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You are on page 1of 14

**the Expanded Form of a Decimal.
**

Given a decimal

5.8147

place value is 1

1

placevalueis

10000

1

placevalueis

1000

1

placevalueis

100

1

placevalueis

10

**Place Values in a Decimal and
**

the Expanded Form of a Decimal.

Given a decimal

5.8147

We can therefore rewrite it in an expanded form

8

1

4

7

5

10 100 1000 10000

which can then be converted to a mixed number

8147

5

10000

Comparing Decimals

Research shows that most students believe that

0.287 is bigger than 0.35

because

a) 0.287 has more digits than 0.35

b) 0.287 is read as “two hundred eighty seven thousandths” which

sounds larger than “thirty five hundredths”, particularly when

they are not familiar with the fact than “one thousandth” is

really smaller than “one hundredth”.

Comparing Decimals

Research shows that most students believe that

0.287 is bigger than 0.35

because

a) 0.287 has more digits than 0.35

b) 0.287 is read as “two hundred eighty seven thousandths” which

sounds larger than “thirty five hundredths”, particularly when

they are not familiar with the fact than “one thousandth” is

really smaller than “one hundredth”.

Ordering Decimals

Given two decimals, how do we determine quickly which one is larger?

The method is rather easy to learn from just a few examples.

Example

Which one is larger, 6.724 or 6.72189 ?

Solution

We first put one of them above the other such that the decimal points are

lined up.

Ordering Decimals

Given two decimals, how do we determine quickly which one is larger?

The method is rather easy to learn from just a few examples.

Example

Which one is larger, 6.724 or 6.72189 ?

Solution

We first put one of them above the other such that the decimal points are

lined up.

In this column, the two digits are also equal, so we

have to keep moving to the right until we can find a

column that has two different digits.

6.724

6.72189

**Now we see that the upper digit in the highlighted
**

column is larger, there for the corresponding

number (i.e. the upper one) is larger than the lower

one.

**Addition and Subtraction of Decimals
**

These two operations are respectively similar to the addition and

subtraction of whole numbers, except that the numbers are aligned by

the decimal points rather than the last digits (counting from the left).

Example

34.16

+ 2.3096

──────

Incorrect

34.16

+ 2.3096

───────

Correct,

and we have to treat any

empty space as a 0.

**Multiplying or Dividing Decimals by Powers of 10
**

Multiplying a decimal by 10n is the same as moving the decimal point

to the right n places, adding place holders if necessary.

eg. 3.7615 × 103 = 3 7 6 1 5

**Multiplying or Dividing Decimals by Powers of 10
**

Multiplying a decimal by 10n is the same as moving the decimal point

to the right n places, adding place holders if necessary.

**eg. 3.7615 × 103 = 3761.5
**

eg. 743.28 × 105 = 74328000.

Dividing a decimal by 10n is the same as moving the decimal point to

the left n places, adding place holders if necessary.

**eg. 743.28 ÷ 102 = 7.4328
**

eg. 3.7615 ÷ 103 = 0.0037615

Multiplication of Decimals

There are two ways to carry out this operation,

(I) Converting the decimals to fractions

Example:

0.65 × 2.417

417

2

100 1000

65

65

2417

100 1000

65 2417

100 1000

157105

100,000

= 1.57105

**(II) Ignore the decimal points first and multiply the two numbers
**

as if they were whole numbers. In the end we insert the

decimal point back to the answer in the proper position.

Example:

0.65 × 2.417 can be first treated as 65 × 2417 = 157105,

the decimal point is then re-inserted to the product such that

“the number of decimal places in the answer is equal to the sum

of the number of decimal places in the multiplicands.”

In this particular case, 0.65 has two decimal places and 2.417 has

three decimal places. Hence their product should have 5 decimal

places, and this means that

0.65 × 2.417 = 1.57105

Division of Decimals

The process of long division is similar to that of dividing whole

numbers with some modifications.

Example: 2.556 ÷ 1.2

12 2 55 6

**Step 1. Move the decimal point in the divisor to
**

the right until it becomes a whole

number.

Step 2. Move the decimal point in the dividend

to the right by the same amount.

Step 3. Put a decimal point above that one in the

dividend. (click)

Division of Decimals

The process of long division is similar to that of dividing whole

numbers with some modifications.

Example: 2.556 ÷ 1.2

213

12 2 55 6

-24

15

-12

36

-36

0

**Step 2. Move the decimal point in the dividend
**

to the right by the same amount.

Step 3. Put a decimal point above that one in the

dividend.

Step 4. Divide as if we are dividing whole

numbers.

Therefore 2.556 ÷ 1.2 = 2.13

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