or moist skin • Apply ice pack to injured area
• Nausea and vomiting •Call EMS
• Painful, tender, or hard spot on
abdomen or chest
Penetrating Object
Do not remove a penetrating object. Bandage around object and stabilize it from movement. Keep victim from
moving or thrashing. Call EMS.

Severed Body Part


Follow Bleeding Control Sequence. Do not scrub body part. Do not place the part directly on ice. Wrap part in a
sterile or clean cloth. Place part and cloth in a sealed plastic bag. Place bag containing part on a bed of ice. Do
not bury in ice

Bites (Animal/Human)
Control bleeding. Clean area with soap and water for at least 5 minutes. Cover the wound with a sterile
dressing. Seek medical attention for any bites that break the skin. Human bites and animal bites may cause
infection or rabies. Rabies is a virus that spreads from one animal to another. It is usually spread through bites
or contact with the saliva or brain matter of an infected source. If someone suffers from an animal bite, it is best
to contact the animal's owner, or in the case of wildlife call EMS, police or animal control. If rabies has been
identified, or in the case of an uncaptured wild animal, the victim will need a series of shots (vaccination).

Infection
An injury that breaks the skin can lead to infection. Common symptoms are: Wound area becomes red, swollen and painful.
Wound may discharge pus. Red streaks may develop near wound. Victim may become ill and feverish. Seek medical
attention for persistent or severe infection. A tetanus immunization help the body fight tetanus bacterium.

Shock
Care for shock is standard treatment in all first aid related emergencies. Shock is a condition in which the body's
circulatory system fails to deliver an adequate supply of blood to all parts of the body. When the body's organs
do not receive an adequate supply of blood, they fail to function properly. In a minor injury, the body will
compensate and this situation will be resolved in a short time. In the case of more severe injuries, the body may
not be able to adjust. If the body cannot adjust or compensate for blood or other body fluid loss, shock will
occur. "First aiders" must learn to recognize the signs for shock. If these signs are present during an emergency,
appropriate care for shock must be provided.

Signs of Shock
• Anxiety, Restlessness or Irritability
• Altered Consciousness
• Rapid Pulse Rate
• Rapid Breathing
• Pale, Cool, Moist Skin
Lackluster Eyes, Dazed Look
• Weak, Helpless Feeling
• Thirst
• Nausea

Care For Shock


• Keep the victim lying down, if possible. Roll them on their side if they have not been injured.
• Try to make the victim comfortable.
• Speak in a comforting and reassuring tone to relieve stress or anxiety.
• Control any external bleeding (if necessary).
• Elevate legs 10-12 inches... unless you suspect spinal damage or broken bones.
• Cover victim to maintain body temperature. If possible, provide a barrier between victim and surface. Do
not move victim if you suspect spinal damage.
• Don't give victim anything to eat or drink. Provide victim with plenty of fresh air.
• If victim is nauseous or begins to vomit, place the victim on his/her left side.
• If EMS has not been called, make sure a call is made to activate the EMS.
Burns
There are more than 2 million burn injuries each year that require medical attention. At least 6,000 people die annually from
burn related injuries. The classifications for burns are:
1st degree/Superficial - Top layer or surface of skin is red and dry, usually painful.
2nd degree/Partial Thickness - Top layers of skin are burned. Skin will be red and have blisters. These burns are
painful.
3rd degree/Full Thickness - All layers of skin are destroyed as well as underlying structure (fat, muscle,
bones, and nerves). This type of burn may be quite painful or (Flame, Excessive Heat, Radiation or Sunburns)

First Aid Treatment for Burns


1st Degree Burn 2nd Degree Burn 3rd Degree Burn
1.Cool the burned area. 1.Cool the burned area. 1.Call EMS immediately. (Do
Immerse in cold water or Immerse in cold water or Not Apply Water!)
apply cold cloths. apply cold cloths.

2. Cover with clean dry 2. Cover with clean dry 2. Cover with clean dry
dressing. dressing. dressing.

3. Elevate burned limbs above 3. Elevate burned limbs above 3. Elevate burned limbs above
heart level. heart level. heart level.

Electrical Burn
An electrical burn may severely damage underlying tissue. The victim may have two wounds from an electrical burn
(entrance site/exit site). Never go near a victim who has been electrically burned unless you are sure that it is safe and that
the power source has been shut off.
General first aid care for an electrical burn:
1. Turn power source off.
2. Check breathing and circulation, provide appropriate cardiac care (if necessary).
3. Do not move victim unless necessary (Spinal trauma may result from an electrical burn).
4. Cover burn with dry sterile dressing.
5. Seek medical attention.

Chemical Burn
There are many chemicals that can cause a burn if they come into contact with skin or mucus membranes. (Ex:
Chlorine, battery acid, DEBT, etc.) Chemical burns require immediate care. Wash away chemical with flowing
water (gentle flow of water for at least 20 minutes). Avoid hard flushing water pressure. Remove contaminated
clothing and jewelry during flushing procedure. If it is a dry chemical, such as lime, brush away chemical.
Contact EMS and/or Poison Control Center. Watch the victim for delayed reactions. For chemicals in the eye,
rinse contaminated eye downward so fluid flows away from other eye.

Smoke Inhalation
Exposure to heat and smoke may irritate or damage airway. Therefore, the first priority is to:
1. Move victim to a safe area.
2. Check breathing and circulation/provide necessary care.
3. Place victim in a semi-seated or reclined position.
4. Call EMS.
Don'ts for burn care: Do's for burn care:
• Don't apply any home remedy or ointments • Watch for signals and changes in
• Don't apply ice directly on the skin. breathing and consciousness.
• Don't break blisters. • Keep victim from getting chilled or
• Don't remove pieces of clothing or any overheated.
other item stuck to burn. • Seek medical attention if
• Don't apply a moist dressing to a burn. appropriate.
• Don't give victim anything to eat or drink
unless he/she is fully conscious.
Special precaution must be taken when dealing with children suffering from burns. Burns
that may not appear to be severe for an adult may be life-threatening for children.

Musculoskeletal Injuries
An injury to the body's musculoskeletal system requires immediate care. Any unnecessary movement should be avoided.
Prompt first aid may reduce trauma and accelerate healing. If you are unsure of severity of injury, treat as fracture or
dislocation.
Types of Muscle Injuries
Muscle Strain - Occurs when the muscle is stretched beyond its normal range of motion resulting in a
muscle fiber tear
Muscle Contusion - Results from a blow to a muscle. This injury is also known as a bruise.
Sprain - Occurs when a joint is twisted beyond its normal range. A severe sprain requires medical attention.
General First Aid
Treatment for strains, sprains, and contusions is commonly referred to as ICE.
This stands for Ice-Compress-Elevate.
Ice Apply a cold pack. Do not place ice directly on skin as this may cause frostbite.
Compress Use an elastic or conforming wrap, not too tight. Try the two finger test. You should be
able to slide two fingers between wrap and skin.
Elevate Lift injured limb above heart level to control internal bleeding

Dislocations and Fractures


Signs and Symptoms
• Deformity
• Swelling and discoloration
• Grating sound
• Pain
• Inability to move injured area
• Exposed bone (compound fracture)

First Aid care for dislocations or fractures is commonly referred to as I-ACT. This stands for
Immobilize, Activate 911, Care for Shock, Treat for additional injuries
Immobilize area (Use pillows, jackets, blankets etc. Stop movement.
Activate 911 (or transport victim to a medical center, supporting injured area)
Care for Shock (See section on care for shock)
Treat any additional injuries
Head, neck, and Spine Injury
Each year, more than 2-million Americans suffer a head or spine injury. Injuries to the head, neck or spine can
result in disabling conditions for the victim. You must a/ways suspect head or spinal trauma when the victim has
been injured as a result of:
• An automobile accident
• Being thrown from any motorized vehicle
• A fall from a height greater than the victim's
own height
• A penetration wound such as a gunshot
• A severe blow to the head, neck or back
• A diving accident
• A lightning strike
• Any serious impact injury

First Aid
• Stabilize head and neck.
• Stop movement.
• Maintain an open airway.
• Activate EMS

*lt is important to remember that you should never move victim unless life-threatening factors are
present at the location of the emergency.

Medical emergencies/Sudden Illnesses


There are many types of medical emergencies. You may not know the exact cause of the medical emergency. You must
initially care for the signals that are present. If you have any doubts about the seventy of the victim's illness, you should
activate EMS immediately. The victim could be in a life-threatening situation.

Signs and Symptoms


• Pale or flushed skin
• Cold sweats
• Dizzy, light-headed, weak, confused
• Nausea or vomiting
• Diarrhea
• Severe headache
• Paralysis
• Slurred speech
• Seizures
• Breathing difficulty
• Persistent pain or pressure

General First Aid Care


Help victim rest comfortably. Interview victim/bystanders:
1. Are you allergic to anything?
2. Are you on medication?
3. When did you last eat?
4. What led up to this problem?
Look for medical alert tags. Reassure victim.
Watch for signals and changes in breathing and consciousness.
Don't give the victim anything to eat or drink. Keep victim from getting chilled or overheated. Seek medical attention if
appropriate. If the victim faints, place position victim on back and then elevate legs 8-10 inches. Do not elevate legs if
you suspect a back or head injury. If victim is nauseous or vomits, place victim on their left side.
Asthma
Asthma is an episodic condition that narrows the airway passages and makes breathing difficult. An over
production of mucous causes the reduction of airflow on exhalation. When an asthma attack occurs, it may be
triggered by an allergic reaction to something swallowed, inhaled, or injected into the body (medication,
pollutants, insect sting). Strenuous exercise or stress can also trigger an attack.

Signs and Symptoms


• Wheezing/difficulty exhaling
• Increased pulse rate
• Anxiety
• Distended/bulging neck veins
• Coughing
• Shoulders hunched and chest pulled up by breathing effort

First aid care for Asthma


•Calm victim/give reassurance.
•Assist victim with any prescribed medication – generally an inhaler or nebulizer
•Make victim comfortable.
•Contact EMS if signs and symptoms remain the same or get worse.

Diabetic Emergencies
Diabetes is one of the leading causes of death in the United States. People who are diabetic sometimes
become ill because there is too little or too much sugar in their blood. The signals of a diabetic emergency are
the same as most other sudden illnesses associated with medical emergencies. If you know that the person is a
diabetic or if they tell you that they are a diabetic, ask them when they ate last. Chances are their blood sugar is
off balance. If the victim is conscious and can take fluids or food, give him/her some form of sugar. If the
person's problem is low sugar, the sugar you give them will help and signs of illness will begin to diminish. If the
problem is too much sugar in the blood, the additional sugar you give them will not be enough to cause any
further harm. In this case, signs will continue to develop. This is a true medical emergency that requires
advanced medical treatment. EMS should be activated immediately.

First Aid for Diabetic Emergencies


1. Interview victim/check for responsiveness and med. alert tag.
2. If Conscious - give sugar
If Unconscious - Call EMS/Monitor breathing and circulation. Provide necessary care.
3. No response to sugar - Call EMS immediately and monitor breathing and circulation.
4. Responds to sugar - Continue to monitor victim until you are sure that they ill are all right and all the signs and
symptoms of diabetic emergency are gone

Seizures
Seizures occur when the electrical activity of the brain becomes irregular. This occurrence can be the result of
an injury, disease, fever, or infection. Seizures may also be the result of a chronic condition known as epilepsy.
Seizures can range from mild black-outs to severe and sudden uncontrolled muscular contractions
(convulsions). It may be frightening to witness someone experiencing a seizure, but you must remember that in
most cases it will only last for a few minutes. Most people will recover, suffering no residual problems. Infants
and young children are at high risk for febrile (high temperature induced) seizures. This is a medical emergency.
The child or infant's temperature must be reduced and medical attention is needed.

First Aid for Seizures


1. Call 911.
2. Clear the area of any objects that can harm the victim.
3. Do not hold or restrain victim or place anything in victim's mouth.
4. Cushion the victim's head with pillow, blanket, etc.
5. Place victim on his/her side after seizure activity subsides. This act will help to prevent choking.
Severe Allergic Reaction (Anaphylaxis)
A Severe allergic reaction, also known as anaphylactic shock, is a life-threatening reaction of the body to a
substance to which the victim is extremely allergic. It is impossible to predict the exact course of anaphylactic
shock. Sometimes a severe reaction occurs immediately, other times it may take up to 30 minutes or more.

Causes of an allergic reaction:


• An insect bite or sting.
• An ingested substance (foods such as spices, nuts, fish, shellfish, or medication such as penicillin).
• An inhaled substance (pollen or chemicals).
• An injected substance (Antitoxins or drugs such as penicillin).
• An absorbed substance (certain chemicals when in contact with skin, can result in a severe allergic reaction).

Signs and Symptoms


• A rash, skin burning, itching and hives
• A feeling of tightness in the chest and throat
• Noisy and/or difficult breathing
• Nausea
• Swelling of face, neck, lips, and/or tongue
• Fainting, coma
• Confusion
• Dizziness

First Aid for Severe Allergic Reactions


An Epinephrine Auto Injector (epi-pen) is the only treatment which can be provided by the first aider. The
epinephrine auto injector is an easy and convenient way to give epinephrine. Epinephrine is a medication used
to treat some severe allergic reactions and respiratory emergencies. The epinephrine auto injector is designed
to provide fast, reliable first-aid for potentially fatal anaphylactic reactions. It works quickly to help reverse
symptoms which may follow exposure to insect bites and stings, and food or drug reactions. You must be taught
how to use an epinephrine auto injector by a healthcare professional. This is a true a medical emergency!!!! If
not cared for, a severe allergic reaction can become life-threatening. Call EMS, provide prescribed medication, if
available, and monitor breathing and circulation. Provide necessary life support care until EMS arrives.

Stroke
A stroke, also called a "brain attack", is caused by a blockage of a blood vessel or hemorrhage in the brain. A stroke victim
will require prompt medical care. The signs for stroke will be similar to general medical emergency signs and symptoms. A
stroke may be preceded by a severe headache and general ill feelings. Care for the person as you would for anyone who has
become suddenly ill. This person may be confused or unable to communicate to you. Lie the victim on his/her side. This will
help to prevent choking. Do not give victim anything to eat or drink. Call EMS immediately. Provide reassurance and comfort
to the victim. Monitor breathing and circulation until medical help arrives.

Poisoning
A poison is a substance (liquid, gas or solid) that has been absorbed, swallowed, inhaled or injected into the body can cause
tissue damage and organ damage. This can adversely affect health and cause possible death as a result. Regardless of the
type of poisoning, you must always call the Poison Control Center for specific first aid care. Be prepared to tell what and how
much poison was involved. Only under direction of Poison Control Center should you provide any specific first aid treatment for
the victim. (If poison is inhaled, remove from area if it is safe to approach). If you cannot reach the Poison Control Center,
call EMS immediately. Do not attempt to induce vomiting unless told to do so by a medical professional.

Signs and Symptoms of Poisoning


• Abdominal cramping or pain
• Nausea, vomiting, or Diarrhea
• Burns, stains and odor in and around mouth
• Change in consciousness (drowsiness...unconsciousness)
• Poison plants, poison containers, poisonous gases in the area
Most poisonings can be prevented through:
1. Keeping all medicines, cleaning products, automotive care products and poisonous plants out of reach or
under lock and key.
2. Following all medicine directions accordingly. Make sure you request child resistant packaging. Flush
unused medicines. Don't refer to medicine as "candy".
3. Storing all harmful products away from food sources.
4. Keeping all poisonous substances in the original packaging.

General First Aid for poisoning


Assess the scene for clues and safety.
Get victim away from poison if necessary.
Assess victim response (level of consciousness, breathing and circulation).
If the victim is conscious, attempt to get more information.
Alert the Poison Control Center or your local emergency system. Bring any empty container, plant, etc., to the
phone for identification
Provide care for any life-threatening condition

Heat Related Emergencies


Heat illness follows a continuum. In other words, after the onset of a minor heat illness, if left uncared for, major
heat illness will result. It is important to recognize and to treat the symptoms of heat illness early on to prevent a
victim from progressing to heat stroke. In all heat emergencies you will first need to cool the victim down

Heat Stroke
Heat Cramps Heat Exhaustion
Signs and Symptoms
Signs and Symptoms Signs and Symptoms Hot, dry, red skin
Painful muscle cramps Cold and clammy Heavy Confusion or
Moist, cool skin Heavy sweating unconsciousness
sweating Weak pulse Shallow Little or no sweating
breathing Full, rapid pulse
First Aid Nausea
Move to cool place Stomach cramps First Aid
Give water or saline Weakness, fatigue Move to cool place
solution Headache Immediately cool victim
Massage muscle by fanning and applying
cool water
First Aid Remove any excess
Move to cool place clothing
Elevate legs Call EMS
Remove sweat-soaked
clothing
Apply cool packs
Give water
Monitor!
Cold Related Emergencies
Hypothermia is a general cooling of the body. Hypothermia can start off mild and, if uncared for, it will become life
threatening. The sooner you recognize the signs of hypothermia and provide care, the better the chance is that the condition
will not progress. SEEK MEDICAL ATTENTION! Never give victim alcohol or caffeine to drink!

Mild Hypothermia
• Shivering
• slurred speech
• stumbling or staggering
• Usually the victim is conscious and can talk

First Aid Care


1) Removal from cold environment.
2) Have a source of heat (warm water, fireplace...)
3) Replace wet clothing with dry.
4)Provide a hat, blankets, coats. Insulate victim.
5)Seek medical attention

Severe Hypothermia
• Signs and symptoms
• Body core temperature below 90°F
• Shivering has usually stopped, and muscles have become stiff and rigid
• Skin has a bluish appearance and does not react to pain
• Pulse and respiration slow down
• Pupils will be dilated Victim may appear dead

First Aid Care


1) Call EMS
2) Keep victim from getting colder.
3) Rewarming in the field is not recommended for victims with severe hypothermia
4) Be careful when moving victim.
5)Treat victim as though he/she could break.
6) While checking vitals, make sure you do a thorough pulse check before determining the need for CPR.

Abdominal Injury
Always suspect internal damage and bleeding. Call EMS and provide care for shock. Never touch protruding
organs! Do not try to reinsert organs. Cover abdominal area with a moist dressing to prevent dehydration. Keep
dressing moist until EMS arrives.

Eye Injury
Any eye injury will require advanced medical care.
1) Penetrating object in eye- Protect eye with padding around the object. Place a paper cup or cone over
object to prevent it from being disturbed. Cover undamaged eye with a patch in order to stop movement in the
injured eye. SEEK MEDICAL ATTENTION!
2) Cuts or blow to eye- Patch both eyes and SEEK MEDICAL ATTENTION!
3) Chemical in eye - Flush eye with warm water immediately. Roll eye as much as possible during flushing to
assist with washing the chemical out. If only one eye affected, rinse contaminated eye downward away from the
other eye.
4) Loose object in eye - Pull upper eye lid over lower lid. Pull lower lid down and if object is seen, remove with
wet gauze. Lift upper eyelid. If object is seen, remove with wet gauze. Never touch cornea of eye.
Blister Care
Do not break a blister. For an unbroken blister, cut a hole in several pieces of gauze and then tape over blister
area. Wash opened blister and cover with sterile gauze.

Chest Wound
Open chest wound caused by a penetrating object: Do not remove an impaled object. Bandage around object
and stabilize it from movement. Keep victim from moving about. Call EMS immediately. If open wound without
an impaled object, cover wound to prevent outside air from getting into the chest cavity. You can use household
plastic wrap
folded several times to place over opening. Leave one corner untaped. This will prevent air from being trapped
in the chest. Call EMS immediately!
Closed chest wound caused by a blow to the chest area: Have victim hold a pillow against injured area. Watch
for signs of shock because there may be internal bleeding. SEEK MEDICAL ATTENTION !

Dental Injury
The following first aid recommendations may provide a temporary solution for dental emergencies, but you
should contact your dentist immediately if injury results in extensive pain or damage. For a toothache, rinse
mouth with warm water. Floss any debris that may be causing irritation to surrounding gum tissue. Do not place
aspirin on tooth.

A knocked out tooth should be placed in a container of whole milk and brought to the dentist. This is only
effective if the tooth can be replaced within 30 minutes. If you can't get to the dentist in 30 minutes, rinse tooth in
cool water, then place it back into the socket, then go to dentist as soon as possible. Do not replace knocked out
tooth in infants and young children as they may swallow tooth.

A broken tooth needs immediate attention. Save broken tooth, if possible. Clean remaining tooth and area and
seek dental assistance.

Nose Bleed Care First Aid


1)Position victim in a sitting position.
2)Keep head tilted slightly forward.
3)Pinch both nostrils for approximately 5 minutes.
4)If bleeding does not stop, continue to pinch nostrils and seek medical attention.

Remember, you may be the first part of the emergency response that is required to save
someone's life. You may provide the first aid care that creates the difference between a
lifelong disability or temporary disability for the victim. As a first aider, you must learn to
recognize the signs and symptoms for injuries and sudden illnesses. Quick recognition
of an emergency combined with rapid EMS activation and appropriate first aid care will
help to ensure the well-being of anyone who may need your assistance.
1.The general order for responding to an emergency is to:
A. Alert-Asses-Attend
B. Alert-Attend-Asses
C. Asses-Alert-Attend
D. Asses-Attend-Alert

2. If a dressing becomes soaked with blood you should:


A. Remove and replace it
B. Remove old dressing and wash wound
C. Place additional layers of dressing over blood soaked dressing
D. Place wound area lower than heart level

3. Shock may result from internal bleeding.


A. True
B. False

4. Should you remove an impaled object from a victim?


A. Yes, it may ease victims pain
B. No, victim may suffer severe bleeding as a result

5. Why is it recommended to cover a victim of shock?


A. It may be cold outside
B. Protect victims dignity
C. Maintain body core temperature
D. To control bleeding

6. Which sign indicates shock?


A. Anxiety
B. Eyes-lackluster
C. Confusion
D. All of the above

7. What is the order of care for a sprain?


A. Ice/elevate/compress
B. Elevate/ice/compress
C. Ice/compress/elevate
D. Compress/ice/elevate

8. For chemicals in the eye you should:


A. Flush eye for at least 15 minutes
B. Rush to hospital
C. Have victim blink rapidly for 5 min.
D. Give victim a cool drink and have them blow their nose.

9. An internal organ is protruding out of a victims abdomen, what should the first aider do?
A. Push the organ back in
B. Cover organ with clean moist dressing
C. Cover organ with a dry dressing
D. Do nothing at all

10. First aid for a 1st or 2nd degree burn can best be treated by:
A. Applying ointment
B. Applying butter
C. Applying cool water
D. Putting ice directly on burn area
11. A person has been in the heat and is cold and clammy, complaining of nausea, cramps and dizziness. What
should you suspect?
A. Heat stroke
B. Heat exhaustion
C. Hypothermia
D. Lyme disease

12. A person becomes weak and dizzy. You see that this person has a medical alert tag indicating that he or
she is a diabetic. What should you do?
A. Give sugar
B. Give water
C. Do nothing until symptoms worsen
D. Lay down victim and apply cold packs

13. Victim is thrown from a motorized vehicle. Victim is conscious and states that he has a tingling sensation in
his feet. You should:
A. Help victim up and monitor breathing
B. Elevate legs and care for shock
C. Keep victim lying down, provide support for head and neck, activate EMS and treat for shock
D. Place victim on his/her side

14. A person experiencing a nosebleed should pinch their nostrils and lean backwards.
A. True
B. False

15. A uninjured person is very weak and is complaining of nausea. You have to go to another room to get
access to a phone. How should you position victim?
A. On back
B. On side
C. Slightly elevate upper torso
D. None of the above

16. Anaphylaxis can be the result of:


A. Seeing your house burn down
B. An insect bite or sting
C. A severe allergic reaction to something ingested
D. Both B and C

17. A Person is in an auto crash. They tell you that they are alright. The person seems to be confused, their eyes
lack-luster and they are cold and clammy. What should you suspect?
A. They are probably alright
B. Shock
C. Hypothermia
D. Heat stroke

18. What is the first step in controlling bleeding?


A. Elevation
B. Direct pressure
C. Pressure point
D. Checking circulation