You are on page 1of 35

NATIONAL FERTILIZERS LIMITED

(Naya Nangal Unit)

14th May, 2015

CERTIFICATE OF TRAINING

Institutes name:

Branch:

Training Period:

Submitted to:

Beant College of Engineering & Technology, Gurdaspur (Pb)

B.Tech (Mech) 4th year

January 15, 2015 to May 14, 2015

Submitted By:

Ashish Kumar

Contents

1. Introduction

2. Steam Generation Plant

3. Mechanical Workshop

Introduction

1.0 INTRODUCTION TO ORGANIZATION


A VIEW OF NATIONAL FERTILIZER LIMTED NANGAL

Figure 1.1 view of NFL NANGAL


1.1 INTRODUCTION TO NFL NANGAL
My training was at NFL Nangal. Nangal is a beautiful town situated in Distt. Ropar (PB). This is
the first key industry set up by Govt. Of INDIA with coming up of Bhakhra Dam & surplus
power available from the project at the time. It was derived by Govt. Of India to set a fertilizer

plant at Nangal, which went to production in 1961.The plant at that time produce Ammonium
Nitrate (25% Nitrogen) and heavy water.
Subsequently In 1978 went an Ammonia Plant based on fuel oil gasification which added Urea
(46% Nitrogen) to its main product in 1990.
In 1978, In urea formation the hydrogen was available from electrolysis of the water which on
electrolysis treatment produce hydrogen and oxygen & from this hydrogen further ammonia is
formed, but after short time of gap Electrolysis plant was replaced with Front End Plant(NMP-I)
based on reforming of Naphtha production of hydrogen and reducing the electrical power
consumption.
1.2 NFL PLANTS
NFL has several plants in all over India and the location of various fertilizer plants In India as:1. National Fertilizer Limited Vijaipur (MP)
2. National Fertilizer Limited Panipat(HR)
3. National Fertilizer Limited Bathinda (PB)
4. National Fertilizer Limited Naya Nangal (PB)
1.3 PRODUCTS OF NFL
NFL Nangal mainly deals with production of Urea but there are several by products which get
produce
Products

Capacity( in MTPD)

Urea

1450

Methanol

67

Sulphur

24

Ammonium Nitrate

As per Reqd.

Liquid Carbon Dioxide

24

Sodium Nitrite

Sodium Nitrate

Nitric Acid

554

Ammonia

900

Table 1.1 products of nangal

urea
methanol
sulphur
Ammonium Nitrate
Liquid Carbon dioxide
Sodium Nitrite
Sodium Nitrate
Nitric Acid
Ammonia

There is also the formation of poisonous gases such as CO, CO2, CH4, H2, & H2S etc.
The NFL, Nangal Unit has been broadly classified into two parts:a) UGP ( UNIT GROUP OF PLANT):WTP - WATER TREATMENT PLANT
NAP- NITRIC ACID PLANT

b)

EGP (EXPANSION GROUP OF PLANT):SGP- STEAM GENERATION PLANT


UREA BAGGING PLANT

Statistic Data

The input and output data of company is as in which it informs about the name of the
product and the consumption of raw material

Raw material

Name of The

Consumption

Product
Fuel oil

Ammonia

832.04 MT/Unit

Coal

Steam

191.25 MT/Unit

Caustic Soda

NOx

1547 MT/Annum

Water Consumption
River Satluj is the exclusive source of raw water to NFL, Nangal unit.
1.

Process Water (m3) for EGP

5538481

2.

Process Water (m3) for UGP

307010

3.

Domestic Water

4042120

Raw water Analysis


S. No.

Parameters

Range Value

1.

pH

7.8-8.0

2.

Total Hardness (as CaCO3

29-34

mg/L)
3.

Magnesium hardness, mg/L

4-6

4.

Sulphates (as SO4 mg/L)

2-4

5.

Chloride (as Cl, mg/L)

6-20

6.

KMnO4 Value, mg/L

4-6

7.

Calcium Hardness (as

46-52

CaCO3, mg/L)

pH
Total Hardness (as CaCO3
mg/L)
Magnesium hardness,
mg/L
Sulphates (as SO4 mg/L)
Chloride (as Cl, mg/L)

1.4 COMPANY OUTPUT


Overall Turnover of NFL is 3800 crores.
The employee strength is as:
Total Employee

1542

Officers

232

Workers

1310

Main Product & its Objective:-

Kisan Urea Specifications:Moisture Less than 1%


Nitrogen on Dry Basis- More than 46%
Biurate by weight 1%

Physical and chemical properties of urea:S.No.

Property

Assigned Value

1.

Formula Weight

60.06

2.

Melting Point

132.7oC

3.

Boiling Point

Decomposes at atmospheric
pressure (<boiling)

4.

Index of refraction

1.484-1.603

5.

Crystalline form

Tetragonal

6.

Specific gravity

1.335

7.

Bulk density

0.74g/cm3

Uses:
1. Kisan Urea For Food grains
2. Cash Crops
3. Horticulture & for vegetable and Oil Seed.
4. Kisan Urea is highly concentrated, solid, nitrogenous fertiliser, containing 46%. It is
completely soluble in water hence nitrogen is completely and easily available to crops. It
contains nitrogen in amide form which changes to ammonical forms and is retrieved by

soil colloids for longer duration. Urea is available in granular form and can be applied by
drill and broadcasting. Kisan urea is ideally suitable for all types of crops and for foliar
spray which instantly removes nitrogen deficiency. Kisan also has a strong and long
lasting effect on crops resulting in bumper crops. Carbonic acid present in kisan urea help
in absorption of other nutrients like phosphate and potash by roots crop.

STEAM GENERATION PLANT (SGP)

2.0 STEAM GENERATION PLANT

2.1 Objective of SGP:In NFL, Nangal Unit Plant, all the basic unit operations need steam for their work and must of
the industrial equipment are driven by steam such as Turbo Compressors, Steam jet ejectors,
preheater etc.
In unit operations
1) For evaporation supply the steam to evaporate

2) For crystallizations supply the steam to crystallizer

3) To create the negative suction pressure mostly supply in the steam jet ejector

4) For combustions purpose such as gasification process

5) To exchange the heat of desire product by use of steam.

SGP starts from1) Handling &Storage of Coal ,Fuel Oil ,LHSH , LDO & Methanol
2) Boilersa) Coal Fired Boiler
b) Gas Fired Boiler
3) Pollutions Control Sections
4) Steam Network Section

a) - COAL UNLOADING THROUGH TRIPLER


Coal from Wagon

Tippler

Wing Conveyor
Vibrators, ET-1(Underground)
(Cap. =550-600 MT/hr)

ET-2

Coal Yard
ET-3

Coal Yard Storage Capacity = 30,000 Tons

b) - COAL FEEDING SYSTEM


Coal from Yard
Feeding Hopper
Vibrators

Magnetic Belt
Magnet

ET-4 (Underground)
(Cap. =110-130 MT/hr)

Magnet
ET-5

ET-6

Crusher
Mill Bunkers (6 Nos.)

Figure 2. Unloading of coal

2.2 COAL FIRED BOILER


2.2.1 INTRODUCTION:The integrated service boilers for the Nangal Expansion Fertilizer Project are different from
conventional boilers. These boilers are radiant, outdoor, bidrum, high head, non-reheated type &
pulverized coal is used as principal fuel
These boilers are designed to heat up external high pressure saturated steam from heat boilers,
along with generated steam coal is used as principal fuel
These boilers are designed to heat up external high pressure saturated steam from waste heat
boilers, along with generated steam in the boiler to the same final superheated steam
These boilers generated 117t/hr of steam and 65t/hr external import steam. The final superheated
steam generated 182t/hr will have a pressure of 91kg/cm2 & temperature of 510
2.2.2 MAIN BOILER STRUCTURE:The boiler designed of the top supported type & allowed to expand downwards. The main boiler
is supported four rows of column on either side of the boiler (S1, S2, and S3 &S4)
Boiler feed water which is coming from NH3-II plant which is preheated to 145 & then passing
through the economizer where its temperature is rises to 182-188 then it is transferred to the
steam drum. In the steam drum it is converted to the saturated steam & remaining water is not
converted to steam is transferred to mud drum through bank tubes
In the mud drum temperature of the condensed water is raises by the flow of the flue gases from
the mud drum through bank tubes.

In the mud drum temperature of the condensed water is rises by the flow of the flue gases. From
the mud drum preheated water is then transfer through the tubes along the sides of furnace and
recirculated to the steam drum and the above processes continuously running. The purpose of
recirculation is that, we cant leave the steam drum empty.
The temperature of the saturated steam leaving the steam drum is around 310 to 315C. The
saturated steam is then given to platin super heater where its temperature is rises to about 405 to
410C. The temperature of the platen super heater is 905C
2.2.3 COAL PULVERSIZING SECTION;In this section ball mill is used to pulverize the coal. Firstly coal which is crushed in the hammer
crusher to the size about size 25 mm is then transferred to the coal bunkers & from coal bunkers
& from coal bunkers through feeder to the centre of revolving ball of the ball mill. Hot air is
given to the Ball which is coming by passing through the air heater for the following two
purposes:1. for the drying of the pulverized coal
2. for the movement of the pulverized coal to the furnace
Hot air enters the mill housing below the ball and is directed upward passes through the classifier
vanes. The rising hot air around the ball picks up the pulverized coal, the lighter particles carried
by the air passes through the classifier & heavier particles are returned from the classifier to the
ball for additional grinding. Finally the pulverized coal having particle size 200 meshes & air
leaves the Ball Mill through classifier

2.2.4 COAL COMPOSITION


MOISTURE

6-10%

VOLATILE MATTER

16-20 %

FIXED CARBON

39-45%

ASH

30-35%

Table 2.1 coal composition

Moisture
Volatile matter
fixed carbon
ash

2.2.5 COMBUSTION CHAMBER OR BIOLER FURNANCE


At the four corner of the combustion chamber or boiler furnace one wind box is installed. At
each corner one burner is located. Each burner will comprise of four streams which are given to
the furnace, these are coal +Air, Tail Gas, LDO+ steam & hot air nozzles arranged vertically in
an insulated wind box

Air is sucked from the atmosphere by the forced draft fans & supplied to the air heater. After
passing through the heater temperature of the air is increased and then it is passed through the
heater temperature of the air is increased and then it is transferred to the wind box. For the
burning of the coal oil gun is used & all the other streams are given for the complete combustion
of the coal & unburned coal particles are dropped to the bottom where screen is used to transfer
them to bottom ash hopper
The flue gases which are produced after the combustion of the fuel moves upward to the furnace
with centrifugal force. Centrifugal force is developed when all the streams from the four corners
will meet at a single where the burning is taking place
The temperature of the combustion chamber, where burning of the coal is done is 1070C.
During the upward movement of the flue gas temperature difference between lower and upper
part of the of boiler which is going to be in between 100C to 150C

2.2.6 TAIL GAS COMPOSITION


H2

7.00%

Ar

3.80%

N2

16.10%

CO

27.90%

CH4

3.30%

H2O

41.90%

Table 2.2 tail gas composition

H2
Ar
N2
CO
CH4
H2O

Tail gas which is coming out from ammonia II plant contains an appreciable amount of CO
which is not directly disposed to the atmosphere because of its harmful effects. So this gas is
ignite in the furnace and convert the CO to CO2 and reduced the content of the gas
Due to the large content of non-combustion of gases i.e. N2 & H2O, the ignition of the CO gas is
difficult& is not self sustaining. After ignition is converted to the flue gases and are disposed to
the atmosphere
2.2.7 PROCEDURE FOR DISPOSAL OF ASH:We used coal as a fuel for the running of the boiler, approximate 1000MT/day of coal is used
and huge amount of ash is generated. For efficient running of the boiler continuous removal of

ash contents is essential .Heavier particles of burned coal are retained in the bottom ash hopper
of the boiler and the light particles are collected in the Electrostatic Precipitator
Finally the mixture of ash & water is discharged through feed gate & clinker, grinder, which
reduces the size of the clinker to about 50 mm to the ash slurry pit. Then ash slurry is disposed to
ash pond area
2.2.8 BOILER FEED WATER SPECIFICATIONS:TEMPERATURE
TOTAL HARDNESS AS CaCo3

145C
0.3ppm

SILCA

0.1 ppm

O2

0.02ppm

IRON

0.02ppm

COPPER

0.005ppm

pH

7.5-9.0

Import steam which is coming from the NH3-II plant at a temperature 313C and pressure105ata
is given to the import steam super heater where we get superheated steam whose temperature is
around 510-520C. The temperature of the final super heater is 872C
For controlling the temperature of the superheated steam, one desuperheater is used whose
temperature is ling in between 370-400C. So after desuperheater finally we get superheated
steam whose temperature is 500C and pressure is 91 ata, which is then given to different
sections in the plant. It produces 182 Ton/hr of superheated steam.
The flue gas which leaves from the furnace is leaving at the temperature of 530-540C, so
arrangement is made for the waste heat recovery. Firstly the flue gases pass through import

steam super heater where some amount of heat is recovered and temperature of the flue gas
reduces to 430C.
Then it passes to economizer where the temperature is reduced to 338C and then it is passed
through air heaters which are used for preheating the air sucked by forced draft fan the
temperature of the flue gases are sucked by force draft fans and are given to the ESP for the
removal of fly ash or dust.
2.3 Main Boiler Structures
The boiler design of top supported type &allowed to expand downwards. The main boiler
supported four rows of the column on either side of the boiler (S1.S2, S3AND S4)
Boiler feed water which is coming from NH3-2 Plant which is preheated to 125c &then passing
through the gilled tube economizer where temperature is rise to 182-188c then it is given to
steam drum & in the steam drum it is converted to saturated steam.
The temperature of the saturated steam leaving the steam drum is around 320-325c the water
which is remaining in steam drum is transfer through the tube along the side of the furnace and
recirculated to the steam drum & the above process continuously running .the purpose of
recirculation is that, we cant leave the steam drum empty .the saturated steam is then given to
the platen super heater where its temperature rises to about 405-410c. The temperature of platen
super heater is 920c.
Import steam which is coming from the NH3-2 plant at a temperature 313c and pressure 105 ata
is given to the import steam super heater where its temperature is rises around 405 -410c.then
finally mix both stream i.e. saturated steam & import steam &given to the final super heater

from where we get superheated steam whose temperature is around 510-520c. The temperature
of final super heater is 872c.
For controlling the temperature of the superheated steam ,one desuperheater is used to
whose temperature is lies in between 370-400c so after desuperheater finally we get superheated
steam whose temperature is 510&pressure 91ata ,which is then given then to different section in
the plant .it produces 140T/hr of superheated steam
The flue gas which leaves from the furnace is leaves from the furnace is leaves at a temperature
of 660-670c ,so arrange is made for waste heat recovery .firstly the flue gases pass through bare
tube economizer and then from import steam superheater where some amount of heat is
recovered &temperature of flue gas reduced to 360c
Then it is passes through gilled tube economizer where temperature is reduced to 299c 7 then it
is passed through rotary air heater is 121c
The flue gas after passing through rotary air heater is going to the chimney & from the chimney
it is disposed to atmosphere the height of the chimney is 80m &flue gas from other source of the
plant are also disposed from the same chimney the flue gas which is disposed to atmosphere with
following compositions (SO2=500-600mg/Nm3, SPM=110mg/Nm3)

2.4 POLLUTION CONTROLL SECTION


2.4.1 Electrostatic Precipitator:Flue gas are sucked by the Forced Draft Fan and supplied to ESP .Fly ash or dust is collection is
done in the Electrostatic Precipitator by imparting the negative charge to the dust particles &

attracting them towards positive plate disposal of the collected dust is done by rapping the
electrode.
The ash or dust which is collected in ESP is coming to hydrovecter then this ash is transfer red
along with water which is coming from NH3-2 plant to the ash slurry pit. Then ash slurry is
disposed to ash pond area.
2.4.2 Stack:The flue gas after removal of dust id thrown to the outside the chimney to atmosphere by the use
of induced draft fan .the height of the chimney is 80m &flue gas from the other source of the
plant is also disposed to same chimney the flue gas which is disposed to atmosphere with
following composition (SO2=500-600mg/Nm3, suspended particles=110mg/Nm3)

MECHANICAL WORKSHOP

Mechanical workshop at NFL unit mainly committed to the maintenance and repair work.
Various maintenance jobs are done here as per the job orders given by different plants of NFL
unit. The mechanical department has futher different workshops namely-:
Machine shop
Fabrication shop
Fitting shop
Earthmoving shop
Refrigeration shop

Details of the different workshops is given as following.


Machine shop
Fitting shop
Fabrication shop
Earthmoving shop
Refrigeration shop

MACHINE SHOP

Machining of a material involves repeated removal of material from the job to give away the
required shape and size.
Machine shop has various machines that are being used for the machining processes of the jobs
from the plant. Some of the machines in the shops are

SLOTTER MACHINE
LATHE MACHINE
GRINDER MACHINE
BORING MACHINE
DRILLING MACHINE
MILLING MACHINE
PLANNER MACHINE
SHAPER MACHINE
SHEARING MACHINE
SHEET CUTTING MACHINE

LATHE MACHINE

Lathe is a power driven, genral purpose machine used for producing mostly
cylindrical jobs or work pieces. As the piece of metal to be machined is rotated on the lathe, a
single point cutting tool is advanced racially in to the work
piece,removing the metal marterial in forms of chips.Main difference between
lathes where as in the the other machines cutting tools is moved an the work
piece remains stationary.
Parts of Lathe Machine
HISTORY OF LATHE
Most versatile machine tool in the machine shop
Oldest ancestor is the potters wheel(4000B.C)

Next came pole lathe


This was developed into current lathe which are able to make threads
Father of modern lathe HENRY MAUD SLAYS
Types of lathe machines found in the NFL mechanical workshopCentral lathe
Turret lathe
Capstan lathe
Centre lathe or engine lathe
It is most important and widely used machine in the lathe family.its name is derived from the fact
that the earliermachine tools were driven by separate engines or from the central engine with
over head belt and shafts .The stepped cone pulley or gear head are often used for varying the
speed of the lathe machine
Turret lathe
It is a production machine used to perform a lot of task or operation on a single job with
minimum wastage of time.Indexable square tool is Provided on the cross slide or the mounting
turning and parting of tool. The Turret usually accommodates tools for different operations like
drilling ,counter sinking etc
Capstan lathe
These are similar to turret lathe and incorporate capstan slide which moves on a clamped in any
position.It is the best suited for the large scale production of small parts because of its light
weight and short stroke of capstan slide

SLOTTER MACHINE
Slotter machine is also called as vertical shaper machine .the difference being that the ram is in
vertical direction instead of horizontal position.Also the table or bed is mounted on a heavy base
and provided with mechanism that make possible forward backward and side to side movement
. it also has adjusted head mechanism .
Advantages of vertical shaper or slotter machine :1. Setting of the job is more convenient because it is easier to see, align, measure, clamp
2. Press generated by the cutting stroke is better supported by the table bed
3. Circular and hollow jobs can be worked upon
4. Ram of vertical shaper can be adjusted up to 10 degrees.
Main functions of slotting machine : Internal key ways
Tapered key ways
Slots
Centric slots
Internal gear

SHAPER MACHINE
Shaping machine is generally called as shaper. Shaper is being used for both
production and tool room work. The shaper can machine a flat surface on a
horizontal , vertical , angular plane. On this tyoe of machine ,many types of work pieces can be
machined depending upon the tools used and the manner of
adjusting the various parts of the machine . Size of the shaper is determined by

the largest sized cube that can be machined on it. Working principal is quick
return mechanism and forward stroke is cutting stroke and backward is idle
stroke.
Difference in shaper and lathe machine :In shaper straight cutting is done where as in lathe circular cutting is done In shaping machine
the tool moves in reciprocator fashion whereas in the lathe machine the tool remains stationary
and the work piece moves.
Parts of Shaping Machine are :BASE : it is the reservoir for supply of oil circulated to the moving parts of machine
ARPON: it supports the table
RAM: It is the main moving part of the shaper machine. It holds and
drives the cutting tool back and forth across the work .
This is attached to rocker arm which is given an oscillating motion by
turning of a large driving gear .this also has an adjustable pin attached to
driving gear which acts as a crank which determines the length of the ram
TOOL HEAD: it holds the cutting tool. it is attached to the front of the
ram. Tool post is fastened to the clapper box
Main functions of the shaping machine :
Making slots
Tapered slots
external key on shaft
Hexagonal nut heads
Square nut head

MILLING MACHINE
Milling machine is one of the most versatile and widely used machine tool for
tool room and production purposes.
Milling is the process of removal of the material with the help rotating multiple cutting tools
called as milling cutter. In general the work piece is fed into the rotating milling cutter
Parts of the milling machine :Column
Knee
Saddle
Table
Spindle
Over arm
COULMN: It includes the base which I the main casting which supports the other parts of
machine . The front of the column, the column face is machined to provide an accurate guide for
the vertical travel of the knee
KNEE: It supports the saddle .feed change gearing is enclosed within the
knee.knee can be raised or lowered on the column face.it is supported and can
be adjusted with a elevating screw.
SADDLE: It supports the table . It is supported by the surfaces of the knee
TABLE: It holds the workpiece. It has T-slots and is used to hold the
jods .bolts fit loosely in the T-slots and are used to clamp the vice.
SPINDLE: it holds and diverts various cutting tools.it has the shaft mounted
on the bearing supported by the column.

OVER ARM: it is mounted on the top of the column. It is guided by the


machined dovetail surfaces

GRINDING MACHINE
Grinding is the process of finishing surface by means of revolving abrasive wheel
In order to finish the job piece efficiently one must not only be able to operate
The grinder but also understand abrasive and grinding wheels ,their shapes and
sizes for different type of work
ABRASIVE: An abrasive is any material that can wear material softer than
itself .sand and sandstone are perhaps the oldest abrasives known to mankind.
Abrasives can be natural or manmade.
Natural Abrasives: Emergy and corundum are two commonly used in the
Industry to sharpen tool edge They occur as a miner deposit in the earth crust .Aluminum oxide
is the best suited for grinding material that has high tensile strength such as high spee steel and
high carbon steel.
Man made Abrasives: these are better than natural ones because in these
purity and grain size can be controlled.
GRINDING WHEELS: Grinding wheel are formed by using a suitable material to cement, bond,
abrasives grains together in the desired shape and size. Hardness of the wheel is dependent upon
the amount and kind of binding
material being used. Hardness of wheel is always understood by means of
strength of bond.

TYPES OF GRINDING MACHINES


Surface Grinder
Cylindrical Grinder
Internal Grinder
Thread Grinder
SURFACE GRINDER: Surface grinding is the process of producing a finished flat surfaces by
means of grinding machine employing revolving abrasive wheel. Surface grinder machine
consist of spindle mounting a grinding wheel and table or magnetic chuck for holding the work
piece
Uses of Abrasive Grinding : Sharpening cutting
Snagging
Finishing

PLANNER MACHINE
Planer is one of the basic machine tools used in machine shop. Main function is
to produce flat surface on piece of work. The main difference between planer
and shaper is that in planer machine the work piece moves In reciprocating
motion while tool is fixed where as in the shaper machine it is other way
round. It can be distinguished in two either Hydraulic or Mechanical.
Main parts of Planer Machine are:
Bed
Table

Saddle
Tool head
FABRICATION The process of joining metals or non-metal to from an object which has specific
shape .This process is known as fabrication. Different types of machines and welding are used in
the fabrication process or to fabricate an object.
THE WORKDONE AT THE SHOP ARE CLASSIFIED AS :
1) Metal cutting method :Oxy fuel gas cutting
Plasma cutting
2) Metal joining method :Oxy-acetylene welding
Arc welding
Tungsten inert gas welding
Oxy-acetylene Gas welding:
This process is particularly suitable for joining metal sheet and plates and having thickness 2
to 50mm.
The filler metal is the addition metal, which is added to weld in the form of welding rod.
The composition of the filler rod is usually the same or nearly the same as that of the part
being welded.
To remove the impurities and oxides present on the metal to be joined and to obtain stationary
bond flux is always implied during the welding expect sheet.
Various gas combustions can be used for producing a hot flame for welding metals. Common
mixture of gases oxygen and other fuel gases.

The oxy-acetyl welding mixture is used to a much greater extent than other in the welding
industry.
The temperature of this welding flame in its hottest region is about 3200 C.
CaC2 + 2H2O C2H2 + Ca(OH)2

ARC WELDING METHODS


Metal arc welding: In the arc welding metal rod is used as an electrode,
while the work being welded is used as another electrode. The temperature
produced is about 2400C and 2600C on the ve and +ve electrode
respectively. During the welding operations, this metal electrode is melted
by the heat of the arc and is fused with the base metal, thus forming a
solid union after the metal has been cooled. Both AC and DC can be
used .Adjusting the machine to correct amperage, which is determined by
then size of the rode to be used ,start the welding operations. The correct
welding speed is important.

SPECIFICATION OF ELECTRODES:
Where
1. E is used for covered electrode that is for coated electrode.
2. Next two XX multiplies with 1000spin shows the tensile strength.
3. Next X shows the position of joint to be welded in current condition i.e. it may horizontal,
vertical or inclined
4. Last X shows the types of coating.