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G Neiders Dissertation 23009-2

G Neiders Dissertation 23009-2

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Theoretical Development Of A Proposed Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy Based Model To Treat Persons With Chronic Perseverative Stuttering Syndrome
Theoretical Development Of A Proposed Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy Based Model To Treat Persons With Chronic Perseverative Stuttering Syndrome

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Published by: epictetus55 on Feb 13, 2010
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04/23/2013

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Overview of Definition

The dissertator proposes an operational definition of CPSS that includes six parts:

1) the directly or indirectly observable part which involves speech producing muscles; 2)

the directly or indirectly observable part which involves muscles that serve no purpose in

producing speech; 3) distortions of speech; 4) the avoidance mechanisms which for the

most part cannot be readily recorded with audio or video equipment; 5) the emotions and

cognitions that interfere with self-correction of speech and the enjoyment of life; and 6)

the vocational and avocational choices that prevent a person from leading a truly self-

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actualizing and creative life. The dissertator has adapted terminology to better describe

each of these categories.

Visible and Audible Speech Producing Muscle Anomalies

Repetitions

As the common usage of the word indicates these consist of repetition of a whole

word, a syllable, or a sound. The repetitions are involuntary, voiced or unvoiced, and

sometimes co-occur with struggle or other symptoms.

Blocks

Blocks are a stoppage of the forward movement of speech. Like repetitions, they

are involuntary, can be voiced or unvoiced, and sometimes co-occur with struggle or

other symptoms. Voiced blocks are sometimes referred to in the literature as

prolongations.

Contrasted to Normal Speakers

These Stuttering-Like Disfluencies (SLDs) occur not only in stuttered speech, but

also in normal speech in adults, teenagers, and especially in children who are learning

how to speak. The differences are usually in frequency, duration,emotionality and

struggle associated with them.

Visible and Audible Non-Speech Producing Muscle Anomalies

Stuttering is frequently accompanied by various superfluous or struggling

behaviors that do not serve any superficially obvious, useful function in speech

production. To the stutterer, secondary symptoms feel automatic, i.e. involuntary. Indeed,

at the moment of stuttering they are involuntary. The automaticity and involuntariness

will be discussed later.

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Eye Blinks

This is one of the most common secondary symptoms that accompany the act of

speaking.

Averting Eye Contact

During a stutter the speaker averts his or her gaze from the person or persons he

or she is talking to. He or she does not look the other person(s) in the eyes as other

speakers in Western cultures customarily do. At the moment of stuttering this is

involuntary.

Snapping of Fingers

This can be done by either or both hands.

Swinging of Hands

Again this can be done by either or both hands.

Twitching or Tensing Various Facial Muscles

These can resemble the facial tics or be more pronounced and widespread.

Jerking of the Whole Head

This can be quite severe.

Tapping of a Foot

The speaker may tap either of the feet.

Swinging Back and Forth

The speaker may rhythmically sway back and forth or perform more jerking,

swaying motions.

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Idiosyncratic Tensing, Twitching or Moving Other Muscles

There are many other ways that muscles may be tensed, twitched or moved,

muscles that in normal people are not involved in forming speech.

Distortions of Speech

There are a number of ways in which speech can be distorted that a trained

listener can spot. Not all of these distortions are associated only with persons who stutter;

some of them can also be perceived in persons who talk when they are under stress. Some

of these may be involuntary; others may start out as a voluntary mechanism to avoid

stuttering or even as part of stuttering therapy.

Rate of Speech

The stutterer usually has a slower rate of speaking.

Tone

A person who stutters frequently speaks in a shriller or higher pitch when talking

to other people than when he is by himself. Or on the other hand, he or she adapts a much

lower pitch of voice to relax the speech-producing muscles.

Sing-Song Voice

Some stutterers talk in a sing-song voice. This is usually the result of outmoded

therapy.

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