surface area and volume problems

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surface area and volume problems

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Mensuration II

(Surface Area and Volume)

Cuboid and Cube

Here we will introduce two rectangular solids,

namely, a cuboid and a cube. Before going into

the details of cuboid and cube, let me introduce a

term Parallelopiped to you (See the figure given

below).

A solid bounded by three pairs of parallel plane

surfaces is called a parallelopiped. The plane surfaces

are known as the faces of the parallelopiped.

Each face of a parallelopiped is a parallelogram

and opposite faces are congruent ie equal in all

respects.

Any two adjacent faces of a parallelopiped meet

along a line segment which is called an edge. A

parallelopiped has 12 edges. Point of intersection

of two edges is called a vertex or a corner. A

parallelopiped has 8 vertices or corners. Note that

at each vertex, three edges and three faces meet.

(i) Cuboid

A cuboid is a solid bounded by six rectangular plane

regions. In other words, A parallelopiped whose faces

are rectangles and adjacent faces are perpendicular is

called a rectangular parallelopiped or a cuboid.

The figure given below represents a cuboid. It

should be noted t hat it is not a plane figure,

although it is drawn on a sheet of the paper.

cuboid and the solid cuboid. In any use of

the word, the context in which it is used,

will make the meaning clear.

(ii) Cube

A cuboid whose length, breadth and height are all

equal is called a cube.

As with a cuboid, the word cube is also used

for both the hollow cube and the solid cube. In

any use of the word, the context in which it is

used, will make the meaning clear. Each edge of a

cube is called its side.

Important Formulae

(i) Volume of a Cuboid and a Cube

(a) Volume of a Cuboid : The volume V of a cuboid

of length = l cm, breadth = b cm and height = h cm

is given by

V = (l b h) cm3

Note: 1. While finding the volume of a cuboid, its

lengt h, br eadt h and height must be

expressed in the same units.

2 . From the above formula, we also obtain

that

Volume

V

Breadth Height ie l = b h

Length =

Volume

V

l h

and

l

Volume

V

l b

special type of a cuboid whose length, breadth and

height are all equal.

So, the volume V of a cube of side (or edge) l cm

is given by

V = (l l l) cm3 or V = l3 cm3

or, V = (side)3

564

(ii) Surface Area of a Cuboid and a Cube

(a) Surface Area of a Cuboid : Total surface area

of the cuboid = 2 (length breadth + breadth

height + length height) cm 2

Note:For the calculation of surface area of a cuboid,

the length, breadth and height must be

expressed in the same units.

(b) Surface Area of a Cube : Since all the six faces

of a cube are squares of the same size ie for a cube

we have l = b = h. Thus, if l cm is the length of the

edge or side of a cube, then surface area of the

cube = 2 (l l + l l + l l) = 2 3l2 = 6l2 = 6 (Edge)2.

(a) Diagonal of a Cuboid : If the edges of a cuboid

be l, b and h units of length, then its diagonal is

l 2 b 2 h 2 . This can be proved with the help of

Pythagoras Theorem.

(b) Diagonal of a Cube : Here the edges are all

equal. Let each edge be l units.

diagonal =

l 2 l 2 l 2 l 3 units.

(c) The length of the longest rod that can be placed

in a room whose dimensions are l, b and h =

l 2 b2 h 2 .

Concept of Arithmetic

Metre Cube and Cubic Metre: The solid region

formed by a cube of side 1 m is called a metre cube

and its volume is l cubic metre (lm3).

Since 1 m = 100 cm

1 m3 = (100 100 100) cm3

= 1000000 cm3

But, 1000 cm3 = 1 litre

1000000

litres

1 m3 =

1000

3

or, 1 m = 1000 litres or 1000 l.

Now, 1l = 1000 cm 3.

1

th of a litre

1000

This is generally called a millilitre (ml).

Thus 1l = 1000 ml.

Cubic Millimetre: The volume of a solid cubical

region of side 1 mm is called a cubic millimetre

(mm3).

Since 1 cm = 10 mm

1 cm3 = (10 10 10) mm3 = 1000 mm3

Note:1 m3 is also called a kilolitre. Thus,

1 kilolitre = 1 m3

= 1000000 cm3

= 1000 1000 cm3

= 1000 litres [ 1000 cm3 = 1 litre]

1 cm3 =

Conversion of Units

K KUNDAN

lengt h like metr e, decimet r e, decamet r e et c

t her ef or e ther e ar e many standar d unit s of

measurements of volume.

The volume of any solid figure is the amount

of space enclosed within its bounding faces. This

is measured by the number of cubic metres, or cubic

kilometres or cubic centimetres (or other units of

cubic measure) it contains.

Cubic Centimetre : A cubic centimetre is the

amount of space enclosed within the faces of a

cube of which each edge is 1 centimetre.

Litre or Cubic Decimetre: The volume of the

solid region formed by a cube of side 1 decimetre

(dm) is called a litre or a cubic decimetre (1 dm3).

Since 1 dm = 10 cm

1 dm3 = 1 dm 1 dm 1 dm

= (10 10 10) cm3 = 1000 cm3

or, 1 litre = 1000 cm3.

can be converted into the others by using the

following table:

Units of Length

Millimetre (mm)

Centimetre (cm)

1 cm = 10 mm

Decimetre (dm)

1 dm = 10 cm

Metre

1m = 10 dm

Units of Volume

Cubic millimetre (mm3)

Cubic

cent imet r e

or

millilitre

1 cm3 = (10 10 10) mm3

Cubic decimetre or litre

1 dm3 ( = 1 litre)

= (10 10 10) cm3

= 1000 cm3 = 1000 ml

[ 1 cm3 = 1 ml]

Cubic metre (m3)

1 m3 = (10 10 10) dm3

= 1000 dm3

= 1000 litre

565

Solved Examples

Ex. 1:

Soln:

Ex. 2:

Soln:

by 1.5 cm. What will be the volume of a

packet contai ning 12 such m at ch

boxes? How many such packets can be

placed in a card board box whose size

is 60 cm 30 cm 24 cm?

We have,

Volume of a match box

= (4 2.5 1.5) cm3 = 15 cm3

Volume of a packet containing 12 match

boxes

= (12 15) cm3 = 180 cm3.

Now, volume of card board box

= (60 30 24) cm2 = 43200 cm3.

Number of packets that can be put in a

43200

= 240.

card board =

180

What will happen to the volume of a

cube if its edge is doubled?

Let the edge of the cube be l cm. Then, its

volume V is given by

V = l3 cm3

....... (i)

Let V1 be the volume of the cube when its

edge is doubled.

Then, V1 = (2l) 3 cm3

[ Length of the edge of

new cube = 2l cm]

or, V1 = 8l3

or, V1 = 8V

[Using (i)]

Hence, if each edge of the cube is doubled,

then the volume becomes 8 times.

Three cubes whose edges measure 3 cm,

4 cm and 5 cm respectively to form a

single cube. If there be no loss of metal

in the process find its edge. Also, find

the surface area of the new cube.

Let x cm be the edge of the new cube.

Th en ,

Volume of the new cube = Sum of the

volumes of three cubes

The underlying concept for these type of

questions is that the total volume of a

solid does not change even when its

shape changes.

or, x3 = 33 + 43 + 53 =27 + 64 + 125

or, x3 = 216

or, x3 = 63

x = 6 cm

Edge of the new cube is 6 cm long

surface area of the new cube

= 6x2 = 6 (6)2 cm2 = 216 cm2

A rectangular block of ice measures 40

cm by 25 cm by 15 cm. Calculate its

Soln:

1 cm3 of water weighs 1 gm.

We have,

Volume of rectangular block of ice

= 40 25 15 cm3 = 15000 cm3

Now, weight of 1 cm3 of water = 1 gm

9

th of the

and weight of 1 cm3 of ice =

10

weight of 1 cm3 of water

9

gm.

Weight of 1 cm3 of ice =

10

Weight of the rectangular block of ice

Ex. 5:

Soln:

=

10

are stacked one on top of the other.

The total volume of the solid so formed

is 128 cm3. If the height of each block

is 1 cm and base is a square, find the

dimensions of each block.

Let the length and breadth of the base of

each wooden block be x cm each. Since

eight identical blocks are stacked one on

top of the other and the height of each

block is 1 cm.

So, height of the solid formed = 8 cm.

volume of the solid formed

= (x x 8) cm3 = 8x 2 cm3.

But the volume of solid formed is 128 cm3.

8x2 = 128

K KUNDAN

Ex. 3:

Soln:

Ex. 4:

9

10

of the

128

8

or, x2 = 16

or, x2 = 42

x = 4 cm.

Hence, each wooden block is of dimension

4 cm 4 cm 1 cm.

A rectangular water reservoir contains

42000 litres of water. Find the depth

of the water in the reservoir if its base

measures 6 m by 3.5 m.

We have,

Volume of the reservoir = 42000 litres

or, x2 =

Ex. 6:

Soln:

42000 3

m [ 1 m3 = 1000 litres]

1000

= 42 m3.

Length of the reservoir = 6 m

Breadth of the reservoir = 3.5 m

Area of the base of the reservoir

= (6 3.5) m2 = 21 m2.

But, (Area of the base Height)

= Volume of the reservoir

=

566

Concept of Arithmetic

Height or Depth of the reservoir

Volume

42

m = 2m.

=

Area of the base

21

Hence, the depth of the reservoir is 2 m.

How many bricks of size 22 cm 10

cm 7 cm are required to construct a

wall 33 m long, 3.5 m high and 40 cm

thick, if cement and sand used in the

=

Ex. 7:

construction occupy

Soln:

1

th part of the

10

wall?

We have,

Length of the wall = 33 m

Height of the wall = 3.5 m

Thickness of the wall = 40 cm

40

m = 0.4 m

100

Volume of the wall

= (33 3.5 0.4) m3 = 46.2 m3

Volume of the space occupied by the

cement and sand

=

1

th of the volume of the wall

10

46.2

=

m2 = 4.62 m2

10

Volume of the bricks

= (46.2 4.62) m3

= 41.58 m3

= 41.58 1000000 cm 3

= 41580000 cm 3

Now,

Volume of a brick = (22 10 7) cm3

= 1540 cm3

Number of bricks

6l2 = 54

54

= 9

6

2

2

or, l = 3

l = 3 cm

Now, volume of the cube = l3 cm3

= 33 cm3 = 27 cm3.

Ex. 10: A cuboidal oil tin is 30 cm by 40 cm by

50 cm. Find the cost of the tin required

for making 20 such tins if the cost of

tin sheet is Rs 20 per square metre.

Soln:

The cost of tins depends upon their total

surface area.

It is given that a tin is in the shape of a

cuboid such that

l = 30 cm, b = 40 cm and h = 50 cm

Surface area of one tin

= 2 (lb + bh + lh)

= 2(30 40 + 40 50 + 30 50) cm2

= 2 (1200 + 2000 + 1500) cm2

= (2 4700) cm2 = 9400 cm2

Surface area of 20 such tins

= (20 9400) cm2

= 188000 cm 2

or, l2 =

188000

m2 [ 10000 cm2 = 1 m2]

10000

= 18.8 m2

Now, cost of 1 square metre of tin sheet

= Rs 20.

Cost of 18.8 m2 of tin sheet

= Rs (20 18.8) = Rs 376

Hence, the cost of making 20 tins

= Rs 376.

Ex. 11: The pai nt i n a certain container is

sufficient to paint an area equal to

9.375 m2. How many bricks measuring

22.5 cm by 10 cm by 7.5 cm can be

painted out of this container?

Soln:

We have,

l = length of a brick = 22.5 cm

b = breadth of a brick = 10 cm

h = height of a brick = 7.5 cm

Surface area of a brick

= 2 (lb + bh + lh)

= 2( 22.510+107.5 + 7.522.5) cm 2

= 2(225 + 75 + 168.75) cm2

= 937.5 cm 2.

The paint in the container is sufficient to

paint area = 9.375 m2

= 9.375 10000 cm 2

[ 1 m2 = 10000 cm2]

= 93750 cm 2.

Number of bricks that can be painted

=

K KUNDAN

=

Ex. 8:

Soln:

Ex. 9:

Soln:

Volume of a brick

41580000

= 27000

=

1540

volume is 512 m3.

Let the length of an edge of the cube be

l m.

Then, its volume is l3.

But, the volume is given as 512 m3.

or, l3 = 512

or, l3 = 83

l = 8 m

Now, surface area = 6l2 = 6 (8)2 m2

= 6 64 m2 = 384 m2.

Find the volume of a cube whose surface

area is 54 cm 2 .

Let the length of an edge of the cube be l

cm. Then, its surface area is 6l2 cm2.

93750

937.5

= 100.

567

Ex. 12: A water tank built by a municipality of

a town to supply water to its 25000

inhabitants at 125 litres per day per

person is 40 m long and 31.25 m broad.

The tank, when it is full, can supply

water for two days to the inhabitants

of the town. Find the depth of the tank.

Soln:

Water consumed by the inhabitants in one

day

= Number of inhabitants Water consumed

by an inhabitant in one day

= (25000 125) litres

= 3125000 litres

Water consumed by the inhabitants in

two days = (3125000 2) litres

= 6250000 litres

6250000

=

m3 [ 1000 litres = 1 m3]

1000

3

= 6250 m

Volume of the tank = 6250 m3

Depth of the tank

=

Volume

6250

m = 5m

Length Breadth 1250

121 m broad. A well of 14 m length and

11 m breadth is dug inside the field

and mud taken out is spread evenly

over the remaining part of the field to

a thickness of 25 cm. Find the depth

of the well.

Soln:

We have, length of the well = 14 m

Breadth of the well = 11 m

Area of the base of the well

= (14 11) m2 = 154 m2

Also, area of the field

= (154 121) m2 = 18634 m2

Area of the field in which mud is spread

= (18634 - 154) m2 = 18480 m2

Thickness of the mud

25

1

m m.

= 25 cm =

100

4

Volume of the mud

l + b + h = 19

Diagonal = 11 cm

.... (i)

or,

l 2 b 2 h 2 11

or, l + b2 + h2 = 121

.... (ii)

Now, l + b + h = 19

or, (l + b + h)2 = 192

or, l2 + b2 + h2 + 2 (lb + bh + lh) = 361

or, 121 + 2(lb + bh + lh) = 361

[Using (ii)]

or, 2 (lb + bh + lh) = 240

Hence, the surface area of the cuboid is

240 cm 2.

Ex. 15: A plot of land in the form of a rectangle

has a dimension 240 m 180 m. A

drainlet 10 m wide is dug all around it

(on the outside) and the earth dug out

i s ev enl y spr ead ov er t he plot ,

increasing its surface level by 25 cm.

Find the depth of the drainlet.

Soln:

Let the depth of the drainlet be x metres.

Width of the drainlet = 10 m.

Volume of the drainlet

= (260 10 x + 260 10 x + 180

10 x + 180 10 x) m3

= (5200x + 3600x) m3 = 8800x m 3

When earth dug out is evenly spread over

the plot, we get a cuboid whose base area

is 240 180 m2 and height = 25 cm

= 0.25 m.

2

K KUNDAN

1 3

3

= 18480 m 4620 m

4

Volume of the mud taken out of the well

=

Area of the base of the well

4620

m = 30 m

154

Ex. 14: The sum of length, breadth and depth

of a cuboid is 19 cm and the length of

its diagonal is 11 cm. Find the surface

area of the cuboid.

Soln:

Let the length, breadth and height of the

cube be l cm, b cm and h cm respectively.

Th en ,

=

= (240 180 0.25) m3

= 10800 m3

Clearly, volume of earth spread over the

plot = Volume of the drainlet

10800 = 8800x

10800

or, x =

= 1.227 m

8800

Ex. 16: Three cubes each of side 5 cm are joined

end to end. Find the surface area of

the resulting cuboid.

Soln:

The dimensions of the cuboid so formed

are as under:

l = Length = 15 cm,

b = Breadth = 5 cm,

h = Height = 5 cm.

568

Concept of Arithmetic

= 2 (15 5 + 5 5 + 15 5) cm2

= 2 (75 + 25 + 75) cm2 = 350 cm2

Ex. 17: In the given figure, the shape of a solid

copper piece (made of two pieces with

dimensions as shown in the figure) is

shown. The face ABCDEFA i s t he

uniform cross-section. Assume that the

angles at A, B, C, D, E and F are right

angles. Calculate the volume of the

piece.

rectangle of length 20 m and width 14

m. A pit 6 m long, 3 m wide and 2.5 m

deep is dug in a corner of the field and

the earth taken out of the pit is spread

uniformly over the remaining area of

the field. Find the extent to which the

level of the field has been raised.

Soln:

Let ABCD be the field and let AB1C1D1 be

the part of the field where a pit is to be

dug.

Soln:

Length = 8 cm, Breadth = 22 cm, Height

= 3 cm

Volume of the horizontal piece

= (8 22 3) cm3 = 528 cm3

For the vertical piece, we have

Length = 22 cm, Breadth = 2 cm,

Height = (5 + 3) cm = 8 cm

Volume of the vertical piece

= (22 2 8) cm3 = 352 cm3

Hence, volume of the whole piece

= (528 + 352) cm3 = 880 cm3

Ex. 18: A metallic sheet is of the rectangular

shape with dimensions 48 cm 36 cm.

From each one of its corners, a square

of 8 cm is cutoff. An open box is made of

the remaining sheet. Find the volume of

the box.

Soln:

In order to make an open box, a square of

side 8 cm is cut off from each of the four

corners and the flaps are folded up.

= (6 3 2.5) m3 = 45 m3

... (i)

Area of the remaining part of the field

= Area of the field Area of pit

= (20 14 6 3) m2 = 262 m2

The earth taken out of the pit is spread

uniformly over the remaining area of the

field. Let h metres be the level raised over

the f ield uniformly. Clearly, the earth

taken out forms a cuboid of base area 262

m2 and height h.

Volume of the earth dugout

= (262 h) m3

... (ii)

From (i) and (ii), we get

262h = 45

K KUNDAN

45

0.1718m = 17.18 cm

or, h =

262

Hence, the level is raised by 17.18 cm.

Ex. 20: A solid cube is cut into two cuboids of

equal volumes. Find the ratio of the

total surface area of the given cube and

that of one of the cuboids.

Soln:

Let the edge of the solid cube be a units.

Since the cube is cut into two cuboids of

equal volumes. Therefore, the dimensions

of each of the cuboid are: length = a units,

breadth = a units and height =

Thus, t he box will have the following

dimensions:

Length = (48 8 8) cm = 32 cm

Breadth = (36 8 8) cm = 20 cm,

Height = 8 cm

Volume of the box formed

= (32 20 8) cm3 = 5120 cm3

a

units.

2

Now,

S = Total surface area of cube = 6a2 sq

units.

S1 = Total surface area of one cuboid

a a

= 2 a a a a

2 2

= 4a2 sq units

S : S1 = 6a2 : 4a2 = 3 : 2

569

Ex. 21: Water in a canal, 30 dm wide and 12

dm deep, is flowing with a velocity of

20 km per hour. How much area will it

i rr i gat e in 30 m i nut es i f 9 cm of

standing water is desired?

Soln:

Water in the canal forms a cuboid whose

breadth = 12 dm =

12

m = 1.2 m,

10

at the base. With what speed must

water flow into it through an aperture

60 cm by 45 cm that the level may be

raised 20 cm in 5 hours?

Soln:

Since the level of water rises by 20 cm in

5 hours. Therefore, the volume of the water

flowed in the tank in 5 hours

20

m3

= 225 162

100

tank in one hour

30

height = 30 dm =

m = 3 m and

10

length = distance covered by water in 30

minutes = Velocity of water time

30

= 20000

m = 10000 m

60

Volume of water flown in 30 minutes

= lbh

= (1.2 3 10000) m3 = 36000 m3

Suppose area irrigated be A m2. Then,

A

= 1458 m3

... (i)

Area of the cross-section of aperture

45 2

27

60

m2

m

=

100

100

100

hour. Then,

volume of the water flowed in the tank in

one hour

= (Area of cross-section of aperture)

(speed in metre per hour)

9

= Volume flown in 30 minutes

100

9

= 36000

100

A = 400000 m2

Hence, area irrigated = 400000 m 2.

Ex. 22: A rectangular reservoir is 120 m long

and 75 m wide. At what speed per hour

m ust wat er fl ow i nt o it t hr ough a

square pipe of 20 cm wide so that the

water rises by 2.4 m in 18 hours.

Soln:

Volume of wat er accumulat ed in t he

reservoir in 18 hours

= (120 75 2.4) m3

Volume of water accumulated in one

1

20

225 162

m3

5

100

or, A

27

x

=

100

K KUNDAN

120 75 2.4

m3

hour =

18

pipe

27

x 1458

100

1458 100

m/hr

27

or, x = 5400 m/hr

Ex. 24: The external length, breadth and height

of a closed rectangular wooden box are

18 cm, 10 cm and 6 cm respectively and

or, x =

1

cm. When the

2

box is empty, it weighs 15 kg and when

filled with sand it weighs 100 kg. Find

the weight of the cubic cm of wood and

cubic cm of sand.

thickness of wood is

20

20

m2

=

100

100

1

m2 = 0.4 m2

25

Speed of water

=

120 75 2.4

m/hr

=

18 0.4

120 75 2.4

km/hr

=

18 0.4 1000

= 30 km/hr

Hence, water must flow at the speed of

30 km/hour into the reservoir.

... (ii)

Soln:

1

cm

2

Internal length of wooden box

Thickness of wood =

1 1

= 18 17 cm

2 2

1 1

= 10

2 2

9 cm

570

Concept of Arithmetic

Internal depth of wooden box

1 1

= 6 5 cm

2 2

= (17 9 5) cm3 = 765 cm3

External volume of wooden box

= (18 10 6) cm3 = 1080 cm3

Volume of wood

= External volume Internal volume

= (1080 765) cm3 = 315 cm3

Weight of empty box = 15 kg

or, Weight of 315 cm3 wood is 15 kg

Weight of 1 cm3 of wood

1

15

kg =

=

kg.

315

21

Now, volume of sand = Internal volume of

box = 765 cm3

Weight of sand = Weight of box filled with

sand Weight of empty box

= (100 15) kg = 85 kg

Volume of sand = 765 cm3

Weight of 1 cm3 of sand

1

85

kg =

=

kg.

765

9

Ex. 25: The out er di m ensi ons of a cl osed

wooden box are 10 cm by 8 cm by 7 cm.

Thickness of the wood is 1 cm. Find

the total cost of wood required to make

box if 1 cm3 of wood cost Rs 2.00.

Soln:

The external dimension of the box are:

Length = 10 cm, Breadth = 8 cm, Height

= 7 cm

External volume of the box

= (10 8 7) cm3 = 560 cm3

Thickness of the wood = 1 cm

Internal length = (10 2 =) 8 cm

Internal breadth = (8 2 =) 6 cm

Internal height = (7 2 =) 5 cm

Internal volume = (8 6 5) cm3

= 240 cm3

Volume of the wood

= External volume Internal volume

= (560 240) cm3 = 320 cm3

Hence, total cost of wood required to make

box

= Rs (320 2) = Rs 640.

swimming pool. The heights of the water level are

h1 and h2, l is the length of the swimming pool,

and w is the width of the swimming pool.

Firstly, we have to note in the given figure

which cross-sectional area is the same throughout.

Face-vertical cross-sectional area, ie ABCD, is

the same throughout. ABCD is a trapezium.

Volume of water in the swimming pool

= (Ar ea of cr oss-sect ion ABCD)

Corresponding height

= {Area of Trapezium ABCD} w

= h1 h 2 l w

2

Solved Examples

Ex. 26: See the figure of a roof-top house given

below.

K KUNDAN

Swimming Pool

Soln:

In this case, we take side-vertical cross

section.

(see the Note of Ex. 27).

Volume of the given house

1

Area of the (ABCD) length of

2

the house (CH)

[ Side-vertical cross-section of the rooftop house gives a trapezium ABCD having

par allel sides as AB and CD and the

height as BC]

=

= 9 5 6 20

2

= 840 m3

Ex. 27: The l engt h and t he wi dt h of a

swimming pool are 50 metres and 15

metres respectively. If the depth of the

swimming pool at one end is 10 metres

and at the other 20 metres, then find

the volume of water in the swimming

pool.

571

Soln:

= Area of the rectangle

= Length of the rectangle Height of the

rectangle

= 2 (l + b) h

= 2(Length + Breadth) Height

= (Perimeter of the floor) height

[ 2(l + b) = Perimeter of the floor]

1.

If we take the face-vertical cross-section

of the swimming pool, we will have a

trapezium having parallel sides 10 m and

20 m and the height 50 m. (see Note)

Volume of water in the swimming pool

= Area of the vertical cross-section of the

swimming pool width of the swimming

pool

= 10 20 50 15

2

1

(sum of

2

= 11250 m3

Note: We will have two options of taking

ver tical cr oss-sect ion: (i) Face-Vertical

Cross-Section and (ii) Side-Vertical CrossSection. We take that vertical cross-section

in which area remains the same for every

cross-section. For example, if we take sidevertical cross-section in the above question,

area will be gradually increasing for every

cross-section. Also see Ex. 26.

= 2(Length + Breadth) Height

2.

Height = 2(Length Breadth)

3.

Length + Breadth =

4.

Total cost

Area of four walls = Cost of 1 sq unit

2 Height

Solved Examples

Ex. 28: Find the area of the four walls of a

room whose length is 6 m, breadth 5

m and height 4 m. Also find the cost of

white-washing the walls, if the rate of

whi t e washi ng i s Rs 5 per squar e

m et r e. ( Door s, wi ndows and ot her

openings ignored).

Soln:

Here, l = 6 m, b = 5 m and h = 4 m.

Area of the walls = 2h (l + b)

K KUNDAN

Surface Area of the Walls of a Room

In the previous section, we have learnt the formula

for the surface area of a cuboid and a cube. In this

section, we will obtain a formula for the surface

area of the walls of a room. For this, let us consider

the following.

Make a card-board model of a room. Cut it along

its height through corner and spread it out as

shown in the figure given below, we see that it

has taken the form of a rectangle.

The breadth of this rectangle

= The height (H) of the room

= Length + Breadth + Length + Breadth

of the room

= 2 (Length + Breadth) = 2 (l + b)

= [2 4 (6 + 5)] m2

= (8 11) m2 = 88m2

Cost of white-washing of 1 square metre

= Rs 5.

Cost of white washing the walls

= Rs (5 88) = Rs 440.

Ex. 29: A hall is 21 m long, 14 m broad and

8 m hi gh. It has t wo door s each

2.5 m 2 m and four windows each

1.5 m 1 m, find the cost of colouring

the walls at Rs 15 per sq. m.

Soln:

Area of four walls = 2 (l + b) h

= 2 (21 + 14) 8 sq m

= 2 35 8 sq m = 560 sq m.

Area of two doors = (2.5 2) 2 sq m.

= 10 sq m.

Area of four windows

= (1.5 1) 4 sq m = 6 sq m.

Area of the walls to be coloured

= (560 10 6) sq m

= 544 sq m.

Cost of colouring the walls at Rs 15 per

sq m.

= Rs (544 15) = Rs 8160.

572

Concept of Arithmetic

broad, the door and windows occupy 5

sq metres and the cost of papering the

remaining part of the surface of the

walls with paper 75 cm wide, at Rs

46.20 per piece of 13 m is Rs 431.20.

Find the height of the room.

431 .20

Soln:

Number of pieces of paper =

46 .20

Length of the paper

= [280 + 300] m2 = 580 m2

Cost of cementing of 1 square metre

= Rs 12.

Cost of cementing the floor and the walls

= Rs [12 580] = Rs 6960.

Ex. 33: Length of a classroom is two times its

431 .20

364

13 m =

m

=

46 .20

3

364 75

91 sq m

Area of paper =

100

3

Area of walls = (91 + 5 =) 96 sq m

Now, area of walls = 2 (7 + 5) Height

= (24 Height) sq m

According to the question,

24 Height = 96

96

Height =

= 4 metres

24

Ex. 31: A hall, whose length is 16 metres and

breadth twice its height, is needed 168

metres of paper 2 metres wide for its

four walls. Find the area of the floor.

Soln:

Let the breadth = 2h metres, then height

= h metres.

Area of walls = 2 (16 + 2h)h sq metres

Area of paper = (168 2) sq metres

Now, according to the question,

2 (16 + 2h)h = 168 2

(8 + h)h = 84

or, h2 + 8h 84 = 0

or, h2 + 14h 6h 84 = 0

or, h (h + 14) 6 (h + 14) = 0

or, h = 6 and 14

Negative value of h should be omitted.

h = 6

Height = 6 m and

breadth = (6 2 =) 12 m

Area of the floor

= (16 12 =) 192 sq metres

Ex. 32: A swimming pool is 20 m in length, 15

m in breadth, and 4 m in depth. Find

the cost of cementing its floor and walls

at the rate of Rs 12 per square metre.

Soln:

We have,

l = length of the swimming pool = 20m

b = breadth of the swimming pool=15m

h = height of the swimming pool = 4m.

Area of the four walls of the swimming

pool

= 2h(l + b)

= [2 4 (20 + 15)] m2

= 8 35 m2 = 280 m2

Area of the floor of the swimming pool

= l b = 20 15 m2 = 300 m2.

1

times its

2

height. The cost of white-washing the

walls at the rate of Rs 1.60 per sq m is

Rs 179.20. Find the cost of tilling the

floor at the rate of Rs 6.75 per sq m.

Let the height of the classroom be h

metres. Then,

Length = 2h metres and, Breadth

height and its breadth is 1

Soln:

3

h metres.

2

= 2 Height (Length + Breadth)

= 2 h 2h h sq m

2

4h 3h

= 2 h

2

sq m

K KUNDAN

7h

= 2 h

sq m = 7h2 sq m.

2

Cost of white-washing of the four walls

= Rs (1.60 7h2) = Rs 11.20h2

But the cost of white washing is given as

Rs 179.20.

11.20h2 = 179.20

179.20

= 16

11.20

or, h2 = 42

or, h = 4

Length of the classroom = (2 4)m = 8m

Breadth of the classroom

or, h2 =

3

= 4 m = 6m

2

= (8 6) m2 = 48 m2.

Cost of tilling of 1 sq m of the floor

= Rs 6.75

Cost of tilling the floor

= Rs (6.75 48) = Rs 324.

Ex. 34: The cost of papering the walls of a hall

at 35 pai se per square metre is Rs

157.50. The height of the hall is 5 m.

Find its length and breadth, if they are

in the ratio 3 : 2.

573

Soln:

Cost of papering the four walls

= Rs 157.50 = 15750 paise

Th en ,

Area of four walls

= 2(length + breadth) height

= 2(6 + 9) h m2 = 30 h sq m

Area of 1 door and 2 windows = 8 sq m

Area to be papered

= Ar ea of 4 walls Area of 1 door

and 2 windows

= (30h 8) sq m

Cost of papering walls at Rs 1.40 per

m2 = Rs (30h 8) 1.40

or, (30h 8) 1.40 = 240.80

[ Cost = Rs 240.80 (given)]

15750

sq m

35

= 450 sq m.

or, 2 h (l + b) = 450

or, 2 5 (l + b) = 450

Area of four walls =

450

= 45

10

But l : b = 3 : 2

Let length (l) be 3x m and Breadth (b) be

2x m.

l + b = 45

3x + 2x = 45

or, 5x = 45

or, l + b =

or, (30h 8)

or, 30h 8

45

or, x =

= 9

5

Hence length = (3 9 =) 27 m

and breadth = (2 9 =) 18 m.

Ex. 35: A room is half as long again as it is

broad. The cost of carpeting the room

at Rs 3.25 per sq m is Rs 175.50 and

the cost of papering the walls at Rs

1.40 per sq m is Rs 240.80. If 1 door

and 2 windows occupy 8 sq m, find the

dimensions of the room.

Soln:

Let the breadth of the room be x m. Then,

length

240.80

1.40

24080

140

2408

14

or, 30h 8 = 172

or, 30h = 180

h = 6

Height = 6m

Hence, the dimensions of the room are:

length = 9 m, breadth = 6 m and

height = 6 m

or, 30h 8

K KUNDAN

x

3x

m

= x m

2

2

Area of the room

3x 2

3x

m2 =

= x

sq m

2

Prism

and whose ends (or bases) are congruent parallel

rectilinear figures.

In the figure given below, there is a prism whose

ends are rectilinear figures ABCDE and ABCDE .

of Rs 3.25 per sq m

3x 2

= Rs 2 3.25

or,

3x 2

3.25 = 175.50

2

or, x2 =

175.50 2

351

3 3.25

3 3.25

351 3510

= 36

6.5

65

x = 6

Thus, breadth = 6m and length

3 6

m = 9 m

=

2

(a) Base of a Prism: The end on which a prism

may be supposed to stand is called the base of the

prism.

574

Concept of Arithmetic

the bases of the prism. Every prism has two bases.

( b) Height of a Prism: The per pendicular

distance between the ends of a prism is called the

height of the prism.

In the above figure BF is the perpendicular

distance between the ends ABCDE and ABCDE .

So, it is the height of the prism shown in the

above figure.

(c) Axis of a Prism: The straight line joining

the centres of the ends of a prism is called the

axis of the prism.

In the abov e figure, a straight line passing

through O and O is the axis of the prism.

(d) Lateral Faces: All faces other than the bases

of a prism are known as its lateral faces.

In the above figure ABBA , BC CB, CD DC

Prism

Triangular Prism: A prism is called a triangular

prism if its ends are triangles.

Right Triangular Prism: A right prism is called

a right triangular prism if its ends are triangles.

In other words, a triangular prism is called a

right t riangular prism if its lateral edges are

perpendicular to its ends.

The prism shown in figure (III) is a triangular

prism whereas the prism shown in figure (IV) is a

right triangular prism.

(e) Lateral Edges: The lines of intersection of

the lateral faces of a prism are called the lateral

edges of the prism.

In the above figure AA , BB, CC, DD and EE

are the lateral edges of the prism.

Regular Prism: A prism is called a regular prism

if ends are regular figures.

Right Prism: A prism is called a right prism if

its lateral edges are perpendicular to its ends

(bases). Otherwise it is said to be an oblique prism.

The prism shown in figure (I) is an oblique prism

whereas the prism shown in figure (II) is a right

prism.

III

IV

K KUNDAN

A prism is said to be a quadrilateral prism or a

pent agonal pr ism or a hexagonal prism et c

according as the number of sides in the rectilinear

figure forming the ends (base) is four or five or six

etc.

If t he ends of a quadrilater al pr ism ar e

parallelograms, t hen it is also known as a

parallelopiped.

A quadrilateral prism with its ends as squares

is called a rectangular solid or a cuboid.

Figure (V) shows a right pentagonal prism and

figure (VI) shows a rectangular solid.

II

In a right prism, length of the prism is same as

its height. Also, all lateral edges are of the same

length equal to the height of the prism. It is also

evident from the definition of a right prism that

its all lateral faces are rectangles. The number of

lateral edges and lateral faces of a prism is same

as the number of sides in the base of the prism.

VI

575

Volume and Surface Area of a Right Prism

( i ) Volume of a right prism

= Area of the Base Height

( i i) Lateral Surface area of a right prism

= Perimeter of the Base Height

( i ii ) Total Surface area of a right prism

= Lateral Surface area + Area of Ends

= Lateral Surface area + 2 (Area of the

Base)

( iv) A Particular Case : If the base of a right

prism is an equilateral triangle of side a

and height h, then

Lateral surface area = 3a h

Total surface area = 3a h

Volume =

3 2

a

2

3 2

a h

4

= Lateral surface area + Area of ends

= 576 2 4 8 cm2

= 576 32 3

cm2

= 631.424 cm 2

Ex. 38: The perimeter of the base of a right

pri sm st andi ng on an equi lat eral

triangle is 12 cm. If the length of the

prism be 60 cm, find its volume and

surface area.

Soln:

Let t he lengt h of each side of t he

triangular base be a cm. Then,

Perimeter = 12 cm

or, 3a = 12 cm

a = 4 cm

Area of the base =

Solved Examples

Ex. 36: Find the area of the base of a right

triangular prism having volume of 672

cm3 and height 8 cm.

Soln:

We have,

Volume = Area of the base Height

3

a2

4

= 4 4 cm2

[ 3 = 1.732]

Volume = Area of the base Height

= 6.928 60 cm3

[ Height = Length = 60 cm]

= 415.68 cm3

Lateral surface area

= Perimeter of the base Height

12 60 cm2 = 720 cm2

Total surface area

= Lat eral sur f ace ar ea + 2(Ar ea of

the base)

= (720 + 2 6.928) cm2

= 733.856 cm 2

Ex. 39: A right prism of height 20 cm stands

on a triangular base whose sides are

13 cm, 14 cm and 15 cm, find its lateral

surface area, total surface area and

volume.

Soln:

If a, b, c are the lengths of the sides of a

triangle and s is the semi-perimeter, then

its area A is given by

= 6.928 cm2

K KUNDAN

or, Area of the base =

Volume

Height

672

cm2 = 84 cm2

8

Ex. 37: The base of a ri ght pr i sm i s an

equilateral triangle with a side 8 cm

and its height is 24 cm. Find its volume,

lateral surface area and total surface

ar ea.

Soln:

We know that the volume V of a right

triangular prism is given by V = Area of

the base Height.

Since base is an equilateral triangle with

a side 8 cm. Therefore,

or, Area of the base =

3

(side )2

4

= 4 8 cm2 = 16 3 cm2

= 27.712 cm 2

V = 16 3 24 cm3

= 384 3 cm3 = 665.088 cm3

Lateral surface area

= Perimeter of the base Height

= (8 + 8 + 8) 24 cm2 = 576 cm2

A =

s (s a ) (s b ) (s c )

1

(a b c )

2

Here, a = 13 cm, b = 14 cm and

c = 15 cm.

where s

s =

1

13 14 15 = 21 cm.

2

Thus,

Perimeter of the base = 2s = 42 cm.

576

Concept of Arithmetic

Area of the base

=

s (s a ) (s b ) (s c )

21 8 7 6

738732

7 2 32 42

= 7 3 4 cm2 = 84 cm2

Lateral surface

= Perimeter of the base Height

= (42 20) cm2 = 840 cm2

Total surface area

= Lat eral sur f ace ar ea + 2(Ar ea of

the base)

= (840 + 2 84) cm2 = 1008 cm2

Volume = Area of the base Height

= (84 20) cm3 = 1680 cm3

Ex. 40: A right prism stands on a triangular

base. The volume of the prism is 630

cm 3 and the sides of the base are 5

cm, 5 cm and 8 cm. Find the height of

the prism.

Soln:

If a, b, c denote the lengths of the sides of

a triangle, then its area A is given by

A =

s (s a ) (s b ) (s c )

3

side 2

4

52 cm2 25 3 cm 2

4

= Area of the base Height

25 3

= 4 50 cm3

= 541.25 cm 3

Ex. 42: A right triangular prism of height 18

cm and of base sides 5 cm, 12 cm and

13 cm is transformed into another right

triangular prism on a base of sides 9

cm, 12 cm and 15 cm. Find the height

of new prism and the change in the

whole surface area.

Soln:

We have,

2s = Perimeter of the base

= (5 + 12 + 13) cm = 30 cm

s = 15 cm.

Here, a = 5 cm, b = 12 cm and

c = 13 cm

Area of the base

=

s (s a ) (s b ) (s c )

K KUNDAN

1

(a b c )

2

Here, a = 5 cm, b = 5 cm and c = 8 cm.

where s

s =

or, A =

1

(5 5 8) = 9 cm

2

9 (9 5) (9 5) (9 8 )

= 9 4 4 1 = 12 cm2

Now,

Volume = Area of the base Height

or, Height =

Volume

Area of the base

630

cm 52.5 cm

12

Ex. 41: The base of a ri ght pr i sm i s an

equilateral triangle of side 5 cm. If the

lateral surface area of the prism is 750

cm2, find its volume.

Soln:

We have,

Lateral surface area

= Perimeter of the base Height

or, 750 = (5 + 5 + 5) Height

Height =

or, Height =

750

cm 50 cm

15

2

2

15 10 3 2 cm = 30 cm

Let V1 be the volume of the prism. Then,

V1 = Area of the base Height

or, V1 = (30 18) cm3 = 540 cm3

Let S be the total surface area of the prism.

Th en ,

S = Lat eral sur f ace ar ea + 2(Ar ea of

the base)

= Perimeter of t he base height +

2(Area of the base)

= (30 18 + 2 30) cm2 = 600 cm2

Let h be the height of the new prism and

2s 1 be the perimeter of its base.

Th en ,

2s 1 = 9 + 12 + 15 = 36

or, s 1 = 18

The sides of the base are a = 9 cm,

b = 12 cm and c = 15 cm.

Area of the base

= 18 9 6 3 cm2 = 54 cm2

Volume = Area of the base Height

or, 540 = 54 h

[Volume of the two prisms are same]

or, h = 10 cm

Thus, the new prism is of height 10 cm.

Let S1 be the total surface area of the new

prism. Then,

577

S 1 = Perimeter of the base height +

2(Area of the base)

= (36 10 + 2 54) cm2 = 468 cm2

Change in the whole surface area

= S S1

= (600 468) cm2 = 132 cm2

Ex. 43: The base of a right triangular prism

is an equilateral triangle. If its height

is halved and each side of the base is

doubled, find the ratio of the volumes

of the two prisms.

Soln:

Let a be the length of each side of the

base of the giv en prism and h be it s

height. Then, its volume V 1 is given by

3 2

V1 = 4 a h

h

2

If V2 is the volume of the new prism, then,

a1 = 2a

V2 =

and h1 =

3 2

3

h

a1 h1

2a 2

4

4

2

2

30 20 6 4 cm

5 6 5 4 6 4 cm2

Volume of the prism

= Area of the base Height

= 120 50 cm3 = 6000 cm3

Total surface area = Perimeter of the base

height + 2(Area of the base)

= (60 50 + 2 120) cm2

= 3240 cm2

Ex. 45: The t ot al sur face ar ea of a r ight

triangular prism of the height 4 cm is

Soln:

base of the new prism and h1 be its height.

Th en ,

2

72 3 cm . If the base of the prism is

an equilateral triangle, find its volume.

Let each side of the base of the prism be a

cm. Then,

or, Perimeter of the base height + 2(Area

of the base) = 72 3

3 2

or, 3a 4 2 4 a 72 3

3a 2 24a 144 3 0

or,

K KUNDAN

3 2

= 2 a h

or, a 2 8 3a 144 0

or, a 2 12 3a 4 3a 144 0

3 2

a h

V1

1

4

V2

2

3 2

a h

2

or, a 4 3 a 12

or, V1 : V1 = 1 : 2

Ex. 44: The perimeter of the base of a right

triangular prism is 60 cm and sides of

the base are in the ratio 5:12:13. Find

its volume and total surface area, if

its height is 50 cm.

Soln:

Let a, b, c be the lengths of the sides of

the base of the prism.

Th en ,

a : b : c = 5 : 12 : 13

or, a = 5x, b = 12x and c = 13x

or, a + b + c = 30x

or, 60 = 30x

[ a + b + c = 60 cm (given)]

x = 2

a = 10, b = 24 and c = 26.

We have, 2s = 60.

x = 30.

Area of the base =

3 0

or, a a 12 3 4 3 a 12 3 0

s (s a ) (s b ) (s c )

or, a 4 3 0

[ a 12 3 0 as a 0]

or, a 4 3

Volume of the prism

= Area of the base Height

=

4 cm

3

4 3

4

= 48 3 cm3

A right circular cylinder is a solid described by

the revolution of a rectangle about one of its sides

which remains fixed.

Thus if the rectangle ABCD revolves about the

side AB, it describes the cylinder shown in the

figure. AB is called the axis of the cylinder. The

circles described by AD and BC are called the ends.

Either end on which the cylinder may be supposed

to stand, is called base. The height of a cylinder

578

is the length of axis AB. The radius of the circular

base is called the radius of the cylinder.

Concept of Arithmetic

Total surface area of a cylinder

= Curved surface + Area of two ends

= 2rh + 2r2 = 2r(h + r)

Cylinder

height and different radii is called a hollow cylinder.

Let R and r be the external and internal radii of

a hollow cylinder and h be its height as shown in

the figure given below. Then we have the following

results:

circular cylinder is called its lateral or curved

surface.

Cylinder

(i) Volulme of a Cylinder

(b) Curved (lateral) surface area

= (Exter nal sur f ace area) + (Int ernal

surface area)

= 2Rh + 2rh = 2h(R + r) sq units

(c) Total surface area

K KUNDAN

base, and imagine the number of sides of the

polygon to increase indefinitely, then the polygon

ultimately becomes a circle and t he pr ism a

cylinder.

Hence, volume of a cylinder

= (area of base) height

= 2rh; where r is the radius of the circular

base and h is the height of the

cylinder.

Cylinder

cardboard, and cut along any straight line on its

surface parallel to its axis, then it can be spread

out into a rectangle whose sides are respectively,

the circumference and height of the cylinder.

Thus curved surface area

= circumference height

= 2rh

= 2Rh 2rh 2 (R 2 r 2 )

= 2h (R r ) 2(R r ) (R r )

= 2 (R r ) (h R r ) sq units

(d) Volume of the material

= Exterior volume - Interior volume

= R 2h r 2h = h (R 2 r 2 )

Solved Examples

Ex. 46: The ci rcum fer ence of the base of a

cylinder is 132 cm and its height is

25 cm. Find the volume of the cylinder.

Soln:

Let r cm be the radius of the cylinder.

Th en ,

Circumference = 132 cm

or, 2r = 132 cm

or, 2

22

r 312

7

132 7

cm

2 22

r = 21 cm.

or, r =

579

We have, h = height of the cylinder

= 25 cm.

Volume of the cylinder = r 2h

22

21 21 25 cm3

=

7

= 34650 cm3

Ex. 47: The diameter of a garden roller is 1.4

m and it is 2 m long. How much area

will it cover in 5 revolutions?

(Use = 22/7)

Soln:

Clearly,

Area covered = Curved surface

Number of revolutions.

1 .4

m = 0.7 m and h = 2 m.

2

Curved surface = 2rh sq m

Here, r =

22

0.7 2 sq m

7

= 8.8 sq m

Hence, area covered

= Cur ved sur f ace ar ea Number of

revolutions

= (8.8 5) m2 = 44 sq m

Ex. 48: A rectangular sheet of paper 44 cm

18 cm is rolled along its length and a

cylinder is formed. Find the volume of

the cylinder.

(Use = 22/7)

Soln:

When the rectangular sheet is rolled along

its length, we find that the length of the

sheet forms the circumference of its base

and breadth of the sheet becomes the

height of the cylinder.

Let r cm be the radius of the base and h

cm be the height. Then, h = 18 cm.

Now, circumference of the base

= length of the sheet

Circumference = 44 cm

= 2

and hei ght 7 cm . Fi nd i t s l at er al

surface area and total surface area.

Soln:

Let the radius of the base and height of

the cylinder be r cm and h cm respectively.

Then, h = 7 cm (given).

Now, Volume = 448 cm 3

or, r 2h 448

[ h = 7 cm]

or, r 2 7 448

448

64

7

or, r = 8 cm

Lateral surface area = 2rh cm2

2

or, r

= 2

22

8 7 cm2 = 352 cm2

7

cm2

= 2r h r cm2

= 2

22

87 8 cm2

7

5280

cm2 = 754.28 cm2

7

Ex. 50: If the radius of the base of a right

circular cylinder is halved, keeping the

height same, what is the ratio of the

volume of the reduced cylinder to that

of the original.

Soln:

Let r be the radius of the base and h be

the height of the given cylinder.

Then, radius of the base and the height

=

K KUNDAN

of the reduced cylinder ar e

r

and h

2

respectively.

Let V1 and V2 be the volumes of the given

cylinder

and

reduced

cylinder

respectively. Then,

V1 = r 2h cubic units, and,

2

2

r

V2 = h r h cubic units

4

2

or, 2r = 44

V1

r 2h

4

V

(r 2 / 4)h

2

22

r 44

or, 2

7

r = 7 cm

Volume of the cylinder = r 2h cm

22

(7)2 18 cm3

7

= 2772 cm3

=

V2

1

or, V 4

1

V2 : V1 = 1 : 4.

Ex. 51: Find the number of coins, 1.5 cm in

diameter and 0.2 cm thick, to be melted

to form a right circular cylinder of

height 10 cm and diameter = 4.5 cm.

580

Soln:

Concept of Arithmetic

Clearly, each coin is a cylinder of radius.

r = 0.75 cm height h = 0.2 cm.

Therefore,

= ( (2.25)2 10) cm3

Number of coins

Volume of a coin

2.25 2 10

0.75 2 0.2

and radius 3r

2.25 2.25 10

0.75 0.75 0.2

= 3 3 50 = 450

Ex. 52: A glass cylinder with diameter 20 cm

has water to a height of 9 cm. A metal

cube of 8 cm edge is immersed in it

compl etely. C alculate the height by

which water will rise in the cylinder.

(Take = 3.142)

Soln:

Suppose the water rises by h cm. Clearly,

water in the cylinder forms a cylinder of

height h cm and radius 10 cm.

Volume of the water displaced

= Volume of the cube of edge 8 cm

or, r 2h 83

or, 3.142 102 h = 8 8 8

[ r = 10 cm]

V1

20 r 2h

5

V

9

36 r 2h

2

V1 : V2 = 5 : 9

Ex. 54: 2.2 cubic dm of brass is to be drawn

i nto a cyl indr ical wi r e 0.50 cm i n

diameter. Find the length of the wire.

Soln:

Let the length of the wire be l cm.

Clearly, wire forms a cylinder of radius

0.25 cm and height l cm.

Volume of the wire

22

(0.25 )2 l cm3

=

7

= 2.2 dm3

= (2.2 103) cm3

[ 1 dm = 10 cm]

[ 1 dm3 = (10 10 10) cm3 = 103 cm3]

= (2.2 1000) cm3 = 2200 cm3

22

0.25 0.25 l 2200

7

or,

22 25

25

l 2200

7 100 100

or,

22 1 1

l 2200

7 4 4

K KUNDAN

888

or, h =

= 1.6

3.142 10 10

Hence, the required height = 1.6 cm

Ex. 53: The radii of two right circular cylinders

are in the ratio 2 : 3 and their heights

are in the ratio 5 : 4. Calculate the ratio

of their curved surface areas and also

the ratio of their volumes.

Soln:

Let the radii of two cylinders be 2r and 3r

respectively and their heights be 5h and

4h respectively. Let S1 and S2 be the curved

surface areas of the two cylinders and V1

and V2 be their volumes.

Th en ,

S1 = Curved surface area of the cylinder of

height 5h and radius 2r

= 2 2r 5h 20rh sq units

S2 = Curved surface area of the cylinder of

height 4h and radius 3r

= 2 3r 4h 24 rh sq units

S1

20 rh

5

S 24 rh 6

2

S1 : S2 = 5 : 6

V1 = Volume of the cylinder of height 5h

and radius 2r

2200 4 4 7

cm

22

= 11200 cm = 112 m.

Hence, the length of the wire is 112 m.

Ex. 55: A solid cylinder has total surface area

of 462 square cm. Its curved surface

area is one-third of its total surface

area. Find the volume of the cylinder.

(Take = 22/7)

Soln:

Let r be the radius of the base and h be the

height of the cylinder.

Th en ,

l =

Curved surface area = 2rh cm2

Now, curved surface area

=

1

(Total surface area )

3

or, 2rh

1

2r (h r )

3

or, 4rh 2r 2

or, 2h = r

581

Total surface area = 462 cm2

2r (h r ) 462

or, 2r r 462

2

2h r h 2

or, 2r

3r

462

2

22 3 2

r 462

7 2

or, r2 = 49

r = 7 cm.

or, 2

r

7

cm

2 2

Hence, volume of the cylinder

Now, 2h r h

7

22

2

72 cm3

= r h

2

7

= 539 cm3.

Ex. 56: A well with 10 m inside diameter is

dug 14 m deep. Earth taken out of it is

spread all around to a width of 5 m to

form an embankment. Find the height

of embankment.

of 7 cm and water flows through it at

192.5 litres per minute. Find the rate

of flow in kilometres per hour.

Soln:

Volume of water that flows per hour

= (192.50 60) litres

= (192.50 60 1000) cm3 ..... (i)

Inner diameter of the pipe = 7 cm.

or, Inner radius of the pipe

7

cm = 3.5 cm.

2

Let h cm be the length of the column of

water that flows in one hour. Clearly,

water column forms a cylinder of radius

3.5 cm and length h cm.

Volume of water that flows in one hour

= Volume of the cylinder of radius 3.5 cm

and length h cm

=

22

3.5 2 h cm3

=

7

...... (ii)

22

3.5 3.5 h = 192.50 60 1000

7

192 .50 60 1000 7

cm

or, h =

22 3.5 3.5

= 300000 cm = 3 km.

Hence, the rate of flow of water is 3 km

per hour.

Ex. 58: Water is flowing at the rate of 3 km/hr

t hr ough a ci r cul ar pi pe of 20 cm

internal diameter into circular cistern

of diameter 10 m and depth 2 m. In

how much time will the cistern be filled?

Soln:

Suppose the cistern is filled in x hours.

Since water is flowing at the rate of 3

km/hr. Therefore, length of the water

column in x hours = 3x km = 3000x metres.

Clearly, the water column forms a cylinder

of radius

K KUNDAN

Soln:

=

22

5 5 14 m3 = 1100 m3

7

= (R r 2 )

= (102 562 ) m2

22

75 m2

=

7

Height of the embankment

=

Area of the embankment

1100

7 1100

= 4.66 m.

22

22 75

75

7

20

1

cm = 10 cm =

m

2

10

and h = height (length) = 3000x metres.

Volume of the water that flows in the

r =

cistern in x hours = r 2h

1

22 1

3000 x m3

=

7 10 10

22

5 5 2 m3

=

7

[ r = 5 m, h = 2 m]

Since the cistern is filled in x hours.

582

Concept of Arithmetic

Volume of the water that flows in the

cistern in x hours is equal to the volume

of the cistern.

22 1

1

22

3000x

552

7 10 10

7

or,

5 5 2 10 10

hours

or, x =

3000

5

=

hours = 1 hours 40 minutes.

3

Ex. 59: Water is flowing at the rate of 7 metres

per second through a cir cul ar pi pe

whose internal diameter is 2 cm into a

cylindrical tank the radius of whose

base is 40 cm. Determine the increase

in the water level in half an hour.

Soln:

Rate of flow of water

= 7m/sec = 700 cm/sec.

Length of the water column in

1

hours

2

= (700 30 60) cm

Internal radius of circular pipe = 1 cm.

Clearly, water column forms a cylinder of

radius 1 cm and length (700 30 60)

cm.

Volume of the water that flows in the

Soln:

use up a bottle of ink containing one

fifth of a litre?

Volume of barrel

22

=

0.25 0.25 7 cm 3 = 1.375 cm3

7

1

1000

litre =

cm3 = 200 cm3

5

5

Total number of barrels that can be filled

from the given volume of ink

=

200

.

1.375

So, required number of words

=

200

330 = 48000.

1.375

Ex. 61: The volume of a metallic cylindrical pipe

is 748 cm3. Its length is 14 cm and its

ext er nal radi us i s 9 cm . Fi nd i t s

thickness.

Soln:

We have,

R = external radius of pipe = 9 cm

h = length of the pipe = 14 cm

V = volume of the pipe = 748 cm3

Let r be the internal radius in centimetres.

Th en ,

Volume = 748 cm3

=

K KUNDAN

tank in

1

hour

2

22

1 700 30 60 cm3

=

7

.... (i)

h = 700 30 60 cm]

Let h cm be the rise in the level of water

in the tank. Then,

volume of the water in the tank

=

22

40 40 h cm3 .... (ii)

7

[ r = 40 cm]

22

22

40 40 h

1 700 30 60

7

7

700 30 60

cm = 787.5 cm

or, h =

40 40

1

hour is 787.5 cm.

2

Ex. 60: The barrel of a fountain-pen, cylindrical

in shape, is 7 cm long and 5 mm in

diameter. A full barrel of ink in the pen

will be used up on writing 330 words

the tank in

or,

22 2

(9 r 2 ) 14 748

7

748

44

or, 81 r2 = 17

or, r2 = 64

r = 8 cm

Hence, thickness of the pipe

= (R r) cm = (9 8) cm = 1 cm.

Ex. 62: The difference between outside and

inside surfaces of a cylindrical metallic

pipe 14 cm long is 44 cm2. If the pipe is

made of 99 cu centimetres of metal, find

the outer and inner radii of the pipe.

Soln:

Let R cm and r cm be the external and

inter nal r adii of t he met allic pipe

respectively.

We have h = length of the pipe = 14 cm.

Now, it is given that outside surface area

- Inside surface area = 44 cm2

or, 2Rh 2rh 44

2

or, 81 r

or, 2(R r )h 44

or, 2

22

(R r ) 14 44

7

583

1

...... (i)

2

It is given that the volume of the metal

used = 99 cubic centimetres.

External volume Internal volume

= 99 cubic centimetres

or, R r =

or, R h r h 99

or,

22

R r R r 14 99

7

22

1

(R r ) 14 99

7

2

or, R + r =

dm be the height of the cylindrical tank.

Then, h = 6r (given)

Total surface area

= 2r (r h ) 2r (r 6r ) 14r 2

Cost of painting

60

42 2

r

= Rs

100

5

It is given that the cost of painting is Rs

237.60.

2

= Rs (14r )

or, (R 2 r 2 )h 99

or,

Soln:

[Using (i)]

99

22

9

..... (ii)

2

Solving equations (i) and (ii), we get,

R = 2.5 and r = 2.

Hence, outer radius = 2.5 cm and inner

radius = 2 cm.

Ex. 63: An iron pipe 20 cm long has exterior

diam eter

equal t o 25 cm . I f the

thickness of the pipe is 1 cm, find the

whole surface of the pipe.

Soln:

We have

R = external radius = 12.5 cm

r = internal radius

= (external radius thickness)

= (12.5 1) cm = 11.5 cm

h = length of the pipe = 20 cm

Total surface area of the pipe = (External

curved surface) + (Internal curved surface)

+ 2(Area of the base of the ring)

R + r=

or,

42 2

r 237.60

5

42 22 2

r = 237.60

5

7

or, r2 = 237.60

5

7

= 9

42 22

r = 3 dm

h = 6r = 18 dm.

Hence, volume of the cylinder = r 2h

= ( 3 3 18) dm3

22

9 18 dm3

=

7

= 509.14 dm 3

Ex. 65: A lead pencil consists of a cylinder of

wood with a solid cylinder of graphite

filled into it. The diameter of the pencil

is 7 mm, the diameter of the graphite

is 1 mm and the length of the pencil is

10 cm. Calculate the weight of t he

whole pencil, if the specific gravity of

the wood is 0.7 gm/cm3 and that of the

graphite is 2.1 gm/cm3 .

Soln:

Diameter of the graphite cylinder

K KUNDAN

= 2Rh 2rh 2 (rR 2 r 2 )

= 2(R r )h 2(R2 r 2 )

= 2(R r )h 2(R r )(R r )

= 2(R r )(h R r )

= 2

22

(12.5 11.5 ) (20 12.5 11.5 ) cm 2

7

22

24 21 cm2

= 2

7

= 3168 cm2

Ex. 64: The cost of painting the total outside

surface of a closed cylindrical oil tank

at 60 paise per sq dm is Rs 237.60.

The height of the tank is 6 times the

radius of the base of the tank. Find

i ts v ol um e corr ect t o t wo decim al

places.

= 1 mm =

1

cm.

10

1

cm.

20

Length of the graphite cylinder = 10 cm

Volume of the graphite cylinder

Radius =

1

22 1

10 cm3

=

7 20 20

Weight of graphite

= Volume Specific gravity

1

22 1

10 2.1 gm

=

7 20 20

1

21

22 1

10

gm

=

10

7 20 20

= 0.165 gm.

584

Concept of Arithmetic

Diameter of pencil = 7 mm =

7

cm.

10

7

cm

20

and, length of pencil = 10 cm.

Volume of pencil

Radius of pencil =

7

22 7

10 cm3

=

7 20 20

Volume of wood

7

22 1

1

1

22 7

3

10

cm

=

7 20 20 10

7 20 20

22 1

1

10(7 7 1) cm3

7 20 20

11 1

48 cm3

7 20

Weight of wood

=

= 11 1 48 0.7 gm

7 20

Volume of wire

2

2

1200 cm 3

=

10 10

= 482 cm3

So, weight of wire = (482 8.88) gm

= 426.242 gm.

Pyramid

A pyramid is a solid whose base is a plane rectilinear

figure and whose side-faces are triangles having a

common vertex outside the plane of the base.

Figure given below shows a pyramid VABCDE.

The base of this pyramid is the pentagon ABCDE

and triangles VAB, VBC, VCD, VDE and VEA are

five faces.

If t he base of a pyr amid is a t r iangle, a

quadr ilat er al and a squar e, t hen it is called

triangular pyramid, quadrilateral pyramid and

square pyramid respectively. Similarly, a pyramid

is called a pentagonal, hexagonal, septagonal and

octagonal according as the number of sides of the

base is 5, 6, 7 or 8.

11 1

7

=

48

gm

10

7 20

= 2.64 gm

Total weight = (2.64 + 0.165) gm

= 2.805 gm.

Ex. 66: A copper wire 4 mm in diameter is evenly

wound about a cylinder whose length

is 24 cm and diameter 20 cm so as to

cover the whole surface. Find the length

and weight of the wire assuming the

specific gravity to be 8.88 gm/cm3 .

Soln:

Clearly, one round of wire covers 4 mm

K KUNDAN

4

cm in thickness of the surface of

10

the cylinder and length of the cylinder is

24 cm.

Number of rounds to cover 24 cm

=

24

24 10

= 4 /10 =

= 60.

4

Radius of the cylinder = 10 cm.

Lengt h of t he wir e in complet ing one

round

= 2r 2 10 cm = 20 cm.

Lengt h of t he wir e in covering the

whole surface = Length of the wire in

completing 60 rounds

= (20 60) cm = 1200 cm.

Radius of copper wire = 2 mm =

2

cm.

10

Figure I

(i) Vertex: The common vertex of the triangular

faces of a pyramid is called the vertex of the

pyramid.

In the above figure V is the v ert ex of t he

pyramid VABCDE.

(ii) Height: The height of a pyramid is the length

of the perpendicular from the vertex to the base.

In the above figure VP is the height of the

pyramid VABCDE.

(iii) Axis: The axis of a pyramid is the straight

line joining the vertex to the central point of the

base.

In the above figure VO is the axis of the pyramid

VABCDE.

(iv) Lateral Edges: The edges through the

vertex of a pyramid are known as its lateral edges.

(v) Slant Height: The slant height of a regular

right-pyramid is the line segment joining the vertex

585

to the mid-point of anyone of the sides of the base.

The figure given below shows a right regular

pyramid, in which O is the centre of the base and

VM is the slant height.

length is called a regular tetrahedron. In a regular

t et r ahedr on all t he f our faces ar e congr uent

equilateral triangles.

1. When the length of each edge of a regular

tetrahedron is given, we have the following

results:

( i ) Height of the regular tetrahedron

2

(edge).

3

( i i) Slant height of the regular tetrahedron

3

(edge).

2

( i ii ) Volume of the regular tetrahedron

2

(edge)3.

12

( iv) Later al surf ace ar ea of

tetrahedron

Figure II

Also, in right angled triangle VOM, we have

VM2 = OM2 + VO2 [By Pythagoras theorem]

VM

VO2 OM2

(i) Right Pyramid: A pyramid is said to be right

pyramid if the perpendicular dropped from the

vertex on the base meets the base at its central

point ie the centre of the inscribed or circumscribed

circle. In other words, the vertex of the pyramid

lies on t he perpendicular t o t he base drawn

thr ough its centre. Other wise, the pyramid is

called an oblique pyramid.

The pyramid shown in the above figure I is an

oblique pyramid whereas figure II given above

shows a right pyramid.

(ii) Regular Pyramid: A pyramid is said to be a

regular if its base is a regular figure ie all sides of

its base are equal.

In case of a right regular pyramid the lateral

edges are equal and the lateral faces are congruent

triangles.

t he

r egular

3 3

(edge)2.

4

2

= 3 (edge) .

2 . For a right pyramid with an equilateral

triangle of side a as base and height h, we

have the following results:

K KUNDAN

( i i) Slant height =

A tetrahedron is a pyramid whose base is a triangle.

It has six edges and four triangular faces.

a2

3

a2

12

1

(Perimeter of the base slant height)

2

( iv) Total surface area

=

1

(Perimeter of the base slant height)

2

( i ) Volume of a pyramid

1

=

Area of the Base Height

3

( i i) Lateral surface area of a pyramid

= Sum of ar eas of all t he lat er al

triangular faces.

( i ii ) Total surface area of a pyramid

= Sum of areas of all lateral faces + Area

of the base.

h2

h2

3 2

a .

4

1

3

3 2

a2 h2

a h .

3

4

12

( vi) Area of lateral face

(v) Volume =

1

(Length of an edge of the base Slant

2

height)

586

Concept of Arithmetic

Solved Examples

Ex. 67: Find the volume of the right pyramid

the area of whose base is 60 cm 2 and

height 10 cm.

Soln:

We know that the volume of a right pyramid

1

(Area of the base) (Height)

3

Volume of the given pyramid

=

3

whose volume is 750 cm 3 and area of

whose base is 150 cm 2 .

Soln:

We know that the volume of a right pyramid

1

(Area of the base Height)

3

Let h be the height of the giv en right

pyramid. Then,

1

750 150 h

3

surface area of a ri ght pyr ami d in

whi ch t he base i s an equi lat eral

Soln:

of each lateral edge is 5 cm.

Let the length of each side of the base be

a and h be the height of the pyramid.

Th en ,

Area of the base = 16 3 cm2

3 2

a 16 3

4

or, a2 = 64

a = 8 cm

Now, Lateral edge = 5 cm

or

or,

h2

a2

5

3

or,

h2

64

5

3

750 3

cm = 15

150

Ex. 69: A right pyramid has

equilateral triangle of

its height is 30 3 cm.

of the pyramid.

Soln:

We have,

or, h =

cm

its base as an

side 40 cm and

Find the volume

2

or, h

64

25

3

2

or, h 25

2

or, h

64

3

75 64

3

K KUNDAN

3 2

Here, a = 40 and h = 30 3 .

Volume of the pyramid

= 12 40 30 3 cm3

= 12000 cm 3

Ex. 70: Find the vol ume of a regular

t et r ahedr on whose each edge i s of

6 2 cm.

Soln:

We know that

Volume of a regular tetrahedron

2

(edge )3

=

12

Volume of the given tetrahedron

2

6 2

12

cm 3

2

216 2 2 cm 3

12

= 72 cm3

11

cm

3

Slant height

h2

a2

12

11 64

9 3 cm

3 12

=

1

(Per imeter of the base Slant

2

height)

1

8 8 8 3 cm2 = 36 cm2

2

Whole surface area

= Ar ea of t he base + Lat eral sur f ace

area

=

= 16 3 36 cm2

Ex. 72: If p be the length of the perpendicular

drawn fr om a ver t ex of a regular

tetrahedron to its opposite face and

each edge of length 2a, show that 3p2

= 8a2 .

Soln:

Clearly, p = height of the tetrahedron

=

2

(length of an edge )

3

587

equil ateral t riangular base of ar ea

2

2a

3

or, p

2

or, p

8a

3

Soln:

3 p 2 8a 2

Ex. 73: Find the volume of a tetrahedron the

sides of whose base are 9 cm, 12 cm

and 15 cm and height 20 cm.

Soln:

Let a = 9 cm, b = 12 cm, c = 15 cm. Then,

2s = a + b + c

or, 2s = 9 + 12 + 15 = 36

s = 18

Area of the base

=

3 2

a 16 3

4

or, a2 = 64

a = 8 cm

Let h be the height of the pyramid and l

be its slant height. Then,

or,

s (s a ) (s b ) (s c )

= 18 9 6 3 = 54 cm2

Volume of the tetrahedron

=

2

16 3 cm . If the area of one of its

lateral faces is 40 cm2, find the volume

of the pyramid.

Let the length of each side of the base be

a cm.

l h2

a2

12

2

2

or, l h

1

(Area of the base Height)

3

1

54 20 cm3 = 360 cm3

3

Ex. 74: Show that the surface area and volume

of a regular tetrahedron of height h

=

a2

12

l2 h2

or,

64

12

16

...(i)

3

Now, Area of one lateral surface = 40 cm2

2

2

l h

K KUNDAN

3 3 2

3 3

h

h respectively.

and

2

8

We know that if the length of each edge of a

regular tetrahedron is a units, then

are

Soln:

or, h

a

2

a

3

2

a

3

1

a l 40

2

or, a l = 80

or, 8 l = 80

l = 10

Putting l = 10 in (i), we get

100 h 2

16

3

2

or, h 100

3

h

2

=

3 (edge )2

3

3

h

2

3 3 2

h

=

2

2 3

2

edge 3 = 12 2 h

=

12

3 3 3

3 3

h

h

=

24

8

16

3

284

3

Volume of the pyramid

1

(Area of the base Height)

3

1

284

16 3

cm3

3

3

16

284 cm3

3

sq units. A pyramid of the height 6

uni t s i s for m ed upon the regular

588

Soln:

Concept of Arithmetic

hexagon. Find the slant surface area

of the pyramid.

Let each side of the regular hexagon be a

units.

area of the regular hexagon =

3 3 2

a

2

3 3 2

a 216 3

2

or, a2 = 144

a = 12 units.

or,

Then, OOG 90 and

right-angled triangle.

OG

OG

is t he

OO2 OG 2

Six equal triangles can be drawn in a

regular hexagon and area of each triangle

is

1

= 216 3 36 3 sq units.

6

each side of regular hexagon = 12 units

Therefore in OEF

EF OG = 36 3

or,

1

12 OG 36 3

2

or, OG = 6 3 units.

Slant height of the pyramid

=

=

OO2 OG 2

6 2 6

144

K KUNDAN

= 12 units

Now, slant surface area

I

Slant surface area

1

(perimeter of base) slant height

2

OG is the line joining the mid-point of

any side of regular hexagon to point O of

the pyramid ie slant height of pyramid.

(See the above figure.)

=

II

1

perimeter of base slant height

2

1

12 6 12 = 432 units2

2

A right circular cone is a solid generated by the

revolution of a right-angled triangle about one of

the sides containing the right angle as axis.

suppose it to revolve about one side AB as fixed

axis. The hypotenuse AC will generate the curved

surface of the cone.

The circle described by the radius BC (usually

denoted by r) is the base of the cone.

The point A is called the vertex. The height of

589

the cone (usually denoted by h) is the length of the

Axis AB, and the slant height (usually denoted by

l) is the length of the hypotenuse AC.

Cone

Frustum of a Cone

If a cone is cut by plane parallel to the base of the

cone, then the portion between the plane and base

is called the frustum of the cone.

Imagine a hollow cone to be made of thin card

board. Cut it along its slant height. Then it can be

spread out into the sector ADC of which the radius

AC and the arc CD are respectively slant height

and circumference of the base of the cone.

r be the radii of base and top of the frustum of a

cone respect iv ely. Let h be t he height of the

frustum, then volume of frustum of right circular

h 2

[R r 2 Rr ] cu units

3

(b) Lateral Surface Area of frustum of right

cone =

where l2 = h2 + (R r)2.

(c) Total Surface Area of frustum of right circular

cone = Area of base + Area of top + Lateral surface

area

K KUNDAN

=

1

radius (CA) arc (CD)

2

1

l 2r

2

= R2 r 2 l (R r )

1

(circumference of base) (slant height)

2

= rl

Area of the base = r2

Now, total surface area

= curved surface + area of base

= rl + r2

= r (l + r)

where r = radius of base and l = slant height

Note: When perpendicular height is given, then

Slant height

=

=

or l =

h2 r 2

(Theorem of Pythagoras)

=

1

area of the base perpendicular height

3

1 2

r h

3

where, r = radius of the base, and

h = perpendicular height

=

= R 2 r 2 l(R r ) sq units.

Solved Examples

Ex. 77: A right triangle with its sides 5 cm, 12

cm and 13 cm is revolved about the side

12 cm. Find the volume of the solid so

form ed.

Soln:

Let ABC be a right triangle with AB = 12

cm, BC = 5 cm and AC = 13 cm.

When this triangle is revolved about AB,

it forms a right circular cone of radius

= BC = 5 cm and height AB = 12 cm.

590

Concept of Arithmetic

Volume of the solid formed

= Volume of the cone of radius 5 cm

and height 12 cm

1 22

5 5 12 cm3

=

3 7

1 2

Putting r 5, h 12 in V 3 r h

= 314.28 cm 3.

Ex. 78: The base radii of two right circular

cones of the same height are in the

rati o 3 : 5. Fi nd t he r ati o of t heir

volumes.

Soln:

Let r1 and r2 be the radii of two cones and

V1 and V 2 be their volumes. Let h be the

height of the two cones.

1 2

1 2

r1 h and V =

r2 h .

Then, V1 =

2

3

3

1 2

r1 h

V1

r2

9

3

12

1 2

V2

25

r2 h r2

3

r1

3

r2

9

(Given) 12

25

r2

r2 5

Hence, the ratio of the volumes of two

cones is 9 : 25.

Ex. 79: A right circular cone is 3.6 cm high and

radius of its base is 1.6 cm. It is melted

and recast into a right circular cone

with radius of its base as 1.2 cm. Find

its height.

Soln:

We have: First cone Second cone

Radii

r1 = 1.6 cm, r2 = 1.2 cm

Heights h1 = 3.6 cm, h2 = ?

Volumes V1 and V 2

Clearly, two cones have the same volume,

ie V1 = V2

Soln:

water rises.

Let r1 = radius of the conical vessel

= 5 cm

h1 = height of the conical vessel

= 24 cm

and, r2 = radius of the cylindrical vessel

= 10 cm

Suppose water rises upto the height of h2

cm in the cylindrical vessel.

Clearly,

Volume of water in conical vessel = Volume

of water in cylindrical vessel

or,

1 2

r1 h1 r22h 2

3

or, 5 5 24 = 3 10 10 h2

5 5 24

= 2 cm

3 10 10

Hence, t he height of wat er in t he

cylindrical vessel is 2 cm.

Ex. 81: A cone and a cylinder are having the

same base. Fi nd t he r ati o of t hei r

heights if their volumes are equal.

Soln:

Let the radius of the common base be r.

Let h1 and h2 be the height of the cone

and cylinder respectively.

Now,

h2 =

K KUNDAN

1 2

1

r1 h1 r22h 2

or,

3

3

or,

r12h1

or, h 2

or, h2 =

r22h 2

r12h1

r22

cm

1.2 1.2

16 16 36

cm = 6.4 cm

12 12 10

Ex. 80: A conical vessel whose internal radius

is 5 cm and height 24 cm is full of

water . The water is em pti ed i nto a

cylindrical vessel with internal radius

=

1 2

r h1

3

are of the same volume.

1 2

r h1 r 2h 2

3

or,

1

h1 h 2

3

or,

h1

3

h2

1

h1 : h2 = 3 : 1

and cylinder is 3 : 1.

Ex. 82: From a right circular cylinder with

height 10 cm and radius of base 6 cm,

a right circular cone of the same height

and base is removed. Find the volume

of the remaining solid.

Soln:

Let V1 and V2 be the volumes of the right

circular cylinder and cone respectively.

Th en .

22

6 6 10 cm3

V1 =

7

[Using: V1 = r2h]

591

1 22

6 6 10 cm3

and, V2 =

3 7

1 2

Using : V2 3 r h

1 22

22

6 6 10

6 6 10 cm3

=

3 7

7

22

1

6 6 10 1 cm3

7

3

1232 3

cm = 6cm

616

2

2

2

Now, l = r + h

or, h =

22

2

6 6 10 cm3

7

3

= 754.28 cm 3.

Ex. 83: The radius of a cone is 3 cm and vertical

height is 4 cm. Find the area of the

curved surface.

Soln:

We have, r = 3 cm and h = 4 cm

196 36 =

232 cm

= 2 58 cm

Curved surface of the cone = rl

22

14 2 58 cm2

7

=

=

r 2 h 2 (14 )2 62

or, l =

= 88 58 cm2

Ex. 85: The radius and height of a cone are in

the ratio 4 : 3. The area of the base is

154 cm 2. Find the area of the curved

surface.

Soln:

Let r be the radius and h be the height of

the cone. It is given that

r

4

h

3

Let r = 4x and h = 3x

Now, area of the base = 154 cm2

or, r2 = 154

K KUNDAN

Let l cm be the slant height of the cone.

Th en ,

l2 = r2 + h2

or, l2 = 32 + 42

or, l2 = 25

or, l =

22

4 5 cm 2 = 62.85 cm2.

=

7

1232 cm 3 . If the radius of its base is

14 cm, find its curved surface.

Soln:

Let r be the radius, h be the height and l

be the slant height of the cone.

Then, r = 14 cm

[Given]

Now, Volume = 1232 cm 3

1 2

r h 1232

3

1 22

14 14 h 1232

or,

3 7

or,

22

(4x )2 154

7

or,

22

16x 2 154

7

2

or, x

or, x =

25 cm = 5 cm

or,

or,

616

h 1232

3

154 7 49

22 16 16

49

7

cm

16

4

r = 4x = 4

7

cm = 7 cm,

4

7 21

cm

4

4

Let the slant height be l cm. Then,

l2 = r2 + h2

and h = 3

or, l =

r2 h2

or, l =

21

72

cm

441

1225

35

cm.

16

16

4

Curved surface area = rl

l =

49

35

22

7

cm2 = 192.5 cm2

=

7

4

592

Concept of Arithmetic

required to make a conical tent whose

height is 16 m and the radius of whose

base is 12 m?

Soln:

Let the slant height of the cone be l metres.

Th en ,

l =

r2 h2

or, l =

122 162 m

[ r = 12 m and h = 16 m]

or, l =

400 m = 20 m

Curved surface area of the tent = rl

22

12 20 m2

=

7

make the tent be x metres.

Th en ,

Area of the cloth = Curved surface area of

the tent

or, 3 x =

22

12 20

7

[ Width of the cloth = 3 m]

22 12 20

m = 251.42 m

73

Hence, the length of the required cloth

= 251.42 m.

Ex. 87: A coni cal tent is 9 m hi gh and t he

radius of its base is 12 m.

(i) What is the cost of the canvas

required to make it, if a square

metre canvas costs Rs 10?

(ii) How m any per sons can be

accommodated in the tent, if each

person requires 2 square metres

on the ground and 15 m3 of space

to breathe in?

Soln:

We have,

r = radius of the base of conical tent

= 12 m

h = height of the conical tent = 9 m.

l = slant height of the conical tent

or, x =

floor area.

Maximum number of persons who will

have enough space on the ground

452.16

=

= 226 (approximately)

...(i)

2

Again,

Volume of the conical tent

1

=

Area of the base height

3

1

452.16 9 m3 = 1356.48 m3

3

Air space required per person = 15 m3

Number of per sons who will hav e

enough air space to breathe in

1356.48

=

= 90

15

Between 226 and 90, the smaller number

is 90. Hence, 90 persons can be

accommodated.

Ex. 88: A conical tent is to accommodate 11

persons. Each person must have 4 sq

metres of the space on the ground and

20 cubic metres of air to breathe. Find

the height of the cone.

Soln:

Let h metres be the height, r metres be

the radius of base of the cone. Since the

tent can accommodate 11 persons and each

person requires 4 sq metres of the space

on the ground and 20 cubic metres of air.

Therefore,

Area of the base = (11 4) m2 = 44 m2

or, r2 = 44 m2

.... (i)

and

Volume of the cone = (11 20) m3

= 220 m3

=

K KUNDAN

(i)

r2 h2 =

122 92 m

225 m = 15 m

22

12 15 m2 = 565.2 m2

7

Total cost of canvas

= Rs (565.2 10) = Rs 5652

(ii) Area of the base of the conical tent

=

= r2 =

22

12 12 m2 = 452.16 m2

7

1 2

r h 220 m3

.... (ii)

3

Dividing (ii) by (i), we get

or,

1 2

r h

220

3

44

r 2

h

5

3

or, h = 15 m.

Hence, t he height of t he cone is 15

metres.

Ex. 89: Water flows at the rate of 10 metres

per minute through a cylindrical pipe 5

mm in diameter. How long would it take

to fill a conical vessel whose diameter

at the base is 40 cm and depth 24 cm?

Soln:

We have

r = radius of the base of the conical vessel

= 20 cm

or,

593

h = height of the conical vessel = 24 cm

Volume of the conical vessel

1 2

r h

=

3

1 22

20 20 24 cm3

=

..... (i)

3 7

minutes. Then, length of the water column

= (10 x) metres = 1000x cm.

Clearly, water column forms a cylinder of

5

mm

lengt h 1000x cm, and r adius

2

5

1

cm cm .

20

4

Volume of the water that flows in x

minutes

22 1 2

= 7 4 1000 x cm3

surface area 550 cm2. Find its volume.

(Take = 22/7)

Soln:

Let r cm be the radius of the base and l cm

the slant height. Then,

l2 = r2 = 242

[Using l2 = r2 = h2]

or, l2 = r2 = 576

l r 2 576

... (i)

Now, curved surface area = 550 cm2

or, rl = 550

[Using (i)]

or,

2

or, r r 576 550

7

22

or, r r 2 576 25 7

or,

..... (ii)

22

r r 2 576 550

7

r 2 (r 2 576) (25 7 )2

22 1 2

1000 x

7 4

or, r 2 (r 2 625) 49(r 2 625) 0

1 22

20 20 24 cm3

3 7

K KUNDAN

or, r 2 49 0

or, r = 7

20 20 24 16

3 1000

or, x =

256

1

51

minutes

5

5

= 51 minutes 12 seconds.

Hence, the conical vessel is filled in 51

minutes 12 seconds.

Ex. 90: If h, c, V are respectively the height,

the curved surface and the volume of a

cone, prove that 3Vh3 c2h2 + 9v 2 = 0.

Soln:

Let r and l denote respectively the radius

of the base and slant height of the cone.

Th en ,

or, x =

1 2

l r 2 h 2 , V 3 r h and c rl

[ r 2 625 0]

1 2

1 22

r h =

7 7 24

3

3 7

= 1232 cm3

Ex. 92: A sem i-ci rcul ar sheet of met al of

diameter 28 cm is bent into an open

coni cal cup. Find t he dept h and

capacity of cup.

Soln:

When the semi-circular sheet is bent into

an open conical cup, the radius of the

sheet becomes the slant height of the cup

and t he circumfer ence of t he sheet

becomes the circumference of the base of

the cone.

Volume =

3Vh 3 c 2h 2 9V 2

1 2

1

r h h 3 rl 2 h 2 9 r 2h

3

3

2r 2h 4 2r 2l 2h 2 2r 4h 2

2r 2h 4 2r 2h 2 r 2 h 2 2r 4h 2

r 2 h2

2r 2h 4 2r 4h 2 2r 2h 4 2r 4h 2 0

= 14 cm

Let r cm be the radius and h cm the height

(depth) of the conical cup. Then,

Circumference of the base of the conical

cup = Circumference of the sheet

594

Concept of Arithmetic

V

or, 2r 14

or, r = 7 cm

Now,

1 2

r h

3

1 22

4 4 8 2

or, V

3 7

l2 r 2 h2

or, h l 2 r 2 = 142 72 7 3 cm

= (7 1.732) cm = 12.12 cm

Depth of the cup = 12.12 cm

Also, capacity of the cup = Volume of the

cup

1 2

= r h cm3

3

1 22

7 7 12.12 cm3

=

3 7

= 622.26 cm 3

Ex. 93: A sector of a circle of radius 12 cm

has the angle 120. It is rolled up so

that t wo boundi ng r adii ar e joined

together to form a cone. Find the volume

of the cone.

Soln:

When a sector of a circle is rolled up in a

given manner, we obtain a cone whose

slant height is equal to the radius of the

sector and the circumference of the base

of the cone is equal to the length of the

arc of the sector.

Now, length of the arc of the sector

120

2 12 cm = 8 cm

=

360

22 128 2

189 .5 cm 3

21

Ex. 94: A right triangle, whose sides are 15

cm and 20 cm, is made to revolve about

its hypotenuse. Find the volume and the

sur face ar ea of t he double cone so

form ed.

(Use = 3.14)

Soln:

Let ABC be the right triangle right angled

at A whose sides AB and AC measure 15

cm and 20 cm, respectively.

or, V

K KUNDAN

Sector angle

2r

Using : arc

360

the height and l cm be the slant height of

the cone. Then,

l = radius of the sector = 12 cm.

And, Circumference of the base of the cone

= Length of the arc of the sector

or, 2r 8 cm

or, r = 4 cm

Now,

=

15 2 20 2 cm = 25 cm

common base of the double cone formed

by revolving the right triangle about BC.

Height of the cone BA A is BO and slant

height is 15 cm.

Height of the cone CAA is CO and slant

height is 20 cm.

Now, AOB ~ CAB (AA similarity)

AO 15

Therefore,

20

25

This gives AO =

l2 r 2 h2

20 15

cm = 12 cm

25

BO 15

15

25

or, h l 2 r 2 122 42

Also,

128 8 2 cm

Let V cm3 be the volume of the cone. Then,

This gives BO =

15 15

cm = 9 cm

25

595

Thus, CO = 25 cm 9 cm = 16 cm

Now, volume of the double cone

1

1

3

3

3.14

122 (9 16) cm3 = 3768 cm3

3

Surface area of the double cone

= (3.14 12 15 + 3.14 12 20) cm2

= 3.14 12 (15 + 20) cm2

=1318.8 cm 2

Ex. 95: (a) The radii of the ends of a bucket

of height 24 cm are 15 cm and 5

cm. Find its capacity.

(Use = 22/7)

(b) Also find the surface area of the

bucket.

Soln: (a) Capacity of the bucket = Volume of

frustum of a cone

h 2

R r 2 Rr

=

3

cone is cut off at the top by a plane

parallel to the base. If its volume be

Soln:

1

of the volume of the given cone, at

27

what hei ght abov e t he base i s t he

disection made?

Volume of the original cone OAB

=

1

1

R 2h R 2 30

3

3

= 10R 2 cu cm.

22 24

(15)2 52 15 5 cu cm

7

3

22

8 (225 25 75) cu cm

7

K KUNDAN

Volume of small cone OCD =

1 2

r h

3

1

27

176

325 cu cm

7

= 8171.43 cu cm

(b) Again surface area of a bucket

= Later al surface area of t he f rust um

of a cone + Ar ea of t he t op of the

frustum of cone

=

= l (R r ) r 2 l (R r ) r 2

wher e

l =

1 2

1

r h

(10R 2 )

3

27

or, h

10 R 2

3

10 R

2

27

9 r

r

....(i)

QB OQ 30

PD

OP

h

R 30

r

h

From (i) and (ii) we get

h 2 (R r )2 (24)2 (15 5 )2

.......(ii)

10 30

10 900

2

9 h

9

h

h3 = 10 100 = 1000

h

Surface area of the bucket

= l(R r ) r 2

22

26(15 5 ) 52

7

22

22

(26 20 25 ) =

545

7

7

= 1712.86 sq m

=

h = 3 1000 = 10 cm.

Ex. 97: If the radii of the ends of a bucket 45

cm high are 28 cm and 7 cm, determine

its capacity and the surface area.

Soln:

Volume of bucket = Volume of the cone

OAB Volume of the cone OCD

596

Concept of Arithmetic

Sphere

PO

PB

OQ QD

h1

28

4

or h 7 1

2

familiar objects which bring to our mind the concept

of a sphere. A sphere is a three dimensional

geometrical object which can be defined as follows:

The set of all points in space which are equidistant

from a fixed point, is called a sphere.

The fixed point is called the centre of the sphere

and the constant distance is called its radius.

Figure gives the outline of a sphere whose

centr e is at O and radius = OP.A spher e has

symmetry about its centre. For every point P on

the sphere, the line joining P to the centre O of

the sphere, intersects the sphere again in a point

P such

that OP = OP .

or, h1 = 4h2

.......(i)

Also OP = PQ + OQ

h1 = 45 + h2

....... (ii)

( The height of the bucket is PQ)

Solving (i) and (ii), we get

h1 = 60 and h2 = 15.

Volume of the cone OAB

=

1

(28)2 60

3

and with the end-points on the sphere is called a

diameter of the sphere.

In figure given above PP is a diameter of the

sphere.

All diameters of a sphere are of constant length,

being equal to twice the radius of the sphere.

Thus, if d is the length of a diameter of a sphere

of radius r, then d = 2r.

Note:The length of a diameter is also called the

diameter of the sphere. A sphere can also

be considered as a solid obtained on rotating

a circle about its diameter.

K KUNDAN

1 22

28 28 60 cu cm

3 7

= 49280 cu cm

1

(7)2 15

Volume of the cone OCD =

3

=

1 22

7 7 15 cu cm = 770 cu cm

3 7

Hence the volume of the bucket

= 49280 cu cm 770 cu cm

= 48510 cu cm

Again slant height (l1) of the cone OAB

=

Slant height (l2) of the cone OCD

=

Hence the surface area of the bucket is

= r1l1 r2l2 r22

22

22

22

28 66 .2

7 16 .6

77

7

7

7

= 88 66.2 - 22 16.6 + 154

= 5825.6 - 365.2 + 154

= 5614.4 sq cm (approx.)

=

A section of a sphere by a plane is a circle. The

plane through the centre gives the largest circular

section of the sphere. The radius of this section is

the same as the radius of the sphere. Any other

plane, that is a plane not through the centre, gives

a smaller section as shown in the figure given

below

597

A plane through the centre of a sphere divides

the sphere into two equal parts, each of which is

called a hemisphere.

Solved Examples

Ex. 98: Find the volume of a sphere of radius

7 cm.

Soln:

We know that the volume V of a sphere of

radius r is given by

4 3

r cubic units

3

Here, r = 7 cm.

V =

A plane through the centre of a solid sphere

divides it into two equal parts, each of which is

called a solid hemisphere.

Spherical Shell

It can be considered as the difference of two

solid concentric spheres. We call it a spherical

shell as defined below.

The difference of two solid concentric spheres is

called a spherical shell.

A spherical shell has a finite thickness, which

is t he difference of t he radii of t he two solid

spheres which determine it.

Spherical Shell

We state the following formulae without proof.

Because proof is beyond the scope of this book.

(a) The volume V of a sphere of radius r is

given by

4 3

r cubic units.

V =

3

(b) The volume V of a hemisphere of radius r

is given by

2 3

r cubic units.

V =

3

(c) The volume V of a spherical shell whose

out er and inner r adii ar e R and r

4

(R 3 r 3 )

respectively is given by V =

3

cubic units.

4 22

3 7

Ex. 99: Find the vol ume of hemi spher e of

radius 3.5 cm.

Soln:

We know that the volume of hemisphere

of radius r is given by

V=

2 3

r cubic units

3

Here, r = 3.5 cm

V =

V =

2 22

3 7

2 22 7 7 7

cm3.

or, V =

3 7 2 2 2

K KUNDAN

Spherical Shell

We state the following formulae without proof as

proof is beyond the scope of this book.

(a) Surface area of a sphere of radius r is given

by

S = 4r2 square units.

(b) Curved surface area of a hemisphere of

radius r is given by

S = 2r2 square units.

(c) Total surface area of a hemisphere of radius

r = 2r2 + r2 = 3r2 square units.

(d) If R and r ar e out er and inner r adii of

spherical shell, then

outer surface area = 4R2 square units.

11 49

or, V =

cm3

32

or, V = 89.83 cm3.

Ex.100: A hemispherical bowl is made of steel

sheet 0.5 cm thick. The inside radius

of the bowl is 4 cm. Find the volume of

steel used in making the bowl.

Soln:

We have,

r = Inner radius of the bowl = 4 cm.

R = Outer radius of the bowl

= (4 + 0.5) cm = 4.5 cm

Volume of the inner hemisphere

2 3

2 22

4 4 4 cm3

r =

3

3 7

=

2

2 22

R 3 =

3

3 7

=

2 22

2 22

4 4 4 cm3

3 7

3 7

2 22

3 7

44

(91.125 64) cm3

21

44

27.125 cm3 56.83 cm3

21

598

Concept of Arithmetic

and then cast into small spherical balls

each of diam eter 0.6 cm . Fi nd t he

number of balls thus obtained.

Soln:

Let the total number of balls be x.

Volume of the solid sphere

=

4 3 4

r 33 cm3 36 cm3

3

3

0.6

cm

2

= 0.3 cm.

a spherical ball

Volume of

4

(0.3)3 cm3

3

4

3

3

3

36

cm 3 =

cm 3

3

10 10 10

1000

Volume of x spherical balls

=

36

x cm3

1000

Clearly, volume of the solid sphere

= Volume of x spherical balls.

=

36

x

1000

or, x = 1000

Hence, 1000 spherical balls are obtained

by melting the given solid sphere.

Ex.102: Thr ee sol id spher es of i r on whose

diameters are 2 cm, 12 cm and 16 cm

respectively, are melted into a single

solid sphere. Find the radius of the

solid sphere.

Soln:

Let the radius of the solid sphere be r cm.

Then, volume of the solid sphere = sum

of the volumes of three solid spheres of

radii 1 cm, 6 cm and 8 cm respectively.

or

or, 36

Soln:

Volume of the sphere

4

(3)3 cm3 36 cm3

3

Radius of the cylindrical vessel = 6 cm.

Suppose water level rises by h cm in the

cylindrical vessel. Then,

volume of the cylinder of height h cm and

radius 6 cm

=

= ( 62 h ) cm3 36 h cm3

Clearly, volume of water displaced by the

spher e is equal t o the v olume of the

sphere.

36h = 36

or, h = 1 cm

Hence, water level rises by 1 cm.

Ex.104: A hem ispher i cal bowl of i nt er nal

diameter 36 cm contains a liquid. This

li quid i s t o be fill ed i n cyl indr ical

bottles of radius 3 cm and height 6 cm.

How many bottles are required to empty

the bowl?

Soln:

Radius of hemispherical bowl = 18 cm.

Volume of hemispherical bowl

2

3

= (18 ) cm3

3

Height of a cylindrical bottle = 6 cm

Volume of a cylindrical bottle

K KUNDAN

4 3 4

4

4

r (1)3 (6)3 (8)3

or,

3

3

3

3

or, r3 = 13 + 63 + 83

4

or, r3 = 93

r = 9

Hence, the radius of the solid sphere is 9

cm.

Ex.103: A sphere of diameter 6 cm is dropped

in a right circular cylindrical vessel

partly filled with water. The diameter

of the cylindrical vessel is 12 cm. If the

spher e i s com pl et el y subm er ged i n

water, by how much will the level of

water rise in the cylindrical vessel?

= ( 32 6) cm3

the bowl.

Volume of x cylindrical bottles

= ( 9 6 x ) cm3.

Clearly, volume of liquid in x bottles

= Volume of bowl

or, 9 6 x

2

(18 )3

3

2 18 3

or, x = 3 9 6 = 72

the bowl.

Ex.105: The largest sphere is carved out of a

cube of a side 7 cm. Find the volume of

the sphere.

Soln:

The diameter of the largest sphere which

can be carved out of a cube of side 7 cm is

7 cm.

7

Radius of the sphere = r =

cm.

2

Hence, volume of the sphere =

4 3

r

3

599

surface area is 154 square cm.

Soln:

Let the radius of the sphere be r cm. Then,

surface area = 154 cm2

or, 4r2 = 154

22 2

r 154

or, 4

7

4 22 7

cm3

=

3 7 2

4 22 343

cm3

3 7

8

= 179.66 cm 3

Ex.106: The volumes of two spheres are in

ratio 64 : 27. Find their radii if

sum of their radii is 21 cm.

Soln:

Let the radii of two spheres be r1 cm

r2 cm respectively.

Let the volumes of two spheres be V1

V2 respectively.

Th en ,

=

or,

4

3

or, r1

and

4r2

3

2

or, r

154 7 49

4 22

4

49

7

cm

4

2

Let V be the volume of the sphere. Then,

or, r =

and

4 3

r1

64

3

or,

4 3 27

r2

3

V1

64

V2

27

r13

r23

the

the

r1

4

or, r 3

2

..... (i)

Now,

V =

4 3

r

3

4 22 7 7 7

cm3

or, V =

3 7 2 2 2

1

or, V = 11 7 7 cm3

3

Ex.109: A sphere, a cylinder and a cone are of

the same radius and same height. Find

the ratio of their curved surfaces.

Soln:

Let r be the common radius of a sphere, a

cone and a cylinder. Then,

height of the cone = height of the cylinder

= height of the sphere = 2r

Let l be the slant height of the cone. Then,

K KUNDAN

r1 r2 2l

or,

4r2

r2 21

3

4r2

Putting r1 3

7r2

21

3

or, r2 = 9 cm

or,

r1

4r2

3

4 9

= 12 cm

3

Hence, the radii of two spheres are 12 cm

and 9 cm.

Ex.107: Find the curved surface area and total

surface area of a hemisphere of radius

21 cm.

Soln:

We know that the curved surface area S

and total surface area S1 of a hemisphere

of radius r are given by

S = 2r2 and S1 = 3r2 respectively.

Here, r = 21 cm.

r1 =

22

21 21 cm2,

S = 2

7

22

21 21 cm2

and S1 = 3

7

l =

r2 h2

or, l =

r2 h2 = 5 r

Now,

S1 = Curved surface area of sphere = 4r2

S2 = Curved surface area of cylinder

= 2r 2r = 4r2and

S3 = Curved surface area of cone

= rl r 5 r =

5 r 2

S1 : S2 : S3 = 4r 2 : 4r 2 : 5 r 2

= 4: 4 : 5

Ex.110: The volume of the two spheres are in

the ratio 64 : 27. Find the difference of

their surface areas, if the sum of their

radii is 7.

Soln:

Let the radii of two spheres be r1 cm and

r2 cm respectively.

Let the volumes of two spheres be V1 and

V2 respectively.

Th en ,

V1

64

V2

27

or,

4 3

r1

64

3

4 3 27

r2

3

600

Concept of Arithmetic

or,

r13

r23

43

33

r1

4

or, r 3

2

3

r1

4

or,

3

r2

or, r1

Now, r1 r2 7

4

r2

3

.... (i)

[Given]

4

r2 r2 7

or,

3

or,

7

r2 7

3

or, r2 = 7 3 cm

7

r2 = 3 4 cm.

3

spheres. Then,

S1 = 4r12 4 4 4 64 cm2 and

a hollow hemispherical vessel are 24

cm and 25 cm respectively. The cost to

paint 1 cm 2 of the surface is Rs 0.05.

Find the total cost to paint the vessel

all over.

(Use = 22/7)

Soln:

Let the external and internal radii of the

hemispherical vessel be R cm and r cm

respectively. Then, R = 12.5 cm and r =

12 cm

Now, Area of outer surface = 2R2

Area of the inner surface = 2r2

Area of the ring at the top = R2 2r2

Total area to be painted

= 2R 2 2r 2 R 2 r 2

= 3R r

=

22

cm2 = 88 cm2

7

Ex.111: Show that the surface area of a sphere

i s t he sam e as t hat of t he l at er al

surface of a right circular cylinder that

just encloses the sphere.

Soln:

Let the radius of the sphere be r cm. Then,

surface area of the sphere

= 4r2cm 2

...... (i)

The radius and height of a right circular

cylinder that just encloses the sphere of

radius r are r and 2r respectively.

Surface area of the cylinder

= 2r 2r

[ h = 2r]

= 4r2 cm2

...... (ii)

22

3 (12.5 )2 (12)2

cm2

7

22 25

2

3

12 cm2

7 2

22

468.75 144 cm2

7

S2 = 4r22 4 3 3 36 cm 2

S1 S2 64 36 28 cm2

K KUNDAN

= 28

Surface area of the sphere is equal to the

surface ar ea of the cylinder t hat just

encloses the sphere.

22

612.75 cm2

7

13480.5

cm 2 = 1925.78 cm2

7

Cost of painting

= Rs (1925.78 0.05)

= Rs 96.28

=

of Solids

Ex.113: A godown building is in the form as

shown in the figure given below. The

vertical cross-section parallel to the

width side of the building is a rectangle

7 m 3 m, mounted by a semi-circle of

radius 3.5 m. The inner measurements

of the cuboidal portion of the building

are 10 m 7 m 3 m. Find the volume

of the godown and the total interior

surface area excluding the floor (base).

(Take = 22/7)

601

Soln:

form of half of the cylinder of radius 3.5

m, and lengt h 10 m, split along t he

diameter.

V = Volume of the godown

1

(Volume of the

2

cylinder of radius 3.5 m and length 10 m)

= Volume of the cuboid +

1 22

3.5 3.5 10 m 3

= 10 7 3

2 7

Total interior surface areas excluding the

1

(Curved

2

surface area of the cylinder) + 2 (area of

the semi-circles)

1

22

3.5 10

= 2(10 7) 3 2

2

7

22

2

(3.5)2 m 2

7

Ex.114: The length of an edge of a cube is 24

cm. It is cut by a plane into a pyramid

in such a way that its three coterminus

edges rem ain hal f of their or iginal

length. Find the volume of the pyramid.

Soln:

In the figure given below, EPQR is the

given pyr amid such that t he base is

equilateral triangle PQR.

12 2

or, 144 h 2

3

or, h2 = 144 96

2

or, h = 48

or, h = 4 3 cm

Volume of the pyramid

1

=

(Area of the base Height)

3

2

1

3

3

4

Ex.115: A cylinder is within the cube touching

all the vertical faces. A cone is inside

the cylinder. If their heights are same

with the same base, find the ratio of

their volumes.

Soln:

Let the length of each edge of the cube be

a units. Then,

V1 = Volume of the cube = a3 cubic units.

K KUNDAN

Since a cylinder is within the cube and it

touches all the vertical faces of the cube.

r = radius of the base of the cylinder

a

=

2

h = height of the cylinder = a

V2 = Volume of the cylinder = r2h

=

22 a 2

a cubic units

7

4

11 3

a cubic units

14

A cone is drawn inside the cylinder such

that it has the same base and same height.

1 2

r h

V3 = Volume of the cone =

3

=

same length equal to half of the length of

an edge of the cube ie 12 cm.

Let h be the height of the pyramid EPQR.

In right triangle EPQ, we have

PQ2 = EP2 + EQ2

or, PQ2 = 122 + 122

1 22 a

a cubic units

3 7 2

11 3

a cubic units

42

a = length of each side of the base

= 12 2 cm.

a2

12 h

3

2

11 3 11 3

a :

a

14

42

= 42 : 33 : 11.

3

V1 : V2 : V3 = a :

602

Concept of Arithmetic

of a ri ght ci rcul ar cyl i nder and

r em ai ni ng i n the for m of a r i ght

circular cone. The radius of the base

of each of cone and cylinder is 8 cm.

The cylindrical part is 240 cm high and

the conical part is 36 cm high. Find

the weight of the pillar if one cubic cm

of iron weighs 7.8 grams.

Soln:

Let r1 cm and r2 cm denote the radii of the

base of the cylinder and cone respectively.

Th en

of 3 m and conical above it . I f t he

diameter of the base is 105 m and the

slant height of the conical part is 53

m , fi nd t he t ot al canvas used i n

making the tent.

Soln:

Total canvas used

= Cur v ed sur f ace ar ea of cylinder +

Curved surface area of cone

22

22

52.5 3

52.5 53 m 2

= 2

7

7

r1 = r2 = 8 cm.

Let h1 and h2 cm be the heights of the

cylinder and the cone respectively. Then,

h1 = 240 cm and h2 = 36 cm.

22

52.5 (6 53) m2 = 9735 m2

7

Ex.118: A tent is of the shape of a right circular

cylinder upto a height of 3 metres and

then becomes a right circular cone with

a maxi mum hei ght of 13.5 m etr es

above the ground. Calculate the cost

of painting the inner side of the tent at

the rate of Rs 2 per square metre, if

the radius of the base is 14 metres.

Soln:

Let r metres be the radius of the base of

the cylinder and h metres be its height.

Th en

r = 14 m and h = 3 m.

=

K KUNDAN

Now, volume of the cylinder = r12h1 cm 3

= ( 8 8 240 ) cm3

= ( 64 240 ) cm3

1 2

r2 h 2 cm3

3

= 8 8 36 cm 3

3

= 64 36 cm 3

3

= Volume of the cylinder + Volume

of the cone

1

= 64 240 64 36 cm3

3

22

64 252 cm3

7

= 22 64 36 cm3

Hence, total weight of the pillar

= Volume Weight per cm3

= (22 64 36) 7.8 gms

= 395366.4 gms

= 395.3664 kg

=

= 2rh m2

22

14 3 m2 = 264 m2

= 2

7

603

Let r1 m be the radius of the base, h1 m be

the height and l m be the slant height of

the cone. Then,

r1 = 14 m, h1 = (13.5 - 3) m = 10.5 m

and l1 =

or, l1 =

=

r12 h12

142 (10.5)2 m

= 2r1h1 r2l 2 m2

= 2r1h1 r2l 2 m2

=

22

2 2.1 4 2.1 2.1 2 m2

7

22

2.1 8 2.1 2 m2

7

22

2.1 8 2.1 1.414 m2

7

22

2.1 8 2.9694 m2

7

196 110.25 m

= 306.25 m = 17.5 m

Curved surface area of the cone

22

14 17.5 m2

= r1l1 =

7

= 770 m2

So, total area which is to be painted

= Curved surface area of the cylinder +

Curved surface area of the cone

= (264 + 770) m2 = 1034 m2.

Hence, cost of painting

= Rs (1034 2) = Rs 2068

Ex.119: The interior of a building is in the form

of a right circular cylinder of diameter

4.2 m and height 4 m surmounted by a

cone. The vertical height of cone is 2.1

m. Fi nd the outer sur face area and

volume of the building.

(Use = 22/7)

Soln:

Let r1 be the radius of base of the cylinder

and h1 m be its height. Then, r1 = 2.1 m

and h1 = 4 m

22

2.1 10 .9694 m2

=

7

= 22 0.3 10.9694 m2

= 72.3980 m2 = 72.40 m2

Volume of the building

= Volume of the cylinder + Volume

of the cone

1

2

2

= r1 h1 r2 h 2 m3

3

[ r2 = r1]

1

2

2

= r1 h1 r1 h 2 m3

3

K KUNDAN

1

2

= r1 h1 h 2 m3

3

22

2.1 2.1 4 0.7 m3

7

= 22 0.3 2.1 4.7 m3

= 65.142 m 3

Ex.120: The interior of a building is in the form

of cyli nder of di am et er 4.3 m and

height 3.8 m, surmounted by a cone

whose vertical angle is a right angle.

Find the area of the surface and the

volume of the building.

(Take = 22/7)

Soln:

We have

=

cone, h1 m be its height and l 1 m be its

slant height. Then,

r2 = 2.1 m, h2 = 2.1 m

l 22 r22 h 22

or, l2 =

=

r22 h 22 =

2.12 2

2.12 2.12

= 2.1 2 m

= Curved surface area of cylinder +

Curved surface area of cone

22

1

7

3

604

Concept of Arithmetic

r1 = Radius of the base of the cylinder

4. 3

m = 2.15 m

2

r2 = Radius of the base of the cone

= 2.15 m

h1 = Height of the cylinder = 3.8 m

In VOA, we have

=

sin 45 =

1

or,

or, VA

OA

VA

2.15

VA

2 2.15 m

Clearly, VOA is an isosceles triangle.

Therefore, VO = OA =2.15 m

h2 = Height of the cone = VO = 2.15 m

l2 = Slant height of the cone = VA

= 3.04 m

Now,

Surface area of the building

= Surface area of cylinder + Surface

area of cone

= 2r1h1 r2l 2 m2

= 2r1h1 r1l2 [ r1 = r2 = 2.15m]

of cone) =

1

4 cm = 2 cm.

2

circumscribe the given solid.

Radius of the base of the right circular

cylinder = HP = BO = 2 cm.

Height of the cylinder = AP = AO + OP

= 2 cm + 2 cm = 4 cm

Now, volume of the right circular cylinder

volume of the solid

1

2

2

3

3

= 2 4 2 2 cm3

3

3

K KUNDAN

= r12h1 l 2

= 3.14 2.15 10.64 m2 = 71.83 m2

Volume of the building

= Volume of t he cylinder + Volume

of the cone

1

2

2

= r1 h1 r2 h 2 m3

3

1

2

2

= r1 h1 r1 h 2 m3

3

circular cone is 14 cm and altitude 20

cm. What is the largest lateral surface

area possible for a cylinder inscribed

in this cone?

Soln:

Taking first of all general cases,

[ r2 = r1]

2

= r1 h1 h 2 m3

3

2.15

m3

= 3.14 2.15 2.15 3.8

3

= 3.14 2.15 2.15 4.5166) m3

= 65.55 m 3

Ex.121: A sol i d t oy i s i n t he for m of a

hem i spher e surm ount ed by a r i ght

circular cone. Height of the cone is 2

cm and the diameter of the base is 4

cm. I f a ri ght ci rcul ar cyl i nder

circumscribes the solid, find how much

more space it will cover.

Soln:

Let BPC be the hemisphere and ABC be

the cone standing on t he base of t he

hemisphere.

altitude h be inscribed in the cone. From

the similarity of the triangle AOS and

BO1S, it follows that

R (H h )

....(i)

H

The lateral surface area of cylinder S

r =

= 2rh , or

605

S =

tops

2R

h (H h )

H

From geometric consideration, h varies in

the interval 0 < h < H.

2Rh 2

S = 2Rh

H

2

RH 2R

H

h

2

H

2

(isolating the perfect square)

S is maximum when second term is zero,

H

O

ie h

2

H

ie, h

.

2

Maximum value of lateral surface area

=

1

RH

2

Radius = 14 cm

Height = 20 cm

Maximum value of lateral surface area

=

1 22

14 20 = 440 cm2.

2 7

Ex.123: A cylindrical container of radius 6 cm

and height 15 cm is filled with icecream. The whole ice-cream has to be

di str ibuted t o 10 chil dren in equal

cones with hemispherical tops. If the

height of the conical portion is four

times the radius of its base, find the

radius of the ice-cream cone.

Soln:

Let the radius of the base of the conical

portion be r cm.

Then, height of the conical portion

= 4r cm.

Volume of the cylindrical container

= ( 62 15 ) cm3 = 540 cm3

Clearly, volume of 10 cones with hemispherical tops = Volume of the cylindrical

container

or, 20r 3 540

or, r3 = 27

or, r = 3 cm.

Hence, radius of the ice-cream cone is 3

cm.

Ex.124: A solid wooden toy is in the shape of a

r ight ci r cul ar cone m ount ed on a

hem i spher e. I f t he r adi us of the

hemisphere is 4.2 cm and the total

height of the toy is 10.2 cm, find the

volume of the wooden toy.

Soln:

We have VO = 10.2 cm, OA = OO

= 4.2 cm.

K KUNDAN

Let r be the radius of the hemisphere and

h be the height of the conical part of the

toy. Then,

r = OA = 4.2 cm.

h = VO = VO OO = (10.2 4.2) cm

= 6 cm.

Also, radius of the base of the cone

= OA = r = 4.2 cm.

Volume of the wooden toy = Volume of

t he conical par t + Volume of the

hemispherical part

2 3

1 2

r cm3

= r h

3

3

= Volume of the cone + volume of the

hemispherical top

2 3

1 2

= r 4r r cm3

3

3

6 3

= r cm3 = (2r 3 ) cm3

3

r 2

(h 2r ) cm3

3

1 22

3 7

1 22

3 7

= 266.11 cm 3

=

606

Concept of Arithmetic

cylinder. The diameter of the sphere is

14 cm and t he t otal height of t he

vessel is 13 cm. Find its capacity.

(Take = 22/7)

Soln:

Let r be the radius of the hemispherical

bowl and h be the height of the cylinder.

Then, r = 7 cm and h = 6 cm.

cylinder + Volume of two hemispheres

2

2 3

= r h 2 r cm3

3

= Volume of the cylinder + Volume of

the hemisphere

2 3

2

= r h r cm3

3

2

2

= r h r cm3

3

4r

2

cm3

= r h

3

22 7 2

4 7

= 7 2 12 3 2 cm3

22 7 7 50

=

cm3

7 2 2 3

= 641.66 cm 3

Ex.127: A solid is in the form of a right circular

cone mounted on a hemisphere. The

radius of the hemisphere is 3.5 cm and

the height of the cone is 4 cm. The solid

is placed in a cylindrical tub, full of

water, in such a way that the whole

soli d i s submer ged i n wat er. If t he

radius of the cylinder is 5 cm and its

height is 10.5 cm, find the volume of

water left in the cylindrical tub.

(Use = 22/7)

Soln:

We have VO = 4 cm, OA = OB = OO

= 3.5 cm.

K KUNDAN

=

22

2

72 6 7 cm3

7

3

= 22 7

32

cm3

3

4928

cm3

3

= 16.42.66 cm 3

Ex.126: A solid is in the form of a cylinder with

hemi-spherical ends. The total height

of the solid is 19 cm and the diameter

of the cylinder is 7 cm. Find the volume

of the solid.

(Use = 22/7)

Soln:

Let r cm be the radius and h cm the height

of the cylinder. Then,

=

7

cm and

2

r =

h = 19 2 cm

2

= 12 cm

Also, radius of hemisphere

=

7

cm = r cm.

2

conical part + Volume of its semispherical part

607

2 22

1 22

(3.5 )2 4

(3.5)3 cm3

=

3 7

3 7

1 22

3 7

1 22 7 2

= 3 7 2 11 cm3

the cylindrical tub the volume of water

that flows out of the cylinder is equal to

the volume of the solid.

Hence,

Volume of water left in the cylinder

= Volume of cylinder Volume of t he

solid

2

22

1 22 7

2

= 7 (5) 10 .5 3 7 2 11 cm3

= 3.08 m2.

Total surface area

= (22 + 3.08 + 3.08) m2

= 28.16 m2.

Rate of painting = Rs 10 per square metre.

Cost of painting = Rs (10 28.16)

= Rs 281.60

Ex.129: A toy is in the shape of a right circular

cylinder with a hemisphere on one end

and a cone on the other. The height

and radius of the cylindrical part are

13 cm and 5 cm respectively. The radii

of the hemispherical and conical parts

are the same as that of the cylindrical

part. Calculate the surface area of the

toy if height of the conical part is 12

cm .

Soln:

Let r cm be the radius and h cm the height

of the cylindrical part. Then,

r = 5 cm and h = 13 cm.

21 1 22 7 7

22

25

11 cm3

=

2 3 7 2 2

7

1

7

= 11 25 3 11 11 cm3

3

2

= 683.83 cm 3

Ex.128: A storage tank consists of a circular

cylinder, with a hemisphere adjoined

on either end. If the external diameter

of the cylinder be 1.4 m and its length

be 5 m, what wi l l be the cost of

painting it on the outside at the rate of

Rs 10 per square metre?

Soln:

We have,

K KUNDAN

Clearly, radii of the spherical part and

base of the conical part are also r cm. Let

h1 cm be the height, l cm be the slant

height of the conical part. Then,

l 2 r 2 h12

or, l =

22

0.7 5 m2 = 22 m2

7

Again, diameter of the hemisphere

= 1.4 m

Radius of the hemisphere = 0.7 m

Surface area of a hemisphere

= 2r2

= 2

22

0.7 0.7 m2

= 2

7

= 3.08 m2

52 12 2

[ h1 = 12 cm, r = 5 cm]

1.4

Radius of the cylinder =

m = 0.7m

2

Length of the cylinder = 5 m

Surface area of the cylinder = 2rh

r 2 h12 =

169 = 13 cm

Now, surface area of the toy

= Curved surface areas of the cylindrical

par t + Curv ed sur face ar ea of

hemispherical part + Curved surface

area of conical part

= (2rh 2r 2 rl ) cm2

= r (2h 2r l ) cm2

22

5 (2 13 2 5 13 ) cm2

=

7

22

5 49 cm2

=

7

= 770 cm2

608

Concept of Arithmetic

surm ount ed on a hem ispher e. The

diameter of the base of the cone is 6

cm and its height is 4 cm. Find the

cost of painting the toy at the rate of

Rs 5 per 1000 cm2 .

Soln:

We have, radius of the base of the cone

= 3 cm

of t he cylinder + Sur f ace ar eas of

hemispherical ends

= (2rh 2 2r 2 ) cm2

= (2rh 4r 2 ) cm2

= 2r (h 2r ) cm2

= 2

22

18 108 cm2

7

= 12219.42 cm 2

Rate of polishing = 7 paise per sq cm.

= 2

Let l be the slant height of the cone. Then,

r 2 h 2 32 42 cm = 5 cm

Lateral surface area of the cone

22

18 (72 36) cm2

7

[ r = 18 cm, h = 72 cm]

l =

100

= Rs 855.36.

Ex.132: A conical vessel of radius 6 cm and

height 8 cm is completely filled with

water. A sphere is lowered into the

water and its size is such that when it

touches the sides, it is just immersed.

What fraction of water overflows. (See

the figure given below).

K KUNDAN

330

22

3 5 cm2

cm2

= rl =

7

7

22

396

3 3 cm2

cm2 .

= 2

7

7

330 396

=

7

7

Rate of painting the toy

= Rs 5 per 1000 cm2

5

per cm2

1000

Cost of painting the toy

= Rs

= Rs 103 .71

1000

= Re 0.51 = 51 paise.

Ex.131: A solid is composed of a cylinder with

hemispherical ends. If the whole length

of the solid is 108 cm and the diameter

of the hemispherical ends is 36 cm, find

the cost of polishing the surface of the

solid at the rate of 7 paise per sq cm.

(Use = 22/7)

Soln:

W e hav e, r = r adius of t he cylinder

= radius of hemispherical ends = 18 cm,

h = Height of the cylinder = 72 cm

Soln:

609

BC =

82 62 = 10 cm

Now consider the ACD and EOC.

Bot h of the triangles are r ight -angled

triangle and ECO of the EOC is equal

to the ACD of the ACD.

Hence, the triangles ACD and EOC are

similar.

Let the value of EO be x (ie x is the radius

of the sphere)

See the given figure,

AD = 6 cm (given) AE = 6 cm

[From the theorem, The lengths of two

tangents drawn from an external point to a

circle are equal.]

EC = 10 cm 6 cm = 4 cm

Again, since ADC and EOC are similar.

DC EC

AD OE

or,

8 4

6 x

4 6

= 3 cm

8

radius of the sphere = 3 cm

Now, volume of the cone

or, x =

1

6 6 8 cuz cm and

=

3

the volume of the sphere

or, 8 r 2 42 r 2

or, 64 16r r 2 16 r 2

or, 16r = 64 16 = 48

or, r =

48

= 3 cm

16

1 2

r h

3

1 22

6 6 8 cm3

3 7

Volume of sphere =

4 3

r

3

4 22

4 22

33

27 cm3

3 7

3 7

Fraction of water which overflows

=

Volume of sphere

Volume of cone

4 22

27

3

3 7

1 22

668 8

3 7

K KUNDAN

4

3 3 3 cu cm.

3

required fraction of water

=

4

333

3

3

= 1

6 6 8 8

3

required answer =

3

.

8

Alternative Method:

AC = AD = 6 cm

[ Length of two tangents from an external

point to a circle are equal.]

OC = 8 cm

or, OA = = 10 cm

or, OD = OA AD = 10 cm 6 cm = 4 cm

or, OP = OC PC = 8 r

Another

is that the total volume of a solid does not change

even when its shape changes. See the following

examples:

Ex.133: A sol id i ron rect angular bl ock of

dimensions 4.4 m, 2.6 m and 1 m is

cast into a hollow cylindrical pipe of

internal radius 30 cm and thickness 5

cm. Find the length of the pipe.

Soln:

Let t he length of pipe be l cm. Then,

volume of iron in the pipe is equal to the

volume of iron of the block.

We have,

Volume of the block

= (4.4 2.6 1) m3

= (440 260 100) cm3

r = Internal radius of the pipe = 30 cm

R = External radius of the pipe

= (30 + 5) cm = 35 cm.

Volume of iron in the pipe

= (External volume) (Internal volume)

= R 2h r 2h

= (R2 r 2 )h

= (R r ) (R r )h

= (35 30 ) (35 30 ) h cm3

= 65 5 h cm3

610

Concept of Arithmetic

Now, volume of iron in the pipe

= Volume of iron in the block

or, 65 5 h 440 260 100

22

65 5 h = 440 260 100

7

or,

7

1 1

cm

or, h = 440 260 100

22

65

5

Hence, the length of the pipe is 112 m.

Ex.134: A solid cube of side 7 cm is melted to

make a cone of height 5 cm, find the

radius of the base of the cone.

Soln:

We have, volume of the cube

= (side)3 = 73 cm3 = 343 cm3

Let the radius of the base of the cone be r

cm. Then,

1 22 2

r 5 cm3

3 7

Since the solid cube is melted to make a

cone. Therefore,

Volume of the cube = Volume of the cone

Volume of the cone =

or, 343 =

or, r2 =

3 8 8 2

6

or, r2 = 8

r = 8 cm.

Let the slant height of the cone be l cm.

Th en ,

or, r2 =

l =

r2 h 2

or, l =

82 62 cm = 64 36 = 10 cm.

Curved surface area of the cone = rl

22

8 10 cm2 = 251.42 cm2

7

Ex.136: How many spherical bullets can be made

out of a solid cube of lead whose edge

measures 44 cm, each bullet being 4

cm in diameter.

Soln:

Let the total number of bullets be x.

=

4

cm = 2 cm

2

Now, volume of a spherical bullet

Radius of a spherical bullet =

4

4 22

8 cm3

(2)3 cm3 =

3

3 7

1 22 2

r 5

3 7

343 3 7 7203

= 65.48

22 5

110

4 22

8 x cm3

=

3 7

Clear ly, volume of x spherical bullets

= Volume of cube.

K KUNDAN

or, r =

65.48 cm = 8.09 cm

Ex.135: A solid right circular cylinder of radius

8 cm and height 2 cm is melted and

cast into a right circular cone of height

3 times that of the cylinder. Find the

curved surface of the cone.

Soln:

We have,

volume of the solid right circular cylinder

= r2h

22

8 8 2 cm3

=

7

cylinder is melted and cast into a right

circular cone of height 3 times that of the

cylinder ie 6 cm. Let r cm be the radius of

the cone.

Th en ,

Volume of cone =

1 2

r h

3

1 22

r 2 6 cm3

3 7

[ h = 6 cm]

But,

Volume of the cone = Volume of the cylinder

1 22 2

22

r 6 =

882

3 7

7

or,

4 22

8 x (44)3

3 7

or,

4 22

8 x 44 44 44

3 7

44 44 44 3 7

= 2541.

4 22 8

Hence, total number of spherical bullets

= 2541.

Ex.137: How many spherical lead shots each

4.2 cm in diameter can be obtained from

a r ectangul ar sol id of l ead wit h

dimensions 66 cm, 42 cm, 21 cm.

(Use = 22/7)

Soln:

Let the number of lead shots be x.

Volume of lead in the rectangular solid

= (66 42 21) cm3

or, x =

4.2

cm = 2.1 cm

2

Volume of a spherical lead shot

Radius of a lead shot =

4 22

(2.1)3 cm3

3 7

611

Volume of x spherical lead shots

4 22

(2.1)3 x cm3

=

3 7

= Volume of lead in rectangular solid

4 22

(2.1)3 x 66 42 21

3 7

66 42 21 3 7

or, x =

4 22 (2.1)3

66 42 21 21 1000

4 22 21 21 21

= 1500

Hence, the number of spherical lead shots

is 1500.

Ex.138: A solid lead ball of radius 7 cm was

melted and then drawn into a wire of

diameter 0.2 cm. Find the length of the

wire.

Soln:

We have,

Radius of the lead ball = 7 cm

Volume of the lead ball

=

4 22

7 7 7 cm3

=

3 7

cast into a right circular cone of base

radius 6 cm. Determine the height of

t he cone, cor r ect to t wo places of

decimal.

Soln:

Let h cm be the height of the cone.

We have, radius of hemisphere = 8 cm,

Radius of the base of the cone = 6 cm.

Now, volume of the cone = volume of the

hemisphere

1

2

62 h (8)3

3

3

or, 36h = 2 512.

or,

1024 256

= 28.44 cm.

36

9

Ex.140: A spher i cal cannon ball , 28 cm i n

di ameter is melted and cast i nto a

right circular conical mould, the base

of which is 35 cm in diameter. Find

the height of the cone, correct to two

places of decimal.

Soln:

Let h cm be the height of the cone. We

have, diameter of spherical cannon ball =

28 cm

or, Radius of base of the spherical cannon

ball = 14 cm.

Diameter of the base of the cone = 35 cm

or, h =

K KUNDAN

4312

cm3

=

3

Clearly, the wire is a cylinder of radius

0.1 cm.

Let the length of this wire be h cm. Then,

Volume of the wire

22

=

7

11h

cm3

=

350

But,

Volume of the wire = Volume of the lead

ball

or,

11h

4312

350

3

4312 350

cm

or, h =

11

3

4312 350

m = 457.33 m

=

3 11 100

Hence, the length of wire = 457.33 m

35

cm

2

Now, volume of t he cone = volume of

spherical cannon ball

or, Radius of base of the cone =

or,

1

4

35

3

h (14)

3

3

2

2

35

3

h 4 (14 )

or,

2

2

2

cm

or, h = 4 14 14 14

35

35

2 2

or, h = 4 2 2 14 cm

5 5

or, h =

896

cm = 35.84 cm

25

612

Concept of Arithmetic

Practice Exercise

Exercise1

(Cuboid and Cube, Swimming Pool and Area of the Four Walls)

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

many litres of water fell on 1 hectare field on

that day?

The length, breadth and height of a cuboidal

reservoir is 7 m, 6 m and 15 m respectively.

8400 litres water is pumped out from the

reservoir. Find the fall in the water-level in

the reservoir.

What is the weight of a cubical block of ice

50 cm in length, if one cubic metre of ice

weighs 900 kilograms?

A cube of 9 cm edge is immersed completely

in a rectangular vessel containing water. If

the dimensions of the base are 15 cm and 12

cm, find the rise in water level in the vessel.

The surface area of a cuboid is 22 cm 2 and

the sum of the lengths of all its edges is 24

cm. Find the length of a diagonal of the cuboid.

A rectangular tank measuring 5.5 m by 4 m

by 2.5 m is dug in the middle of a field 35

m by 15.4 m. The earth dug out is spread

evenly on the remaining portion of the field.

How much is the level of field raised?

A rectangular field is 40 m long and 28 m

wide. A pit 12 m long, 6 m wide and 5 m

deep is dug in a corner of the field and the

earth taken out of the pit is spread uniformly

over the remaining port ion of t he f ield.

Calculate by how much is the level of the

field raised.

The length of the diagonal of a cube is 17.32

cm. Find the volume of the cube.

A tank is of the shape of a cuboid whose

length is 7.2 m and breadth is 2.5 m. Water

flows into it through a pipe whose crosssection is 5 cm 3 cm at the rate of 10 m per

second. Find the height to which water level

will rise in the tank in 40 minutes?

The weight of a cubic metre of a certain metal

is 480 kg. It is melted and then rolled into a

square bar 4 m long. Now an exact cube is cut

from it. Find the weight of the cube.

A metal bar of dimensions 19 cm 4 cm 2

cm and a metal cube of side 4 cm were melted

together and re-casted into a new single cube.

Find the length of the edge of new single

cube.

A metallic cube of edge 2.5 cm is melted and

recasted into the form of a cuboid of base 1.25

cm 0.25 cm. Find the increase in the surface

area.

The surface of water in a swimming pool is

14.

15.

16.

depth of water increases uniformly from 1.5

m at one end to 4.5 m at the other end. What

is the volume of water in the pool?

Two-thirds of a cuboidal aquarium is filled

with water and then tilted on its side until

the water level coincides with one edge on

the bottom and one edge on the top. During

the tilting process, 6 litres of water is poured

out. What is the volume of tank?

The four walls of a room can be fully covered

by 70 square wall papers of 2 m 2m size.

The length of the room is 18 m and its breadth

is twice t hat of it s height . If t he cost of

carpeting is Rs 20 per square metre, what

will be the total expenditure in carpeting the

room?

The length of a hall is 20 m and width 16 m.

The sum of the areas of the floor and the flat

roof is equal to the sum of the areas of the

four walls. Find the height and the volume of

the hall.

The internal length, breadth and height of

an open box are 85 cm, 65 cm and 72.5 cm

respectively. Find the cost of painting the

outside of the box leaving its bottom, at Rs 15

per square decimetre, it being given that wood

is 25 mm thick.

K KUNDAN

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

17.

1

metre thick is

4

built surrounding the outside of a court 17

metres square. Find the cost of that wall at

1

2

1

cm

2

thick. If its external dimensions be 1 m, 85

cm and 65 cm, how many square metres of

planking are used in the construction?

2 0 . A stream which flows at a uniform rate of 2.5

km an hour, is 20 metres wide, the depth of

a certain ferry being 1.2 metres. How many

litres pass the ferry in a minute? (1 cubic

metre = 1000 litres)

21. The inside of a wat er r eser v oir wit h

19. A box with a lid is made of planking 2

rectangular base is 25

3

metres long and

5

613

1

metres broad. Find the diagonal of its

5

base. If it is 14 metres deep, find how many

metric tonnes of water it can contain. (One

cubic metre of water weighs 1000 kg).

2 2 . A rectangular iron cistern open at the top

measures externally 300 cm long, 208 cm

broad and 180 cm deep. If the metal is 4.0 cm

thick, find the weight of the cistern when

(i) empty

(ii) full of water

[Giv en: Density of iron = 7. 2 gm/cc and

density of water = 1 gm/cc]

19

a pipe of radius 7 cm into a rectangle tank

which is 100 m long and 44 m wide.

Determine the time in which the level of water

in the tank will rise 14 cm.

(Take = 22/7)

24. When water is pumped through a pipe of

diameter 6 cm for 25 minutes into a cistern

of length 5 metres, breadth 3 metres, the

height of water raised through 2.4 metres.

Find the time required to fill up a cistern of 4

met res length, 3.6 metres br eadt h and 2

metres height by pumping water through a

pipe of radius 5 cm.

Exercise2

(Prism and Cylinder)

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

sides ar e 17 cm, 25 cm and 28 cm

respectively. The volume of the prism is 4200

cubic cm. What is the height? Find its lateral

area also.

There are two prisms, one has equilateral

triangle as a base and the other a regular

hexagon. If both of the prisms have equal

height s and volumes, t hen find the rat io

between the length of each side at their bases.

A well with 7 metres inside diameter is dug

22.5 metres deep. Earth taken out of it is

spread all round to a width of 10.5 metres to

for m an embankment. Find the height of

embankment.

(Take = 22/7)

A cylindrical tank of diameter 35 cm is full of

water. If 11 litres water is taken out from the

tank, find the drop in the water level in the

tank.

(Use = 22/7)

Water flows out through a circular pipe whose

internal diameter is 2 cm, at the rate of 7

metres per second into a cylindrical tank the

radius of whose base is 40 cm. By how much

will the level of water rise in half an hour?

Into a circular drum of radius 4.2 m and height

3.5 m, how many full bags of wheat can be

emptied if the space required for wheat in

each bag is 2.1 cubic m.

(Take = 22/7)

How many cubic metres of earth must be dugout

to sink a well 22.5 m deep and of diameter 7

m? Also, find the cost of plastering the inner

curved surface at Rs 3 per square metre.

The diameters of the internal and external

surface of a hollow spherical shell are 6 cm

and 10 cm respectively. If it is melted and

2

recast into a solid cylinder of height 2

cm

3

9.

(Take = 22/7)

A cylindrical water tank of diameter 1.4 m

and height 2.1 m is being fed by a pipe of

diameter 3.5 cm through which water flows

at the rate of 2 m/s. Calculate in minutes the

time it takes to fill the tank.

(Use = 22/7)

Height of a solid cylinder is 10 cm and

diameter 8 cm. Two equal conical holes have

been made from its both ends. If the diameter

of the hole is 6 cm and height 4 cm, find

(i) Volume of the cylinder.

(ii) Volume of one conical hole.

(iii) Volume of the remaining solid.

A milk tanker cylindrical in shape having

diameter 2 metr es and length 4.2 metres

supplies milk to the two booths in the ratio

3 : 2. One of the milk booths has a rectangular

vessel having base areas 3.96 sq m and the

other has a cylindrical vessel having diameter

2 metres. Find the level of milk in each of

the two vessels.

Two cylindrical vessels are filled with oil.

The radius of one vessel is 15 cm and its

height is 25 cm. The radius and height of

t he other v essel ar e 10 cm and 18 cm

respectively. Find the radius of a cylindrical

v essel 30 cm in height , which will just

contain the oil of the two given vessels.

The radius of the base of a right circular cone

is 14 cm and altitude 20 cm. What is the

largest lateral surface area possible for a

cylinder inscribed in this cone?

The thickness of a metallic tube is 1 cm and

the inner diameter of the tube is 12 cm. Find

the weight of 1 m long tube, if the density of

the metal be 7.8 gm per cm3.

A cylindrical road roller made of iron is 1 m

wide. It s inner diameter is 54 cm and

K KUNDAN

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

614

Concept of Arithmetic

road roller is 9 cm. Find the weight of the

roller if 1 cc of iron weighs 8 gm.

16. The volume of a metallic cylindrical pipe is

748 cm3. Its length is 14 cm and its external

radius is 9 cm. Find its thickness.

17. Increasing the radius of the base of cylinder

by 6 units increase the volume by y cubic units.

Increasing the altitude of the cylinder by 6

units also increase the volume by y cubic units.

If the original altitude is 2 units, find the

original radius.

18. The dept h of the wat er in a r ectangular

swimming pool increases uniformly from 1

metre at the shallow end to 3.5 metres at the

deep end. The pool is 25 metres long and 12

metres wide. Calculate the volume of the water

in the pool in cubic met res. The pool is

empt ied by means of cylindr ical pipe of

internal radius 9 cm. The water flows down

the pipe at a speed of 3 metres per second.

the pool in 1 minute giving your answer to

the nearest 10 litres.

(1 litres = 1000 cm3).

(Take = 3.142)

19. The total surface area of a right triangular

prism of the height 4 cm is 72 3 cm2. If the

base of the prism is an equilateral triangle,

find its volume.

2 0 . The sum of radius of the base and height of a

right circular cylinder is 37 cm. If the total

surface area of the cylinder is 1628 cm2, find

its volume.

(Use = 22/7)

21. Water is flowing at the rate of 5 km/hr through

a cylindrical pipe of diameter 14 cm into a

rectangular tank which is 50 m long and 44

m wide. Determine the time in which the

level of water in the tank will raise by 7 cm.

(Use = 22/7)

Exercise3

(Pyramid and Circular Cone)

1.

area and v olume of a right pyramid with

equilateral triangle as a base in which the

length of each side of the base is 4 cm and

slant height is 5 cm.

Find the volume, lateral surface area and total

surface area of a right triangular pyramid the

length of whose edge is 10 cm.

The base of a right pyramid is an equilateral

triangle of side 10 cm and its vertical height

is 5 cm find its

(i) slant height

(ii) area of one side face.

A right pyramid has an equilateral triangular

base of side 4 units. If the number of square

units of its whole surface area be three times

the number of cubic units of its volume, find

its height.

The base of a right pyramid is an equilateral

triangle each side of which is 2 m long. Every

slant edge is 3 m long. Find the lateral surface

area and the volume of the pyramid.

The base of a right pyramid is an equilateral

t riangle of side 4 cm. The height of the

pyramid is half of its slant height. Find the

volume and the length of a slant edge of the

pyramid.

The volume of a right circular cone whose

radius of the base is 21 cm is 12936 cm 3.

Find the curved surface area of the cone.

(Take = 22/7)

The radius of the base and the height of a

right circular cone are respectively 21 cm and

surface area and the volume of the cone.

(Take = 22/7)

The radius and height of a cone are in the

ratio 3 : 4. If its volume is 301.44 cm3, what

is its radius? What is its slant height?

(Take = 22/7)

The curved surface area of a cone is 4070

cm 2 and its diameter is 70 cm. What is its

slant height?

(Use = 22/7)

The radius and slant height of a cone are in

the ratio of 4 : 7. If its curved surface area is

792 cm2, find its radius.

(Use = 22/7)

The circumference of the base of a 10 m high

conical tent is 44 metres. Calculate the length

of canvas used in making the tent if width of

canvas is 2 m.

(Use = 22/7)

How many metres of cloth 5 m wide will be

required to make a conical tent, the radius of

whose base is 7 m and whose height is 24

m?

(Use = 22/7)

The volume of a right circular cone is equal

to that of a right circular cylinder 9 cm high

with diameter of the base 60 cm. The height

of the cone is 108 cm. Find the diameter of

the base of the cone.

A conical vessel, whose internal radius is 10

cm and height 48 cm, is full of water. If this

water is poured into a cylindrical vessel with

K KUNDAN

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

615

radius 20 cm, find the height to which the

water rises in it.

(Use = 22/7)

16. The radii of the ends of a bucket 45 cm high,

which is in the form of a frustum of a cone,

are 28 cm and 7 cm. Determine its capacity

and the surface area.

(Take = 22/7)

17. A glass piston is in the shape of a frustum of

a cone, having its top and bottom diameters

as 3 cm and 7 cm respectively. If the frustum

is 4 cm high, find its weight if 1 cm3 of glass

weighs 2.1 gm.

parallel to the base such that the height is

divided into three equal parts. Compare the

volumes of the three parts of the cone.

19. The radius of the base and height of a right

circular cone are in the ratio 5 : 12. If its

volume is 2512 cm 3, find its curved surface

area and total surface area.

2 0 . Water flows at the rate of 10 metres per minute

through a cylindrical pipe whose internal

radius is 0.5 cm. How long would it take to

fill a conical vessel whose radius at the top

is 20 cm and depth is 21 cm?

Exercise4

(Sphere, Hemisphere and Spherical Shell)

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

of radius 4.2 cm.

(Take = 22/7)

Find the volume and the total surface area of

a hemisphere of radius 3.5 cm.

(Use = 22/7)

The inter nal and exter nal diameters of a

hollow hemispherical vessel are 24 cm and

25 cm respectively. The cost to paint 1 cm 2

the surface is Re 0.05. Find the total cost to

paint the vessel all over.

(Use = 22/7)

A hollow spherical shell is made of a metal of

density 4.9 g/cm3. If its internal and external

radii are 10 cm and 12 cm respectively, find

the weight of the shell.

A sphere and a cube have the same surface.

Show that the ratio of the volume of sphere to

7.

Its height is 8 cm and the radius is 5 cm. It is

filled with water upto the brim. When lead

shots each of which is a sphere of radius 0.5

cm are dropped into the vessel, one fourth of

the water flows out. Find the number of lead

shots dropped into the vessel.

9.

A solid is composed of a cylinder wit h

hemispherical ends. If the whole length of

the solid is 108 cm and the diameter of the

hemispherical ends is 36 cm, find the cost of

polishing the surface of the solid at the rate

of 7 paise per sq cm.

(Use = 22/7)

10. Three identical balls f it snugly into a

cylindrical can. The radius of the spheres

equal the radius of the can, and the balls just

touch the bottom and the top of the can. If

the formula for the volume of a sphere is V

K KUNDAN

that of the cube is

6.

8.

6: .

A measuring jar of internal diameter 10 cm is

partially filled with water. Four equal spherical

balls of diameter 2 cm each are dropped in it

and they sink down in the water completely.

What will be the change in the level of water

in the jar?

Metal spheres, each of radius 2 cm are packed

into a rectangular box of internal dimension

16 cm 8 cm 8 cm. When 16 spheres are

packed the box is filled with preservative

liquid. Find the volume of this liquid. Give

your answer to the nearest integer.

669

Use 213

4 3

r , what fraction of the volume of the

3

can is taken up by the balls?

11. A sphere of maximum volume is cut out from

a solid hemisphere of radius r. Find the ratio

of the volume of the hemisphere to that of the

sphere.

12. The ratio of the volumes of a right circular

cylinder and sphere is 3 : 2. If the radius of

the sphere is double the radius of the base

of the cylinder, find the ratio of the surface

areas of the cylinder and sphere.

=

616

Concept of Arithmetic

Exercise5

(Surface Area and Volume of Combination of Solids)

1.

2.

3.

4.

cone that can be cut out of a cube whose edge

is 9 cm.

From a right circular cylinder with height 10

cm and radius of base 6 cm, a right circular

cone of the same height and base is removed.

Find the volume of the remaining solid.

A wooden toy is in t he f orm of a cone

surmounted on a hemisphere. The diameter

of the base of the cone is 6 cm and its height

is 4 cm. Find the cost of painting the toy at

the rate of Rs 7 per 100 cm2.

(Use = 22/7)

Rasheed got a playing top (lattu) as his birthday

present, which surprisingly had no colour

on it. He wanted to colour it with his crayons.

The top is shaped like a cone surmounted by

a hemisphere (see the figure given below).

The entire top is 5 cm in height and the

diameter of the top is 3.5 cm. Find the area

he has to colour.

(Take = 22/7)

8.

9.

and conical above it. The diamet er of the

cylindrical portion is 10 m and the total height

of the tent from ground to the vertex of the

conical part is 19 m. Find the cost of canvas

required to build the tent at the rate of Rs 7.70

per square metre.

(Use = 22/7)

A solid is in t he f orm of a right circular

cylinder with hemispherical ends. The total

length of the solid is 35 cm. The diameter of

1

of its height. Find the

4

volume and total surface area of the solid.

(Use = 22/7)

10. The decorative block shown in the figure is

made of two solidsa cube and a hemisphere.

The base of the block is a cube with edge 5

cm, and the hemisphere fixed on the top has

a diameter of 4.2 cm. Find the total surface of

the block.

(Take = 22/7)

the cylinder is

K KUNDAN

5.

6.

7.

cylinder surmounted by a hemisphere. The

diameter of the cylinder is 42 cm and its

height is 40 cm. Find the cost of polishing

the surface area of the show-piece at the rate

of Rs 10 per 1000 cm2 (excluding the base of

the show-piece).

From the figure given below, find the volume

of the toy.

biggest cube is fitted in it. Now a biggest

sphere is fitted within this cube. Again a

biggest cube is fit ted within t his smaller

sphere. Determine the ratio of volume of

bigger cube to the volume of smaller cube.

11.

617

A wooden toy rocket is in the shape of a cone

mounted on a cylinder, as shown in the above

figure. The height of the entire rocket is 26

cm, while the height of the conical part is 6

cm. The base of the conical portion has a

diameter of 5 cm, while the base diameter of

the cylindrical portion is 3 cm. If the conical

port ion is t o be paint ed or ange and t he

cylindrical portion yellow, find the area of

the rocket painted with each of these colours.

(Take = 3.14)

12. Mayank made a bird-bath for his garden in

the shape of a cylinder with a hemisphere

depression at one end (see the figure). The

height of the cylinder is 1.45 m and its radius

is 30 cm. Find the total surface area of bird

bath.

(Take = 22/7)

Further, suppose the machinery in the shed

occupies a total space of 300 m 3, and there

are 20 workers, each of whom occupy about

0.08 m3 space on an average. Then how much

air is in the shed?

(Take = 22/7)

glasses as shown in the given figure. The

inner diameter of the cylindrical glass was 5

cm, but t he bot t om of t he glass had a

hemisphere raised portion which reduced the

capacity of the glass. If the height of a glass

was 10 cm, find the apparent capacity of the

glass and its actual capacity.

(Take = 3.14)

K KUNDAN

in the shape of a cuboid surmounted by a half

cylinder (see the figure). If the base of the

shed is of dimension 7m 15 m, and the

height of the cuboidal portion is 8 m, find

Exercise6

(Conversion of Solid From One Shape to Another)

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

been recasted into spherical balls of diameter

2 cm. How many such balls will be formed?

The radius of a solid metallic sphere is 1.5

cm. It is melted and drawn into a wire of

diameter 0.2 cm. Find the length of the wire.

A solid sphere of radius 3 cm is melted and

then cast into small spherical balls each of

diameter 0.6 cm. Find the number of balls

thus obtained.

A solid metallic right circular cylinder of base

diameter 16 cm and height 2 cm is melted

and cast into a right circular cone of height

three times that of the cylinder. Find the

curved surface area of the cone.

(Take = 3.14)

A cone of height 24 cm and radius of base 6

cm is made up of modelling clay. A child

reshape it in the form of a sphere. Find the

radius of the sphere.

6.

7.

8.

shape of a cylinder. This is filled by pumping

water from a sump (an underground tank)

which is in the shape of cuboid. The sump

has dimensions 1.57 m 1.44 m 95 cm.

The overhead tank has its radius 60 cm and

height 95 cm. Find the height of the water

left in the sump after the overhead tank has

been completely filled with water from the

sump which had been f ull. Compar e the

capacity of the tank with that of the sump.

(Take = 3.14)

A copper rod of diameter 1 cm and length 8

cm is drawn into a wire of length 18 m of

uniform thickness. Find the thickness of the

wir e.

A hemispherical tank full of water is emptied

by a pipe at the rate of 3

4

litres per second.

7

618

Concept of Arithmetic

How much time will it take to empty half the

tank, if it is 3 m in diameter?

(Take = 22/7)

The radius of the base and height of a metal

solid cylinder are r cm and 3 cm respectively.

It is melted and recast into a cone of the same

radius of base. Find the height of the cone.

9.

10. A solid metallic right circular cylinder of basediameter 16 cm and height 2 cm is melted

and recast into a right circular cone of height

three times that of the cylinder. Find the

curved surface area of the cone.

(Use = 3.14)

Exercise1

1.

We have,

Area of the field = 1 hectare = 10000 m2

[ 1 hectare = 10000 m2]

Depth of water on the field

Clearly, volume of the cube = volume of the

water replaced by it.

Volume of the cube = volume of a cuboid of

dimension 15 cm 12 cm x cm.

or, 729 = 15 12 x

729

or, x =

cm

15 12

5

1

m

m.

100

20

Volume of water = Area of the field depth

= 5 cm =

2.

m3 = 500 m3

of water = 10000

20

= 500000 litres

We have,

Volume of water pumped out from the reservoir

8400

= 8400 litres =

m 3 [ 1000l = 1 m3]

1000

= 8.4 m3

Area of the base of the reservoir

= (7 6) m2 = 42 m2.

Fall in water-level of the reservoir

81

cm = 40.5 cm

20

Let the length, breadth and height of the

cuboid be l, b and h units respectively.

According to the question,

2 (lb + bh + lh) = 22

....(i) and

4 (l + b + h) = 24

x =

5.

K KUNDAN

=

3.

24

= 6

....(ii)

4

2

2

2

2

Now, (l + b + h) = l + b + h + 2 (lb + bh + lh)

or, (6)2 = l2 + b2 + h2 + 22

or, l2 + b2 + h2 = 36 22 = 14

or, l + b + h =

Area of the base

Diagonal of cuboid =

8.4

m = 0.2 m

=

42

= (0.2 100) cm = 20 cm

Length of an edge of the cubical block of ice

= 50 cm =

6.

50

1

m m

100

2

2

1 3

1

Volume of the block of ice = m m .

8

2

Since one cubic metre of ice weighs 900

kilograms. Therefore,

weight of the cubical block

4.

= 900 kg = 112.5 kg

8

Volume of the cube = (93) cm3 = 729 cm3

If the cube is immersed in the vessel, then

the water level rises.

14

= 3.74 cm

Area of the field = 35 15.4 = 539 m2

Area of the rectangular tank = 5.5 4 = 22 m2

Area of the remaining field where earth is

spread out = (539 22) m2 = 517 m2

The volume of earth dug out = 5.5 4 2.5 m3

Let us assume that the level of field be raised

by h metres on spreading the earth over it.

517 h 5.5 4 2.5

5.5 4 2.5

517

or, h = 10.6 cm (approx.)

Slove as Q.No. 6.

Area of the field = (40 28 =) 1120 sq m

Area of the pit = (12 6 =) 72 sq m

Volume of the pit = (12 6 5 =) 360 m3

Ar ea of the r emaining field where soil is

spread

= Total area of the field Area of the pit

= (1120 72 =) 1048 m2

or, h =

7.

l 2 b2 h 2 =

619

Rise in height after spread of the soil will be

equal to the volume of soil taken out from the

pit

So,

Remaining area Raised height = Volume of

pit

1048 raised height = 360

360

= 0.34 metre or 34 cm

1048

The required height is 34 cm.

Let the edge of the cube = a cm

Raised height =

8.

Diagonal of cube =

or,

17 .32

3

or,

(2.5)3

h

0.25 1.25

= 50 cm

0.25 1.25

Surface area of cube

= 6a2 = 6 (2.5)2 = 6 6.25 = 37.50 cm2

Surface area of cuboid = 2 (lb + bh + hl)

= 2(1.25 0.25 + 0.25 50 + 50 1.25)

= 2(0.3125 + 12.50 + 62.50)

= 2 75.3125 = 150.625 cm 2

Increase in Surface Area

= (150.625 37.50 =) 113.125 cm 2

13. Given length of swimming pool, l = 32 m

Width of swimming pool, W = 9.5 m

Depth of the swimming pool at one end,

h1 = 1.5 m

Depth of the swimming pool at the other end

h2 = 4.5 m

The cross section of swimming pool is in the

shape of trapezium

or, h =

3 a = 17.32

or, a =

9.

3 (edge)

Now, the volume of new recasted cube.

L3 = 216

or, L = 6 cm

The required answer is 6 cm.

12. As the metallic cube is melted and recasted

into the form of a cuboid,

The volume of metallic cube = volume of cuboid

(Side) 3 = length breadth height

(2.5)3 = 1.25 0.25 h

17 .32

= 10

1.732

Volume of the water that flows in 1 second

= (10 0.05 0.03) m3

10 5 3 3

15 3

m =

m

=

100

100

1000

Volume of the water that flows in 40 minutes

15

60 40 m3 = 36 m3

=

1000

K KUNDAN

36

m = 2m

Height of water level =

7.2 25

x metres.

Volume of the bar = 4 x x m3

Volume of cubical bar

= length breadth height

Volume of the metal cube = 1 m3

Volume of metal cube melted = Volume of bar

formed

4 x x = 1

1

2

r, x

4

or, x

1

m

2

1

m

2

3

1

1

volume of cube = m3

8

2

The weight of 1 m3 volume of cube = 480 kg

1 480

60 kg

The weight of the cube =

8

Volume of the cube = (43 =) 64 cm3

Total volume of rod and cube

= (152 + 64) cm3 = 216 cm3

1

l h1 h 2

2

Volume of water in swimming pool

= Area of cross section width

Area of trapezium =

= l h1 h 2 w

2

2

= 16 6 9.5 = 912 cu m

14. Let the volume of aquarium be x litres.

According to the question,

2

x

3

Quantity of water left after tilting the aquarium

the quantity of water in it =

x

2

620

Concept of Arithmetic

According to the question,

2

x

x 6 litres

3

2

4x 3x

6

6

or, x = 36 litres.

The volume of tank is 36 litres.

15. Let the height of the room be a m.

The breadth will be 2a m.

The length of the room is 18 m (given)

Area of the four walls

= 2(length + breadth) height

Area of the four walls of the room

= 2a(18 + 2a) = (36a + 4a2) m2

Area of 70 square papers

= (70 2 2 =) 280 m2

As the wall ar e to be covered f rom these

papers.

Area of four walls = Area of wall paper

or,

Internal breadth = 65 cm

Internal height = 72.5 cm

Thickness of wood = 25 mm = 2.5 cm

External length = (85 + 2 2.5 =) 90 cm

External breadth = (65 + 2 2.5 =) 70 cm

External height = (72.5 + 2.5 =) 75 cm.

Area which is to be painted

= Area of the external walls of the box

= 2 (l + b) h = 2 (90 + 70) 75

= 24000 sq cm

24000

sq dm = 240 sq dm

100

Cost of painting at 15 per sq dm

= Rs (240 15 =) Rs 3600.

18. ABCD is the square court having each side

equal to 17 metres.

=

or, 4a 2 36a 280 0

or, a 2 9a 70 0

(on dividing by 4)

or, a 2 14a 5a 70 0

or, a (a 14) 5 (a 14 ) 0

that wall also exists at the four corners A, B,

K KUNDAN

or, (a 5) (a 14) 0

or, a = 5 or 14

Negative height is not possible

a = 5 metres

When height = a = 5 m

Breadth = 2a = (2 5 =) 10 m

Area of floor = l b = (18 10 =) 180 m2

Cost of flooring at the rate of Rs 20 per m2

= (180 20 =) Rs 3600

16. Let the height of the hall be h m.

Then, sum of the areas of four walls

= 2(l + b) h m2

= 2(20 + 16)h m2

= 72h m2

Sum of the areas of the floor and the flat roof

= (20 16 + 20 16) m2

= 640 m2

It is given that the sum of the areas of four

walls is equal to the sum of the areas of the

floor and roof.

72 h = 640

640

80

m =

m = 8.88 m

72

9

So, height of the hall = 8.88 m

or, h =

80

m3

Volume of the hall = 20 16

9

25600

m3 = 2844.4 m3

9

C, D. There is a gate of 1

1

metres width on

2

Length of wall along AB

= 17 metres 1

1

metres

2

1

metres

2

length of wall along AB, BC, CD, DA

= 15

31

4 = 62 metres

2

Length of wall at the four corners A, B, C, D

=

1

= 1 metre.

4

length of the whole wall

= 62 metres + 1 metre = 63 metres

Volume of the whole wall

= 4

= 63 3

1

cub metres

4

189

cub metres

4

189

2500

4

= Rs 118125.

cost of wall = Rs

621

19. Internal length = (100 5 =) 95 cm

Internal breadth = (85 5 =) 80 cm

Internal height = (65 5 =) 60 cm

External volume of box = 100 85 65

= 552500 cub cm

Internal volume of box = 95 80 60

= 456000 cub cm

volume of wood

= (552500 456000 =) 96500 cub cm

= .0965 cub m

2.5

sq m

area of planking = .0965

100

100

sq m = 3.86 sq m.

2.5

2 0 . Length = 2.5 km = 2500 m

Width = 20 m, Depth = 1.2 m

The volume of water passing the ferry per

hour is that of a cuboid whose dimensions

are given above. Hence,

Volume of water passing in 1 hour

= 2500 20 1.2 cub m

The number of litres of water passing in 1

minute

= .0965

= 1000000

60

3

128

21. Length = 25 metres =

metres

5

5

=

Thickness of iron = 4 cm

Internal dimensions

l 292 cm

b 200 cm

h 176 cm (because the cistern is open)

External volume = l b h

= (300 208 180 =) 11232000 cu cm.

Internal volume = l b h

= (292 200 176 =) 10278400 cu cm.

( i ) Volume of the metal of cistern

= External volume Internal volume

= (11232000 10278400 =) 953600 cu cm.

Weight of the cistern = Volume Density

= 953600 7.2 = 6865920 gm

= 6865.92 kg

(ii) Volume of water

= Internal volume of the cistern

= 10278400 cu cm

Weight of the water = 10278400 1

= 10278400 gm = 10278.4 kg

Total weight

= Weight of the cistern + Weight of water

= (6865.92 + 10278.4 =) 17144.32 kg

Hence weight of cistern full of water

= 17144.32 kg

23. Rate of flow of water = 5 km/hr

55

25

= m/sec =

m/sec

18

18

Volume of water flowing in 1 second

K KUNDAN

1

96

metres =

metres

5

5

Breadth = 19

128

96

metres

5

5

diagonal =

16384 9216

metres

25

25

256000

metres = 32 metres

25

22

7

7

25

154

m3

7 100 100 18 7200

Level of water in the tank = 14 cm = 0.14 m

Volume of water in the tank

= 100 44 0.14 m3

required time

=

Amount of water

128 96

14 1000 kilograms

5

5

= 6881.28 metric tonnes

2 2 . External dimensions

l = 300 cm

b = 208 cm

h = 180 cm

2 25

(0.07 ) 18 m3

seconds

154

= 28800 seconds

=

28800

hours = 8 hours

3600

24. Volume of water in the first cistern

= (5 3 2.5 =) 36 cu m

Volume of water in the second cistern

= (4 3.6 2 =) 28.8 cu m

A pipe of radius of 3 cm gives, 36 cu m

water in 25 minutes.

A pipe of radius of 5 cm will give water

28.8 cu m

=

25 3 28.8

= 12 minutes

36 5

622

Concept of Arithmetic

Exercise2

1.

Volume of embankment

Area of a triangle =

12.25 h

= (196 12 .25 ) h

= 183 .75 h m3

s (s a ) (s b ) (s c )

Clearly, 183.75 h

= 210 sq cm

Volume of the prism = Area of the base Height

2.

14

a b c 17 25 28

= 35 cm

Then, s =

2

2

(s a) = (35 17 =) 18 cm

(s b) = (35 25 =) 10 cm

(s c) = (35 28 =) 7 cm

4200

20 cm

Height of the prism =

210

Lateral Area = Perimeter of the base Height

= (17 + 25 + 28) 20

= 1400 sq cm

Let the height of each prism be h units and

the length of each side of equilateral triangle

at the base of first prism be a units and that

the second prism having regular hexagon as

base be b units. (See the figures given below)

49

22.5

4

49 22.5

3

= 1.5

183.75 4 2

Hence, the required height = 1.5 metres.

Here, the diameter of the cylindrical tank

= 35 cm

Therefore, the base area of the tank

or, h =

4.

22 35

7 2

cm. Then

2

22 35

x 11 1000 cm 3

7 2

K KUNDAN

[ 1 litre = 10003]

11000 7 2 2 308000

11.428 cm

22 35 35

26950

Hence, required drop in the water level

= 11.428 cm

Given

Speed of the water = 7 m/s = 700 cm/s

Radius of pipe = 1 cm

Area of cross section of pipe = (1)2 = cm2

Volume of water falling from pipe per second

= 700 sq cm

Time = (30 60 =) 1800 seconds

Volume of water falling in half an hour

= 700 30 60 cu cm

This v olume and v olume of wat er in

cylindrical tank should be equal. So taking

the height of water in cylindrical tank as h

cm,

40 40 h 700 30 60

x=

5.

II

Volume of first prism = Volume of second prism

3 2

3 3 2

a h

b h

4

2

or,

1 2 3 2

a b

4

2

or, a 6b

or, a 2 6b 2

or,

a

6

b

1

700 30 60

= 787.5 cms

40 40

or, 7.875 metres

Here, r = 4.2 m, h = 3.5 m.

Volume of the drum

= (r2h) m3 = (3.14 (4.2)2 3.5) m3

Volume of each bag of wheat = 2.1 cubic metres

or, h =

a :b 6 :1

3.

2

= r h

2

49

7

22.5 m3

= 22 .5

4

2

6.

Volume of drum

Number of bags = Volume of a bag

623

3.14 4.2 4.2 3.5

2.1

= 3.14 8.4 3.5

= 92.316 = 92 bags nearly.

Volume of the earth to be dugout = Volume of

the well

=

7.

22 7 7

22.5 m3 = 866.25 m3

=

7 2 2

8.

22 7

22 .5 m2 = 495 m2

= 2

7 2

= Rs (495 3) = Rs 1485.

External radius of the spherical shell (R)

1

10 cm = 5 cm

2

Internal radius of the spherical shell (r)

=

1

6 cm = 3 cm

2

Volume of the hollow spherical shell

=

4

4

R3 r 3 =

5 3 33

3

3

cm

Volume of water flowing per second

2

7

= 200 cm3

4

[Here h = 2 m = 200 cm]

Volume of water flowing in x seconds

2

7

= x 200 cm3

4

Again volume of cylindrical tank

= (70 )2 210 cm3

According to the question,

Volume of water filled by the pipe in x seconds

= volume of the tank

2

7

2

x 200 (70 ) 210

4

K KUNDAN

=

4 22

125 27 cm3

3 7

4 22

98 cm3

3 7

Let the radius of the solid cylinder be r cm

Height of the solid cylinder (h)

=

2

cm = 8 cm

3

3

Volume of the solid cylinder

= Volume of the hollow spherical shell

= 2

or, r 2h

or,

4 22

98

3 7

22 2 8 4 22

r

98

7

3 3 7

or, r 2

4 22

7 3

98

49

3 7

22 8

r=

9.

49 = 7

Hence, diameter of the solid cylinder

= 2 radius = (2 7 =) 14 cm

Diameter = 3.5 cm

3.5

2

Radius = 0.7 m =

Height = 2.1 m =

Radius =

35 7

cm

20 4

70 cm

210 cm

or, x =

70 70 210

7 7

200

4 4

70 70 210 4 4

7 7 200

= 1680 seconds = 28 minutes

1680

60 28

water tank.

10. Volume of the cylinder = r2h

=

2

= (4) 10 160 cm3

=

1 2

r h

3

1

32 4 12 cm3

3

624

Concept of Arithmetic

163350

cm3

7

Its height = 30 cm

Let its radius be x cm

22

x 2 30 cm3

7

Its volume = r 2h

Hence volume of the remaining solid

= (160 24 )136 cm3

11. Diameter of the milk tanker = 2 m

Radius of the tanker = 1 m

Length of milk tanker = 4.2 m

2

Volume of the tanker = r h

22 x 2 30 163350

7

7

or, x 2

163350 7

1

495

7

22 30

2

12

x =

495 495

2

2

15.73 cm

22

12 4.2 cu m = 13.2 cu m

7

Ratio of the volume of milk in rectangular and

cylindrical vessels = V1 : V2 = 3 : 2

or, V =

V1 =

3

13.2 m3 = 7.92 m3

5

2

13.2 m3 = 5.28 m3

5

Area of the base of rectangular vessel = 3.96 m2

Let h1 be the height of milk in this vessel

3.96h1 = 7.92

and V1 =

K KUNDAN

7.92

2 m

or, h1 =

3.96

Radius of cylindrical vessel = 1 m

Let h2 be the height of milk in this cylinder

5.28 7

1.68 m

h2 =

22

and height of milk in cylindr ical v essel

= 1.68 m.

12. Volume of first cylinder = r12h1

=

22

123750

cm 3

15 15 25 cm3 =

7

7

h be inscribed in t he cone. From the

similarity of the triangle AOS and BO 1S, it

follows that

=

cm3

7

7

7

of two given vessels.

....(i)

2R

h H h {substituting (1) for r}.

H

From geometric consideration, h varies in the

interval 0 < h < H.

or S =

S = 2Rh

2

Volume of second cylinder = r2 h 2

22

39600

=

cm 3

10 10 18 cm3 =

7

7

Combined volume of f ir st and second

cylinder

R (H h )

H

r=

2Rh 2

H

RH 2R

H

h

2

H

2

S is maximum when 2nd term is zero,

ie h

H

O

2

ie h

H

.

2

625

Maximum value of lateral surface area

1

RH

2

Radius = 14 cm

Height = 20 cm

Maximum value of lateral surface area

=

1 22

14 20 440 cm2.

=

2 7

14. We have,

inner diameter of the tube = 12 cm

r = Inner radius of the tube = 6 cm.

Thickness of the tube = 1 cm.

R = Outer radius of the tube

= (6 + 1) cm = 7 cm.

h = Length of the tube = 1 m = 100 cm

Volume of the metal in the tube

2

2

= (R r )h

22

(7 2 62 ) 100 cm3

7

22

13 100 cm3

7

Density of the metal = 7.8 gm/cm3

Weight of the tube = Volume Density

=

16. We have

R = external radius of pipe = 9 cm

h = length of the pipe = 14 cm

V = volume of the pipe = 748 cm3

Let r be the internal radius in centimetres.

Th en ,

volume = 748 cm3

or, (R 2 r 2 )h 748 cm3

or,

22 2

9 r 2 14 748

7

748

44

or, 81 r2 = 17

or, r2 = 64

or, r = 8 cm

Hence, thickness of the pipe

= (R r) cm = (9 8) cm = 1 cm.

17. Let the original radius of cylinder be x units.

Given, height of cylinder = 2 units

Volume of cylinder = r2h

2

or, 81 r

Volume = x 2 2 2x 2

When the height of cylinder increases by 6

2

2

units, the new volume is = x 2 6 8 x

Increase in volume due to increase in height

K KUNDAN

22

13 100 7.8 gm

7

= 31868.57 gm

=

31868.57

kg = 31.86857 kg

1000

15. The width of the road roller is 1 m ie 100 cm.

So, height (length) of the cylinder = 100 cm

Inner radius of the cylinder = r

=

54

=

cm = 27 cm.

2

Thickness of the iron sheet = 9 cm.

Outer radius of the cylinder = R

= (27 + 9) cm = 36 cm.

Thus, volume of the iron sheet used

units

2

= x 6 2

by 6 units = x 62 2 2x 2 y units .... (ii)

Computing the equations (i) and (ii) above

x 62 2 2x 2 8x 2 2x 2

or, x 62 2 8 x 2

or, x 2 36 12x 4x 2

or, 36 12x 3x 2

= (R 2h r 2h ) cm3

or, 3x 2 12x 36 0

2

2

= (R r )h cm3

or, x 2 4x 12 0

= (R r ) R r h cm3

= [3.14 (36 + 27) (36 - 27) 100] cm3

or, x 2 6x 2x 12 0

or, x x 6 2x 6 0

314

63 9 100 cm3

100

= 178038 cm 3

Weight of the roller = 178038 8 gm

=

= 178038

8

kg = 1424.304 kg.

1000

or, x 2x 6 0

or, x + 2 = 0 or, x 6 = 0

x = 2 or x = 6

Ignoring the negative value, the radius

= 6 units.

18. The cross-section of swimming pool is of the

shape of trapezium

Sum of parallel sides = (1 + 3.5 =) 4.5 m

626

Concept of Arithmetic

Area of trapezium

or, a 4 3

1

=

length sum of parallel sides

2

= Area of the base Height

1

25 4.5 sq m

2

Volume = Area of cross section width

1

25 4.5 12

2

= 675 cm3

=

2

Volume of cylinder = r h

Volume of water which flows out from pipe

in one second

= 3.142 9 9 300 cm3

Volume of wat er which f lows out in 60

seconds

= 3.142 9 9 300 60 cm3

= 4581036 cm 3

= 4581.036 litres

[ 1 litre = 1000 cm3]

19. Let each side of the base of the prism be a

cm. Then,

4 cm

3

4 3

4

Area of cross-section =

= 48 3 cm3

2 0 . Let the radius of the base of the right circular

cylinder be r cm and its height be h cm.

Now, according to the question,

h + r = 37

......(i)

Total surface area of the cylinder = 1628 cm2

or, 2rh 2r 2 1628

or, 2r (h r ) 1628

or, 2r 37 1628

or, 2

22

37 r 1628

7

1628 7

= 7

2 22 37

r = 7 cm and h = (37 7 =) 30 cm

or, r =

22

=

7

in x hours.

Rate of flowing water = 5 km/hr

the base) = 72 3

K KUNDAN

3 2

or, 3a 4 2

a 72 3

4

3a 2 24a 144 3 0

or,

5 25

= 5

m/sec

18 18

hours

= Volume of water in the tank

or, a 2 8 3a 144 0

or, a 2 12 3a 4 3a 144 0

3 0

or, a a 12 3 4 3 a 12 3 0

or, a 4 3 a 12

or, a 4 3 0

22

7

7

25

7

x 60 60 50 44

7 100 100 18

100

50 44 7 7 100 100 18

= 2

22 7 7 25 60 60 100

required time = 2 hours.

= x =

[ a 12 3 0 as a 0]

Exercise3

1.

We have,

a = length of each side of the base = 4 cm and

slant height = 5 cm.

Let h be the height of the pyramid. Then,

Slant height =

or, 5 h 2

16

12

h2

a

12

or, 25 h 2

4

3

or, h 2 25

4 71

3

3

71

cm

3

=

1

(Perimeter of the base Slant height)

2

1

4 4 4 5 cm2 = 30 cm2

2

627

Whole surface area

= Lateral surface area + Area of the base

30 3 42

2

cm

4

= 30 4 3

cm

4.

1

(Area of the base height)

3

cm2

be the height and l be the slant height of the

pyramid.

We have, a = 4

4

71 cm3

3

Clearly, the pyramid is a tetrahedron whose

edge is of length 10 cm.

2

edge 2

12

2

3

10 3 cm =

12

h2

Slant height =

50

3

1 3

71

2

= 3 4 4 3 cm3

2.

1 150

cm2

3

3

=

or, l =

h2

16

12

or, l =

h2

4

3

a2

12

whole surface area of the pyramid is three

times the number of cubic units of its volume.

Lateral surface area + Area of the base

= 3(Volume)

2

250 cm3

3

3 3

edge 2

4

or

1

4 4 4 h 2 4 3 42

2

3

4

K KUNDAN

=

3 edge 2

=

3.

1 3

2

= 3 3 4 4 h

3 3

10 2 cm2 = 75 3 cm2

4

2 cm2

3 10

or, 6 h 2 4 4 3 4 3h

3

= 100 3 cm2

( i ) We have,

a = length of each side of the base = 10 cm

h = height of the pyramid = 5 cm

h2

Slant height =

or, 6 h 2 4 4 3 h 1

3

a2

12

25

2 4

2

or, 36 h 48 h 1

3

2 4

2

or, 3 h 4h 1

3

100

cm

12

or, h 2 8h 0

=

1

(Perimeter of the base Slant height)

2

1

10 10 10 10 cm2 = 150 cm2

2

3

3

or, 3h 2 4 4 h 2 2h 1

10

25

cm =

cm

25

3

3

or, h h 8 0

5.

or, h 8 0

h 0

or, h = 8

Hence, the height of the pyramid is 8 units.

We have, a = 2 m and lateral height = 3 m.

Let h be the height of the pyramid. Then,

1

=

(Lateral surface area)

3

Lateral height =

h2

a2

3

628

Concept of Arithmetic

2

or, 3 h

2

or, 9 h

2

or, h 9

4

3

4

3

4 23

3

3

Slant height =

23 4

8 m2 2 m

3 12

7.

1

(Perimeter of the base Slant height)

2

cm

52

2 13

cm

cm

9

3

1

(Area of the base Height)

3

1

2 2 2 2 2 m2 = 6 2 m2

2

Volume of the pyramid

= 8 3 cm 3

9

Let r be the radius, h be the height and l be

the slant height of the cone.

Then, r = 21 cm (given)

Now, Volume = 12936 cm 3

or,

1 2

r h = 12936

3

or,

1 22

21 21 h = 12936

3 7

1

(Area of the base height)

3

4 16

9 3

= 1 3 42 2 cm3

3

4

3

a2

h2

12

=

a2 =

3

23

m

3

or, h

h2

3 7 12936

or, h =

28 cm

22 21 21

K KUNDAN

1

3

23

22

m3 =

3 4

3

6.

Now, l2 = r2 + h2

23

m3

3

We have,

a = length of each side of the base = 4 cm.

Let h be the height of the pyramid and l be

slant height. Then,

l

h

2

or, h

2

2

or, 4h h

8.

a2

12

16

12

or, l

a 4 cm

1225 = 35

or l h 2 r 2

28 2 212

Now, curved surface area of the cone = rl cm2

4

or, h

9

4

3

784 441

Let the slant height of the cone be l cm. Then,

l2 h2 r 2

282 212 =

22

=

21 35 2310 cm2

7

a2

2

or, 3h

12

or, h

1

a2

h2

2

12

2

or, 3h

r2 h2

22

7

2

cm

3

h 2

= r (l r ) cm

=

22

21 35 21 cm2 = 3696 cm2

7

629

1 2

r h cm3

3

1 2

=

21 21 28 cm3

3 7

9.

= 12936 cm 3

Let the radius r and slant height h of the

cone be 3x cm and 4x cm respectively. Then,

Volume = 301.44 cm 3

or,

or, l r 2 h 2

1

3.14 3x 3x 4x 301.44

or,

3

Now, surface area of the tent = rl m 2

301.44

3 4 3.14

22

7 12.2 m2

7

= 268.4 m2

Area of the canvas used = 268.4 m2

It is given that the width of the canvas is 2 m.

Length of the canvas used

=

301.44

8

37.68

x= 2

r = radius = 3x = 6 cm and

h = height = 4x = 8 cm.

3

or, x

22

r 44

7

r = 7 metres.

It is given that h = 10 metres.

or, 2

l2 r 2 h2

1 2

r h 301.44 cm3

3

3

or, x

height and l m be the slant height of the cone.

Th en ,

Circumference = 44 metres

or, 2r 44

r2 h2

cm

36 64 = 100 cm

= 10 cm

10. Let r = radius of the base, h = height and

l = slant height. Then,

=

Area

268.4

=

134.2 m

Width

2

m be the slant height of the tent.

Then, r = 7 m, h = 24 m.

K KUNDAN

70

cm 35 cm

2

Now, curved surface area = 4070 cm2

r

l r2 h2

or,

22

35 l 4070

7

4070

= 37

110

l = 37 cm

11. Let r cm be the radius and l cm be the slant

height of the cone. Then,

r: l = 4 : 7

or, r = 4x cm, l = 7x cm

Now, curved surface area = 792 cm2

or, l =

or, rl = 792

22

4x 7 x 792

or,

7

2

or, x

792

9

88

or, x = 3

x = 4x cm = 12 cm.

Hence, the radius of the base of the cone is

12 cm.

22

=

7 25 m2

7

= 550 m2

Area of the canvas used = 550 m2

It is given that the width of the canvas is 5 m.

Length of the canvas used

Area

550

=

m = 110 m

Width

5

14. For cylinder

Height of cylinder h1 = 9 cm

=

Radius of base r1 =

60

cm = 30 cm

2

For cone

height of cone h2 = 108 cm

Radius r2 = r1

Volume of cylinder = r 2h

Volume of cone =

1 2

r h

3

630

Concept of Arithmetic

Volume of cylinder = Volume of cone

1

r1 2h1 r2 2 h

3

h 2

R r 2 Rr

3

(frustum of a cone)

r2 30 30 9 3 225 152

108

or, r2 = 15 cm

The radius of cone is 15 cm.

The diameter of cone is 30 cm.

15. For conical vessel, internal radius = 10 cm

Height = 48 cm

1 2

r h

Volume of water = Volume of cone =

3

2

1

10 10 48

3

= 1600 cm 3

This water is poured into a cylindrical vessel.

Let the required height be h cm.

=

Substituting h

7

cm = 3.5 cm

2

3

cm = 1.5 cm

2

We get, V = 82.76 cm3

Weight of the glass piston

= (82.76 2.1 =) 173.8 gram

18. Let ABC be a cone which is divided into three

parts R, K and T each of height H.

From the figure it can be seen that x is radius

of part R, y is radius of part K and r is radius

of full cone.

Since the triangles AME and ANF are similar

r =

r 2h 1600

= 4 cm, R =

AM ME

AN

NF

or

H

x

2H y

or, 20 20 h 1600

1600

4 cm

h =

20 20

16. Given that R = 28 cm, r = 7 cm, h = 45 cm

Volume of frustum of a cone =

1

h R 2 r 2 Rr

3

K KUNDAN

The capacity of the bucket

22 45

28 2 72 28 7

7

3

22 45 (784 49 196)

21

22 45 1029

=

= 48510 cm3

21

Surface area of frustum of a cone

= [R 2 r 2 (R r )l ]

Slant height of frustum of a cone

=

h 2 R r 2

= 2025 + 441 = 2466

l =

2466 = 49.66

22

282 72 (28 7) 49.66

=

7

Similarly, triangles ANF and AOC are similar

AN NF

AO OC

r=

or

2H y

3H r

3

y

2

1 2

x H

3

Volume of the part K

= Volume of cone AGF Volume of cone ADE

Volume of part R =

1

1

y 2 2H x 2H

3

3

22

784 49 35 49.66

=

7

1

y 2 2H x 2H

3

22

784 49 1738.1

7

1

2

2x 2H x 2H

3

7

1

7x 2h

3

631

Volume of part T

= Volume of cone ABC Volume of AGF

=

1 3

2

= 3 2 2x 3 2x 2H

102 242

676

= (3.14 10 26 =) 816.4 cm2

1

27x 2H 8x 2H

3

r2 h2 =

= 100 576 =

= 26 cm

1 2

1

r 3H y 2 2H

3

3

1 3y

2

= 3 2 3H y 2H

1

19x 2H

3

The required ratio is

=

1 2

1

1

x H :

7x 2H :

19x 2H

3

3

3

= 1 : 7 : 19

19. Let the radius and height of the cone be 5x

cm and 12x cm respectively. Then,

Volume = 2512 cm3

1 2

r h = 2512

or,

3

1

3.14 5x 5x 12x = 2512

or,

3

2512

or, x3 =

= 8 = 23

3.14 5 5 4

or, x = 2

radius = 5x = (5 2 =) 10 cm and

height = 12x = (12 2 =) 24 cm

2

Total surface area = rl r

= 816.4 + 3.14 10 10 cm2

= 816.4 + 314 cm2

= 1130.4 cm2

1

2 0 . Radius of cylindrical pipe =

cm

2

Rate of flow of water = 10 m/minute

= 1000 cm/minute

Volume of water coming out per minute from

cylindrical pipe

= r2v

2

1

= 1000

2

= 250cm 3

For conical vessel, r = 20 cm, h = 21 cm

Volume =

1

(20)2 21

3

400 21

3

= 2800cm3

=

K KUNDAN

2800

250

= 11.2 minutes

= 11 minutes 12 second

Time taken =

Exercise4

1.

We have

r = radius of the sphere = 4.2 cm.

Volume of the sphere =

4 3

r

3

4 22

=

3 7

= 310.464 cm 3

Surface area of the sphere = 4r 2

22

= 4

7

2.

= 221.76 cm 2

We have

r = radius of the hemisphere = 3.5 cm

Volume of the hemisphere =

2 3

r

3

2 22

=

3 7

2 22 7 7 7

cm3

=

3 7 2 2 2

11 49

cm3 = 89.83 cm3

=

3 2

2

Total surface area of the hemisphere = 3r

22

= 3

7

22 7 7

cm2

= 3

7 2 2

231

cm2 = 115.5 cm2

2

632

3.

Concept of Arithmetic

Let the external and internal radii of the

hemispher ical v essel be R cm and r cm

respectively. Then, R = 12.5 cm and r = 12

cm

Now, Area of outer surface = 2R 2

Area of the inner surface = 2r2

Area of the ring at the top = R2 r2

Total area to be painted

= 2R 2 2r 2 R 2 r 2

= 3R r

=

5.

22

3 12.5 2 122 cm2

7

22 25

122 cm2

= 7

2

= 14.94 kg

Let the radius of the sphere be r and the edge

of the cube be x.

Whole surface area of sphere = 4r2

and whole surface area of cube = 6x 2

According to the question,

4r2 = 6x2

or,

r2

6

3

4 2

x2

or,

4 3

r

Volume of sphere

3 3

Volume of cube

x

22

468.75 144 cm2

7

22

13480.5

cm2

612.75 cm2 =

7

7

= 1925.78 cm 2

Cost of painting = Rs (1925.78 0.05)

= Rs 96.28

Volume of the shell V

= Volume of the external sphere of radius R

Volume of the internal sphere of radius r

4

R3 r 3

V =

3

4 r

4 r

r

3 x

3 x

x

4

3

3

2 3

3

2

2

2

4.

3

2

2 3

cube =

6.

6: .

1

2 cm = 1 cm

2

K KUNDAN

4

R r R 2 R r r 2

3

4

3.1416 12 10 122 12 10 10 2 cm3

3

4

3.1416 2144 120 100 cm3

3

4

=

3.1416 2 364 cm3

3

Weight of 1 cm3 of metal = 4.9 gm

W = Weight of the shell of volume V

=

4

3.1416 2 364 4.9 gm

3

8 3.1416 364 4.9

=

= 14942 gm

3

4

4

1 1 cm3 = cm3

3

3

4

16

=

cm3

3

3

Volume of water raised in the jar

= Volume of 4 balls

16

3

Volume of 4 balls = 4

or, 5 5 h

or, h

16

16

16

cm

3 25 75

16

cm

75

633

7.

= 16 cm 8 cm 8 cm = 1024 cm3

Radius of each metal sphere (r) = 2 cm

Volume of each metal sphere

4 3 4

32

cm3

r 23

3

3

3

Volume of 16 metal spheres

=

= 16

=

8.

32 669

cm3

3 213

512 223

cm3

213

the cylinder + Surface areas of hemispherical

ends

Volume of preservative liquid filled in the

box = Internal volume of box Volume of 16

metal spheres

= 1024 cm3 536 cm3

= 488 cm3

We have, r = 5 cm, h = 8 cm

Volume of cone =

cm

2rh 4r cm

= 2rh 2 2r 2

=

= 2r h 2r cm2

= 2

1 2

r h

3

22

18 72 36 cm2

7

1

200

cm2

5 2 8

3

3

The cone is filled to the brim. When lead

shots are dropped, one fourth of the water

flown out.

The volume of water flown out

=

18 cm, h 72 cm

22

18 108 cm2

7

= 12219.42 cm 2

Rate of polishing = 7 paise per sq cm.

= 2

K KUNDAN

7

100

= Rs 855.36.

1 200 50

=

cm3

4

3

3

10.

3

4 1

4

1

cm3

3 2

3

8 6

vessel

9.

50

3 50 6

= 100

We have

r = r adius of t he cylinder = r adius of

hemispherical ends = 18 cm

h = Height of the cylinder = 72 cm

spheres and the can are 1. Then the volume

of each ball is

4

4

13 =

and the total

3

3

4

volume of 3 balls is 3 = 4 . Since, the

3

height of the can is 6 (the diameter of each

634

Concept of Arithmetic

4 2

of

12 6 6. So the balls take up

6 3

the can.

11. Volume of the solid hemisphere of radius

circular cylinder and R is the radius of the

sphere.]

2 3

r .

3

Radius of the biggest possible sphere that can

r

be cut out from a solid hemisphere =

.

2

Volume of solid sphere

r

or,

4 r

4 r

1

r 3

3 2

3 8

6

or,

or,

Volume of hemisphere

2r 6

4

2r

3r 2h

8r 3

3

2

3

2

3h

3

8r

2

h

4

r

1

Now, we have to find,

3

Volume of sphere

2

3r 2h

or,

Ratio = 4 : 1

12.

3r 2h

2

R3

But it is given that R = 2r

or,

2rh

4R 2

r h

3

4

2

3

R

3

rh

22r 2

h

4 1

8r

8 2

K KUNDAN

Exercise5

1.

will be the circle inscribed in a face of the

cube and its height will be equal to an edge of

the cube.

2.

circular cylinder and cone respectively. Then,

22

6 6 10 cm3

V1 =

7

2

[Using V1 = r h ]

1 22

6 6 10 cm3

and, V2 =

3 7

1 2

Using : V2 3 r h

1 22

22

6 6 10

6 6 10 cm3

=

3 7

7

9

cm

2

[ edge = 9 cm]

1 2

r h

3

1 22 9 9

2673

9 cm3 =

=

cm3

14

3 7 2 2

= 190.93 cm 3

22

2

cm3

6 6 10

7

3

= 754.28 cm 3.

Let r be the radius of the hemisphere and h

be the height of the conical part of the toy.

Th en ,

r = OA = 3 cm

h = 4 cm

=

3.

22

1

6 6 10 1 cm3

7

3

635

=

42 32 =

16 9 =

h2 r 2

22 3.5 3.5

22 3.5

3.7 cm 2

2

cm2 +

7

2

2

2

25 = 5 cm

22 3.5

7

2

11

3.5 3.7 cm2 = 39.6 cm2 (approx.)

2

Total surface area to be polished = Curved

surface area of cylinder + curved surface area

of the hemisphere = 2rh + 2r2

[Curved surface area of cylinder = 2rh;

Where r and h are radius and height of the

cylinder respectively.]

Curved surface area of the hemisphere = 2r2

where r is the radius of the hemisphere]

=

5.

22

330

3 5

=

cm2

7

7

2

Curved surface area of hemisphere = 2r

22

396

3 3

= 2

cm2

7

7

Total curved surface area of toy

330 396 330 396 726

=

cm2

7

7

7

7

Cost of painting an area of 100 cm2 = Rs 7.

= 2

22

21 40 21

7

K KUNDAN

Cost of painting an area of

4.

A = 2r(r + h)

726

cm2

7

22

21 61 8052 cm2

= 2

7

726 7

Rs 7.26

=

7 100

Total surface area of the top

= Curved surface area of hemisphere +

Curved surface area of cone

Now, the curved surface area of hemisphere

Cost of polishing 8052 cm2 area

10 8052

= Rs 80.52

1000

Radius of hemisphere = Radius of cylinder

= Radius of cone = 3.5 cm

Height of cylinder (H) = 6 cm

Height of cone (h) = {15.5 (6 + 3.5) =} 6 cm

= Rs

1

4r 2 2r 2

=

2

6.

22 3.5 3.5

cm2

= 2

7

2

2

= Height of the top Height (radius) of the

hemispherical part

Volume of toy =

3.5

cm = 3.25 cm.

= 5

2

10

1000

2 3

1

r r 2H r 2h

3

3

h

2 2

= r r H

3

3

r2 h2

22

6

2

3.5 3.5 3.5 6

7

3

3

3.5

2

2

22 3.5

3.7 cm2

=

2

7

7.

31

7

= 38.5 8 38.5

3

3

Diameter of bigger sphere = Diagonal of bigger

cube = 500 3 cm

636

Concept of Arithmetic

Side of cube =

500 3

3

= 500 cm

22

1430

5 13

=

m2

7

7

Total surface area of the tent

= Lateral surface area of cylindrical portion

+ Lateral surface area of conical portion

Diameter of smaller sphere = 500 cm

Diameter of smaller sphere

= Diagonal of smaller cube = 500 cm

Side of smaller cube =

500

3

= 220

7

7

500 3

cm

3

2970

m2

7

Cost of 1 m2 canvassing = Rs 7.70

500

500 3

3

27

3 3

9

3

2970

7.70

7

= Rs 3267.

Let r cm and h cm be the radius and the height

of the solid toy.

Cost of 2970 m2 canvassing =

9 3

3 3

3

9.

Ratio = 3 3 : 1

8.

K KUNDAN

From the question,

2r

1

h

4

h

8

From the figure, r + h + r = 35

or, r

Height of the cylindrical portion, h = 7 m

Height of the conical portion H = Height of

the tent height of the cylindrical portion

H = (19 7) m = 12 m

Lateral surface area of cylindrical portion

= 2rh or dh

or, l

52 122

or, l 25 144

or, l =

169 = 13 m

h 2

35

8

or, h

h

35

4

5h

35

4

or, h = 28 cm

or,

22

10 7 220 sq m

=

7

or, h

r 2 H2

h 28 7

cm

8

8

2

Volume of the solid toy

= volume of cylinder + 2(volume of hemisphere)

or, r

2

= r h

4 3

r

3

637

4 22 7 7 7

22 7 7

28

cm3

=

3 7 2 22

7 2 2

= (1078 + 282.32 =) 1360.32 cm3

Total surface area of the solid

= curved surface area of cylinder + surface area

of the sphere

= 2rh 4r 2 2r (r 2h )

22 7 7

56

= 2

7 2 2

1309 cm2

= (6 5 5 =) 150 cm2

Note that the part of the cube where the

hemisphere is attached is not included in

the surface area.

So, the surface area of the block

= Total surface area of cube Base area of

the hemisphere + Curved surface area of

the hemisphere

= 150 r 2 2r 2 = (150 2r 2 ) cm2

22 4.2 4.2

cm2

= 150 cm2 +

2

2

7

= (150 + 13.86) cm2 = 163.86 cm2

11. Denote radius of cone by r, slant height of

cone by l, height of cone by h, r adius of

cylinder by r and height of cylinder by h .

common r adius of the cylinder and

hemisphere. Then the total surface area of

the bird bath

= Curved Surface area of cylinder + Curved

surface area of hemisphere

2

= 2rh 2r 2r (h r )

22

30 (145 30) cm2

7

= 33000 cm2 = 3.3 m2

13. The volume of the air inside the shed (when

three are no people or machinery) is given by

the volume of air inside the cuboid and inside

the half cylinder, taken together. Now, the

length, breadth and height of the cuboid are

15 m, 7 m and 8 m respectively.

Also, the diameter of the half cylinder is 7 m

and its height is 15 m.

So, the required volume

= 2

1

Volume of the

2

cylinder

1 22 7 7

15 m3

= 15 7 8

2 7 2 2

= 1128.75 m 3

Next , t he t ot al space occupied by t he

machinery

= 300 m3

And the total space occupied by the workers

= 20 0.08 m3 = 1.6 m3

Therefore, the volume of the air, when there

are machinery and workers

= {1128.75 (300.00 + 1.60)} m3

= 827.15 m 3

14. Since the inner diameter of the glass = 5 cm

and height = 10 cm

K KUNDAN

Then, r = 2.5 cm, h = 6 cm, r = 1.5 cm

h = (26 6 =) 20 cm

2

2

r 2 h 2 = 2.5 6 6.5 cm

and l =

resting on the base of the cylinder, but the

base of the cone is larger than the base of the

cylinder. So, a part of the base of the cone (a

ring) is to be painted.

So, the area of the painted orange

= Curved Surface area + Base area of the

cone Base area of the cylinder

2

2

= rl r (r )

= (3.14 2.5 2.5 10) cm3

= 196.25 cm 3

But the acutal capacity of the glass is less by

the volume of the hemisphere at the base of

the glass.

=

=

Now,

=

63.585 cm 2

the area to be painted yellow

Curved Surface area of the cylinder + Area

of one base of the cylinder

= 2r h (r )2

=

=

=

=

r (2h r )

(3.14 1.5) (2 20 + 1.5) cm2

(4.71 41.5) cm2

195.465 cm 2

ie, it is less by

2 3

r

3

3

= 32.71 cm 3

So the actual capacity of the glass

= Apparent capacity of glass Volume of

the hemisphere

= (196.25 32.71) cm3

= 163.54 cm 3

638

Concept of Arithmetic

Exercise6

1.

The volume of cube

= Volume of spherical balls

The volume of cube = Number of balls Volume

of 1 spherical ball

or, Number of balls =

2.

4.

16

8 cm

Radius of cylinder =

2

Height of cylinder = 2 cm

Volume of cylinder = r 2h (8)2 2 cm 3

Volume of cube

Volume of one ball

circular cone, then

height of the cone = (3 2 =) 6 cm

Let r1 cm be the radius of cone. Then volume

22 22 22

4 22

13

3 7

1

r12 h1

3

Volume of both must be the same

of cone =

22 22 22 3 7

=

4 22 1

= 2541

The volume of metallic sphere

Diameter of cylinder = 16 cm

r 6

ie (8)2 2

4 22

3 7

or, 6 (8)2

1

r12 6

3

2

1

or, r1 = 8 cm

Curved surface area of the cone

1 22

.1 .1 L cm 3

The volume of wire =

3 7

cases.

= r1l r1 h 2 r12

= 3.14 8 36 64 = 3.14 8 100

1 22

4 22

.1 .1 L =

3 7

3 7

= 3.14 8 10

= 251.20 cm 2

K KUNDAN

4 1.5 1.5 1.5

.1 .1

L = 1350 cm = 13.5 m

Let the total number of balls be x.

Volume of the solid sphere

or, L =

3.

5.

4 3

r

3

Since, the volume of clay in the form of the

cone and the sphere remains the same, we

have

its volume is

4 3 4

r 33 cm3 = 36 cm3

3

3

0.6

cm

2

= 0.3 cm.

Volume of

=

a spherical ball =

4

(0.3)3 cm3

3

4

3

3

3

36

cm3 =

cm3

3

10 10 10

1000

36

x cm3

1000

Clearly, volume of the solid sphere = Volume

of x spherical balls.

Volume of x spherical balls =

36

x

1000

or, x = 1000

Hence, 1000 spherical balls are obtained by

melting the given solid sphere.

or, 36

Volume of cone = 6 6 24 cm 3

3

6.

4

1

r 3 6 6 24

3

3

or, r3 = 3 3 24 = 33 23

r = 3 2 = 6

Therefore, the radius of the sphere is 6 cm.

The volume of water in the overhead tank

equals the volume of the water removed from

the sump.

Now, the volume of water in overhead tank

(cylinder)

2

= r h = (3.14 0.6 0.6 0.95) m3

The volume of water in the sump when full

= l b h = (1.57 1.44 0.95) m3

The volume of water left in the sump after

filling the tank

= {[(1.571.440.95) (3.140.60.60.95)} m3

= (1.57 0.6 0.6 0.95 2) m3

639

So, the height of the water left in the sump

99

1000 litres

=

28

=

l b

99000

litres

=

28

m

=

1.57 1.44

= 0.475 m = 45.7 cm

Since,

Capacity of tank

Also, Capacity of sump

second.

99000

litres of water will be emptied in

28

=

1.57 1.44 0.95

2

Therefore, the capacity of the tank is half the

capacity of the sump.

9.

7.

25

7

1

The volume of the rod = 8 cm 3

2

= 2 cm3

The length of the new wire of the same volume

= 18 m = 1800 cm

If r is the radius (in cm) of cross-section of

the wire,

its volume = r 2 1800 cm3

7

99000

25

28

Let the height of the cone be h cm.

Now, according to the question, since volume

of the cone is equal to the volume of the solid

cylinder.

1 2

r h r 2 3

3

h = 3 3 = 9 cm

10. Volume of the cylinder = r2h = (8)2 2

= 128 cm3 and

1 2

r 6

3

Since, according to the question, volume of

the cone is equal to the volume of cylinder.

Therefore, r 2 1800 2

K KUNDAN

or, r2 =

1

900

1

30

So, the diameter of the cross-section ie the

or, r =

1

cm ie 0.67 mm

15

1 2

r 6 128

3

or, r2 = 64

or, r =

64 = 8 cm

(approx.).

8.

3

m

2

3

99 3

2 22 3

m

m3 =

14

3 7 2

1 99 3

m

=

2 14

62 8 2 = 10 cm

= 3.14 8 10 = 251.2 cm2

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