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Cell Biology Bio 2.

4
Cell structure and function
Bacterial cells, protist cells, plant cells, animal cells
Cell components and functions
Microscopy

Cell processes:

Transport of materials into and out of cells


Enzymes
Respiration
Photosynthesis

DNA structure and cell replication


Mitosis, meiosis
DNA replication

All living things are made of cells!


Viruses

Living things

Prokaryotes

Eukaryotes

Before the nucleus

True nucleus

No nucleus
Single, circular chromosome
No organelles
Small cells

Bacteria

Contain a nucleus
Linear chromosomes
Contain organelles
Larger cells

Protists

Plants

Animals

Eukaryotic cells (continued)


Eukaryotic cells

Protists

Plants

Animals

- Mostly single celled


- Some autotrophic
- Some heterotrophic

- Multicellular
- Autotrophic
- Contain chloroplasts
- Rigid cell wall made of
cellulose

- Multicellular
- Heterotrophic
- No cell wall

Organelles
Organelles are little organs structures
with particular functions within cells
Organelles common to all eukaryotic cells:

Nucleus
Ribosomes
Cell membrane
Cytoplasm
Mitochondria

Use the text to find the function


of each of these organelles.
Include a sketch of the organelle
to help you identify it later

Example
Cell membrane

Also known as the plasma membrane


Keeps the cell separate from its environment
Controls what goes into and out of the cell
Receives information from outside the cell
(e.g. from hormones)

Homework
Due next Monday
Tonight study for ecology topic test!

Rest of week (Biozone pages)


pages 261, 262, 263
find the structure/function/diagram of the following
organelles using your textbook:

Chloroplasts
Endoplasmic reticulum
Golgi apparatus
Cell wall
Lysosomes

Monday 30.04.2007
This week:
Monday:
Cell membranes and the transport of materials
Active and passive transport
Osmosis (part one)

Tuesday:
Osmosis (part two)
Details of practice experiment for internal AS

Wednesday:
Set up practice internal AS experiment

Friday:
Measure practice experiment
Write up practice experiment

Organelles
Organelles are little organs structures
with particular functions within cells
Organelles common to all eukaryotic cells:

Nucleus
Ribosomes
Cell membrane
Cytoplasm
Mitochondria

Use the text to find the function


of each of these organelles.
Include a sketch of the organelle
to help you identify it later

Definitions
Metabolism: all the chemical reactions
going on in the cells of an organism
Respiration: process in living cells where
large food molecules are broken down to
release energy

Organelles structure and function


NUCLEUS

Contains genetic material (DNA)


Controls the functioning of the cell
DNA contains instructions needed
to produce proteins that control
metabolism and other cell functions

Organelles structure and function

MITOCHONDRIA

Site of aerobic respiration


Produces much of the ATP (energy) for the cell
Two membranes

Do Now
Put the follwing particles in order from
smallest to largest

Molecule
Cell
Organ
Tissue
Atom
Organelle

Answer
Atom

smallest

Molecule

Organelle
Cell
Tissue

Organ

largest

Organelles structure and function

PLASMA MEMBRANE (Cell Membrane)


1. Regulates the flow of materials in and out of the cell
2. Receives signals from outside the cell and relays them to
the inside
3. Separates the cell and its contents from the environment

Organelles structure and function

RIBOSOMES
The site of protein synthesis
Often found associated with the endoplasmic reticulum

Organelles structure and function

GOLGI APPARATUS
GOLGI BODY

Modifies, packages and


distributes proteins

Do Now
Write what each of the following letters stands for

M
R
S
G
R
E
N
MRS GREN represents the life functions that living
things carry out. If an object carries out the life functions
it is considered to be alive.
Discuss this statement with regard to cells.

Organelles structure and function


ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM

A network of fluid filled membranes


running through the cytoplasm

Two types of ER: smooth and rough

ER acts as a transport system


The synthesis of certain compounds
(lipids, proteins and carbohydrates) occurs
on the membrane
Temporary storage area
Surface on which some biochemical
reactions occur

Organelles structure and function

CELL WALL

Specific to plants
Made of cellulose
Provides support and strength

Do Now
Match the function to the organelle

Organelle
Nucleus
Mitochondria
Ribosomes

Endoplasmic reticulum
Plasma membrane
Centriole
Cytoplasm
Nucleolus

Lysosome

Function

Cell processes - transport


Plasma membranes are used in many
places within the cell:

Chloroplasts
Mitochondria
Golgi apparatus
Nucleus
Cell membrane

A major function of plasma membranes is


to regulate the flow of materials in and out
of cells

Structure of plasma membranes


Contains lipids called phospholipids in two
layers (a lipid bilayer)
Contains cholesterol
Contains integral membrane proteins:
receptors for hormones
transport proteins (ion channels etc.)
structural proteins

Forms a semi-permeable barrier for the


transport of materials due to the nature of
the phospholipids in the membrane

Structure of a plasma membrane

Structure of a plasma membrane

Transport of substances

Transport processes
Passive transport

Active transport

Movement of materials
down a concentration gradient

Movement of materials
against a concentration gradient

No energy needed

Requires energy

membrane

membrane

Tuesday 01.05.2007

Today:
Cell transport
Osmosis
Fair tests and experimental plans

Examples passive transport


Diffusion movement of substances from an
area of high concentration to low concentration
Facilitated diffusion movement of substances
down a concentration gradient aided by a
membrane protein
Osmosis diffusion of water from an area of low
solute concentration to high solute concentration
through a semi-permeable membrane

Nerve impulses

Osmosis
Refers only to the movement of water
Requires a semi-permeable membrane,
meaning water can move in/out, but solute
molecules can not
Water moves from an area of low solute
concentration to an area of high solute
concentration
The water follows the solute!

Osmosis effects on animal cells

Isotonic
Solution
- same solute
No water movement

Hypertonic
Hypotonic
Solution
Solution
more solute outside - more solute inside
Water moves out

Water moves in

Osmosis and plant cells


HYPOTONIC

ISOTONIC

HYPERTONIC

Osmosis effects on plant cells

Turgid a plant cell in a hypotonic solution


has taken in water causing it to swell.
Plasmolysis a plant cell in a hypertonic
solution has lost water causing the cell
membrane to detach from the cell wall.

Matching definitions of organelles


A. Packaging, modification and distribution of proteins
1. Nucleus
2. Endoplasmic reticulum
3. Contractile vacuole
4. Cell wall
5. Golgi apparatus

B. Vacuole regulating water balance in protozoans


C. Found in plant cells, a rigid structure
outside the cell membrane, composed of cellulose
D. Series of membranes attached to the nucleus,
often associated with ribosomes
E. Only found in animal cells, involved in cell division

6. Cillia
7. Centriole

F. Contains genetic material, controls the cell


G. Hair-like projections in animal and protist cells that
provide motility

Matching definitions of organelles


A. Packaging, modification and distribution of proteins
1. Nucleus
2. Endoplasmic reticulum

3. Contractile vacuole
4. Cell wall

B. Vacuole regulating water balance in protozoans


C. Found in plant cells, a rigid structure
outside the cell membrane, composed of cellulose
D. Series of membranes attached to the nucleus,
often associated with ribosomes
E. Only found in animal cells, involved in cell division

5. Golgi apparatus
6. Cillia
7. Centriole

F. Contains genetic material, controls the cell


G. Hair-like projections in animal and protist cells that
provide motility

Examples active transport


Ion pumps
Active pumping of ions against a
concentration gradient
(e.g. Na+, K+)

Small process

Endocytosis:
Phagocytosis: ingestion of solids
Pinocytosis: ingestion of liquids

Exocytosis
Expelling of substances from the cell

BIG
PROCESSES!

Examples of transport

Large-scale transport
PHAGOCYTOSIS

Summary transport processes


Transport
Passive transport
- No energy required
- Driven by diffusion
- Movement down a conc. gradient

Diffusion
Facilitated
diffusion

Active transport
- Energy required
- Movement against a
conc. gradient

Ion pumps
Osmosis
- Water only

Endocytosis

Exocytosis

Internal assessment practice


Fair test planning sheet

Task To investigate water movement in and out of living


plant cells

Materials apples, containers, sucrose solutions, balances


Questions/issues to think about:
1. What are the variables? independent? dependent?
2. What needs to be controlled?
3. What method will you use?
4. How will you process the data and graph it?

Wednesday 02.05.2007

Today:
Writing an experimental plan
Setting up a practice experiment

Experimental plan/method
You should be able to answer yes to ALL of the following questions.
YES NO
Has the independent variable been identified?
Has the dependent variable been identified?
Has a prediction, aim or hypothesis been stated?

Have at least 2 other variables been identified and controlled?


Is there a description of how all other variables are going to be
measured or controlled?
Has sufficient data been collected?
Could your METHOD be followed by any other person?

Organelles structure and function

NUCLEUS

Contains genetic material


Controls the functioning of the cell

Organelles structure and function

MITOCHONDRIA

Site of aerobic respiration


Produces much of the ATP (energy) for the cell
Two membranes

Organelles structure and function

PLASMA MEMBRANE
1. Regulates the flow of materials in and out of the cell
2. Receives signals from outside the cell and relays them to
the inside
3. Separates the cell and its contents from the environment

Organelles structure and function

RIBOSOMES
The site of protein synthesis
Often found associated with the endoplasmic reticulum

Organelles structure and function

GOLGI APPARATUS
GOLGI BODY

Modifies, packages and


distributes proteins

Organelles structure and function

CELL WALL

Specific to plants
Made of cellulose
Provides support and strength

Homework due Friday


Pages 286-289, Biozone
Notes on the structure and function of the
following organelles:

Chloroplasts
Endoplasmic reticulum
Centrioles
Flagellum

Cell processes - transport


__________ membranes are used in
many places within the cell:

Chloroplasts
______________
Golgi apparatus
______________
Cell membrane

A major function of plasma membranes is


to ___________ the flow of ___________
in and out of cells

Structure of plasma membranes


Contains __________ called
phospholipids in two layers (a lipid
__________)
Contains cholesterol
Contains integral membrane __________:
receptors for hormones
transport proteins (ion channels etc.)
structural proteins

Forms a _______________ barrier for the


transport of materials due to the nature of
the phospholipids in the membrane

Experimental plan/method
You should be able to answer yes to ALL of the following questions.
YES NO
Has the independent variable been identified?
Has the dependent variable been identified?
Has a prediction, aim or hypothesis been stated?

Have at least 2 other variables been identified and controlled?


Is there a description of how all other variables are going to be
measured or controlled?
Has sufficient data been collected?
Could your METHOD be followed by any other person?

Monday 07.05.2007
This week:
Monday:
Apple experiment writeup
Cell structure and function

Tuesday:
SA:V ratio regulating cell transport

Wednesday:
2.4 Achievement standard planning day

Friday:
2.4 Achievement standard setup day

Processing/Interpreting data
Has your data been presented in a well
constructed table?
Has your data been processed in some way?
Are any graphs completely self explanatory?
Has a CONCLUSION been written that links the
purpose of the investigation with the results
obtained?
Does the DISCUSSION link your findings with the
process of osmosis?

Has the EVALUATION described all sources of


possible error?

Apple experiment
Apple experiment exemplar

All living things are made of cells!


Viruses

Living things

Prokaryotes

Eukaryotes

Before the nucleus

True nucleus

No nucleus
Single, circular chromosome
No organelles
Small cells

Bacteria

Contain a nucleus
Linear chromosomes
Contain organelles
Larger cells

Protists

Plants

Animals

Cell organelles
List of the most common organelles:

Nucleus
Cell membrane
Endoplasmic reticulum
Golgi apparatus
Ribosome
Mitochondria
Chloroplast (plants only)
Cell wall (plants only)

Cell structure and function


Plant cells page 268
Animal cells page 270
Protists page 274
Tasks:
Complete exercises on each page
Use information to draw a Venn diagram
showing the common organelles
Complete pages 276/277 for homework

Tuesday 07.05.2007
Today:
Diffusion and the limits to cell transport
Cell organelles

Cell size and cell transport


Diffusion limits the size of cells
The larger a cell, the smaller the
surface area: volume ratio
For diffusion to work for getting substances in
and out of cells, the SA:V ratio needs to be large
Surface area provides a surface for
molecules to diffuse in and out
Volume larger volumes make it harder for
molecules to diffuse through the entire cell

Wednesday 16.05.2007
Today:
Ecology topic test, exemplars
Introduction to enzymes

Friday:
Enzymes and their regulation

Next week:
Microscopes
respiration and photosynthesis
DNA replication

A/M/E whats the difference?


Grade the answers from the Ecology test
In groups, highlight the parts of the
answers that you think are good for some
reason

Write down what you think is different


between the A/M/E answers

The stuff of life


Components of the cell are made of four
different basic things:
Nucleic acids (DNA, RNA)
Carbohydrates (glucose, sucrose, starch,
cellulose)
Lipids (phospholipids, triacyl glycerides)
Proteins

Metabolic reactions
Metabolism is the total of all chemical
reactions in living things

Some reactions are anabolic they build


things up
[HINT anabolic steroids build up your
muscles]
Some reactions are catabolic they
break things down

Cell metabolism

Enzymes what are they?


Most enzymes are proteins
Enzymes are biological catalysts
Enzymes speed up the rate of metabolic
reactions without being consumed in the
reaction

How do they work?


The substance(s) that an enzyme works
on are called the substrate
The substrate fits into a place on the
enzyme called the active site
The active site is unique to that enzyme
and specific for that substrate
At the active site, the enzyme helps
catalyse reactions between the substrate
molecules

Models of enzyme action


Specific 3D shape

Active site

Enzymes have a specific shape


Enzymes have a unique 3-dimensional
shape

Each enzyme is specific for a particular


chemical reaction
Anything that changes the shape of the
enzyme destroys its catalytic activity

Real-life examples
Haemoglobin
Phenylalanine

Tyrosine

Melanin

para-Hydroxyphenylpuruvate

Homogentisate
Phenylalanine hydroxylase
4-Malylacetoacetate

Controlling enzyme activity


The rate of an enzyme-catalysed reaction
is sensitive to the following things:

Enzyme concentration
Substrate concentration
Temperature
pH

Enzymes are optimised for a particular


temperature and pH

Enzyme activity
Temperature is an important factor
controlling enzyme activity
Think of cooking a poached egg!

Enzyme activity
pH is an important factor controlling
enzyme activity:

What happens to the enzyme?


Enzyme activity is decreased in the wrong
temperature or wrong pH environment
The enzyme can become denatured,
where its structure breaks down. This
happens, in particular, at high temperature

Monday 21.05.2007
Today:
Introduction to microscopes
Viewing material with a microscope
Drawings in biology

A quick quiz
Name three organelles of plant cells that
you would not find in animal cells
What is the term for the transport of
substances in and out of cells against a
concentration gradient?
In your own words, how do enzymes
speed up metabolic reactions?

A quick quiz
Name three organelles of plant cells that you
would not find in animal cells
Cell wall, large vacuole, chloroplasts

What is the term for the transport of substances


in and out of cells against a concentration
gradient?
Active transport

In your own words, how do enzymes speed up


metabolic reactions?
Act as catalysts, bind specifically to substrate
molecules through an active site and increase the
rate of formation of products without being consumed

Microscopes pages 264/265


Eyepiece lens

High power objective


lens

Arm

Low power objective lens


Clip
Light/diffuser

Stage
Coarse focus

Switch
Fine focus
Base

Specimen drawings in biology


Use pencil only.
Make the drawing large, it should fill up most of the available space
(approximately 2/3 of the page).
All drawings should have a heading which contains title,
magnification (or scale), aspect (what direction you are looking from).
Use continuous lines with no shading; remember each line
represents a viewable object. Use double lines for things like blood
vessels or insect legs.
Only draw what you can see.
Place all labels to the sides with ruled lines to the structures that
they indicate. (do not use arrows as this indicates flow).
It is not necessary to draw every cell, you only need to draw a
representative groups of them.
Do not draw incomplete cells (unless that is all you see).
Remember it is a diagram not a photo or work of art.

Pages 38-39, Biozone

Magnification factors
Indicate how enlarged an object is
Simply calculated by multiplying together
the objective lens magnification factor and
the eyepiece magnification factor
e.g. eyepiece 10x, objective 40x
magnification factor = 10 x 40 = 400x

Tasks today
Mount a leaf of pond weed (Elodea) and
practice biological drawing
Mount a solution containing protozoans
and observe them

Tuesday 22.5.2007
Today:
enzymes
energy in cells
photosynthesis and respiration

Controlling enzyme activity


The rate of an enzyme-catalysed reaction
is sensitive to the following things:

Enzyme concentration
Substrate concentration
Temperature
pH

Enzymes are optimised for a particular


temperature and pH

Enzyme activity
Temperature is an important factor
controlling enzyme activity
Think of cooking a poached egg!

Enzyme activity
pH is an important factor controlling
enzyme activity:

What happens to the enzyme?


Enzyme activity is decreased in the wrong
temperature or wrong pH environment
The enzyme can become denatured,
where its structure breaks down. This
happens, in particular, at high temperature

Wednesday 23.05.2007
Today:
Question about enzymes
Re-cap Biozone information about enzymes
Microscope work
Biological drawings
Onion cells, stems, staining sections
Paramecium

Enzymes test question


QUESTION FIVE:

Enzymes.

Enzymes are a very important set of protein-based molecules that


act as catalysts. Enzymes are said to be specific and function by
using a lock and key method. All enzymes are affected by changes
in temperature and pH, as well as substrate concentration within the
cell.
(a) Without enzymes, life as we know it would not exist. Explain why
enzymes are an important part of all living things.
(b) Describe what it means by the statement that Enzymes are said to
be specific.
(c) An enzyme called trypsin splits a double amino acid chain into two
single amino acids. Explain how the enzyme would achieve this.
(Labelled diagrams may be used.)

Specimen drawings in biology


Use pencil only.
Make the drawing large, it should fill up most of the
available space (approximately 2/3 of the page).
All drawings should have a heading which contains
Title
Magnification factor (or scale)

Use continuous lines with no shading;


Only draw what you can see.
Place all labels to the sides with ruled lines to the
structures that they indicate. (do not use arrows).
Draw only enough cells to give a representative view
Do not draw incomplete cells (unless that is all you see).

Pages 38-39, Biozone

Tasks today
Prepare a slide of some onion cells
Stain using iodine

Re-visit the Paramecium, do not use the slow


down solution
Make a transverse section of a soft plant stem
Prepare a biological drawing of either:
(a) the onion cells or
(b) the transverse section of the plant stem

Friday 25.05.2007
Today:
Energy in metabolic reactions
Introduction to respiration and photosynthesis
Photosynthesis, the details

Energy in living things page 296


Energy for living things ultimately comes
from sunlight and is converted into mobile
chemical energy in glucose by plants
through photosynthesis
All living things use this chemical energy
to power their metabolic reactions
Respiration is the chemical process that
releases the chemical energy in glucose to
be used by the cell

What is ATP?
ATP is adenosine triphosphate
It is the energy carrier of the cell,
required to power many processes
Many enzyme reactions require it
Active transport processes require it

Chemical energy in glucose has to be


converted into chemical energy in ATP
before the cell can use the energy

ATP and ADP energy carriers


Energy stored

ATP

P
ADP

Adenosine P P P

Adenosine P P
LOW ENERGY

HIGH ENERGY

Energy released

Monday 28.05.2007
This week:
Monday
Photosynthesis

Tuesday
Experiment with enzymes

Wednesday
Respiration

Friday
Summary questions, cell biology
Unit Standard on microscopes

Photosynthesis pages 300/301


The purpose of photosynthesis is to
convert light energy into mobile chemical
energy (glucose)
Occurs in chloroplasts
Overall, converts water and carbon dioxide
into glucose and oxygen
H2O + CO2 C6H12O6 + O2

Photosynthesis
The first stage of photosynthesis is called
the light dependent phase
Light energy is required
Chlorophyll is required

Occurs in the thylakoid membranes within


the chloroplast (electron transport chain)
Produces oxygen, ATP and reactive
hydrogen atoms

The chloroplast

Chlorophyll
Pigment in green plants
Absorbs light energy
Found in thylakoid
membranes

Chlorophyll

Part one the light phase

2 H2O + 2 NADP+ + 2 ADP + 2 Pi + light 2 NADPH + 2 H+ + 2 ATP + O2

Part two the light independent phase


Occurs in the chloroplast stroma
Does not require light energy
Takes ATP and uses the energy to convert
CO2 and hydrogen into glucose using a
cyclic sequence of reactions

Melvin Calvin

Environmental factors affecting the rate of


photosynthesis

Photosynthesis is affected by a range of


external factors:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Light intensity
CO2 concentration
Temperature
Water availability
Mineral salts

Photosynthesis summary
Chemical energy (ATP)

H2O

CO2

Light dependent:

Light independent:

- Grana/thylakoid membranes
- Water converted to oxygen
- Light energy converted to
chemical energy (ATP)

- Chloroplast stroma
- Carbon dioxide converted to glucose
- Requires chemical energy (ATP)
- Requires reactive hydrogen
(eventually)

O2

Reactive hydrogen
(NADPH)

C6H12O6

Photosynthesis
1. Why is photosynthesis important?
2. Summarise the steps in the process of
photosynthesis
3. What is chlorophyll?
4. Why is it green?
5. Write the word equation for photosynthesis
6. What is the Calvin Cycle?
7. Describe the difference between light
dependent and light independent
8. What are the factors that affect the rate of
photosynthesis?

Starter question
QUESTION THREE:
Photosynthesis

Cell Processes

1 Name the main organelle associated with this


process
2 Write an equation for the process
3 Membranes play an important role in different
stages of photosynthesis. Discuss the role of
membranes in photosynthesis

Respiration pages 298/299


The function of respiration is to break
down energy-rich molecules to make ATP
Overall, C6H12O6 + O2 CO2 + H2O
There are two types of respiration:
Aerobic respiration, occurs in the presence of
oxygen
Anaerobic respiration, occurs in the absence
of oxygen

Stages of respiration
Step 1 Glycolysis

Occurs in the cytoplasm


Breaks glucose (C6) down to pyruvate (2x C3)
Releases a small amount of energy as ATP
Releases some reactive hydrogen
Can occur anaerobically in the absence of
oxygen to produce lactic acid (animals) or
ethanol + carbon dioxide (yeast and plants)

Aerobic versus anaerobic respiration


Anaerobic respiration produced lactic acid
(animals) or ethanol (plants, yeast) as a
by-product
Not much energy is
produced by
anaerobic respiration

The mitochondrion
Mitochondrion (singular) or mitochondria
(plural) have a specific internal structure
important to respiration

Stages of respiration

Step 2 The Krebs Cycle


Occurs in the matrix of the mitochondrion
Occurs as a cycle of reactions
Carbon dioxide is produced as a waste
product
Some ATP is formed
Reactive hydrogen atoms are produced

The Krebs cycle

Stages of respiration
Step 3 The electron transport chain
Occurs on the cristae of the inner membrane
of the mitochondrion
Energetic electrons flow between proteins in
the membrane
The energy of the electrons is converted to
ATP
Lots of ATP is produced
At the end of the process, oxygen (O2) is
converted to water (H2O)

Wednesday 06.06.2007
Today:
Summary of respiration and photosynthesis
Overview of the cell biology topic
DNA structure

Starter questions
List FOUR organelles that can be found in plant cells
and animal cells.
Muscle cells need to be flexible and elastic to allow them
to function correctly. Explain how this is possible in
animal cells, but less likely in plant cells

Muscle cells use a lot of energy for the fibres to be able


to contract and relax as opposed to plant cells.
(a) Name the cell organelle you would expect to see in larger
numbers in muscle cells compared to plant cells.
(b) Explain your answer above.

Task comparison chart


3 major steps

Both have electron


transport chains

Photosynthesis

2 major steps

Respiration

Comparing photosynthesis and respiration


Occurs in chloroplasts

Produces O2
Consumes H2O

Both require membranes


P.S. thylakoid
Resp inner mitochondrial
membrane

Both have electron


transport chains

Photosynthesis

2 major steps

Occurs in cytoplasm
and mitochondria

Respiration

Both involve energy


conversion

Converts light
energy to mobile
chemical energy

3 major steps

Both involve
ATP and reactive
hydrogen atoms

Produces H2O
Consumes O2
Converts mobile
chemical energy
to ATP

Cell Biology Overview


Plant

Animal
Cell organelles

Protists

Eukaryotic cells

Cell Specialisation

Cell Types and Structures


Prokaryotic cells

DNA structure
and replication

Cell Processes
Cell Transport

Enzymes

Energy in Cells

SA:V ratio
pH

Active transport
Osmosis

Passive transport

Temp.

Photosynthesis

Respiration

DNA the basic facts, page 302


DNA is deoxyribose nucleic acid
DNA is found in the nucleus of eukaryotic
cells
DNA is packaged with proteins called
histones to form chromatin
DNA in an organism is divided into lengths
called chromosomes
Chromosomes themselves are divided into
genes that carry information for making
proteins

Friday 08.06.2007
Today:
DNA structure
DNA replication
Genes and protein synthesis

Starter questions:
What are the 46 long lengths of DNA in
human cells called?
What are the rules for pairing up the four
DNA bases?
What is the function of DNA in the cell?

Packaging DNA

Chromosomes

The structure of DNA


DNA is composed of building blocks called
nucleotides
Sugar (deoxyribose)
Phosphate
Base (Adenine, Thymine, Cytosine, Guanine)

DNA is a double helix containing two


strands of nucleotides
The bases match up in a specific way:
A always pairs with T
C always pairs with G

The structure of DNA - discovery

1953, Cambridge
Watson and Crick
A/T and G/C contents of DNA always the same
X-ray crystallography data suggests a helix
It has not escaped our notice that the specific pairing we
have postulated immediately suggests a possible
copying mechanism for the genetic material

DNA structure
DNA strands have a direction, defined by
the position on the sugar (5 and 3)

Each strand of the double helix runs


anti-parallel to the other

5
5 prime

3
3 prime

DNA structure

3
3 prime

5
5 prime

The functions of DNA


DNA is an information store, a master
instruction manual for the cell

Information for making proteins is stored


as lengths of DNA called genes
When a cell needs to make a particular
protein, it reads off the relevant gene in
the master instruction manual

DNA replication
DNA is always replicated prior to cell
division, both for mitosis and meiosis
DNA replication occurs so that new cells
receive a complete set of correct
instructions
DNA replication is called
semi-conservative as the original DNA
strand becomes part of the new DNA
strand

The steps
Step One:
DNA unwinds with the help of enzymes

Step Two:
DNA strands separate

Step Three:
Each original strand acts as a template
New nucleotides are incorporated

Step Four:
Two new DNA molecules are formed that are
exact copies of the original

DNA replication
Original strand

Replication fork

New strand

New strand

DNA Replication

The bare minimum!

DNA is a double helix


DNA is made up of nucleotides
In DNA, A pairs with T, C pairs with G
The strands in DNA are anti-parallel
DNA is replicated during cell division
DNA replication is semi-conservative

Monday 11.06.2007
This week:
Today:
Revision, cell biology
Individual interviews

Tuesday:
Revision, cell biology, your questions

Wednesday:
Cell Biology Topic Test

Friday:
Genetics and Evolution

Starter question
(a) Using the bases G, T, C and A,
describe which base-pairs bond together.

(b) Explain why the process of DNA


replication is necessary for the growth of
living things

Bingo
1. Thylakoid

11. Exocytosis

2. Active transport

12. Endocytosis

3. Enzyme

13. Golgi apparatus

4. Catalyst

14. Light dependent

5. Osmosis

15. Substrate

6. ATP

16. Semi-permeable

7. Mitochondria

17. Diffusion

8. Chloroplast

18. Light independent

9. Nucleus

19. Centriole

10. Passive transport

20. Contractile vacuole