You are on page 1of 5

Fatima Sadiq

Body Paragraph 1

Packet #1: STALIN

Assertion 1 Idea: The Rise of Stalin
Question 1: What was the state of Russia prior to Stalin coming to power?
EV: Write your quotation here - make sure that you write as much as possible - more is better.
Make sure that you copy the information word for word!
Peasant farmers complained about the economic gulf between themselves and the
landowners, who kept most of the crop money. The peasants regarded anyone who did not
work as a parasite, and they threatened a violent peasants’ revolt unless the landowners
handed the land over to them. The czar of Russia, Nicholas II, a member of the ruling
Romanov family, autocratically ruled the nation. He rejected the peasants’ demands and
threatened violence of his own if their protests persisted. Many students, Stalin included,
supported the peasants, while the priests supported the czar. (pg. 18-19)
Since April 1917, the Bolsheviks had repeatedly declared that the Revolution, the hostilities
followed by a democratic peace, and proletarian revolution in all of Europe, were inseparable
aspects of a sole process. It is therefore no coincidence that the first decision of the new
government of soldiers, workers, and peasants in the area of foreign affairs was to declare
peace on October 26, 1917.
bolshevik rev 1912
Source #: 1, 7
Citation: James Barter, pg 18-19, Antonella Salomoni
Question 2: How did Stalin move up through the ranks of the communist party?
EV: Write your quotation here - make sure that you write as much as possible - more is better.
Make sure that you copy the information word for word!
The meeting with Lenin in Finland was Stalin’s first of many strategic stepping-stones to
assuming absolute authority over the Soviet Union. Stalin arrived filled with high expectations
for making his mark on the party. The meeting would introduce Stalin to the major figures in
the party he would work with a variety of tasks as he rose from a minor participant to a major
party force and finally to the supreme leader of the Soviet Union.
Source #: 1
Citation: James Barter, pg #
Question 3: How did Stalin solidify power and ultimately become dictator? (if you don’t know
what solidify means, google it)

EV: Write your quotation here - make sure that you write as much as possible - more is better.
Make sure that you copy the information word for word!
Following the death of Vladimir Lenin in 1924, he successfully maneuvered to defeat Leon
Trotsky in a leadership struggle
After Lenin’s stroke, Stalin gained greater control over the government. By the time Lenin
died, Stalin was the undisputed master of the Soviet Union. Stalin consolidated his power by
murdering or secretly discrediting his rivals so that there was no one who could challenge his
authority. Stalin proceeded to dismantle the NEP and eliminate his opposition. He ordered a
series of purges from the late 1920s through the 1930s that resulted in the deaths of as many

as a million Soviet citizens (some ten million were arrested). Opponents of the regime were
often sent to labor camps (known as gulags) in remote areas such as Siberia. The survival
rates in gulags were very low.
Stalin also embarked on a forced collectivization project that abolished the remaining private
farms in the Soviet Union. This created a new wave of famine and some five to six million
Soviets died.
Source #: 4,
Citation: AUTHOR, PG #31
Body Paragraph 2:
Assertion 2 Idea: Stalin’s maintenance of power
Question 1: How did Stalin improve/take steps to improve the economy?
EV:
Write your quotation here - make sure that you write as much as possible - more is better.
Make sure that you copy the information word for word!
Soon after assuming power, Stalin replaced Lenin's New Economic Policy (NEP) of the 1920s, which
allowed for some privatization, with Communist Party guided Five-Year Plans in 1928 and he
implemented collective farming at roughly the same time, which resulted in millions dying of hunger in
the 1930s. Nevertheless, the Soviet Union made significant progress from its former status as a
predominantly peasant society to the status of a major world power by the end of the 1930s.

Source #: 4
Citation: AUTHOR, PG #
Question 2: How did Stalin use his military to maintain control/expand his reign? (if you
don’t know what reign means, google it)

EV: Write your quotation here - make sure that you write as much as possible - more is
better. Make sure that you copy the information word for word!
However, he ruled by terror, and millions of his own citizens died during his brutal reign.
Joseph Stalin did not mellow with age: He prosecuted a reign of terror, purges, executions,
exiles to labor camps and persecution in the postwar USSR, suppressing all dissent and
anything that smacked of foreign–especially Western–influence.
Stalin's control over Russia meant that freedom was the one thing that people lost. The
people of Russia had to read what the state allowed, see what the state allowed and listen
to what the state allowed. The state’s control of the media was total. Those who attempted
to listen, read etc. anything else were severely punished. Everybody knew of the labor
camps and that was enough of a deterrent.
Source #: 5, 11
Citation: AUTHOR, PG #
Question 3: How did Stalin maintain control over the people?
EV: Write your quotation here - make sure that you write as much as possible - more is
better. Make sure that you copy the information word for word!

However, he ruled by terror, and millions of his own citizens died during his brutal reign.
Joseph Stalin did not mellow with age: He prosecuted a reign of terror, purges, executions,
exiles to labor camps and persecution in the postwar USSR, suppressing all dissent and
anything that smacked of foreign–especially Western–influence.
Stalin's control over Russia meant that freedom was the one thing that people lost. The
people of Russia had to read what the state allowed, see what the state allowed and listen
to what the state allowed. The state’s control of the media was total. Those who attempted
to listen, read etc. anything else were severely punished. Everybody knew of the labor
camps and that was enough of a deterrent.
Source #: 5, 11
Citation: AUTHOR, PG #
Question 4: How did Stalin manipulate the people to maintain his control?
EV: Write your quotation here - make sure that you write as much as possible - more is
better. Make sure that you copy the information word for word!
However, he ruled by terror, and millions of his own citizens died during his brutal reign.
Joseph Stalin did not mellow with age: He prosecuted a reign of terror, purges, executions,
exiles to labor camps and persecution in the postwar USSR, suppressing all dissent and
anything that smacked of foreign–especially Western–influence.
Stalin's control over Russia meant that freedom was the one thing that people lost. The
people of Russia had to read what the state allowed, see what the state allowed and listen
to what the state allowed. The state’s control of the media was total. Those who attempted
to listen, read etc. anything else were severely punished. Everybody knew of the labor
camps and that was enough of a deterrent.
Source #: 5, 11
Citation: AUTHOR, PG #
Body Paragraph 3:
Assertion 1 Idea: Stalin’s involvement in WWII
Question 1: Who did Stalin ally himself with at the beginning of WWII? Why?
EV: Write your quotation here - make sure that you write as much as possible - more is better.
`Make sure that you copy the information word for word!
Stalin’s relationship with his wartime Allies – Britain and America – was dominated by two issues
which were to cause almost endless conflict. One was the question of the ‘second front’ – by
which Stalin meant the invasion of France via D Day – and the next was the thorny subject of the
post-war boundaries of the Soviet Union, and the extent to which the Soviets could influence or
control the border states nearby.

Source #: 6
Citation: AUTHOR, PG #
Question 2: Who did Stalin ally himself with later on in WWII? Why?

EV: Write your quotation here - make sure that you write as much as possible - more is better.
Make sure that you copy the information word for word!
On August 23, 1939, Hitler and Soviet leader Joseph Stalin signed a surprising treaty of
nonaggression; an invasion of Poland seemed likely. Great Britain and France, uniting as the core
“Allied” powers, promised retribution.
On September 17, the Soviet Union invaded eastern Poland, revealing that the Soviets and
Germans had agreed to partition the country in their pact.
One advantage of Germany waging war against the Soviet Union had been a new cooperation
between Allied and Soviet forces. However, the relationship became strained. Stalin intended to
keep control of Soviet-occupied Poland and was interested in other German-held territories as
well. The Allies wished to stop the spread of Communism, yet needed the strength of the Soviet
Red Army. On November 1943, Churchill, Roosevelt, and Stalin met in Cairo, Egypt. It was
decided that Eisenhower would take Allied forces into France while The Soviet Red Army would
simultaneously attack the German Eastern Front.
The progress of the Soviet armies on the Eastern Front made it imperative for the Allies to come
to terms with Stalin about the fate of the Eastern Europe.
Source #: 9
Citation: William L. Hosch, pgs 9-10, 12, 14
Question 3: How did the nation’s involvement in WWII Stalin affect the country as a whole?
EV: Write your quotation here - make sure that you write as much as possible - more is better.
Make sure that you copy the information word for word!

Reconstruction Years
Although the Soviet Union was victorious in World War II, its economy had been devastated in the
struggle. Roughly a quarter of the country's capital resources had been destroyed, and industrial
and agricultural output in 1945 fell far short of prewar levels. To help rebuild the country, the
Soviet government obtained limited credits from Britain and Sweden but refused economic
assistance proposed by the United States under the Marshall Plan. Instead, the Soviet Union
compelled Soviet-occupied Eastern Europe to supply machinery and raw materials. Germany and
former Nazi satellites (including Finland) made reparations to the Soviet Union. The Soviet people
bore much of the cost of rebuilding because the reconstruction program emphasized heavy
industry while neglecting agriculture and consumer goods. By the time of Stalin's death in 1953,
steel production was twice its 1940 level, but the production of many consumer goods and
foodstuffs was lower than it had been in the late 1920s.
During the postwar reconstruction period, Stalin tightened domestic controls, justifying the
repression by playing up the threat of war with the West. Many repatriated Soviet citizens who
had lived abroad during the war, whether as prisoners of war, forced laborers, or defectors, were
executed or sent to prison camps. The limited freedoms granted in wartime to the church and to
collective farmers were revoked. The party tightened its admission standards and purged many
who had become party members during the war.
In 1946 Andrei Zhdanov, a close associate of Stalin, helped launch an ideological campaign
designed to demonstrate the superiority of socialism over capitalism in all fields. This campaign,
colloquially known as the Zhdanovshchina ("era of Zhdanov"), attacked writers, composers,
economists, historians, and scientists whose work allegedly manifested Western influence.
Although Zhdanov died in 1948, the cultural purge continued for several years afterward, stifling
Soviet intellectual development. Another campaign, related to the Zhdanovshchina, lauded the
real or purported achievements of past and present Russian inventors and scientists. In this

intellectual climate, the genetic theories of biologist Trofim D. Lysenko, which were supposedly
derived from Marxist principles but lacked scientific bases, were imposed upon Soviet science to
the detriment of research and agricultural development. The anti-cosmopolitan trends of these
years adversely affected Jewish cultural and scientific figures in particular. In general, a
pronounced sense of Russian nationalism, as opposed to socialist consciousness, pervaded
Soviet society.
Source #: 10
Citation: AUTHOR, PG #