"Do you believe that societies ought to enforce capital punishment or Are there alternative forms of punishment that would

be better used?" Capital punishment is the killing of a criminal for a crime that he has committed. Previously most countries employed this method of punishment but nowadays it is much less widely used. I personally do not believe that societies today should use capital punishment and I also believe that there are alternative punishments that can be used. My main argument against capital punishment is that I believe we do not have the right to kill another human being regardless of the crime. I don't believe in the old religious maxim of "an eye for an eye." Modern societies shouldn't turn to such barbaric punishments. Another argument against capital punishment is that people can be wrongly convicted and executed. If a man is in prison, he can be released if later proved not guilty. If he is dead, there is nothing that can be done. In the UK, a group of supposed terrorists were convicted of murder in Birmingham in the 1970s. They were proved innocent about 15 years later and released. If they had been executed, innocent people would have died. There are alternative punishments available. For bad crimes prison life sentences can be given with criminals imprisoned for the rest of their lives. Also a lot of horrific crimes are committed by people who are mentally sick. These people are not responsible for their actions and can be kept safely and permanently in secure hospitals. Yes, this costs a lot more but I believe it is the duty of society to do this. There are arguments for capital punishment. Many people feel its threat stops serious crime and that criminals deserve nothing less. It's cheaper and keeps the prisons manageable. I can understand this point of view but I cannot agree with it. So, in conclusion, I don't believe in capital punishment, as there are less barbaric alternatives available. We can avoid horrific mistakes and make modern society a humane one.

Some people say that advertising encourages us to buy things that we really do not need. Others say that advertisements tell us about new products that may improve our lives. Which viewpoint do you agree with? Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience. Write at least 250 words.

model answer: The purpose of advertising is to tell the consumer about any new product or service or any new promotion on the existing product and service. We need it so we can make good decisions when we go shopping. Advertising tells us when new and improved products become available and lets us know which ones have the best price. Through advertising we learn about new products. For example, many grocery stores now sell prepackaged lunches. These are very convenient for busy parents. They can give these lunches to their children to take to school. Busy parents don’t have time to look at every item on the store shelf, so without advertising they might not know about such a convenient new product. Even products we are familiar with may be improved, and advertising lets us know about this. Most people use cell phones, but new types of cell phone service become available all the time. There are different plans that give you more hours to talk on the phone, you can send text messages and photos, and next week probably some even newer type of service will be available. By watching advertisements on TV it is easy to find out about new improvements to all kinds of products. Advertisements keep us informed about prices. Prices change all the time, but everyone can look at the ads in the newspaper and see what the latest prices are. Advertisements also inform us about sales. In fact, some people buy the newspaper only in order to check the prices and plan their weekly shopping. Advertisements improve our lives by keeping us informed about the latest products developments and the best prices. Advertisements serve a useful purpose.

Universities should accept equal numbers of men and women in every subject. To what extent do you agree with this statement? You should write at least 250 words. Gender issues have been increasing in importance through the centuries. In almost every sphere of human activity, there has been a movement towards greater equality between men and women. Although I agree that universities should open their doors to all students alike, in my view, they need not set a fixed limit on the number of men and women they accept in each subject. The bases for my views are psychological and personal. Psychologically-speaking, men and women are simply different, though they have the same potential for greatness. For example, women tend to be more intuitive, sensitive to others and caring. This means they may feel drawn, on the basis of their personalities, to certain kinds of professions such as teaching, nursing, or psychology, even if all fields are

open to them. In such a context, it is best for universities to choose the best applicants, regardless of gender. Personally, students need to discover their true calling. This is an individual matter and is not influenced by the universities reserving seats for men or women. For example, if the majority of women shy away from math or engineering, perhaps it has to do with their upbringing, which has influenced their interests. The universities will not be able to reverse this trend, though they should always look out for the most qualified candidates. In conclusion, equality cannot be forced upon people – not in the area of education, employment or family life. Equality is about having choices and those who prove themselves capable will qualify for university, regardless of gender. It is only right that universities reflect and respect these free and natural choices being exercised by their students. (277 words)

In some countries, young people are encouraged to work or travel for a year between finishing high school and starting university studies. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages for young people who decide to do this. Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience. Write at least 250 words. Taking a “gap year” off between high school and university has become a popular option among many young people. This time off provides a break after many years of formal study. Some students use this time to travel around the world, others volunteer and still others begin working. The idea behind each of these activities is to do something handson and refreshing, which enables young people to learn more about themselves and their place in the world around them. The benefits of taking a year off are plentiful. On a personal level, students who travel away from home develop their independence and self-confidence. On a cultural level, they learn about viewpoints, traditions and perspectives different from their own. Professionally, students get a taste of diverse workplaces, which might inspire a possible career interest. Intellectually, they examine their own beliefs and ideas in relation to those of others in a new environment. All these advantages combine to make a strong case for taking the one-year break. Nevertheless, there are also dangers involved in taking such a long break. Academically, the main drawback is that students can get sidetracked from their studies. A year is a long time and students could lose the good study habits and sense of discipline they had when

they were in a formal academic structure. If they begin working, they could also be deluded into thinking that they’re making a lot of money. They could lose the benefit of college or university education and the chance to earn a higher income all their lives. In conclusion, whether to take a year-long break or not is an individual decision. Each young person should consider his or her motivations carefully and decide on what’s most desirable. Time is a precious resource and people of all ages, including young people, should treat it with respect. Successful sports professionals can earn a great deal more money than people in other important professions. Some people think this is fully justified while others think it is unfair. Discuss both these views and give your opinion. Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience. Write at least 250 words. The world of sports is a multimillion dollar industry. Around the globe, people flock to sporting events or watch their favourite teams faithfully each week on television. As a result, professional sports athletes receive huge salaries – well above, for example, those of doctors, lawyers, teachers or social workers. There is some debate about whether such outrageously high salaries are justified. On the one hand, sport is viewed as a professional career, in which the top players should rightly earn high salaries. Athletes train rigorously from an early age to become peak performers in their field. They face tremendous pressure in each and every game, match or competition. Their personal lives are compromised and they lose all privacy. At the same time, their strong achievements bring honour and attention, not only to themselves, but also to their teams, schools, cities or countries. On the other hand, various professions contribute to making our world run smoothly. Doctors put in at least ten years of grueling study and internship; their work saves lives. Teachers educate and inspire young people to be responsible citizens: their efforts produce the citizens of tomorrow. Social workers rescue individuals facing physical, mental and psychological challenges: their intervention creates safer societies. Yet, professionals in the fields above usually struggle to get by, despite their meaningful and critical contribution to the world. In my view, paying enormous salaries to sportspeople is unnecessary. We need to reconsider our social priorities and eliminate the great disparity in income received by diverse professionals. By doing so, we can build societies in which each one feels valued, appreciated and appropriately compensated for their own vocation or specialization. (273 words)

Using a computer every day can have more negative than positive effects on children. Do you agree or disagree? Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience. In today’s modern world, computers are an essential part of everyday life. Around the globe, children often use computers from a very young age. Although it is important for children to participate in various well-balanced activities, in my opinion, children who use the computer daily are actually developing a critical skill for future success. The bases for my views are personal, academic, and professional. From a personal point of view, computers are an invaluable resource to help young people explore the world around them. For example, children who use Internet to satisfy their curiosity about diverse topics are already becoming independent learners. No child with a computer is ever bored! By starting early in their lives, children feel totally at ease around computers; they are also able to take advantage of the wide range of services computers provide. From an academic viewpoint, children have no choice but to master this technological invention. For instance, when I was in university, students brought their laptops to class to take notes, do research and exchange information. They wrote assignments, created presentations and developed databases. Children who build early confidence and experience in these abilities are at a distinct advantage over those who have not. From a professional perspective, the computer has found a permanent place in the workplace. Today, employers still pay to provide computer training to their employees. Tomorrow, corporations will expect prospective job applicants to already possess these critical job skills. Consequently, parents who encourage their child to use the computer for a reasonable period of time daily are in fact investing in the child’s future career. In conclusion, there is no doubt that the computer as a technological tool is here to stay. The sooner children become computer-literate, the better for many aspects of their future lives.

Children and internet I tend to agree that young children can be negatively affected by too much time spent on the computer every day. This is partly because sitting in front of a screen for too long can be damaging to both the eyes and the physical posture of a young child, regardless of what they are using the computer for.

However, the main concern is about the type of computer activities that attract children. These are often electronic games that tend to be very intense and rather violent. The player is usually the ‘hero’ of the game and too much exposure can encourage children to be self-centred and insensitive to others. Even when children use a computer for other purposes, such as getting information or emailing friends, it is no substitute for human interaction. Spending time with other children and sharing nonvirtual experiences is an important part of a child's development that cannot be provided by a computer. In spite of this, the obvious benefits of computer skills for young children cannot be denied. Their adult world will be changing constantly in terms of technology and the Internet is the key to all the knowledge and information available in the world today. Therefore it is important that children learn at an early age to use the equipment enthusiastically and with confidence as they will need these skills throughout their studies and working lives. I think the main point is to make sure that young children do not overuse computers. Parents must ensure that their children learn to enjoy other kinds of activity and not simply sit at home, learning to live in a virtual world. 1. Most high level jobs are done by men. Should the government encourage a certain percentage of these jobs to be reserved for women 2. Are famous people treated unfairly by the media ? Should they be given more privacy, or is the price of their fame an invasion into their private lives? 3. Should developing countries concentrate on Improving industrial skills or should they promote education first? 4. Safety standards are important when building people's homes. Who should be responsible for enforcing strict building codes - the government or the people who build the homes? 5. Does modern technology make life more convenient, or was life better when technology was simpler? 6. In your opinion what factors contribute to a good movie? 7. Does modern technology make life more convenient, or was life better when technology was simpler? 8. Does travel help to promote understanding and communication between countries? 9. If children behave badly ,should their parents accept responsibility and also be punished?

10. What should a government do for a country to become successful? 11. Should sports classes be sacrificed in High School so students can concentrate on Academic subjects? 12. Nowadays doctors can become very rich. Maybe they should not focus on profitable activities such as plastic surgery or looking after rich patients and concentrate more on patients health, no matter how rich they are? 13. Will modern technology, such as the internet ever replace the book or the written word as the main source of information? 14. Discuss the advantage and disadvantage of giving international Aid to poor countries. 15. Should criminals be punished with lengthy jail terms or re-educated and rehabituated, using community service programs for instance, before being reintroduced to society. 16. Computers can translate all kinds of languages well so our children don't need to learn more languages in the future?  PARENTS & CHILDREN Children should never be educated at home by their parents. Do you agree or disagree? Children learn best by observing behavior of adults and copying it. To what extent do you agree or disagree with this statement? To what extent has the traditional male role changed in the last 20 years? Many people believe that women make better parents than men and that this is why they have the greater role in raising children in most societies. Others claim that men are just as good as women at parenting Write an essay expressing your point of view. Give reasons for your answer.

EDUCATION Education is the single most important factor in the development of a country. Do you agree? What are factors which are related to academic success in high-school students?

Do the benefits of study abroad justify the difficulties? What advice would you offer to a prospective student? The idea of going overseas for university study is an exciting prospect for many people. But while it may offer some advantages, it is probably better to stay home because of the difficulties a student inevitably encounters living and studying in a different culture. To what extent do you agree or disagree this statement? Give reasons for your answer. Education is recognized as vital to the future of any society in today's world. Governments throughout the world should make education compulsory for all children between the ages of 5 and 15. To what extent do you agree or disagree with this statement? Foreign language instruction should begin in kindergarten. Discuss. Should sports classes be sacrificed in High School so students can concentrate on academic subjects? Education is the single most important factor in the development of a country. Do you agree? What are factors which are related to academic success in high-school students? Do the benefits of study abroad justify the difficulties? What advice would you offer to a prospective student? The idea of going overseas for university study is an exciting prospect for many people. But while it may offer some advantages, it is probably better to stay home because of the difficulties a student inevitably encounters living and studying in a different culture. To what extent do you agree or disagree with this statement? Give reasons for your answer. Education is recognized as vital to the future of any society in today's world. Governments throughout the world should make education compulsory for all children between the ages of 5 and 15. To what extent do you agree or disagree with this statement? To what extent should universities function as training grounds for employment? To what extent should university courses be geared to the economic needs of society? Should children be taught sex education in schools? Computers can translate all kinds of languages well. Do our children need to learn more languages in the future? Are zoos necessary for education?

ENVIRONMENT & ECOLOGY To what extent should economic planning be influenced by the need of environmental conservation? Damage of the environment is an inevitable consequence of worldwide improvements in the standard of living. Discuss. The rising levels of congestion and air pollution found in most of the world cities can be attributed directly to the rapidly increasing number of private cars in use. In order to reverse this decline in the quality of life in cities, attempts must be made to encourage people to use their cars less and public transport more. Discuss possible ways to encourage the use of public transport.

TECHNOLOGY Does modern technology make life more convenient, or was life better when technology was simpler? Will modern technology, such as the internet ever replace the book or the written word as the main source of information? We are becoming increasingly dependent on computers. They are used in businesses, hospitals, crime detection and even to fly planes. What things will they be used for in future?.Is this dependence on computers a good thing or should we be more suspicious of their benefits?Use specific details and examples in your answer. In what ways has information technology changed work and working practices in the past 10 years? Technology is making communication easier in today's world, but at the expense of personal contact as many people choose to work at home in front of a computer screen. What dangers are there for a society which depends on computer screens rather than faceto-face contact for its main means of communication? Will the Internet bring people of the world closer together? The first car appeared on British roads in 1888. By the year 2000 there may be as many as 29 million vehicles on British roads. Alternative forms of transport should be encouraged and international laws introduced to control car ownership and use. What do you think?

The mass media, including TV, radio and newspapers, have great influence in shaping people's ideas. To what extent do you agree or disagree this statement? Give reasons for your answer. MODERN SOCIETY Nowadays doctors can become very rich. Maybe they should not focus on profitable activities such as plastic surgery or looking after rich patients and concentrate more on patients health, no matter how rich they are? Does travel help to promote understanding and communication between countries? In your opinion what factors contribute to a good movie? Are famous people treated unfairly by the media ? Should they be given more privacy, or is the price of their fame an invasion into their private lives? Is animal testing necessary? Some businesses now say that no one can smoke cigarettes in any of their offices. Some governments have banned smoking in all public places. Do you agree or disagree? Give reasons. To what extent is the use of animals in scientific research acceptable? Human beings do not need to eat meat in order to maintain good health because they can get all their food needs from meatless products and meatless substances. A vegetarian diet is as healthy as a diet containing meat. Argue for or against the opinion above. Forests are the lungs of the earth. Destruction of the world's forests amounts to death of the world we currently know. To what extent do you agree or disagree? Are our zoos cruel to wild animals? Discuss. Zoos are sometimes seen as necessary but not poor alternatives to a natural environment. Discuss some of the arguments for and/or against keeping animals in zoos. To what extent will migration from the developing world to the developed world become a social and political issue in the 21st century? In Britain, when someone gets old, they often go to live in a home with other old people where there are nurses to look after them. Sometimes the government has to pay for this care. Who should be responsible for our old people? Give reasons. The first car appeared on British roads in 1888. By the year 2000 there may be as many as 29 million vehicles on British roads. Alternative forms of transport should be

encouraged and international laws introduced to control car ownership and use. What do you think? The best way to reduce the number of traffic accidents is to make all young drivers complete a safe driving education course before being licensed to drive. News editors decide what to broadcast on TV and what to print in newspapers. What factors do you think influence their decisions? Have we become used to bad news? Would it be better if more good news was reported? TV: could you be without it? Discuss. To what extent will migration from the developing world to the developed world become a social and political issue in the 21st century? The mass media, including TV, radio and newspapers, have great influence in shaping people's ideas. To what extent do you agree or disagree with this statement? Give reasons for your answer. Tourism is becoming increasingly important as a source of revenue to many countries but its disadvantages should not be overlooked. What are some of the problems of tourism? The mass media, including TV, radio and newspapers, have great influence in shaping people's ideas. To what extent do you agree or disagree this statement? Give reasons for your answer GOVERNMENT Should wealthy nations be required to share their wealth among poorer nations by providing such things as food and education? Or is it the responsibility of the governments of poorer nations to look after their citizens themselves? What should a government do for a country to become successful? Should money be spent on space exploration? Should rich countries forgive all debts for poor countries? Does foreign aid help donor countries more than the recipients? Should rich countries pay more for environmental damage? Most high level jobs are done by men. Should the government encourage a certain percentage of these jobs to be reserved for women? Should developing countries concentrate on improving industrial skills or should they promote education first?

Safety standards are important when building people's homes. Who should be responsible for enforcing strict building codes - the government or the people who build the homes? Discuss the advantage and disadvantage of giving international aid to poor countries. Should criminals be punished with lengthy jail terms or re-educated and rehabilitated using community service programs for instance, before being reintroduced to society? In most countries disabled people are not catered for adequately, e.g. buildings are often inappropriately designed. Governments rely too heavily on charities and voluntary organizations to provide assistance and funding. What further measures could be taken to assist disabled people? In your opinion should government intervene in the rights of the individual with regard to family planning? The best way to reduce the number of traffic accidents is to make all young drivers complete a safe driving education course before being licensed to drive.

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