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PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
CHAPTER 5:
CHAPTER 5:
Electric current and direct
Electric current and direct
current circuits
current circuits
(7 Hours)
(7 Hours)
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
2
At the end of this chapter, students should be able to: At the end of this chapter, students should be able to:
Describe Describe microscopic model of current. microscopic model of current.
Define and use Define and use electric current formulae, electric current formulae,
Learning Outcome:
5.1 Electrical conduction (1 hour)
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dt
dQ
I ·
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
3
5.1.1 Electric current, I
Consider a simple closed circuit consists of wires, a battery and
a light bulb as shown in Figure 5.1.
5.1 Electrical conduction
Area, A
e
F
E
I
Figure 5.1 Figure 5.1
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
4
From the Figure 5.1,
Direction of electric field or electric current :
Positive to negative terminal Positive to negative terminal
Direction of electron flows :
Negative to positive terminal Negative to positive terminal
The electron accelerates electron accelerates because of the electric force electric force
acted on it.
is defined as the total (nett) charge, the total (nett) charge, Q Q flowing through the flowing through the
area per unit time, area per unit time, t t.
Mathematically,
t
Q
I ·
dt
dQ
I ·
OR
instantaneous current instantaneous current
average current average current
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
5
It is a base and scalar base and scalar quantities.
The S.I. unit S.I. unit of the electric current is the ampere ampere (A A).
Its dimension is given by
1 ampere 1 ampere of current is defined as one coulomb of charge one coulomb of charge
passing through the surface area in one second passing through the surface area in one second.
OR
[ ] A · I
1
s C 1
second 1
coulomb 1
ampere 1
−
· ·
Note: Note:
If the charge move around a circuit in the same direction charge move around a circuit in the same direction
at all times at all times, the current is called direct current (dc) direct current (dc), which is
produced by the battery produced by the battery.
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
6
is defined as the current flowing through a conductor per the current flowing through a conductor per
unit crosssectional area unit crosssectional area.
Mathematically,
It is a vector quantity vector quantity.
Its unit is ampere per squared metre ampere per squared metre (A m A m
− −2 2
)
The direction of current density, direction of current density, J J always in the same same
direction of the current direction of the current I I. e.g. in Figure 5.2.
5.1.2 Current density, J
A
I
J ·
where current electric : I
conductor the of area sectional  cross : A
I
max
J
0 · J
Area, A
Figure 5.2 Figure 5.2
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
7
In metal the charge carrier is free electrons charge carrier is free electrons and a lot of free lot of free
electrons are available electrons are available in it.
They move freely and randomly move freely and randomly throughout the crystal lattice
structure of the metal but frequently interact with the lattices.
When the electric field is applied to the metal electric field is applied to the metal, the freely freely
moving electron experience an electric force moving electron experience an electric force and tend to
drift drift with constant average velocity ( constant average velocity (called drift velocity) drift velocity)
towards a direction opposite to the direction of the field towards a direction opposite to the direction of the field as
shown in Figure 5.3.
Then the electric current is flowing electric current is flowing in the opposite direction opposite direction
of the electron flows of the electron flows.
5.1.3 Electrical conduction in metal
E
I
d
v
d
v
Figure 5.3 Figure 5.3
Note: Note:
The magnitude of the magnitude of the
drift velocity is much drift velocity is much
smaller than the smaller than the
random velocities of random velocities of
the free electron. the free electron.
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
8
Consider a metal rod of length L and crosssectional area A,
which is applied to the electric field as shown in Figures 5.4.
Suppose there are n free electrons (charge carrier) per unit
volume in the metal rod, thus the number of free electron, N is
given by
5.1.4 Drift velocity of charges, v
d
E
J
I
d
v
d
v
L
A
Figure 5.4 Figure 5.4
V
N
n · AL V · and
AL
N
n · nAL N ·
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
9
The total charge Q of the free electrons that pass through the
area A along the rod is
The time required for the electron moving along the rod is
Since
Ne Q ·
( ) e nAL Q ·
t
L
v ·
d
d
v
L
t ·
then the drift velocity v
d
is given by
t
Q
I ·
( )
d
d
nAev
v
L
e nAL
I ·
,
`
.

·
nAe
I
v ·
d
J
A
I
·
and
OR
where
electron the of charge : e
Definition Definition
Density of the Density of the
free electron free electron
ne
J
v ·
d
electron free of number : n
e unit volum per carrier) (charge
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
10
A silver wire carries a current of 3.0 A. Determine
a. the number of electrons per second pass through the wire,
b. the amount of charge flows through a crosssectional area of the
wire in 55 s.
(Given charge of electron, e = 1.60 × 10
−19
C)
Solution : Solution :
a. By applying the equation of average current, thus
b. Given , thus the amount of charge flows is given by
Example 1 :
A 0 . 3 · I
t
Q
I ·
( )
t
N
19
10 60 . 1
0 . 3
−
×
·
1 19
s electrons 10 88 . 1
−
× ·
t
N
and
Ne Q ·
t
Ne
I ·
s 55 · t
It Q ·
( )55 0 . 3 · Q C 165 · Q
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
11
A copper wire of radius 900 µ m carries a current of 17 mA. The wire
contains 8.49 × 10
28
free electrons per cubic meter. Determine
a. the magnitude of the drift velocity in the wire,
b. the current density in the wire.
(Given charge of electron, e = 1.60 × 10
−19
C)
Solution : Solution :
a. By applying the equation of the drift velocity, thus
b. The current density is given by
Example 2 :
3 28 3 6
m 10 49 . 8 A; 10 17 m; 10 900
− − −
× · × · × · n I r
nAe
I
v ·
d
( ) ( ) ( )
19
2
6 28
3
d
10 60 . 1 10 900 10 49 . 8
10 17
− −
−
× × ×
×
·
π
v
1 7
d
s m 10 92 . 4
− −
× · v
and
2
πr A ·
e r n
I
v
2
d
π
·
2
πr
I
J ·
( )
2 3
2
6
3
m A 10 68 . 6
10 900
10 17
−
−
−
× ·
×
×
·
π
J
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
12
A high voltage transmission line with a diameter of 3.00 cm and a
length of 100 km carries a steady current of 1500 A. If the conductor
is copper wire with a free charge density of 8.49 × 10
28
electrons m
3
,
calculate the time taken by one electron to travel the full length of the
line. (Given charge of electron, e = 1.60 × 10
−19
C)
Solution : Solution :
By applying the equation of the drift velocity, thus
Therefore the time taken by one electron to travel the line is
Example 3 :
nAe
I
v ·
d
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
19
2
2 28
d
10 60 . 1 10 00 . 3 10 49 . 8
1500 4
− −
× × ×
·
π
v
1 4
d
s m 10 56 . 1
− −
× · v
and
4
2
πd
A ·
e d n
I
v
2
d
4
π
·
d
v
L
t ·
s 10 41 . 6
10 56 . 1
10 100
8
4
3
× ·
×
×
·
−
t
A; 1500 m; 10 100 m; 10 00 . 3
3 2
· × · × ·
−
I L d
3 28
m 10 49 . 8
−
× · n
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
13
Explain how electrical devices can begin operating almost
immediately after you switch on, even though the individual
electrons in the wire may take hours to reach the device.
Solution : Solution :
Example 4 :
Each electron in the wire affects its neighbours by exerting Each electron in the wire affects its neighbours by exerting
a force on them, causing them to move. a force on them, causing them to move.
When electrons begin to move out of a battery or source When electrons begin to move out of a battery or source
their motion sets up a propagating influence that moves their motion sets up a propagating influence that moves
through the wire at nearly the speed of light, causing through the wire at nearly the speed of light, causing
electrons everywhere in the wire begin to move. electrons everywhere in the wire begin to move.
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
14
At the end of this chapter, students should be able to: At the end of this chapter, students should be able to:
Define and use resistivity formulae, Define and use resistivity formulae,
State Ohm’s law. State Ohm’s law.
Apply formulae, Apply formulae,
Learning Outcome:
5.2 Resistivity and Ohm’s law (1 hour)
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ρ ·
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
15
5.2.1 Resistance, R
is defined as a ratio of the potential difference across an a ratio of the potential difference across an
electrical component to the current passing through it. electrical component to the current passing through it.
Mathematically,
It is a measure of the component’s opposition to the flow of measure of the component’s opposition to the flow of
the electric charge the electric charge.
It is a scalar scalar quantity and its unit is ohm ohm (
Ω
Ω ) or V A V A
− −1 1
In general, the resistance of a metallic conductor increases resistance of a metallic conductor increases
with temperature with temperature.
5.2 Resistivity and Ohm’s law
I
V
R ·
where
(voltage) difference potential : V
current : I
Note: Note:
If the temperature temperature of the metallic conductor is constant constant hence its
resistance resistance also constant constant.
(5.1) (5.1)
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
16
Resistivity, Resistivity,
ρ
ρ
is defined as the resistance of a unit crosssectional area the resistance of a unit crosssectional area
per unit length of the material per unit length of the material.
Mathematically,
It is a scalar a scalar quantity and its unit is ohm meter ohm meter (
Ω
Ω m m)
It is a measure of a material’s ability to oppose the flow of measure of a material’s ability to oppose the flow of
an electric current an electric current.
It also known as specific resistance specific resistance.
Resistivity depends on the type of the material type of the material and on the
temperature temperature.
A good electric conductors conductors have a very low resistivities low resistivities and
good insulators insulators have very high resistivities high resistivities.
5.2.2 Resistivity and conductivity
l
RA
ρ ·
where material the of length : l
area sectional  cross : A
(5.2) (5.2)
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
17
From the eq. (5.2), the resistance resistance of a conductor depends on
the length and crosssectional area length and crosssectional area.
Table 5.1 shows the resistivity for various materials at 20 °C.
Conductivity, Conductivity,
σ
σ
is defined as the reciprocal of the resistivity of a material. the reciprocal of the resistivity of a material.
Mathematically,
It is a scalar quantity scalar quantity and its unit is
Ω
Ω
− −1 1
m m
− −1 1
.
Material
Resistivity, ρ ( Ω m)
Silver 1.59 × 10
−8
Copper 1.68 × 10
−8
Aluminum 2.82 × 10
−8
Gold 2.44 × 10
−8
Glass 10
10
−10
14
Table 5.1 Table 5.1
ρ
σ
1
·
(5.3) (5.3)
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
18
Two wires P and Q with circular cross section are made of the same
metal and have equal length. If the resistance of wire P is three times
greater than that of wire Q, determine the ratio of their diameters.
Solution : Solution :
Given
Example 5 :
l l l ρ ρ ρ · · · ·
Q P Q P
;
Q P
3R R · and
A
ρl
R ·
3
P
Q
·
d
d
Q
Q Q
P
P P
3
A
l ρ
A
l ρ
· and
4
2
πd
A ·
,
`
.

·
2
Q
2
P
4
3
4
πd
ρl
πd
ρl
OR
3
1
Q
P
·
d
d
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
19
When a potential difference of 240 V is applied across a wire that
is 200 cm long and has a 0.50 mm radius, the current density is
7.14 × 10
9
A m
−2
. Calculate
a. the resistivity of the wire,
b. the conductivity of the wire.
Solution : Solution :
a. From the definition of resistance, thus
b. The conductivity of the wire is given by
Example 6 :
I
V
R ·
m 10 68 . 1
8
Ω × ·
−
ρ
where
A
ρl
R ·
JA
V
A
ρl
· ( )
9
10 14 . 7
240
00 . 2
×
· ρ
1 1 7
8
m 10 95 . 5
10 68 . 1
1
− −
−
Ω × ·
×
· σ
m; 10 50 . 0 m; 00 . 2 V; 240
3 −
× · · · r l V
2 9
m A 10 14 . 7
−
× · J
and JA I ·
ρ
σ
1
·
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
20
States that the potential difference across a metallic the potential difference across a metallic
conductor is proportional to the current flowing through it if conductor is proportional to the current flowing through it if
its temperature is constant. its temperature is constant.
Mathematically,
Ohm’s law also can be stated in term of electric field E and
current density J.
Consider a uniform conductor of length l and crosssectional
area A as shown in Figure 5.5.
5.2.3 Ohm’s law
(5.4) (5.4)
I V ∝
where conductor a of resistance : R
where constant · T
Then
IR V ·
Figure 5.5 Figure 5.5
E
I A
l
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
21
A potential difference V is maintained across the conductor
sets up by an electric field E and this field produce a current
I that is proportional to the potential difference.
If the field is assumed to be uniform, the potential difference
V is related to the field through the relationship below :
From the Ohm’s law,
Ed V · El V ·
IR V · JA I ·
where
,
`
.

·
A
ρl
JA El
A
ρl
R · and
ρJ E ·
σ
ρ
1
·
and
OR
σE J ·
(5.5) (5.5)
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
22
Figures 5.6a, 5.6b, 5.6c and 5.6d show the potential difference
V against current I graphs for various materials.
V
I
0
Gradient, m
= R
Figure 5.6a : metal Figure 5.6a : metal
V
I
0
Figure 5.6b : semiconductor Figure 5.6b : semiconductor
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
23
V
I
0
Figure 5.6c : carbon Figure 5.6c : carbon
V
I
0
Figure 5.6d : electrolyte Figure 5.6d : electrolyte
Note: Note:
Some conductors have resistances resistances which depend on the depend on the
currents currents flowing through them are known as Ohmic conductors Ohmic conductors
and are said to obey Ohm’s law Ohm’s law.
Meanwhile, nonohmic conductors nonohmic conductors are the conductors where
their resistance depend only of the temperature resistance depend only of the temperature.
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
24
A copper wire carries a current of 10.0 A. The cross section of the
wire is a square of side 2.0 mm and its length is 50 m. The density of
the free electron in the wire is 8.0 × 10
28
m
−3
. Determine
a. the current density,
b. the drift velocity of the electrons,
c. the electric field intensity between both end of the wire,
d. the potential difference across the wire,
e. the resistance of the wire.
(Given the resistivity of copper is 1.68 × 10
−8
Ω m and charge of
electron, e = 1.60 × 10
−19
C)
Solution : Solution :
a. The current density is given by
Example 7 :
; m 10 0 . 8 m; 10 0 . 2 A; 0 . 10
3 28 3 − −
× · × · · n a I
m 50 · l
A
I
J ·
2
a A · and
2
a
I
J ·
( )
2 6
2
3
m A 10 5 . 2
10 0 . 2
0 . 10
−
−
× ·
×
· J
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
25
Solution : Solution :
d. By using the equation of drift velocity, thus
c. The electric field intensity is
; m 10 0 . 8 m; 10 0 . 2 A; 0 . 10
3 28 3 − −
× · × · · n a I
m 50 · l
nAe
I
v ·
d
( )( ) ( )
19
2
3 28
d
10 60 . 1 10 0 . 2 10 0 . 8
0 . 10
− −
× × ×
· v
1 4
d
s m 10 95 . 1
− −
× · v
and
2
a A ·
e na
I
v
2
d
·
J E ρ ·
( )( )
6 8
10 5 . 2 10 68 . 1 × × ·
−
E
1
C N 042 . 0
−
· E
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
26
Solution : Solution :
d. By applying the relationship between uniform E and V, hence
e. From the ohm’s law, therefore
; m 10 0 . 8 m; 10 0 . 2 A; 0 . 10
3 28 3 − −
× · × · · n a I
m 50 · l
El V ·
( ) ( ) 50 042 . 0 · V
V 1 . 2 · V
IR V ·
R 0 . 10 1 . 2 ·
Ω · 21 . 0 R
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
27
Exercise 5.1 :
1. A block in the shape of a rectangular solid has a cross
sectional area of 3.50 cm
2
across its width, a front to rear
length of 15.8 cm and a resistance of 935 Ω . The material of
which the block is made has 5.33 × 10
22
electrons m
−3
. A
potential difference of 35.8 V is maintained between its front
and rear faces. Calculate
a. the current in the block,
b. the current density in the block,
c. the drift velocity of the electron,
d. the magnitude of the electric field in the block.
(Fundamentals of Physics,6 (Fundamentals of Physics,6
th th
edition, Halliday, Resnick & edition, Halliday, Resnick &
Walker, Q24, p.631) Walker, Q24, p.631)
ANS. : ANS. : 3.83 3.83 × × 10 10
− −2 2
A; 109 A m A; 109 A m
− −2 2
; 1.28 ; 1.28 × × 10 10
− −2 2
m s m s
− −1 1
; 227 V m ; 227 V m
− −1 1
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
28
Exercise 5.1 :
2.
Figure 5.7 shows a rod in is made of two materials. Each
conductor has a square cross section and 3.00 mm on a side.
The first material has a resistivity of 4.00 × 10
–3
Ω m and is
25.0 cm long, while the second material has a resistivity of
6.00 × 10
–3
Ω m and is 40.0 cm long. Determine the
resistance between the ends of the rod.
(Physics for scientists and engineers,6 (Physics for scientists and engineers,6
th th
edition,Serway&Jewett, edition,Serway&Jewett,
Q24, p.853) Q24, p.853)
ANS. : ANS. : 378 378 Ω Ω
Figure 5.7 Figure 5.7
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
29
Exercise 5.1 :
3. A 2.0 m length of wire is made by welding the end of a 120
cm long silver wire to the end of an 80 cm long copper wire.
Each piece of wire is 0.60 mm in diameter. A potential
difference of 5.0 V is maintained between the ends of the 2.0
m composite wire. Determine
a. the current in the copper and silver wires.
b. the magnitude of the electric field in copper and silver
wires.
c. the potential difference between the ends of the silver
section of wire.
(Given ρ (silver) is 1.47 × 10
−8
Ω m and ρ (copper) is 1.72
× 10
−8
Ω m)
(University physics,11 (University physics,11
th th
edition, Young&Freedman, Q25.56, edition, Young&Freedman, Q25.56,
p.976) p.976)
ANS. : ANS. : 45 A; 2.76 V m 45 A; 2.76 V m
− −1 1
, 2.33 V m , 2.33 V m
− −1 1
; 2.79 V ; 2.79 V
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
30
At the end of this chapter, students should be able to: At the end of this chapter, students should be able to:
Explain Explain the effect of temperature on electrical resistance the effect of temperature on electrical resistance
in metals and superconductors in metals and superconductors
Define and explain Define and explain temperature coefficient of temperature coefficient of
resistivity, resistivity,
α
α . .
Apply Apply formulae : formulae :
Learning Outcome:
5.3 Variation of resistance with temperature
(1 hour)
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( ) [ ]
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PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
31
5.3.1 Effect of temperature on resistance
Metal Metal
When the temperature increases temperature increases, the number of free number of free
electrons per unit volume electrons per unit volume in metal remains unchanged remains unchanged.
Metal atoms Metal atoms in the crystal lattice vibrate with greater vibrate with greater
amplitude amplitude and cause the number of collisions cause the number of collisions between the
free electrons and metal atoms increase increase. Hence the resistance resistance
in the metal increases in the metal increases.
Superconductor Superconductor
Superconductor is a class of metals and compound a class of metals and compound whose
resistance decreases to zero resistance decreases to zero when they are below the below the
critical temperature critical temperature T T
c c
.
5.3 Variation of resistance with
temperature
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
32
Table 5.2 shows the critical temperature for various
superconductors.
When the temperature temperature of the metal decreases decreases, its resistance
decreases to zero at critical temperature decreases to zero at critical temperature.
Superconductor have many technological applications such as
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
magnetic levitation of train
faster computer chips
powerful electric motors and etc…
Material
T
c
( K)
Lead 7.18
Mercury 4.15
Tin 3.72
Aluminum 1.19
Zinc 0.88
Table 5.2 Table 5.2
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
33
is defined as a fractional increase in resistivity of a fractional increase in resistivity of a
conductor per unit rise in temperature conductor per unit rise in temperature.
OR
Since
∆
∆
ρ
ρ = =
ρ
ρ
−
−
ρ
ρ
0 0
then
The unit of α is ° °C C
− −1 1
OR K K
− − 1 1
.
From the equation (5.7), the resistivity of a conductors varies resistivity of a conductors varies
approximately linearly with temperature approximately linearly with temperature.
5.3.2 Temperature coefficient of resistivity, α
T ρ
ρ
α
∆
∆
·
0
where y resistivit in the change : ρ ∆
0
change ure temperat : T T T − · ∆
y resistivit initial :
0
ρ
y resistivit final : ρ
where
( ) T α ρ ρ ∆ + · 1
0
(5.6) (5.6)
(5.7) (5.7)
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
34
From the definition of resistivity, thus
then the equation (5.7) can be expressed as
Table 5.3 shows the temperature coefficients of resistivity for
various materials.
R ρ ∝
( ) T α R R ∆ + · 1
0
(5.8) (5.8)
where resistance initial :
0
R
resistance final : R
Material
α (°C
−1
)
Silver 4.10 × 10
−3
Mercury 0.89 × 10
−3
Iron 6.51 × 10
−3
Aluminum 4.29 × 10
−3
Copper 6.80 × 10
−3
Table 5.3 Table 5.3
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
35
Figures 5.8a, 5.8b, 5.8c and 5.8d show the resistance R against
temperature T graphs for various materials.
R
T
0
0
R
c
T
Figure 5.8a : metal Figure 5.8a : metal
Figure 5.8b : semiconductor Figure 5.8b : semiconductor
R
T
0
R
T
0
Figure 5.8c : superconductor Figure 5.8c : superconductor
R
T
0
Figure 5.8d : carbon Figure 5.8d : carbon
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
36
A copper wire has a resistance of 25 mΩ at 20 °C. When the wire is
carrying a current, heat produced by the current causes the
temperature of the wire to increase by 27 °C.
a. Calculate the change in the wire’s resistance.
b. If its original current was 10.0 mA and the potential difference
across wire remains constant, what is its final current?
(Given the temperature coefficient of resistivity for copper is
6.80 × 10
−3
°C
−1
)
Solution : Solution :
a. By using the equation for temperature variation of resistance, thus
Example 8 :
C 27 C; 20 ; 10 25
0
3
0
· ∆ · Ω × ·
−
T T R
( ) T α R R ∆ + · 1
0
R R R ∆ · −
0
and
Ω × · ∆
−
10 59 . 4
3
R
T α R R R ∆ · −
0 0
T α R R ∆ · ∆
0
( )( )( ) 27 10 80 . 6 10 25
3 3 − −
× × · ∆R
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
37
Solution : Solution :
b. Given
By using the equation for temperature variation of resistance,
thus
C 27 C; 20 ; 10 25
0
3
0
· ∆ · Ω × ·
−
T T R
( ) T α R R ∆ + · 1
0
0
I
V
R · and where
I
V
R ·
A 10 0 . 10
3
0
−
× · I
( ) T α
I
V
I
V
∆ + · 1
0
( )
( )( ) [ ] 27 10 80 . 6 1
10 0 . 10
1 1
3
3
−
−
× +
×
·
I
A 10 45 . 8
3 −
× · I
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
38
At the end of this chapter, students should be able to: At the end of this chapter, students should be able to:
Define Define emf, emf,
ε
ε
Explain Explain the difference between emf of a battery and the difference between emf of a battery and
potential difference across the battery terminals. potential difference across the battery terminals.
Apply Apply formulae, formulae,
Learning Outcome:
5.4 Electromotive force (emf), potential difference
and internal resistance (½ hour)
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Ir ε V − ·
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
39
5.4.1 Emf, ε and potential difference, V
Consider a circuit consisting of a battery (cell) that is connected
by wires to an external resistor R as shown in Figure 5.9.
5.4 Electromotive force (emf), potential
difference and internal resistance
I Battery (cell)
A
B
r
ε
R
I
Figure 5.9 Figure 5.9
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
40
A current I flows from the terminal A to the terminal B.
For the current to flow continuously from terminal A to B, a source
of electromotive force (e.m.f.), ε is required such as battery to
maintained the potential difference between point A and point B.
Electromotive force (emf),ε is defined as the energy provided the energy provided
by the source (battery/cell) to each unit charge that flows by the source (battery/cell) to each unit charge that flows
through the external and internal resistances through the external and internal resistances.
Terminal potential difference (voltage), V is defined as the work work
done in bringing a unit (test) charge from the negative to the done in bringing a unit (test) charge from the negative to the
positive terminals of the battery through the external positive terminals of the battery through the external
resistance only resistance only.
The unit unit for both e.m.f. and potential difference are volt ( volt (V V) ).
When the current I flows naturally from the battery there is an
internal drop in potential difference (voltage) equal to Ir. Thus the
terminal potential difference (voltage), V is given by
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
41
then
Equation (5.9) is valid if the battery (cell) supplied the current if the battery (cell) supplied the current
to the circuit to the circuit where
For the battery without internal resistance or if no current battery without internal resistance or if no current
flows in the circuit (open circuit) flows in the circuit (open circuit), then equation (5.9) can be
written as
Ir ε V − ·
(5.9) (5.9)
and
IR V ·
( ) r R I ε + · (5.10) (5.10)
where e.m.f. : ε
(voltage) difference potential terminal : V
r
OR difference potential in drop internal : V Ir
resistance external total : R
(battery) cell a of resistance internal : r
ε V <
ε V ·
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
42
is defined as the resistance of the chemicals inside the the resistance of the chemicals inside the
battery (cell) between the poles and is given by battery (cell) between the poles and is given by
The value of internal resistance depends on the type of depends on the type of
chemical material chemical material in the battery.
The symbol of emf and internal resistance in the electrical circuit
are shown in Figures 5.10a and 5.10b.
5.4.2 Internal resistance of a battery, r
I
V
r
when the cell (battery) is used. when the cell (battery) is used.
where
resistance internal across difference potential :
r
V
circuit in the current : I
r
ε
OR
r
ε
Figure 5.10a Figure 5.10a Figure 5.10b Figure 5.10b
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
43
A battery has an emf of 9.0 V and an internal resistance of 6.0 Ω .
Determine
a. the potential difference across its terminals when it is supplying a
current of 0.50 A,
b. the maximum current which the battery could supply.
Solution : Solution :
a. Given
By applying the expression for emf, thus
b. The current is maximum when the total external resistance, R =0,
therefore
Example 9 :
Ω · · 0 . 6 V; 0 . 9 r ε
A 50 . 0 · I
V 0 . 6 · V
( )( ) 0 . 6 50 . 0 0 . 9 + ·V
Ir V ε + ·
A 5 . 1
max
· I
( ) 0 . 6 0 0 . 9
max
+ · I
( ) r R I ε + ·
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
44
A car battery has an emf of 12.0 V and an internal resistance of
1.0 Ω . The external resistor of resistance 5.0 Ω is connected in
series with the battery as shown in Figure 5.11.
Determine the reading of the ammeter and voltmeter if both meters
are ideal.
Example 10 :
R
V V
ε
r
A A
Figure 5.11 Figure 5.11
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
45
Solution : Solution :
By applying the equation of e.m.f., the current in the circuit is
Therefore the reading of the ammeter is 2.0 A 2.0 A.
The voltmeter measures voltmeter measures the potential difference across the potential difference across the
terminals terminals of the battery equal to the potential difference across equal to the potential difference across
the total external resistor the total external resistor, thus its reading is
Ω · Ω · · 0 . 5 ; 0 . 1 V; 0 . 12 R r ε
IR V ·
A 0 . 2 · I
( ) r R I ε + ·
( ) 0 . 1 0 . 5 0 . 12 + · I
( ) ( ) 0 . 5 0 . 2 · V
V 10 · V
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
46
At the end of this chapter, students should be able to: At the end of this chapter, students should be able to:
Apply Apply formula, formula,
Learning Outcome:
5.5 Electrical energy and power (½ hour)
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VI P ·
VIt W ·
and
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
47
5.5.1 Electrical energy, E
Consider a circuit consisting of a battery that is connected by
wires to an electrical device (such as a lamp, motor or battery
being charged) as shown in Figure 5.12 where the potential
different across that electrical device is V.
5.5 Electrical energy and power
Figure 5.12 Figure 5.12
Electrical device Electrical device
A B
V I
I
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
48
A current I flows from the terminal A to the terminal B, if it flows
for time t, the charge Q which it carries from B to A is given by
Then the work done on this charge Q from B to A (equal to the equal to the
electrical energy supplied electrical energy supplied) is
If the electrical device is passive resistor passive resistor (device which
convert all the electrical energy supplied into heat convert all the electrical energy supplied into heat), the heat
dissipated H is given by
QV W ·
It Q ·
VIt E W · · (5.11) (5.11)
VIt W H · ·
OR
Rt I H
2
·
(5.12) (5.12)
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
49
is defined as the energy liberated per unit time in the the energy liberated per unit time in the
electrical device electrical device.
The electrical power P supplied to the electrical device is given
by
When the electric current flows through wire or passive resistor,
hence the potential difference across it is
then the electrical power can be written as
It is a scalar scalar quantity and its unit is watts ( watts (W W) ).
5.5.2 Power, P
t
VIt
t
W
P · ·
IV P ·
(5.13) (5.13)
IR V ·
R I P
2
·
OR
R
V
P
2
·
(5.14) (5.14)
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
50
In Figure 5.13, a battery has an emf of 12 V and an internal resistance
of 1.0 Ω . Determine
a. the rate of energy transferred to electrical energy in the battery,
b. the rate of heat dissipated in the battery,
c. the amount of heat loss in the 5.0 Ω resistor if the current flows
through it for 20 minutes.
Example 11 :
Figure 5.13 Figure 5.13
R
ε
r
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
51
Solution : Solution :
The current in the circuit is given by
a. The rate of energy transferred to electrical energy (power) in the
battery is
b. The rate of heat dissipated due to the internal resistance is
c. Given
The amount of heat loss in the resistor is
Ω · Ω · · 0 . 5 ; 0 . 1 V; 0 . 12 R r ε
Iε P ·
A 0 . 2 · I
( ) r R I ε + ·
( ) 0 . 1 0 . 5 0 . 12 + · I
( ) ( ) 0 . 12 0 . 2 · P
W 24 · P
r I P
2
· ( ) ( ) 0 . 1 0 . 2
2
· P
W 0 . 4 · P
( ) s 1200 60 20 · · t
Rt I H
2
· ( ) ( )1200 0 . 5 0 . 2
2
· H
J 10 4 . 2
4
× · H
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
52
Cells in series Cells in series
Consider two cells are connected in series as shown in Figure
5.14.
The total emf, ε and the total internal resistance, r are given
by
5.5.3 Combination of cells
1
r
2
r
1
ε
2
ε
Figure 5.14 Figure 5.14
2 1
r r r + ·
2 1
ε ε ε + ·
and
(5.15) (5.15)
(5.16) (5.16)
Note: Note:
If one cell, e.m.f. ε
2
say, is turned round ‘in opposition ‘in opposition’ to the others,
then but the total internal resistance remains unaltered total internal resistance remains unaltered.
2 1
ε ε ε − ·
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
53
Cells in parallel Cells in parallel
Consider two equal cells are connected in parallel as shown in
Figure 5.15.
The total emf, ε and the total internal resistance, r are given
by
1
r
1
r
1
ε
1
ε
Figure 5.15 Figure 5.15
1 1
1 1 1
r r r
+ ·
1
ε ε ·
and
(5.17) (5.17)
(5.18) (5.18)
Note: Note:
If different cells are connected in parallel different cells are connected in parallel, there is no simple
formula for the total emf and the total internal resistance where
Kirchhoff’s laws Kirchhoff’s laws have to be used.
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
54
Exercise 5.2 :
1. A wire of unknown composition has a resistance of 35.0 Ω when
immersed in the water at 20.0 °C. When the wire is placed in the
boiling water, its resistance rises to 47.6 Ω . Calculate the
temperature on a hot day when the wire has a resistance of 37.8
Ω .
(Physics,7 (Physics,7
th th
edition, Cutnell & Johnson, Q15, p.639) edition, Cutnell & Johnson, Q15, p.639)
ANS. : ANS. : 37.8 37.8 ° °C C
2. a. A battery of emf 6.0 V is connected across a 10 Ω resistor.
If the potential difference across the resistor is 5.0 V,
determine
i. the current in the circuit,
ii. the internal resistance of the battery.
b. When a 1.5 V dry cell is shortcircuited, a current of 3.0 A
flows through the cell. What is the internal resistance of the cell?
ANS. : ANS. : 0.50 A, 2.0 0.50 A, 2.0 Ω Ω ; 0.50 ; 0.50 Ω Ω
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
55
Exercise 5.2 :
3. An electric toy of resistance 2.50 Ω is operated by a dry cell
of emf 1.50 V and an internal resistance 0.25 Ω .
a. What is the current does the toy drawn?
b. If the cell delivers a steady current for 6.00 hours,
calculate the charge pass through the toy.
c. Determine the energy was delivered to the toy.
ANS. : ANS. : 0.55 A; 1.19 0.55 A; 1.19 × × 10 10
4 4
C; 16.3 kJ C; 16.3 kJ
4. A wire 5.0 m long and 3.0 mm in diameter has a resistance of
100 Ω . A 15 V of potential difference is applied across the
wire. Determine
a. the current in the wire,
b. the resistivity of the wire,
c. the rate at which heat is being produced in the wire.
(College Physics,6 (College Physics,6
th th
edition, Wilson, Buffa & Lou, Q75, p.589) edition, Wilson, Buffa & Lou, Q75, p.589)
ANS. : ANS. : 0.15 A; 1.40 0.15 A; 1.40 × × 10 10
− −4 4
Ω Ω m; 2.30 W m; 2.30 W
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
56
At the end of this chapter, students should be able to: At the end of this chapter, students should be able to:
Deduce Deduce effective resistance of resistors in series and effective resistance of resistors in series and
parallel. parallel.
Calculate Calculate effective resistance of resistors in series and effective resistance of resistors in series and
parallel. parallel.
Learning Outcome:
5.6 Resistors in series and parallel (1 hour)
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PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
57
5.6.1 Resistors in series
The symbol of resistor in an electrical circuit can be shown in
Figure 5.16.
Consider three resistors are connected in series to the battery
as shown in Figure 5.17.
5.6 Resistors in series and parallel
OR
R
R
Figure 5.16 Figure 5.16
1
R
2
R
3
R
V
1
V
2
V
3
V
I
I
Figure 5.17 Figure 5.17
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
58
Characteristics of resistors in series Characteristics of resistors in series
The same current same current I I flows through each resistor flows through each resistor where
Assuming that the connecting wires have no resistance Assuming that the connecting wires have no resistance, the
total potential difference, V is given by
From the definition of resistance, thus
Substituting for V
1
, V
2
, V
3
and V in the eq. (5.19) gives
(5.19) (5.19)
(5.20) (5.20)
3 2 1
I I I I · · ·
3 2 1
V V V V + + ·
;
2 2
IR V · ;
3 3
IR V ·
;
1 1
IR V ·
eff
IR V ·
3 2 1 eff
IR IR IR IR + + ·
3 2 1 eff
R R R R + + ·
where resistance t) (equivalen effective :
eff
R
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
59
V
1
R
3
R
2
R
Consider three resistors are connected in parallel to the battery
as shown in Figures 5.18a and 5.18b.
5.6.2 Resistors in parallel
I
I
2
I
1
I
3
I
1
V
2
V
3
V
V
1
R
3
R
2
R
I
I
1
I
3
I
2
I
Figure 5.18a Figure 5.18a
Figure 5.18b Figure 5.18b
2
V
3
V
1
V
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
60
Characteristics of resistors in parallel Characteristics of resistors in parallel
There same potential difference, same potential difference, V V across each resistor across each resistor
where
The charge is conserved charge is conserved, therefore the total current I in the
circuit is given by
From the definition of resistance, thus
Substituting for I
1
, I
2
, I
3
and I in the eq. (5.21) gives
(5.21) (5.21)
(5.22) (5.22)
3 2 1
V V V V · · ·
3 2 1
I I I I + + ·
;
2
2
R
V
I · ;
3
3
R
V
I ·
;
1
1
R
V
I ·
eff
R
V
I ·
3 2 1 eff
R
V
R
V
R
V
R
V
+ + ·
3 2 1 eff
1 1 1 1
R R R R
+ + ·
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
61
For the circuit in Figure 5.19, calculate
a. the effective resistance of the circuit,
b. the current passes through the 12 Ω resistor,
c. the potential difference across 4.0 Ω resistor,
d. the power delivered by the battery.
The internal resistance of the battery may be ignored.
Example 12 :
Figure 5.19 Figure 5.19
Ω 0 . 4
Ω 0 . 2
V 0 . 8
Ω 12
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
62
Solution : Solution :
a.
The resistors R
1
and R
2
are in series, thus R
12
is
Since R
12
and R
3
are in parallel, therefore R
eff
is given by
V 0 . 8 ; 0 . 2 ; 12 ; 0 . 4
3 2 1
· Ω · Ω · Ω · V R R R
1
R
V
2
R
3
R
12
R
V
3
R
Ω · 16
12
R
2 1 12
R R R + · 12 0 . 4
12
+ · R
3 12 eff
1 1 1
R R R
+ ·
2
1
16
1 1
eff
+ ·
R
Ω · 78 . 1
eff
R
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
63
Solution : Solution :
b. Since R
12
and R
3
are in parallel, thus
Therefore the current passes through R
2
is given by
c. Since R
1
and R
2
are in series, thus
Hence the potential difference across R
1
is
d. The power delivered by the battery is
V 0 . 8 ; 0 . 2 ; 12 ; 0 . 4
3 2 1
· Ω · Ω · Ω · V R R R
A 50 . 0
2
· I
V 0 . 8
3 12
· · · V V V
12
12
2
R
V
I ·
A 50 . 0
2 1
· · I I
1 1 1
R I V ·
V 0 . 2
1
· V
16
0 . 8
2
· I
( ) 0 . 4 50 . 0
1
· V
eff
2
R
V
P ·
( )
78 . 1
0 . 8
2
· P
W 0 . 36 · P
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
64
For the circuit in Figure 5.20, calculate the effective resistance
between the points A and B.
Solution : Solution :
; 20 ; 10 ; 0 . 5 ; 0 . 5
4 3 2 1
Ω · Ω · Ω · Ω · R R R R
Ω · 10
5
R
Example 13 :
Figure 5.20 Figure 5.20
Ω 0 . 5
Ω 10
Ω 10
A
B
Ω 0 . 5
Ω 20
2
R
3
R
5
R
A
B
1
R
4
R
3
R
5
R
A
B
12
R
4
R
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
65
Solution : Solution :
R
1
and R
2
are connected in series, thus R
12
is
2 1 12
R R R + ·
; 20 ; 10 ; 0 . 5 ; 0 . 5
4 3 2 1
Ω · Ω · Ω · Ω · R R R R
Ω · 10
5
R
Ω · + · 10 0 . 5 0 . 5
12
R
5
R
A
B
123
R
4
R
Since R
12
and R
3
are connected in
parallel , thus R
123
is given by
3 12 123
1 1 1
R R R
+ ·
Ω · 0 . 5
123
R
10
1
10
1 1
123
+ ·
R
5
R
A
B
1234
R
R
123
and R
4
are connected in series ,
thus R
1234
is given by
4 123 1234
R R R + ·
Ω · 25
1234
R
20 0 . 5
1234
+ · R
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
66
Solution : Solution :
Since R
1234
and R
5
are connected in parallel , therefore the effective
resistance R
eff
is given by
; 20 ; 10 ; 0 . 5 ; 0 . 5
4 3 2 1
Ω · Ω · Ω · Ω · R R R R
Ω · 10
5
R
5 1234 eff
1 1 1
R R R
+ ·
Ω · 14 . 7
eff
R
10
1
25
1 1
eff
+ ·
R
A
B
eff
R
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
67
Exercise 5.3 :
1. Determine the equivalent resistances of the resistors in Figures
5.21, 5.22 and 5.23.
ANS. : ANS. : 0.80 0.80 Ω Ω ; 2.7 ; 2.7 Ω Ω ; 8.0 ; 8.0 Ω Ω
Ω 0 . 2
Ω 0 . 2
Ω 0 . 2
Ω 0 . 2
Figure 5.21 Figure 5.21 Figure 5.22 Figure 5.22
Ω 0 . 6
Ω 0 1
Ω 0 . 6
Ω 0 . 4
Ω 18
Ω 16
Ω 0 . 8
Ω 0 . 9
Ω 16
Ω 0 . 6
Ω 20
Figure 5.23 Figure 5.23
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
68
2.
The circuit in Figure 5.24 includes a battery with a finite internal
resistance, r = 0.50 Ω .
a. Determine the current flowing through the 7.1 Ω and 3.2 Ω
resistors.
b. How much current flows through the battery?
c. What is the potential difference between the terminals of the
battery?
(Physics,3 (Physics,3
th th
edition, James S. Walker, Q39, p.728) edition, James S. Walker, Q39, p.728)
ANS. : ANS. : 1.1 A, 0.3 A; 1.4 A; 11.3 V 1.1 A, 0.3 A; 1.4 A; 11.3 V
Ω 0 . 1
V 12
r
Ω 1 . 7
Ω 8 . 5
Ω 5 . 4
Ω 2 . 3
Figure 5.24 Figure 5.24
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
69
3.
Four identical resistors are connected to a battery as shown in
Figure 5.25. When the switch is open, the current through the
battery is I
0
.
a. When the switch is closed, will the current through the
battery increase, decrease or stay the same? Explain.
b. Calculate the current that flows through the battery when
the switch is closed, Give your answer in terms of I
0
.
(Physics,3 (Physics,3
th th
edition, James S. Walker, Q45, p.728) edition, James S. Walker, Q45, p.728)
ANS. : ANS. : U think U think
Figure 5.25 Figure 5.25
ε
R
R
R
R
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
70
At the end of this chapter, students should be able to: At the end of this chapter, students should be able to:
State and use State and use Kirchhoff’s Laws. Kirchhoff’s Laws.
Learning Outcome:
5.7 Kirchhoff’s laws (1 hour)
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PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
71
5.7.1 Kirchhoff’s first law (junction or current law)
states the algebraic sum of the currents entering any the algebraic sum of the currents entering any
junctions in a circuit must equal the algebraic sum of the junctions in a circuit must equal the algebraic sum of the
currents leaving that junction currents leaving that junction.
OR
For example :
5.7 Kirchhoff’s laws
∑ ∑
·
out in
I I (5.23) (5.23)
A B
2
I
1
I
5
I
4
I
3
I
3
I
3 2 1
I I I · +
5 4 3
I I I + ·
∑ ∑
·
out in
I I
Figure 5.26 Figure 5.26
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
72
states in any closed loop, the algebraic sum of emfs is in any closed loop, the algebraic sum of emfs is
equal to the algebraic sum of the products of current and equal to the algebraic sum of the products of current and
resistance resistance.
OR In any closed loop, In any closed loop,
Sign convention Sign convention
For emf, ε :
5.7.2 Kirchhoff’s second law (loop or voltage law)
∑ ∑
· ε IR (5.24) (5.24)
ε +
ε
direction of loop direction of loop
+ +
 
ε −
 
ε
+ +
direction of loop direction of loop
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
73
For product of IR:
Choose and labeling Choose and labeling the current at each junction in the circuit
given.
Choose any one junction Choose any one junction in the circuit and apply the apply the
Kirchhoff’s first law Kirchhoff’s first law.
Choose any two closed loops Choose any two closed loops in the circuit and designate a
direction (clockwise clockwise OR anticlockwise anticlockwise) to travel around the
loop in applying the Kirchhoff’s second law applying the Kirchhoff’s second law.
Solving the simultaneous equation Solving the simultaneous equation to determine the unknown
currents and unknown variables.
IR +
direction of loop direction of loop
I
R
IR −
I
R
direction of loop direction of loop
5.7.3 Problem solving strategy (Kirchhoff’s Laws)
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
74
For example, Consider a circuit is shown in Figure 5.27a.
At junction A or D (applying the Kirchhoff’s first law) :
1
R
3
R
1
ε
E
D
F
2
R
2
ε
3
ε
C
A
B
1
I
1
I
1
I
1
I
2
I
2
I
3
I 3
I
3
I
3
I
Loop 1
Loop 1
Loop 2
Loop 2
Loop 3
Loop 3
Figure 5.27a Figure 5.27a
∑ ∑
·
out in
I I
3 2 1
I I I + · (1) (1)
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
75
For the closed loop (either clockwise or anticlockwise), apply
the Kirchhoff’s second law.
From Loop 1
Figure 5.27b Figure 5.27b
(2) (2)
FEDAF
1
ε
1
R
E
D
F
2
R
2
ε
A
1
I
1
I
1
I
1
I
2
I
2
I
Loop 1
Loop 1
1 1 2 2 2 1
R I R I ε ε + · +
∑ ∑
· ε IR
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
76
From Loop 2
Figure 5.27c Figure 5.27c
(3) (3)
ABCDA
2
ε
3
R
D
2
R
3
ε
C
A
B
2
I
2
I
3
I 3
I
3
I
3
I
Loop 2
Loop 2
3 3 2 2 3 2
R I R I ε ε − · −
∑ ∑
· ε IR
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
77
From Loop 3
By solving equation (1) and any two equations from the By solving equation (1) and any two equations from the
closed loop closed loop, hence each current in the circuit can be
determined.
Figure 5.27d Figure 5.27d
(4) (4)
FECBF
1
R
3
R
1
ε
E F
3
ε
C
B
1
I
1
I
1
I
1
I
3
I 3
I
3
I
3
I
Loop 3
Loop 3
1 1 3 3 3 1
R I R I ε ε + · +
Note: Note:
From the calculation,
sometimes we get
negative value of
current. This negative negative
sign indicates sign indicates that
the direction of the direction of the
actual current actual current is
opposite opposite to the
direction of the direction of the
current drawn current drawn.
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
78
For the circuit in Figure 5.28, Determine the current and its direction
in the circuit.
Example 14 :
Figure 5.28 Figure 5.28
Ω 1 . 15
Ω .22 6
Ω 50 . 8
Ω 2 , V 1.5 1
Ω 4 , V 5.0 1
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
79
Solution : Solution :
By applying the Kirchhoff’s 2
nd
law, thus
∑ ∑
· IR ε
A 74 . 0 · I
I I I I I 4 50 . 8 2 22 . 6 1 . 15 5 . 11 0 . 15 + + + + · +
Ω 1 . 15
Ω .22 6
Ω 50 . 8
Ω 2 , V 1.5 1
Ω 4 , V 5.0 1
Loop 1
Loop 1
I
I
I
I
(anticlockwise) (anticlockwise)
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
80
For the circuit in Figure 5.29, determine
a. the currents I
1
, I
2
and I,
b. the potential difference across the 6.7 Ω resistor,
c. the power dissipated from the 1.2 Ω resistor.
Example 15 :
Figure 5.29 Figure 5.29
Ω 8 . 9
Ω 9 . 3
V .0 9 V 2 1
Ω 7 . 6
Ω .2 1
I
1
I
2
I
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
81
Solution : Solution :
a.
At junction A, by using the Kirchhoff’s 1
st
law, thus
By using the Kirchhoff’s 2
nd
law,
From Loop 1:
∑ ∑
·
out in
I I
I I I · +
2 1
Ω 8 . 9
Ω 9 . 3
V .0 9 V 2 1
Ω 7 . 6
Ω .2 1
1
I
2
I
I
1
I
2
I
I
A
B
Loop 1
Loop 1
Loop 2
Loop 2
(1) (1)
∑ ∑
· IR ε
1 1
8 . 9 2 . 1 9 . 3 12 I I I + + ·
12 2 . 1 7 . 13
1
· + I I (2) (2)
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
82
Solution : Solution :
a. From Loop 2:
By solving the simultaneous equations, we get
b. The potential difference across the 6.7 Ω resistor is given by
c. The power dissipated from the 1.2 Ω resistor is
∑ ∑
· IR ε
I I 2 . 1 7 . 6 0 . 9
2
+ ·
0 . 9 2 . 1 7 . 6
2
· + I I (3) (3)
A 75 . 1 A; 03 . 1 A; 72 . 0
2 1
· · · I I I
R I V
2
·
( ) 7 . 6 03 . 1 · V
V 90 . 6 · V
R I P
2
·
( ) ( ) 2 . 1 75 . 1
2
· P
W 68 . 3 · P
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
83
Exercise 5.4 :
1. For a circuit in Figure 5.30,
Given ε
1
= 8V, R
2
= 2 Ω , R
3
= 3 Ω , R
1
= 1 Ω and I = 3
A. Ignore the internal resistance in each battery. Calculate
a. the currents I
1
and I
2
.
b. the emf, ε
2
.
ANS. : ANS. : 1.0 A, 4.0 A; 17 V 1.0 A, 4.0 A; 17 V
Figure 5.30 Figure 5.30
3
R
1
ε
2
R
2
ε
1
I
2
I
I
1
R
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
84
Exercise 5.4 :
2.
Determine the current in each resistor in the circuit shown in
Figure 5.31.
(College Physics,6 (College Physics,6
th th
edition, Wilson, Buffa & Lou, Q57, p.619) edition, Wilson, Buffa & Lou, Q57, p.619)
ANS. : ANS. : 3.75 A; 1.25 A; 1.25 A 3.75 A; 1.25 A; 1.25 A
Figure 5.31 Figure 5.31
Ω 0 . 4
Ω 0 . 4
V .0 5
V .0 5
Ω .0 4
V 0 1
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
85
At the end of this chapter, students should be able to: At the end of this chapter, students should be able to:
Explain Explain the principle of a potential divider. the principle of a potential divider.
Apply Apply equation of potential divider equation of potential divider,
Learning Outcome:
5.8 Potential divider (½ hour)
w
w
w
.
k
m
p
h
.
m
a
t
r
i
k
.
e
d
u
.
m
y
/
p
h
y
s
i
c
s
w
w
w
.
k
m
p
h
.
m
a
t
r
i
k
.
e
d
u
.
m
y
/
p
h
y
s
i
c
s
V
R R
R
V
,
`
.

+
·
2 1
1
1
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
86
A potential divider produces an output voltage that is a fraction fraction
of the supply voltage of the supply voltage V V. This is done by connecting two
resistors in series as shown in Figure 5.32.
Since the current flowing current flowing through each resistor is the same same,
thus
5.8 Potential divider
V
1
V
1
R
I
2
V
2
R
I
2 1 eff
R R R + ·
eff
R
V
I ·
and
2 1
R R
V
I
+
·
Figure 5.32 Figure 5.32
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
87
Therefore, the potential difference (voltage) across R
1
is given
by
Similarly,
Resistance R
1
and R
2
can be replaced by a uniform uniform
homogeneous wire homogeneous wire as shown in Figure 5.33.
Figure 5.33 Figure 5.33
1 1
IR V ·
V
R R
R
V
,
`
.

+
·
2 1
1
1
V
R R
R
V
,
`
.

+
·
2 1
2
2
(5.25) (5.25)
(5.26) (5.26)
V
I
2
l
1
l
I
B
A
C
2
V
1
V
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
88
The total resistance, R
AB
in the wire is
Since the current flowing current flowing through the wire is the same same, thus
A
ρl
R ·
CB AC AB
R R R + ·
A
ρl
A
ρl
R
2 1
AB
+ ·
and
AB
R
V
I ·
( )
2 1
l l
A
ρ
V
I
+
·
( )
2 1 AB
l l
A
ρ
R + ·
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
89
Therefore, the potential difference (voltage) across the wire with
length l
1
is given by
Similarly,
AC 1
IR V ·
( )
,
`
.

]
]
]
]
]
+
·
A
ρl
l l
A
ρ
V
V
1
2 1
1
V
l l
l
V
,
`
.

+
·
2 1
1
1
(5.27) (5.27)
V
l l
l
V
,
`
.

+
·
2 1
2
2
(5.28) (5.28)
Note: Note:
From Ohm’s law,
l V ∝
,
`
.

· ·
A
ρl
I IR V
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
90
For the circuit in Figure 5.34,
a. calculate the output voltage.
b. If a voltmeter of resistance 4000 Ω is connected across the output,
determine the reading of the voltmeter.
Example 16 :
Figure 5.34 Figure 5.34
Ω 000 4
V 2 1
Ω 000 8
out
V
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
91
Solution : Solution :
a. The output voltage is given by
b. The connection between the voltmeter and 4000 Ω resistor is
parallel parallel, thus the equivalent resistance is
Hence the new output voltage is given by
Therefore the reading of the voltmeter is 2.4 V. reading of the voltmeter is 2.4 V.
V 12 ; 4000 ; 8000
2 1
· Ω · Ω · V R R
V
R R
R
V
,
`
.

+
·
2 1
2
out
V 0 . 4
out
· V
4000
1
4000
1 1
eq
+ ·
R
12
4000 8000
4000
out
,
`
.

+
· V
Ω · 2000
eq
R
V 4 . 2
out
· V
12
2000 8000
2000
out
,
`
.

+
· V
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
92
At the end of this chapter, students should be able to: At the end of this chapter, students should be able to:
Explain Explain principles of potentiometer and Wheatstone principles of potentiometer and Wheatstone
Bridge and Bridge and their applications their applications. .
Use Use related equations such as related equations such as
Learning Outcome:
5.9 Potentiometer and Wheatstone bridge (½ hour)
w
w
w
.
k
m
p
h
.
m
a
t
r
i
k
.
e
d
u
.
m
y
/
p
h
y
s
i
c
s
w
w
w
.
k
m
p
h
.
m
a
t
r
i
k
.
e
d
u
.
m
y
/
p
h
y
s
i
c
s
x
3
2
1
R
R
R
R
·
l
l
R
R
x x
·
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
93
5.9.1 Potentiometer
Consider a potentiometer circuit is shown in Figure 5.35.
The potentiometer is balanced balanced when the jockey (sliding contact)
is at such a position on wire AB that there is no current no current
through the galvanometer through the galvanometer. Thus
5.9 Potentiometer and Wheatstone bridge
Figure 5.35 Figure 5.35
(Driver cell accumulator)
Jockey
V
B
A
C
x
V
I
G G
+ 
I
I I
Galvanometer reading = 0 Galvanometer reading = 0
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
94
When the potentiometer in balanced, the unknown voltage unknown voltage
(potential difference being measured) is equal to the (potential difference being measured) is equal to the
voltage across AC voltage across AC.
Potentiometer can be used to
compare the emfs compare the emfs of two cells.
measure an unknown emf measure an unknown emf of a cell.
measure the internal resistance measure the internal resistance of a cell.
Compare the emfs of two cells Compare the emfs of two cells
In this case, a potentiometer is set up as illustrated in Figure
5.36, in which AB is a wire of uniform resistance and J is a
sliding contact (jockey) onto the wire.
An accumulator X maintains a steady current I through the wire
AB.
AC x
V V ·
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
95
Initially, a switch S is connected to the terminal (1) and the
jockey moved until the emf ε
1
exactly balances the potential
difference (p.d.) from the accumulator (galvanometer reading is
zero) at point C. Hence
Figure 5.36 Figure 5.36
X
B
A
I
G G
I
(2)
(1)
2
ε
S S
I I
1
ε
C
J J
D
1
l
2
l
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
96
After that, the switch S is connected to the terminal (2) and the
jockey moved until the emf ε
2
balances the p.d. from the
accumulator at point D. Hence
AC 1
V ε ·
AC AC
IR V ·
where
A
ρl
R
1
AC
· and
1 1
l
A
ρI
ε
,
`
.

· (1) (1)
then
AD 2
V ε ·
AD AD
IR V ·
where
A
ρl
R
2
AD
· and
2 2
l
A
ρI
ε
,
`
.

· (2) (2)
then
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
97
By dividing eq. (1) and eq. (2) then
Measure an unknown emf of a cell Measure an unknown emf of a cell
By using the same circuit shown in Figure 5.36, the value of
unknown emf can be determined if the cell ε
1
is replaced with a
standard cell.
A standard cell is one in which provides a constant and provides a constant and
accurately known emf accurately known emf. Thus the emf ε
2
can be calculated by
using the equation (5.29).
2
1
2
1
l
l
ε
ε
·
2
1
2
1
l
A
ρI
l
A
ρI
ε
ε
,
`
.

,
`
.

· (5.29) (5.29)
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
98
Measure the internal resistance of a cell Measure the internal resistance of a cell
Consider a potentiometer circuit as shown in Figure 5.37.
Figure 5.37 Figure 5.37
ε
B
A
I
G G
I
1
ε
0
l
C
J J
S
R
r
I
I
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
99
An accumulator of emf ε maintains a steady current I through
the wire AB.
Initially, a switch S is opened and the jockey J moved until the
emf ε
1
exactly balances the emf ε from the accumulator
(galvanometer reading is zero) at point C. Hence
After the switch S is closed, the current I
1
flows through the
resistance box R and the jockey J moved until the galvanometer
reading is zero (balanced condition) at point D as shown in
Figure 5.38.
AC 1
V ε ·
AC AC
IR V · where
A
ρl
R
0
AC
· and
0 1
l
A
ρI
ε
,
`
.

· (1) (1)
then
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
100
Figure 5.38 Figure 5.38
ε
B
A
I
G G
I
1
ε
J J
S
R
r
I
I
1
I
D
l
1
I
1
I
1
I
1
I
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
101
Hence
From the equation of emf,
AD
V V ·
AD AD
IR V ·
where
A
ρl
R ·
AD
and
l
A
ρI
V
,
`
.

· (2) (2)
then
r I V ε
1 1
+ ·
1
1
I
V ε
r
−
·
R
V
I ·
1
and
R
V
V ε
r
,
`
.

−
·
1
(3) (3)
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
102
By substituting eqs. (1) and (2) into the eq. (3), we get
The value of internal resistance, The value of internal resistance, r r is determined by plotting is determined by plotting
the graph of the graph of 1 1/l /l against against 1 1/R /R .
Rearranging eq. (4) :
R
l
l l
r
,
`
.

−
·
0
R
l
l
r
,
`
.

− · 1
0
(4) (4)
c x m y + · Then compare with
0 0
1 1 1
l R l
r
l
+
,
`
.

·
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
103
Therefore the graph is straight line as shown in Figure 5.39.
0
, Gradient
l
r
m ·
0
1
l
R
1
l
1
0
Figure 5.39 Figure 5.39
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
104
Cells A and B and centrezero galvanometer G are connected to a
uniform wire OS using jockeys X and Y as shown in 5.40.
a. the potential difference across OY when OY = 75.0 cm,
b. the potential difference across OY when Y touches S and the
galvanometer is balanced,
c. the internal resistance of the cell A,
d. the emf of cell A.
Example 17 :
Figure 5.40 Figure 5.40
A
S
O
G G
B
X X
Y Y
The length of the uniform wire OS is
1.00 m and its resistance is 12 Ω .
When OY is 75.0 cm, the
galvanometer does not show any
deflection when OX= 50.0 cm. If Y
touches the end S of the wire, OX =
62.5 cm when the galvanometer is
balanced. The emf of the cell B is 1.0
V. Calculate
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
105
Solution : Solution :
a. Given
When G = 0 (balance condition), thus
V 0 . 1 ; 12 m; 00 . 1
B OS OS
· Ω · · ε R l
m 50 . 0 m; 75 . 0
OX1 OY1
· · l l
A
ε
S
O
G G
B
ε
X X
Y Y
0 ·
OY1
l
OX1
l
Since wire OS is uniform thus
OS
OS
1 OX
OX1
R
l
l
R
,
`
.

·
and
Ω ·
,
`
.

· 0 . 6 12
00 . 1
50 . 0
OX1
R
Ω ·
,
`
.

· 0 . 9 12
00 . 1
75 . 0
OY1
R
B OX1
ε V ·
OX1 1 OX1
R I V · and
1
I
1
I
1
I
1
I
1
I
B OX1 1
ε R I · ( ) 0 . 1 0 . 6
1
· I
A 17 . 0
1
· I
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
106
Solution : Solution :
a. Therefore the potential difference across OY is given by
b. Given
V 0 . 1 ; 12 m; 00 . 1
B OS OS
· Ω · · ε R l
OY1 1 OY1
R I V ·
( ) 0 . 9 17 . 0
OY1
· V
V 53 . 1
OY1
· V
m 625 . 0 m; 00 . 1
OX2 OY2
· · l l
A
ε
S
O
G G
B
ε
X X
Y Y
0 ·
OY2
l
OX2
l
2
I
2
I
2
I
2
I
2
I
Since wire OS is uniform thus
OS
OS
2 OX
OX2
R
l
l
R
,
`
.

·
and
Ω ·
,
`
.

· 5 . 7 12
00 . 1
625 . 0
OX2
R
Ω ·
,
`
.

· 12 12
00 . 1
00 . 1
OY2
R
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
107
Solution : Solution :
b. When G = 0 (balance condition), thus
Therefore the potential difference across OY is given by
c. The emf of cell A is given by
For case in the question (a) :
V 0 . 1 ; 12 m; 00 . 1
B OS OS
· Ω · · ε R l
B OX2
ε V ·
OX2 2 OX2
R I V · and
B OX2 2
ε R I · ( ) 0 . 1 5 . 7
2
· I
A 13 . 0
2
· I
OY2 2 OY2
R I V ·
( )12 13 . 0
OY2
· V
V 56 . 1
OY2
· V
( ) r R I ε + ·
A
) (
1 OY 1 A
r R I ε + ·
( ) r ε + · 0 . 9 17 . 0
A
(1) (1)
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
108
Solution : Solution :
c. For case in the question (b) :
(1) = (2):
d. The emf of cell A is
V 0 . 1 ; 12 m; 00 . 1
B OS OS
· Ω · · ε R l
) (
2 OY 2 A
r R I ε + ·
( ) r ε + · 12 13 . 0
A
(2) (2)
( ) ( ) r r + · + 12 13 . 0 0 . 9 17 . 0
Ω · 65 . 0 r
( ) r ε + · 0 . 9 17 . 0
A
( ) 65 . 0 0 . 9 17 . 0
A
+ · ε
V 64 . 1
A
· ε
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
109
It is used to measured the unknown resistance of the resistor measured the unknown resistance of the resistor.
Figure 5.41 shows the Wheatstone bridge circuit consists of a cell
of emf ε (accumulator), a galvanometer , know resistances (R
1
,
R
2
and R
3
) and unknown resistance R
x
.
The Wheatstone bridge is said to be balanced balanced when no current no current
flows through the galvanometer flows through the galvanometer.
5.9.2 Wheatstone bridge
ε
B
A
G G
C
D
1
R
2
R
3
R
x
R
0 ·
I
I
2
I
1
I
2
I
1
I
Figure 5.41 Figure 5.41
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
110
Hence
then
Therefore
Since
Dividing gives
1 CB AC
I I I · ·
2 DB AD
I I I · · and
Potential at C = Potential at D Potential at C = Potential at D
AD AC
V V ·
BD BC
V V ·
and
IR V ·
3 2 1 1
R I R I ·
thus
and
x 2 2 1
R I R I ·
x 2
3 2
2 1
1 1
R I
R I
R I
R I
·
3
1
2
x
R
R
R
R
,
`
.

· (5.30) (5.30)
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
111
The application of the Wheatstone bridge is Metre Bridge Metre Bridge.
Figure 5.42 shows a Metre bridge circuit.
The metre bridge is balanced balanced when the jockey J is at such a
position on wire AB that there is no current through the no current through the
galvanometer galvanometer. Thus the current I
1
flows through the resistance
R
x
and R but current I
2
flows in the wire AB.
· 0
Accumulator Accumulator
Jockey Jockey
Thick copper Thick copper
strip strip
(Unknown (Unknown
resistance) resistance)
(resistance box) (resistance box)
Wire of uniform Wire of uniform
resistance resistance
x
R
A
ε
G G
B
R
J
2
l
1
l
Figure 5.42 Figure 5.42
I
I
1
I
2
I
1
I
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
112
Let V
x
: p.d. across R
x
and V : p.d. across R,
At balance condition,
By applying Ohm’s law, thus
Dividing gives
AJ x
V V ·
JB
V V ·
and
AJ 2 x 1
R I R I ·
JB 2 1
R I R I · and
A
ρl
R
1
AJ
·
JB 2
AJ 2
1
x 1
R I
R I
R I
R I
· where and
A
ρl
R
2
JB
·
,
`
.

,
`
.

·
A
ρl
A
ρl
R
R
2
1
x
R
l
l
R
,
`
.

·
2
1
x
(5.31) (5.31)
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
113
An unknown length of platinum wire 0.920 mm in diameter is placed
as the unknown resistance in a Wheatstone bridge as shown in
Figure 5.43.
Resistors R
1
and R
2
have resistance of 38.0 Ω and 46.0 Ω
respectively. Balance is achieved when the switch closed and R
3
is
3.48 Ω . Calculate the length of the platinum wire if its resistivity
is 10.6 × 10
−8
Ω m.
Example 18 :
Figure 5.43 Figure 5.43
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
114
Solution : Solution :
At balance condition balance condition, the ammeter reading is zero ammeter reading is zero thus the
resistance of the platinum wire is given by
From the definition of resistivity, thus
; 0 . 46 ; 0 . 38 m; 10 920 . 0
2 1
3
Ω · Ω · × ·
−
R R d
; m Ω 10 6 . 10 ; 48 . 3
8
3
−
× · Ω · ρ R
1
2
3
x
R
R
R
R
·
Ω · 21 . 4
x
R
0 . 38
0 . 46
48 . 3
x
·
R
l
A R
ρ
x
·
4
2
d
A
π
·
and
l
d R
ρ
4
2
x
π
·
( ) ( )
l 4
10 920 . 0 21 . 4
10 6 . 10
2
3
8
−
−
× π
· ×
m 4 . 26 · l
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
115
Exercise 5.5 :
1. In Figure 5.44, PQ is a uniform wire of length 1.0 m and
resistance 10.0 Ω .
ANS. : ANS. : 0.50 V; 7.5 0.50 V; 7.5 Ω Ω ; 25.0 cm; 25.0 cm ; 25.0 cm; 25.0 cm
2
S
1
ε
P
Q
G G
2
ε
T T
1
R
2
R
1
S
Figure 5.44 Figure 5.44
ε
1
is an accumulator of emf 2.0 V
and negligible internal resistance. R
1
is a 15 Ω resistor and R
2
is a 5.0 Ω
resistor when S
1
and S
2
open,
galvanometer G is balanced when
QT is 62.5 cm. When both S
1
and S
2
are closed, the balance length is
10.0 cm. Calculate
a. the emf of cell ε
2
.
b. the internal resistance of cell ε
2
.
c. the balance length QT when S
2
is opened and S
1
closed.
d. the balance length QT when S
1
is opened and S
2
closed.
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
116
R
2. The circuit shown in Figure 5.45 is known as a Wheatstone
bridge.
Determine the value of the resistor R such that the current
through the 85.0 Ω resistor is zero.
(Physics,3 (Physics,3
th th
edition, James S. Walker, Q93, p.731) edition, James S. Walker, Q93, p.731)
ANS. : ANS. : 7.50 7.50 Ω Ω
Exercise 5.5 :
Figure 5.45 Figure 5.45
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
117
Exercise 5.5 :
3. A potentiometer with slidewire of length 100 cm and
resistance of 5.0 Ω , is connected to a driver cell of emf 2.0 V
and negligible internal resistance. Calculate
a. the length of the potentiometer wire needed to balance a
potential difference of 1.5 V,
b. the resistance which must be connected in series with the
slidewire to give a potential difference of 7.0 mV across
the whole wire,
c. the emf ε of a dry cell which is balanced by 80 cm of the
wire, setup as in part (b).
ANS. : ANS. : 75.0 cm; 1424 75.0 cm; 1424 Ω Ω ; 5.6 mV ; 5.6 mV
118
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
Next Chapter…
CHAPTER 6 :
Magnetic field