Paleolithic Period Provenance—the documented history when something is found (documentation of the origin of a piece of art) Carbon 14 Dating—using the decay of the Carbon 14 isotope to date and object (the organic object is incinerated and the carbon is measured—the more the carbon, the younger) the amount of carbon released when something is burned Lascaux Cave Paintings, France, 15,000 - 13,000 B.C. This is the earliest known images painted by man. These people lived a nomadic life (at the whim of nature), and this might have been an attempt to gain some king of control or possession over nature. This is revolutionary thinking—a step in the development of man. It is amazingly sensitive—can tell the difference between all the animals. It is not as naïve as one could expect. These people are making their own natural paints and using reads to brush or blow the paint on the wall. They are truly trying to create depth and realism in the painting. It was discovered on an estate in 1876. It was a naturally sealed cave—the discoveries were in doubt for a long time afterwards. They have been sealed from the public because they have started to deteriorate now that the hermetic sealing is broken. The elements are causing a slow degeneration. They are in southern France. There are more paintings in the crevices of the caves. Archaeologists believe that no people lived in the caves—it was not painted as decoration. These paintings were definitely not made for others to see. They seem to be made for a religious purpose. Seems like there was only one artist per generation (dedicated to one honored personage—shaman). The animals are painted on top of each other—as if they painted more just when they felt the need to have more. Faith is the most common motivator behind early art (trying to control nature because these people were at the mercy of nature). Seem to be made to influence the power of nature—control the hunt. When humans are depicted in early cave paintings they are not realistic—stick figures (the animals are made to


look real). This seems to show a lack of self-esteem. The animals are the powerful creatures in the world. Altamira Cave Painting of a Bison, Spain, 15,000 - 13,000 B.C.

This is in Northern Spain. These locations are very close to each other. Some of the oldest artwork discovered in the same region. They are more delicate because they airbrush). They are thought to be about the same age as the other cave paintings. The artist seems to be motivated by the same thing. Venus of Willendorf, Austria, 28,000 - 23,000 B.C. •

are painted on smoother walls. The artist is spraying the paint through reeds (like an

Austria is not that far from Spain and France also. She is fettish size—she is small and portable (about 3” tall), it is also associated with religion or good luck. It implies that she is a precious object that the tribe would carry with them.

• • • •

There was no Venus in this time—it is a purposeful misnomer (she would probably be a goddess of beauty, love, and fertility of the Paleolithic period) Willendorf is the place she was found. She looks healthy or pregnant already (birthing parts are accented). She barely has arms, face or feet. She is sculpted out of stone with stone. There is no metal at this time. One would need a softer type of rock and a harder, sharper rock. They have mad rock seems fleshy. It shows a sensitive and intelligent side to Paleolithic man.

She is a sculpture-in-the-round. This is sculpted from all sides. She is the oldest known example of sculpture-in-the-round. She is an example of an ancient belief in The Great Goddess. She represents earth, fertility, and regeneration. She can also be violent (fertility in war and death). Every ancient culture before writing and civilization seems to have


worshiped a Great Goddess. The female deity was above any male god (if they even had a male god). They were matriarchal. With cultures that learn to write, the shift from matriarchy to patriarchy happens with the development of writing. • She is not the only Paleolithic Great Goddess found.

Mesolithic Period Marching Warriors, (ritual dance?), Spain, 7000 - 4000 B.C. • • • • period.

This is the middle period between the oldest period and the newer oldest This is a transitional period of human development. They are moving from a nomadic lifestyle to a better lifestyle in settlements. These people are gaining more skill in their artwork because they are gaining more time to learn the skills. There is greater importance in the portrayal of the human figure. They are becoming a little more significant and sensitive. These figures are more substantial than the tick figures of the Paleolithic period.

There seems to be a greater awareness of humanity’s importance.

Neolithic Period Stonehenge, Wiltshire, England, c. 2000 B.C. • • • No one knows the purpose of Stonehenge. There is only speculation. Stonehenge is speculated to be a way to tell time (an astronomical clock that marks the seasons). This is the most popular theory. The creators of Stonehenge are called the New Farmers. This is because they have newly discovered the skill of farming. This could be a planting calendar because the ability to get the best out of a harvest is very important. • It used to be a complete circle of trilothons (the two posts and a lintel). Inside the circle was a horseshoe shape of trilothons.


At the rising of the sun at the summer solstice, the sun would be perfectly centered at the opening of the horseshoe. At the winter solstice, the setting sun would be exactly at the peak of the solstice.

• •

This gives the new farmers a guide to where they are in the calendar year. This helps them know when the optimal time for planting is. They would have worshipped nature elements—sun and harvest. Art at this the harvest, they would have worshipped nature gods.

time is almost always motivated by faith. Knowing their survival depended on • The stones are not from the area Stonehenge is in. It is a mystery of how they quarried the stones. There is a theory that they found boulders from the rivers and beat trenches around the size stone they would want.

The outer circle has the largest stones—they about 13’6” (only the part above the ground). The largest stones of Stonehenge weigh up to 50 tons. The stones were carried from about 24 miles away in Wales.

Cromlech- It is a Neolithic period, circular shaped structure. The structure of Stonehenge is not uncommon—it is a sacred shape. Before Stonehenge, there were woodhenges made in this style. At one time, Stonehenge would have been a woodhenge, and the Neolithic people converted it to stone around 2000 B.C.

• • • •

The circle is a sacred sign of femininity. This requires an act of faith because it took about 500 years. This is a great commitment. It could have been some kind of fortress—there is a ditch around the outside and there were weapons and bones found over the years. The barrow around it dates back to around 3000 B.C. They had to be drug over water from Wales without wheels or any sophisticated materials. The smaller stones were dragged from about 200 miles away in a perfectly straight line. This all implies surveying skills because a straight line is hard to do.


• •

The first academians that studied Stonehenge, who were British, speculated that the Druids built Stonehenge. This doesn’t work in the timeline. There is a theory that the Mycenaeans built Stonehenge because there was a study that showed that the posts are built like legos. There was a doubleheaded ax engraved on the stone—only the Mycenaeans used the doubleheaded axes. The dates don’t work.

Arial view of Stonehenge Dolmen and Menhir • • • • B.C. • •

Thought to be a burial marker of an important person in the earlier age. Megalithic structures—made out of large stones Menhir—like an Egyptian obelisk but is less crude (one perfectly straight stone perfectly balanced on another stone No one knows the function of the menhir

Great stone tower built into the settlement wall (two views), Jericho, c. 8000-7000 First people that went through epochal mutation (relatively sudden advancement of an uncivilized society into a civilized society) Relatively sudden in reference to the evolution of humanity (usually about 300 years) o Formal religion, alphabet, government, schooling, agriculture, permanent housing, civic services, cities • Biblical Jericho that the Jews inhabited (only ruins now) this city goes back to 8,00 B.C. and grows to be a very large settlement in about a thousand years (10 acres and 2,000 people) • • Jericho had a self-sustaining water system which is why it grew so much (the well with the spring is at the city) The Jericho wall is the first structure made out of stone (all the other things are o Happens in Jericho when not happening anywhere else yet


made from mud brick) it was very impressive and revolutionary

The wall was 5’ thick and 13’ high (sunk in the ground like Stonehenge was— made like masonry) There was a ditch around the outside to help protect it and make the wall look larger The ditch is a rock-cut ditch (permanent and lined with rock) Only primitive stone tools were still in use at this time The rounded parts are towers (used as storage towers for grain as well as lookout points—advanced that they had storage rooms) The people of Jericho stockpiled food (had permanent water so stored food as well)

• • • • •

Ruins of the Wall of Jericho, c. 8000 B.C. Human skull, Jericho, c. 7000-6000 B.C., plaster and shell inlay over human skull • • • • • • An attempt to recreate a human likeness (natural portraiture) After it was plastered it was painted to look like a man (even had a mustache) It seems to be a tradition (there were multiple ones found) There seems to be no reason for this Under the houses of Jericho there were burial shrines for relatives (plaster floors and walls) They are ornamented with Great Goddess statues and figures of animals that were symbols for fertility (bulls with bull horns) (also skeletons from animals with male associations) • • • It could have been a type of ancestor portrait It is an attempt at a natural looking portrait (shells for the eyes) There is no other culture doing this

_____________________________________________________________________ _________ Schematic reconstruction plan of Catal Huyuk c. 6000-5900 B.C.

7 •

Newer, more irrational, and bigger than Jericho (32 acres and 1 acre has been excavated) is in Turkey The population was much greater Sprang up as a center of trade (obsidian—breaks into sharps pieces that make good cutting tools) Catal Huyuk is wall less (they didn’t need walls because the walls would be shared between houses—there were no roads except for the roofs)

• •

Seated goddess from Catal Huyuk, c. 5900 B.C., painted terra cotta • • • • • • • • • • • • She looks a lot like the Venus of Willendorf There have been ones from 2 to 10 inches tall. Some were actually made in the action of giving birth These people starting to smelt copper (6000 B.C.) it is abandoned around 5600 B.C. Easter Island as a more recent Neolithic culture: Did not realize that anyone else in the world existed because of their isolation These people thought they were the only humans in existence Lived completely interdependent and without the influence of other cultures The people populated the Island as early as 700 A.D. The population reached more than 12,000 people (when the community thriving there was efficiency) Name of the statues literally translates into the Living Face of Our Ancestors Weigh up to 60 tons and they were moved on log sledges (no hardwood trees so it was easy to deplete the trees) No one knows for sure how they arrived on Easter Island (have Polynesian DNA and some Polynesian characteristics in their coking/lifestyles) it is hard to believe that they got there on the crude Polynesian canoes • 1722—the discovery of Easter Island (a Dutch ship needed to sop for water and Not reason for abandonment


sopped there by chance) o The Easter Islanders think that the Dutch are gods—hadn’t ever seen ships, armor, or a lot of facial hair o Had a first peaceful meeting, but after they were documented on a map there were other visitors (were given diseases, women were abused, and they were being sold into slavery) beach • • •

o One time, the sailors got scared and massacred a greeting party on the The Easter Islanders started to distrust the white man (we no longer have a source to tell us why these statues were obsessively created) They are made from pumice—lighter than the stones at Stonehenge, but still very big and impressive The faces are all turned toward the inner island Later the statues began to be placed near their homes (status symbol = bigger and bigger statues) • •

The eyes have inset corneas—white and look omniscient (made from different stone and are even painted) Statues-making became a hundred year span of obsession Problem- the making of the statues caused a fatal deforestation (completely upset the balance of the islands and destroyed the food chains) Needed trees to move the statues, so there were not many trees left after a while because they had made so many statues They have to fish, but soon there is not enough fish to sustain the population Starvation sets in—lived so simply and they think they are the favored of the gods and then find out the island is “betraying” them (felt betrayed by gods— the statues might have been gods or ancestors)

• • •

These people had to resort to cannibalism to survive (huge shame and scar upon their culture)


• • • •

Victorian women was the only white person that they came to trust (she lived with them and learned their culture) the water When everything turned bad, the statues along the coastline were pushed into Rapanui—the name for Easter Islander Elected a king for a year (the Bird Man) o Compete in a triathlon type contest o Grab a bird egg and stop from breaking the egg o His job was to select who they ate next (usually old people and sickly o Completely robbed them of their pride children)

Easter Island Statues, Easter Island in the Pacific about 2000 miles west of Chile, c. 1200-1400 A.D.

• • • • • • • • • •

Mesopotamia (Modern Syria and Iraq along the Euphrates River)
Most of the are is modern-day Iraq Referred to as the Fertile Crescent (between Tigris and Euphrates) Ziggurat is usually at the center/most religious part of the city. Very dry area of the world (only have rain sometimes once a year) Becomes a very coveted area of land because the rivers give a constant supply of water (also they flood and give fertile soil) Built irrigation ditches and terracing (shaping platforms along the elevated land) This is the “cradle of civilization” Jericho is the early precursor to the development of the Fertile Crescent The Fertile Crescent has individual city-states rules by their own kings No universal governing system (each city also developed their own gods and


goddesses) (the nature goddesses are losing importance and war gods are becoming important) (probably because of the invention of writing) • • • are in charge of death/war and fertility) It is the female role to preside at both birth and death (the fertile goddesses The role of a male shaman isn’t made until the advent of writing In the earliest phases of each city-state there is always a Great Goddess at the center (each state named their goddesses differently)

Ziggurat—temple base dedicated to the Great Goddesses (at first) (the temple is at the top level) (would help people to reach to the gods) have to be a high priest or king to be able to climb the levels

• • • •

The Ziggurat is made to elevate the temple to bring the temple closer to the heavens (would be the house of the god/goddess) There becomes a status symbol associated to the ziggurats The ziggurats were built from mud bricks (not as sturdy as stone, but takes thousands of years to disintegrate) Usually stucco (plaster) and paint over the mud brick

Map of the Fertile Crescent _____________________________________________________________________ _________ Reconstruction Drawing of the White Temple at Uruk • • • Common plan for a ziggurat The custom of only the highest priests/priestesses being bale to see the temple is passed to the Egyptians Aerial view of the White Temple at Uruk, Sumerian (ancient Mesopotamian), 3200 3000 B.C. • Turkey and the Middle East are almost completely unexcavated (do not trust other government and are too poor) The indication of a ziggurat site is a hill in the middle of the flat plains


• • •

First culture that tries to change the natural terrain This temple was whitewashed white (still some parts that are white) Can still see a little of the stair-stepping shape of the ziggurat

View from the ground level of the White Temple at Uruk

_____________________________________________________________________ _________ • • • • Statuettes from the Abu Temple, Tell Asmar, (Iraq), 2700 - 2600 B.C. Put in the Ziggurat to give offerings to the He is not a Great Goddess (he is a male vegetation god) He is so divine that he is portrayed as omnipotent with the huge eyes The beard becomes an eastern tradition (square-like and representing power/authority) _____________________________________________________________________ _________ Soundbox of a harp, Ur, c. 2600 B.C. • • • • • • • • Sophisticated object—a musical instrument It is precious because it is made with precious/semi-precious materials (gold, lapis lazuli, inlaid shells) Has a bulls-head in the front (he has the beard of divinity/power Attribute animals with human characteristic Some of the animals are polymorphic (multiple animals put into one animal or human and animal mixes) The Egyptians borrow a lot of these traits later on There are only polymorphic animals on divine things Creating super-beings from the best parts of animals and humans mixed together Detail: Bull's head from the soundbox

Detail: Head of the god Abu, Tell Asmar, 2700-2600 B.C.


_____________________________________________________________________ _________ Statue of Seated Gudea, Mesopotamia, c. 2100 B.C., (see similar Gudea in book) • • • • • • • • • • • • • King of a city-state and also the highest religious figure in the city-state He has an especially pious reputation (he is known very well for being holy) His statues always have cuneiform text telling of his greatness (he has had multiple statues made) Stone is not indigenous so this stone would have to have been important Diorite (basalt)—a very hard type of stone, he wanted to be remembered for centuries (probably traded from Egypt) It is a type of propaganda—he wants to be remembered and thought of in his lifetime as a holy man and ruler It looks like he is praying, but really a ploy to make the statue as stable as possible He is seated—dictated by the material (the stone is so hard that it is easier to go with the shape of the stone that is inherent already) He still has really large eyes—to show his wisdom He is spreading his control and power through multiple city-states by spreading these statues of reminders of his power Gudea reestablishes Sumerian control (for generations there was more control in invaders) He reestablishes order after the ruling of mountain invaders About 20 of these statues have been found placed in temples

Babylonia (Iraq)
• • •

Stele of Hammurabi, Babylon, c. 1780 B.C. The Code of Hammurabi The first known written laws He wants to establish these laws beyond one city-state


• • • • • • •

Stele- monument or tablet usually commemorating an event or a ruler (might or might not have writing on it) Very harsh laws (an eye for an eye) He is ruling of a greater region of the Fertile Crescent Most of the people couldn’t read though It is a historical document and a first in history

Closeup of the relief carving at the top of the Stele of Hammurabi Represents Hammurabi conversing with a god (shamash) Shamash is the one sitting down— o Has a beard o Sitting on a throne o Has an amazing crown made from multiple bull horns o Bestowing something on Hammurabi • • • • The hat of Hammurabi looks like Gudea’s hat (trying to surpass even Gudea’s reputation) Hammurabi elevates his status by showing himself conversing with a god (he is ruling by divine authority) This would speak volumes to the illiterate (the majority of people at this time) Without Hammurabi, the people would be nothing because he is the mediator between the gods and the people

o He is bigger than Hammurabi

This starts a trend in history of stating the divine ordination Strong government over a group of cities—attempt to dispel confusion about the laws

_____________________________________________________________________ _________ Lion Gate , Anatolia (Turkey), c. 1400 B.C., Hittite Construction • Very worn down (gate missing lintel, lions not intimidating)


• • • • • • • •

Once an impresses fortress with this as the primary entrance Built by the Hittites (great warriors that raided Mesopotamia) Hammurabi’s former kingdom is damaged and weakened The kingdom is now vulnerable to other invaders It is important that they seem very impressive Massive masonry

Hittites are an early culture—they are establishing customs that the Assyrians (who take over Mesopotamia) adopted 1365 Assyrians take control

Winged Human-Headed Bull, (Lamassu) c. 720 B.C., Assyrian from the citadel of Sargon II, Khorsbad, (13" 10' high) • • • • • Assyrians like Hittites are fierce warriors and they want land acquisition (conquer Babylonia and extend the kingdom) They had very successful chariot battles (Egyptians adopt this) They take over all of the Fertile Crescent and make the biggest empire to this date (from the Nile to Turkey) Made from slid sandstone Lamassu—sometimes the bodies are not really bull bodies because they don’t have hooves, they have fierce lion clawed paws

Extra leg—would be seen from the front or the side (would want all the legs from each view) They have the head of a king, the beard of a king, and the wings are his celestial powers Bull body—the power of life, cap—like the bull horn crown of shamash (divine rule) Would be at the entrance of a royal compound to impress foreign dignities and ambassadors

• • •

Ashurnasirpal II at war, relief from the palace of Ashurnasirpal II, Nimrud, c. 875 B.C.,


Limestone, approx. 39” high • • Bring a different type of animal imagery (Assyrian influence) killing them) The lion becomes the king of beasts at this time (only the kings are worthy of

Head of a Ruler, c. 800 B.C., Assyrian • • • Obviously important because of the beard The head of some Assyrians ruler The eyes are empty (other material to give the eyes realism

Neo Babylonian (Assyrian domination dissolves – Nebuchadnezzar II rules)
• • • • • • • • • • • • • Nebuchadnezzar decides to create a new Golden Age Wants to build the Fertile Crescent to be strong Nebuchadnezzar ordered the Tower of Babel (a ziggurat dedicated to the fertility goddess Bel) The worshipers would “babble” in their worship at the foot of the tower In the tower it topples because it seemed to be an egotistical creation He is also famous for the hanging gardens of Babylon (one of the seven wonders of the ancient world) Had terraces and irrigation to water this wonderfully green palace Nebuchadnezzar famous for this and the other gates into Babylon Has been moved, brick by brick to the Berlin Museum Is a glazed brick (bricks made from clay and have a second firing to make the blue glaze) The glaze will not age for eternity There is a sacred goat and dragons (mythical, sacred animals) and lions Crenellation—to protect the archers on the top of the battlements (but these are Ishtar Gate (two photos), Babylon, 575 B.C.


also just to look beautiful) • • The bodies of the animals are slightly 3-d (they are in relief) they make the bricks bigger and textured an architectural arch) 575 B.C • • • • • • This is an example of one of the first true arches (oldest surviving example of

Detail of Lion, (baked bricks) from the processional way to the temple complex, c.

Persia (Iran: Biblical name is Elam)

In the northern part of the Fertile Crescent to begin with Several generations of kings that make the Persian Empire--- this then becomes the largest empire to date It becomes a rich empire (army, textiles, and trade) peace among the people It was wealthy and mighty Two major power-bases in Persia—Persepolis and a site in the south A time when Persia was governed by wise rulers that bragged about bringing

Aerial view of the Audience Hall of the Palace of Darius and Xerxes, Persepolis, c. 500 B.C. • • A palace that housed the generation of kings that helped the empire grow Alexander the great ordered the destruction of Persepolis (unusual because Alexander usually liked to preserve the cities and let the people keep their legacies)

Audience hall = the hall of a hundred columns (they are missing their ornamental capitals) each capital has a different styled animal at the top (they weren’t like the Greeks—the capitals were not uniform)

• •

The Persians betrayed Darius because Alexander was getting very angry (Alexander was outraged, and he gave the king a decent burial) It had a very immense treasury


Entrance and stairway to the Audience Hall of the palace Detail of relief sculpture near the entrance to the palace. • • • • • • • Shows the importance of Darius It is the picture of the dignitaries from other lands (they came to him) The kings from other lands are in deference to the Persian king One of the treasures that Alexander brought from Persepolis Made from solid gold It has the head of a lion—kingly and strong This is an example of the treasure that funded Alexander’s army

Gold Drinking Horn, 5th c. B.C.

Map of the Conquests of Alexander the Great Portrait bust of Alexander the Great

Often depicted with a romantic tilt to his head He is revered as a pharaoh/god These are like the talents that are from Persepolis He depicts himself as a sun god

• • •

Gold coins stamped to commemorate Alexander the Great

• • • • • •

Cycladic Art (from the Cyclades Islands in the Mediterranean. See map p.
Cyclades—there is a group of tiny islands Islands are said to be the defeated and torn apart body of a giant The Cycladic people are great seafarers These people thrived around 2700-2500 B.C. Cycladic Idols—something that they were almost obsessed about Cycladic Islanders are thought to have been overpowered by the Mycenaeans


Map of the ancient Aegean (Locate the Cyclades Islands, Mycenae, and Crete.) Cycladic Idol, 2500 - 2300 B.C., from the Cyclades • • • • • • formed into shapes) Made from many materials—ivory, wood, clay (anything available that could be Found in burial sites and this was a great tradition of these people They are always female Remained matriarchal (speculated that it was because they died out before the switch to patriarchy could happen) Very distinctive Facial features are not important—like Venus of Willendorf, the arms are unimportant Another Cycladic idol with a woman posed beside it to show scale. These idols range from fetish size to about four feet high. • • • • • • • • • Lyre Player, 2700-2500 B.C., from the Cycladic Island of Keros In burial sites, there are many Cycladic idols and they are all very similar In the more elaborate sites, there are sets of musician idols These are thought to be a part of the funeral processions This is male, he would be in the act of playing He is sitting in a chair The female idols are always just there as if to say “worship me” The male idols are always made being in action—in subservient roles This supports the supposition of matriarchy Minoans flourished in Crete (Cnossus) or Thera (Santorini) Santorini was in a crescent shape and in ancient time there was an island in the muffle of the crescent shape which was the tip of a volcano (thought at first that they only lived on Crete) Sculpture in the round, but the backs are very minimal

Minoan Art (from the island of Crete)


• • • • • •

There is a bay and there is an active volcano under the water—why the crescent is greater now—the volcano blew it out Santorini—the perfect place for a harbor Minoans were a people very focused on the enjoyment of life were not really focused on defense)

They were sea people and traders (their ships were their defense systems— Minos—demanded very grand tribute of 7 Greek youths and maidens to be sacrificed to the Minotaur (son of the queen and a white bull) Zeus—seduced Europa in the form of a white bull and carries her to Crete to protect her from Hera (Minos is a title—the first minos is the son of Zeus and Europa)

• •

Bull imagery = very entwined in the Minoans legends Seems to be a female element to their deities (the snake goddess) Tidal wave from the destruction (volcanic eruption) of Santorini went straight for Crete to hurt the Minoan culture (find pumas on the coast of Crete and even to the coast of Egypt)

Minoan life on Santorini is destroyed and the Minoan life on Crete is mortally damaged (destroyed their boats which was their main protection against enemies)

• • • • • •

Beaked Jug, Crete, c. 1800 B.C. Pottery holds the traditions of cultures Looks like a bird This is typical of Minoan craftwork (look to nature to ornament their surroundings—walls and pottery) Pottery—throw away when broken and does not decay (can see the layers of different styles of pottery) Can see the history of a culture

They are overpowered by the Mycenaeans who are very warlike people


• • • •

Potsherds—garbage dumps where shards of potteries are found (where art historians can find the phases of the culture that inhabited a place) and their artwork and their bathtubs) Early Minoan pottery decoration Derives the theme from nature (birds, plants, animals, fish) The ruins are very impressive—a lot of thins intact (can see the sewage system

_____________________________________________________________________ _________ Aerial view of the Palace of Knossos, Crete, c. 1700-1400 BC • • • • • • • • • • •

At least nine time the size of St. Agnes campus Has multiple levels (looks similar to the legendary labyrinth) The sacrificed youths might have been used to be trained in the acrobatic balancing on the backs of bulls (why would be young and healthy) Megaron—the central meeting place (like a courtyard) There are no hallways—it is very easy to get lost and confused This would have been shared with the community Has a theater with semi-inclined seats No corridors because it is built without a master-plan Would store food in long rooms throughout the palace Built on a hilltop (safer) Some parts have been redone Arthur Evans—British who had a fascination with this site (very wealthy) o Worked with the government to excavate Knossos

View of the ruins in the center of the Palace of Knossos complex

Spent most of his life excavating this site and putting a lot of money into it

o he is knighted and a well respected English man o Understood how parts of the palace would look


o He repainted and reconstructed parts of it o Experts today do not find fault with his technique (were built authentically) Close-up of a palace wall • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Built very solidly to hold up even under earthquakes Built to buffer quakes

Two views of the Minoan columns in a stairwell Supported by columns Skylight to bring light in Painting on the walls—original frescoes (painted on fresh plaster) (keeps the color maintained because it is ingrained in the plaster) Minoans made the first true frescoes (as far as historians know they invented the frescoes) Columns—smaller at the bottom (dimensions are reversed) Reason for column standard – following the standard that they followed when making columns out of wood rather than stone) If used trunk of tree for bottom it would try to re-root themselves (would invert to prevent this) Becomes a visual standard The capitals are big and pillow-y (Mycenaeans put this in their artwork to publicize their dominion over the Minoans) Reconstruction drawing of the Palace of Knossos Toreador Fresco from the palace at Knossos, c. 1450 BC Most famous of the Minoan frescoes (moved to a museum to protect it) Shows the acrobatic exercises of the Minoans Female acrobat = dressed fantastically and holding the bulls horns Would build bull-horn type crenellation everywhere Built for comfort, beauty, and pleasure


• • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Male – flipping over the bull The other female has just landed The stage of a bull-leaping / balancing act on the backs of bulls Very dangerous (might be how the minotaur myth evolved) The women always have lighter skin than the men entertainment) Do not know what this tradition is for (could be part of religious ritual or just Would be done in the Megaron for public viewing Looks as if the acrobats are trained (prompts bull-fighting) Fresco is cracking and has an interesting geometric border This is a historical documentation of the Minoan cultures Might be the source of the legend of the minotaur Would curls their hair Seems that the standard is the women being bare-breasted Fabulous amounts of jewelry One of many snake goddesses found o Some large o Some made of ivory and painted features, or clay o Some have leopard and some don’t o The snake holding is what makes this unique

Miscellaneous Minoan frescoes, c. 1500 B.C.

Snake Goddess from the Palace at Knossos, c. 1600 B.C.

• • • •

She is holding two snakes and there is a leopard on her headdress She might be a high priestess or she might be representative of a mother goddess The goddess theory – she is showing dominance over the two snakes (male fertility symbols) she also has a fierce creature upon her head This implies matriarchy


We probably won’t be able to ever find out the meaning of the statue or much of the Minoan culture, because we will probably never decipher the Minoan writing

She is dressed in the traditional garb of the Minoans (full skirt, bare breast, idealized bodies—very athletic and fit)

Mycenaean Art (from Mycenae on the Greek Mainland)
• • • • • • • • • • In an inlet on the Greek mainland (close to the coast) Greek culture)

Could make fortresses that no one could overpower (megalithic structures) Often referred to as the first real Greeks (they are very different from the Very good at sailing—they sailed very far (thought to have sailed as far away as England and they got Baltic amber somehow) They build fortresses that are on hills (less vulnerable) that could not be scaled or brought down The closer to the ground = more common people (at the top = temples and royal palaces) The citadel walls were closed when attacked and everyone would go inside the citadel to be safe Would be a natural wall on one side Two entrances into Mycenae o Main gate = lion gate o Another secret gateway Could have met up with traders in places or sailed all the way by themselves

Henrich Schliemano Excavator of Mycenae o About age 13/15 Henrich has to get a job (village supply store) o Very inspired by the Iliad and the Odyssey o He becomes an international trader


o He has four children and gets a divorce (was not a good mariage o Follows his childhood dreams

because he was never good enough in her eyes) Marries a Greek woman (they love each other and this helps him with his relations with the Greek government) supposed to be the city of Troy)

o He is an ameteur archeologist so he damages many artifacts (at what is • • Everyone know that Mycenae was there (1600 and 1100 B.C. is when mycenaeans at their greatest) Pisanius- 2nd century B.C. o Discovers that the architecture is cyclopian (built out of giant stones like o Cyclopian masonry—tones very large Lion Gate, from the entrance to the Acropolis at Mycenae, 1300 B.C. • • • • • • • Some of the stones that make this are 3-5 tons The lintel weighs 35 tons Ramps into the Mycenaean citadel (fort on a hill) Also referred to as the Mycenaean acropolis (city on a hill) Very guarded (very protective—they are in a life centered around war) Scared of someone attacking from vengeance Relieving stone—everything above the lintel is massive (in case the lintel collapses, there is a thin stone that is there to keep the support from crumbling) • • • The lions on either side of the doorway are missing their heads The columns that are with the lions are Minoan columns (symbol of Mycenaean control and conquest of the Minoans) After centuries of weather abuse, the mud bricks broke down and covered Mycenae a giant would have to have built them)


A Wall of the Acropolis of Mycenae with the gorge below, begun c.1600 B.C., Mycenae, Greece • • • The Royal Grave circle from the Acropolis of Mycenae Circular shape and a mass burial pit Dated as c. 1600 Grave circle A

o Had to be important (royal family, elite) o Would dig rectangular tunnel into the earth (about 20/30 feet) o The lowest level of the tunnel = oldest burial remains o Would be buried with material items o Grave circles are treasure troves (the richest excavation in Greek history in grave circle A)

• • • • •

Would have multiple bodies in one tunnel (would move the bones of ancestors to the side to make room for new body) Would start a new level when this level is all used up Royal Grave circle B One of the most famous finds = masks of Agamemnon (misnomer because is too old to be Agamemnon’s) He is romantic and so names things according to his whims

_____________________________________________________________________ _________ Entrance to the Treasury of Atreus, Mycenae, c. 1300 B.C. • This is a tholos tomb
o o

Made for only one king (and buried with many treasures) Round—king laid on a stone in the very center of the dome entranceway) (well-disguised under the dirt to discourage grave robbers)

o Would have been sealed after the burial of the king (dirt across o Shapes like a beehive and underground (top part visible)


o Made out of cyclopean masonry and impressive entry way

Henrich Schlieman

o Has a triangular completely open relieving area (lintel = 120 tons) o Excavated this site o Treasury of Atreus

o Discovered this tomb o Atreus—the Mycenaean kings for generations (agamemnon would be o Needed to hype up his discoveries because the government could pull • • Not a treasury (a tomb, there were others in the area, but htis is th ebiggest and it is not caved in) Grave robber bones were found in the tombs o Got into the tomb through a hole in the ceiling o Couldn’t get back up o Do not know the story of the grave robbers

one of this line) (romantic propaganda for his excavation site) his right to excavate

Most of the treasures in all the tholos tombs were looted before any of them were found

Inside the Treasury of Atreus Looking up at the corbelled dome of The Treasury of Atreus • Corbelled dome o First known dome ever built o Brutalesci’s dome is the next dome that will surpass this some (about • • • Corbelling (stones get closer and closer until they touch at the peak) The stability of the dome is dependant on the force between the stones and how they touch at the top Fully circular dome (would collapse if a center stones are moved) 200 years)


• • •

Around colonial times the robbers came in Corbel—very difficult It is 45 feet high

Schematic drawing of a Mycenaean tumulus or “beehive tomb” such as The Treasury of Atreus ______

_____________________________________________________________________ Funeral Mask, Mycenae, 1600 B.C. (made of beaten gold) Found in a grave circle (best example of the death masks that Henrich found) Affixed to the face of a dead king There is a lot of character to the face (curly, stylish mustache) o Eyes are closed like sleeping o Stylized ears o Looks like he is smiling o Very detailed (eyebrows and lids) • • Hammered in a very thin mask (aluminum foil comparison) Meant to be the face of a king in the afterlife • •

Vaphio Cup, (one of a pair), from Vaphio (found in a Mycenaean tomb), c. 1500 B.C., gold relief, approx. 3 ½” high. Is it Minoan, Mycenaean, or a Mycenaean copy of a Minoan cup? • • • • • A source of controversy Found in grave circle Would think that it came from somewhere else if not found in the grave circle Very reminiscent of the Minoan culture (could have been stolen or traded from the Minoans) Looks more detailed, sophisticated, and elaborate than other art by Mycenaeans Plan of the Citadel of Tiryns, 1400 - 1200 B.C.


Aerial view of the ruins at Tiryns Corbelled Gallery, Tiryns, 1400 - 1200 B.C. • • • • This is a corridor Using larger stones that needed (cyclopean)

Stucco over the stone and painted their walls Peaks at the top (corbel and stability in the peak)

• • • • • • • • • • •

Much of the culture based on death How death is handled especially with kings Prehistoric Egypt (no central government) there is an upper and lower Egypt Nile goes from South to North Upper is more south and Lower is more north Relatively unchanged for 3000 years (only once does it deviate and it is an anomaly) Obsessed wit immortality If the pharaoh is happy in the afterlife, their afterlife will be better There are levels of comfort in the afterlife Pharaohs = divine Egyptian Theology o Life is born from chaos (from chaos comes order) o Nile = giver of life and fertility

Sun = Ra, Horus, Atun (creator deity—gives life without a woman by contorting himself) falcon head with sun disk

o These gods have other domains of authority and their name changes with each domain

Isis = sister/wife of Osiris (fertility that brings rain) she is also the


goddess of the dead and rejuvenation

o Anubis = god of embalming (jackal head)

Osiris = god of mummification

Hathor = head looks like a moon (maybe bull horns) (may be from a matriarchal time) she sustains humanity

Egyptian Symbols  

o Scarab = dung beetle Believed that this beetle reminded them of Ra Lays his eggs and roll the eggs in dung (the ball would be bigger than the beetle and would remind them of Horus pushing the sun across the sky)   o Ankh

Think scarab is imitative of Ra They are good luck symbols and wrapped in mummification bandages Symbol of eternal life

o Cats = sacred o Hippos = sacred o Baboons = sacred

Old Kingdom
• • • •

Palette of King Narmer, Hierkonpolis, Upper Egypt, c.3000 B.C. King Narmer is credited with being the first pharaoh to unite upper and lower Egypt He creates on kingdom of Egypt through conquest Unifies to different bloodlines as well o Theory of Ms. Costa = mix of bloodlines is a prompt of epochal mutation Bragged over being all powerful, but unsure whether he claims divine right to rule


• • • • • •

They come up with theories over who fathered them and why they are gods Lineage of divine blood is important so they had much incest to make the children have a greater concentration of divinity Mix kohl with oil To make his eyeliner (men and women had many cosmetics) There is a well to hold the eyeliner that is being mixed Side without well o Narmer is subjugating his enemies o He is holding a scepter (scepter origin = club) o The enemies underneath have been crushed by Narmer’s power o There are symbols that show that Narmer has the approval of the gods (even though he doesn’t claim divinity)

Side with well o Pictographic writing
 

Communicated with pictures/symbols Is the beginnings of the hieroglyphs (sophisticated pictography) Shows us how hieroglyphs evolve from pictures Every picture is symbolic Crown = symbol of lower Egypt Cow-headed figure = hather (moon/cow headed goddess)

   

o Dawning of Egyptian attempt to write • • • • Commemorates the uniting of Upper and Lower Egypt Historical record (he is the first pharaoh, but he is not referred to as a pharaoh because the term is not yet invented) Step Pyramid of King Zoser, Saqqara, c.2650 B.C., Architect: Imhotep Another king (not pharaoh) Utilitarian object o Shows legions of enemy soldiers that have fallen under his power


• • • •

He wants to have the greatest burial site built for him in history This is the beginning of the step pyramid Egyptian burial site evolution Try to honor the king enough to give themselves a wonderful afterlife o Sand pit burial (dead are wrapped in linen and are buried in the hot o Bury the dead with mementos (throughout the evolution of Egyptian o Mustaba (looks like the beginning of a pyramid)    Made from mud brick This is the first burial architecture (only for royalty and nobility) Looks like a building with a door that one can enter, but is really filled with dirt and ruble inside (underground is the burial o Step(ped) pyramid   A bunch of stacked mustabas Underground burial chambers Would have false chambers to trick grave robbers Burial chamber within pyramid Would tunnel into the rocks in the Valley of the Kings Would be more private Would discourage and trick grave robbers Usually they are very secretive because one cannot tell the grave is there  Would seal the grave and would put rubble in front to make it look like natural rock deposits chamber) burial methods) sands to dehydrate the body naturally)

o Pyramid  

o Rock pit burials    


This example of step pyramid is especially important o Architect = advisor to king Zoser (vizier) = Imhotep (probably second in command to Zoser) o Imhotep = very wealthy and very intelligent

o He is the first architect known to us in history (got his own special burial) o It is the first monumental architecture made of stone  • Predates Stonehenge and Mycenae Annual Jubilee o Honor all the dead pharaohs o The gate is the entrance to a fake city o It is just built for the annual jubilee festival • Great Pyramids of Gizeh: (Menkaure c.2470 B.C),(c.Khafre 2500 B.C) and (c.Khufu 2530 B.C.)

402 ft. from bottom to top

Gizeh—greatest architecture ever built by Egyptians Pyramids named after the pharaohs that the pyramids were built for These are the Egyptian names (in the order of the slide picture) o Menkaure o Khafre (Largest) o Khufu

• • • • •

On the sunset side of the Nile because it is most holy (be by Ra when the sun sets) They are perfectly aligned with north It is the greatest achievement of the Old Kingdom One of the seven ancient wonders of the world Would have looked very different in ancient times

Were covered in white limestone (very slick)

o The limestone was stolen and is on modern architecture in Cairo


o They were smooth and basically perfect o The peak would have been rose granite (rumor that the very tip was pure gold) o Center pyramid was capped in granite o Quarry site across the Nile, some from the same area as the pyramids o Hauled across the Nile on barges and drug on sleds to the pyramids pyramid o Each pyramid took more or less 50 years o Must have been hundreds of thousands of workers on the pyramids o Maybe the pyramids on Mars relate to the pyramids of Gizeh (same formation and placement) o Pyramids made from concrete blocks maybe (a geologist analyzed the stone) • Pyramids are strictly an Old Kingdom event

Mystery of how pyramids constructed

o Would have been an inclined ramp (out of stone) that goes around the

Knew the pyramids were being looted (hieroglyphic records of trials of grave looters)

o Too expensive and labor intensive • The Great Sphinx, c.2530 B.C., Gizeh Closeup of the face of The Great Sphinx Egyptian Sculpture: Prince Rahotep and his wife Nofret, 2580 B.C., limestone Khafre, Gizeh, c. 2500 B.C., Diorite Close-up of Khafre Menkaure and His Queen, Gizeh, c. 2500 B.C., slate • They both have one foot forward Egypt is weaker and less wealthy in the transition into the Middle Kingdom


• • •

Not stepping forward because no weight shift This makes a huge difference in the lifelikeness of the statues (no real attempt to imply malleability and flexibility, they are stiff, formal, stone-like figures) The sculptors are dictated by the royal family—the code dictates their work Sculpture of a pharaoh’s advisor (he does not conform to the code)

Ka- Aper, from his tomb at Saqqara, c. 2500 B.C.

He has an outstretched arm, a pot-belly, the legs are separated, there is separation between the different body part, he is made out of wood (not everlasting like stone)

Egyptian sculptors could have sculpted naturally, but they were controlled by the code and most of the art was commissioned by the royalty Shaved heads were cleaner (lice problem so they would wear wigs) Deviates from code as well Scribes are the only ones gifted with the knowledge of writing—even kings don’t know He is in the scribe pose (the skirts they wore would make a lap desk when sitting down) He looks like he could be young, but his body is not idealized

• • • • •

Statue of a Scribe (date undocumented)

Middle Kingdom

Rock-Cut Tomb at Beni Hasan, south of Memphis. More specifically this is the tomb of Khnumhotep. As most rock-cut tombs of the Middle Kingdom were camouflaged to escape notice this one is an exception. Middle Kingdom rock-cut tombs are usually hidden behind boulders or rubble heaps. These sites make boring photos so I have not included them on this page!

One of the more elaborate rock-cut tombs (there should be a grand burial with treasures, but hide the entrance) Not a typical version of a rock-cut tomb because there are columns at the


entrance declaring that the tomb is there • • • • • • • New during the middle kingdom There is not a lot of new things happening during this period (central government weakens, not greatly prosperous, Egypt more vulnerable) unified effort to great something grand (Egypt split This is a new innovation made form necessity New Kingdom Egypt pulls itself out of the weak Middle Kingdom Reestablished centralized government Hatshepsut
o o

There are not as much expendable resources to allow for art—there is not a

Temple of Queen Hatshepsut, Deir el-Bahri, c. 1490 B.C. She was the wife of Tutmose II She declares herself pharaoh after her husband dies and she had not borne a son

There is a son by a lower wife (Tutmose III) and he is too young to rule as a pharaoh and Hatshepsut rules as a regent for him She likes her position (Tutmose III is her son and nephew) and her job is to nurture his education so that he will be a good pharaoh


o She grows accustomed to being in power and she neglects his education (she kept him under her thumb and busy so that she could be o The sculptures that she has commissioned represent her with a beard (she is becoming more visually masculine and she goes through the induction ritual of a pharaoh) o Other people in power would have resented seeing a women in this position

in the power role)

She claims that Ra engendered her mother through Tutmose II


o Trivia—near this site there is a cave that has ancient Egypt graffiti saying Hatshepsut is a whore

Tutmose III doesn’t get to be the pharaoh until she dies (he has all her structures defaced and tries to wipe her name from history) Tutmose III destroyed her kartush in the hall of the pharaohs everyone worked for her when she ruled (she was very demanding)


o Her big claim to fame “all backs were bowed under her rulership” • The temple o She wants to be worshipped after her death o Her burial chambers are into the middle of the Cliffside

Usually the tomb and the temple are at different sites (goes against the rock-cut tomb’s purpose—to be secretive)

o In ancient times, would have stood out a lot more from the landscape o In ancient times   Lots of exotic vegetation (collected from around the empire) Lots of statues of Hatshepsut (on both levels between the spacing) 

Painted bright colors Would have been obelisks as well (so impressive because it is so hard to quarry and move it without breaking) pharahs known for two pharaonic monuments—sphinx with pharaoh’s head and obelisks (would proclaim the greatness of the pharaoh)

Tutmose III would have destroyed her statues but left the architecture—do not know if he desecrated her sarcophagus

• • •

It is the grandest rock-cut tomb ever Dedicated to a woman pharaoh Cleopatra tried to do this and failed

Temple of Ramses II, Abu Simbel, c. 1275 B.C.


• •

His mortuary temple Important because o Monumental, carved out of a cliff side o Separate from his tomb o Statues carved out of the cliff are colossal (all of Ramses II) o Was once brightly painted o Many colossal statues of Ramses II

• • • •

Late 1800s—before the Aswan dam, they found the temple of Ramses II—only found it by chance Cut the temple into giant blocks and moved it to where it is now (interior, exterior, and the cliffs around it) Moved to a higher level so the dam does not cover it More importance

o Saved from the Aswan Lake (obscurity)

Interior of the Temple of Ramses II, Abu Simbel, c.1275 B.C. Inside of the temple mirrors the outside (monumental statues) use male, Greeks used females—different name) o Paint is still left on the inside of the temple (walls and ceiling still o Very traditional, and follows the Egyptian Code • Ramses II o One of the greatest pharaohs that Egypt ever had o Great military tactician o Gathers information from his enemies (use the tactics of his enemies o He is a building pharaoh and a military pharaoh o He is in the Bible (Moses negotiated with and set the plagues on) that worked to fight other enemies) painted)

o Atlantid—when the statues of a male also serve as a column (Egyptian


o Built so many monuments and building Hypostyle Hall, Temple of Amen-Re, Karnak, c.1275 B.C. • • • • • • • Giantly scaled The biggest temple built in Egypt (also dedicated to Ramses II) Hypostyle = many columns There are massive columns—more than necessary to hold up the roof into the columns and then painted over For the sake of light, there are high windows—clerestory windows (imitated a lot by Romans and in gothic architecture) Clerestory windows—high windows Model of Hypostyle hall at Karnak Reconstruction drawing of the entire temple complex at Karnak • • • • There was a whole complex—not just hypostyle hall There would be a sacred, manmade lake Like other temples—only the pharaoh and the high priests are allowed in the temple Exterior ornamented – solid walls would have giant relief sculptures and paintings Amarna Style Egyptian Art (Art influenced by Akhenaton) •

There is no real order in the capitols of the columns—there are images etched

Amarna = name of the capitol that Akhenaton built His reign is the Amarna period (Amarna art is made during his rule or in the times very soon after his death) After he dies, many of his statues and paintings were defaced (and those of his queen) this implies that they were not happy with the changes

Akhenaton, from a pillar statue in the Temple of Amen-Re, Karnak, c. 1355 B.C. • Akhenaton—an oddity in Egyptian history (not son number one—as never supposed to be pharaoh)

39 o

Rumor that he was born as a hermaphrodite (embarrassment to the royal family—they value perfection)

o Also rumor that he has morphan syndrome (very long, tall body and with body there would be pain in the joint—always seen as being very elongated) family o As a child, he was not focused on—he was like the black sheep of the o We do not see him documented until he happens to become pharaoh (seems that he was very angry with his family and decides to break o He chooses a wife and has a monogamous marriage o He is very clever—he is the first monotheistic pharaoh (he claims that Ra is the only god—Aton) o There is only one true god, and Akhenaton is the only son and emissary of the one true god (priests are useless because he is the only one o He decides to move the capitol to move it away from the  Tel el-Amarna is the new capital—out is the middle of no where, but is near where the sun sets  His real name is like Amenhotep III (he names himself after his own god) • Changes the art tradition—for the first time in 300 years, art looks different because he breaks from the Egyptian Code (he is sculpted with character and looks very feminine and unique) • • Looks very feminine and very elongated He celebrates originality, character, uniqueness (because he lived in shame as a child) Profile of a statue of Akhenaton (not the same as the previous statue), c.1360 BC connected to the god) traditions)


• • • • • •

So different from other pharaoh portraits His chin is done differently – consistent through different artists He wants a new style—long jaw and chin and big lips (almost feminine) He has big ears, same chin, still big lips This is a family picture

Akhenaton, low relief sculpture, 1370 B.C.

Relief of Akhenaton, Nofretete, and their children under the sun disc, Aten Usually the royal family was seen as stiff and formal, but Nefertiti and Akhenaton bounce their children on their laps Payprus painting commemorating Akhenaton as Egypt’s devine link to the one and only god, Aten • • • • •

The sun shines favorably on him He looks like he almost have breasts She is different than the usually queen because she has power She does not claim divinity, but she has authority and power within the government (she is involved in politics) Looks like a model for a larger statue Found on a shelf in a workshop by accident (all the rest were destroyed) (only survived because people forgot about it) She has elegant features (long neck) Headdress elongated her skull (binding of the skull was fashionable for women Painted impressions of jewelry and has a lot of character Thought that Nefertiti was a source of great resentment because she was a woman with power (she had the support of her husband) She died before him (otherwise not so good for her) Amarna style ends after Akhenaton’s death (King Tutankhamen is very soon after Akhenaton)

Queen Nefertiti, Luxor, c.1355 B.C.

• • • •


• • • • •

This is a prototype—model for something someone will produce again Inlaid lapis lazuli, turquoise

Innermost coffin of Tutankhamen, Valley of the Kings, c.1325 BC Crook and flail across chest, hawk and cobra on forehead 1822 Howard Carter

Can see the hinges on the side and a handle to lower into the wooden coffin o In the Valley of the Kings (sacred, lonely place) o Finds the tomb of Tutankhamen by accident o Nobody would want to live there—perfect for a secretive burial

• • •

He was a boy pharaoh (had many advisors and experienced guards) He was about 18-9 when he died (very young, from unknown cause—skull cracked but don’t know why) He was very popular (he was like a son to all Egypt) It is the only tomb found of a pharaoh that was not looted It would not have been as rich as others because he wasn’t ruling for long and wouldn’t have been as prepared for death, yet is the richest archaeological dig of all time (blows the mind about what a major king’s tomb would look like)

This is the innermost coffin (made entirely of gold) (this would have been where the mummy is kept) Tomb was not touched since he was buried Ka- spirit Would have been inside of the There is a hint of the Amarna style—more childish that other pharaohs statues larger ears, chubby cheeks Mummification o Secret, sacred art that only the high priests would know about o The process takes about 70 days

• • • • •

Death Mask of Tutankhamen (found inside innermost coffin)


o First thing = organs taken out of the body o All the soft organs taken out and dried out and put in kanopic jars o Nitrous oxide is used to dried out the body o Would put the heart back into the body o Would treat with oils to make smell nice Rosetta Stone o Headdress, inner coffin, wooden coffin, stone coffin

The Rosetta Stone, an Egyptian stele with inscriptions commemorating the greatness of Ptolemy, a late Egyptian king. It was found by Napoleon’s soldiers who were stationed in Rosetta, Egypt while they were dismantling a stone wall. Why is it so important? To whom might we give credit for the decoding of the Rosetta Stone? • Without this stone, historians today would not be able to translate any ancient Egyptian texts (hieroglyphics or demotic)

Called the Rosetta stone because found in Rosetta (in the delta region of Egypt) where a fort was built Carved in 196 B.C. in the reign of Ptolemy V Displayed in the British Museum in London o Discovered by one of Napoleon’s soldiers that was ordered to dismantle a fortress wall. o Fortress at Rosetta was a Turkish stronghold (wall built with any stone that they could get so that it was as strong a military base as they could o Falls print-side up (only one soldier recognizes its value) o Ends up in the Cairo museum that Napoleon built o The French are kicked out of Egypt and England takes over all the o One of Napoleon’s soldiers tries to hide the stone, but he is held at gunpoint until he gave it back property and discoveries made in Egypt make it)

• •


• • • • • • •

First level = hieroglyphic writing (never before decoded) Second level = more common demotic script (art of writing no longer as sacred and so they made a common script—not decoded before either) Same message written in 3 different texts Third level = Greek (ability to read Greek text had never been lost) It took almost 30 years to decode the Rosetta stone world Sir Thomas Young o British noble o Brilliant scholar (in all different studies) o This is a great hobby for him o He makes the first breakthrough in the decoding process (he knows the word Ptolemy 5 times in the Greek and knows that he should count backwards to find a kartush of Ptolemy’s name) o He manages to decode one word—Ptolemy (he finds the phonetic sounds for the word Ptolemy) o He shares the information in letters, he doesn’t hide this information o He doesn’t get much credit for his work

Would make copies of the stone and send it to different scholars all over the

Jean Francois Champollion o Frenchman o Not a hobby—he has been interested inn hieroglyphs since childhood o Obsessive personality that makes him into a hermit trying to decode this o Wants the glory for himself and France o He has false information from scholars that are bluffing about being able to decode hieroglyphs (so he is unable to make any process in decoding the stone) message


o He panics when he thinks that Young will be able to decode the stone o He locks himself inside and works so hard that he decodes the whole o Announces and publishes his findings without crediting Sir Thomas o French government also works to get rid of all reference to Sir Thomas Young Young stone before him


More than anything else—the Greek Miracle (one of the greatest products and products of Greece) o The concept that man is noble because of his intellect o This is the first culture to think this way (before Greece most cultures would teach that life is crap, but the afterlife is earned thorugh this suffering) o Before Greeks—at the mercy of other things, their sufferings do not matter, cannot make something out of their life—dictated by the gods o Greeks—have the power to change your life and reach new greatness o “They changed their gods into men and their men into gods” – the gods stilled ruled their lives, but the gods are flawed and petty (gods remain omnipotent and divine) (ex. Zeus is so lusty that he has to do ridiculous things to seduce women—does not have honor or loyalty and faithfulness, gods are jealous of other gods and exemplary humans) o The gods are petty, jealous, self-centered, selfish (humanity often suffers from their self-centeredness), vindictive, vengeful o The Greeks believed that the gods did not love them (Prometheus


punished for caring for humans) would toy with humanity and test o The gods did not love their own creations o The gods only care if the humans are too prideful and are not respectful (hubris) sinners o Gods do not make a difference between accidental and intentional o Man is boble and valuble (usually godlike qualities) o The men and gods are both portrayed in statuary as beautiful (gods are o The make the impossible possible—made huge architecture and artwork o Elevate the importance of humanity (fear gods, but see the flaws in gods) • Ancient Greek was not totally ideal though o Soldiers were brutal (raping and pillaging and enslaving are honorable in Greek society) o Very divided—would fight within their own country as well as outside of it (not safe to travel between city states) o Hypercompetitive o Chauvinism--- man is noble because of his intellect (women are o Men were entitled to education and women weren’t o Prostitutes were elevated above all other women o Venerate ideal beauty o First only men are sculpted with beauty o Focused heavily on physical beauty o Voting system subjected to the man completely) o Empower men—humanity is capable of greatness beautiful men) (perfection is possible in man) humanity


o Not open to everyone o Supposed to be the birthplace of democracy, but they did not give everyone a chance to vote o Very against foreigners/strangers o Minoans and Mycenaeans o Dorians   Indo-European invaders into Greece Nobody knows where they came from before (only that they were from north of the Baktic)     Opposite of the Ionians Practical, warrior, logical, thinkers Serious defenders/warriors Settle in Sparta Were from the east (no not know how far) Very opposite from the Dorians Spiritual, flamboyant, philosophical Are all about art and decoration (not very practical) Ionian part of Greece (western coast of Turkey/Asia Minor) Some of the islands of the Aegean’s

Ancestry of the Greeks

o Ionians      

o Athens has very diverse population

Geometric Period
• Dipylon Krater, from the Dipylon Cemetery in Athens, 8th c. BC
• •

Shape is called a krater (urn like shape of this vase) Found in the Diplon Cemetery in Athens


• • •

This is a grave marker (like a headstone) Also an offering urn (to give gifts to the dead—holes in the bottom like a colander to bring gifts to the underworld) Tells a story

o Reveals how important this dead man is o He was loved and venerated so much that he has a grand spectacle of a funeral o This is before Greece is truly Greece (a group of fighting city-states) o Shows a funeral procession (multiple horses—multiples drawing a o There are soldiers (with the most ancient shape of Greek shields— o Top level has the wake o The body is laid on a platform (offerings lying under the table—animal parts under the platform to appease Hades) o Seated person (could be a family member because the body was never allowed to be left alone) o There are wailing, weeping mourners that are tearing out their hair (most likely professional mourners) bohetian shields) chariot)

Example of black-figure vase painting (all vases are black-figure in this point in Greek History) o Oldest type of Greek vase painting (is part of the bronze period) o This phase of Greek art is the Geometry Period because the vase painting is so geometric (people are triangles)

Top is decorated in the Greek scroll o Represents eternity and eternal life o Keeps repeating itself is a sign of eternity (always straight lines and angles)


• •

Is about three or four feet (is very hard to create something of this size on a potters wheel) Made in multiple pieces

Detail of the painting on the Dipylon Krater

Two Geometric Period bronze horses, 8th c. BC Looks like the horses on Diplon crater Not very realistic yet Everything is simplified Have to sculpt small things because they do not know how to sculpt hollow bronze (will crack if big and not hollow) • • • • • Very distinctive style

• •

Geometric Period bronze Hercules and centaur, 8 c. BC Know it is a centaur because it has the body of a horse and a face of a man It is thought to be Hercules (myth that Hercules was friends with a centaur) Stylized, small, geometric, simple We do not know the origin of this

Mantiklos "Apollo" from Thebes, c. 680 B.C. (According to the inscriptions on the legs this statue was dedicated to the god, Apollo, at Thebes, thus the name, Mantiklos Apollo. Note the greater attention to musculature and facial features which presages … Archaic Period statuary.) • • • • • Prelude to the next advancement in Greek statuary He is still geometric, but there is more volume and more attention to musculature and texture There is an attempt to make him look more like a real man Want greater realism and volume Already see the veneration/appreciation of the male form

Archaic Period


Archaic – out of date, antiquated Period that immediately follows the geometric period (mostly 7 and 6 century
th th

BC) • • • • • • •

When first the veneration of the male form becomes a theme The male form is elevated to godly status They are example of athletic/physical attractive Attention to the hair and implications of musculature The dimples knees Starts a century-old tradition of Greece o Idealized, Greek, male nude statuary o The kouros

Finally see large-scale sculpture in the round in Greece (not quite lifestyle)

Archaic Kouros, c. 650 B.C.

o There are no female statues (much less female nude statues) o In stone • • • Very stiff, tubular Very naïve and fake looking (almost like a mask) Earliest kouri might have been statues of gods, but it is know specifically that later kouri were mortal men Archaic Kouros from Attica, c. 600 B.C., 6 ½ ’ high Anavysos Kouros, from Anavysos, c. 530 B.C., 6’4” high • • • • • More proportional than the previous ones Has the same mask-like face as the other kouros and it has the archaic smile (not affecting the other muscles of the face) The eyes do not have pupils or irises (would have once been painted The Greeks painted certain features of the statuary There is no weight shift in the foot stepping forward o The kouros can tell how old they are just by look


• •

They have not progressed to complete realism This is a burial marker and it was on his grave that he did in battle

Calf Bearer, dedicated on the Acropolis in Athens, Greece (as per the inscription), c. 560 B.C., approx. 5’5” • • • This is a common theme in Greek sculpture Recognized as a benevolent statue (would be a symbolic, religious theme) This is borrowed by the early Christian artists in terms of Christ

Archaic Kore or The Lady of Auxerre (Auxerre, France was her oldest recorded location), probably originally from Crete, c. 630 B.C., approx. 25” high • • She is not allowed to be naked because she is a woman because the female body is not venerated until the high classical Greek period Typical of archaic female statuary o Her hair is like a grid (stylized) o Body closed o She is stiff o There is no hint of her actual body shape (like a column) o Archaic face • • • • The hand is disproportional This hand gesture is a tradition is Greek female statuary (feminine gesture, may be a gesture of modesty) The clinging bodice is uncharacteristic of this age (will be popular in later times) The most common belief is that she represents a goddess not a mortal woman She is wearing a toga called a Peplos (it is all one piece except for a flap on top or bottom)
• •

Peplos Kore, from the Acropolis, Athens, 530 B.C.

Kore = female kouros Kores are almost always completely clothed


• • •

She has an extended limb (more ambitious and creative sculpture) She was sculpted out of two pieces of marble and the arm was lost She would have been holding an offering have a purpose There is not an excuse given for the male Kouri, but the female Kore always There is still vestiges of paint on the sculpture there are mixes of natural things to make the paint and then mixing it with wax-- encaustic paint Looks like a column and body conscious

• •

Kore from Chios, (this statue was buried on the Acropolis after the Persian destruction in 480 B.C.) c. 510 B.C. (Chios is an island off the coast of Asia Minor where this statue may have been created. This would explain its dramatic Ionian look.) Treasury of Siphnians, reconstruction drawing, Delphi, c. 530 BC • • • • • • • • • • • Chios is an Ionian island and very close to Asia Minor (very buoyant and cheerful) There is a different style because it is different people making her Her toga is very elaborate and fancy Painted with encaustic gold paint She also had an extended arm It is stylized hair, but very elaborate Still has archaic face and archaic style She shows Ionian influence—flamboyant Ionian mentality (never be too much or too decorative) Treasury of Siphnians, reconstruction façade, (Delphi Museum) It is a temple, but is called a treasury (called that because the smaller temples were used as bank like buildings) Was located in Delphi, all that’s left of it is a base Caryatid—female statue that serves as a column


• • •

Very Ionic looking—unusual to see a temple with Ionian influence so far influence Allowed to be so Ionian because it is a small “afterthought” temple The architects allowed to be a little more creative with the design if the temple is smaller and deity not as grand gods o Greeks valued the simplicity and thought it was more honoring to the o Untraditional because it has solid walls on sides and back o Continuous frieze which is unusual because usually pictures separated o Sign that it is Ionian because there is a sculpture at the peak and the o Frieze is along the top of the temple two sculptures on the roof corners o Cornice—space along the edge of the roof that is molded by plain stone

Detail of the frieze from the Treasury of the Siphinians, Delphi Archeological Museum

Archaic Pottery:
Black figure amphora, c. 6 c. B.C.

• • • • • •

Black figure vase with a few white glaze touches for relief Know it is not geometric because the figures are not as geometric It is black figure—same as the geometric, but has advanced in style

Red figure amphora, (detail of the Death of Sarpedon), c. 6 c. B.C. Red figure is used in more recent pottery because if more sophisticated (more fleshy toned than the black figured) Harder because using black around the figures Story is passed down through legend o Do not spare details o Accurate helmets and blood


o Weapons authentic and shin guards

Classical Period

This is the golden period of Greece Also called the age of Pericles (starts a little before and ends a little after but is dominated by the rule of Pericles) Pericles was a general who became the king of Athens (rule was only about 30 years

Kristios Boy, from the Acropolis, Athens, c. 480 B.C. (Defiled by the Persians in the sacking of Athens in 480 B.C., this damaged statue and many others were heaped into the rubble to form new foundations for the re-built Acropolis. It was later unearthed by modern archeologists.) • • • • • The classical period begins with this statue Ends with Alexander the Great domination in 322 Found broken on the Acropolis (in ancient Greek times, if a statue was damaged it was of no value) Destroyed by the Persians in the sacking of Athens He might also be classified as transitional o May be the last sculpture of Archaic or first sculpture of classical o It a huge advancement in sculpture (frees sculpture from rigidity) o Realism is advancing o Amazing thing—sculpt stone to make the stone lose its stony rigidity

o This is the beginning of sculpting stone to look like it moving o The eyes do not look classical o He still has the mask-like face (not the archaic smile) o His hair looks very stiff, like a helmet o He is the picture of ideal youth

Contraposto shift—weight shift and shift in shoulders, hips, and spine


The Riace Bronzes, Warrior Figure, from Riace Marina (at the toe of the Italian boot), c. 460-450 BC • o Bronze Different style—severe style o Not young and nubile looking o Fluidity of pose o Everything idealized, but the sculpture alternates between a picture of o Severe style—buff, rugged, like a seasoned warrior • Youthful style o Effeminate o Young o Sensual

youth and the severe style o Both styles ideal

Kritios Boy

• •

With bronze it is easier to be more creative with the pose His feet are very detailed—veins and toenails More exaggerated contraposto There would have been rods to keep him balanced Bronze making technique o Make bronze sculptures hollow o Lost wax technique o Invented and perfected by Greek sculptors o Makes large scale bronze sculpture possible o With bronze statues there is more versatility o The posing has more versatility because extended limbs in marble are hard to make life size and not break o Makes more adventurous features possible

• •


Detail of the torso of the Riace Bronze Warrior Figure Detail of the head of the Riace Bronze Warrior Figure •
• • •

Made bronze wires for his eyelashes Affixed with seashells for the pupils Everything is very detailed

Also found off of the Riace marina of Italy (could be because when Rome dominated Greece, many Greek statues are shipped to Rome)

Poseidon (or Zeus?), found in the Aegean Sea off the eastern coast of Greece, c. 460 BC • • • • • • • • • Bronze statue Unable to identify for sure who he is because we are not sure what he was holding Ideal of human perfection It is the severe style He was found in the ocean (fell into the ocean and was discovered by divers) Hollow eyes because he would have had insets Romans were condescending toward the Greeks, but they highly valued Greek sulptures This is when the artist first gains a good reputation through their craft (will first start to sign their work) The artist first gains pride in their craft (not subordinates, they are praised for their work) Charioteer of Delphi, Delphi, c. 470 B.C. • • • • Driver of a chariot (chariot races in Delphi dedicated to Apollo) He is wearing the official costume of the charioteer (the traditional style = high waist) Traditional to have the headband There are pieces of the horses left


• • • • • •

The reigns are thin and bent up Very stiff (not classical) but it is the toga that makes him seem this way The feet are very classical—can see all the details Each horse was different There were four life size horses (very detailed and realistic—nostrils flared) This would have been displayed at the Hippodrome (where chariot races were held and dedicated to Apollo

Reconstruction drawing of the Charioteer of Delphi with chariot and horses as it probably looked. • • • Each chariot drawn by four horses It was not uncommon for charioteers to be bounced out of their chariots (the bottom is tightly pulled cloth/leather) Only one charioteer per chariot Discus Thrower, *Roman copy of a Greek original dated 450 B.C., The original Greek sculptor: MYRON

Diskolobos Greek because o Symbolizes human athleticism and perfection   Roman o His hairstyle is Roman style o Too many ribs o Disproportionate o To add stability there is a “tree trunk” added to his hip (very roman style) o Supposed to be an exact copy (would use calipers and measuring tools) Olympics were tests of battle skills Would bring honor to the homes of the winners

o Venerates battle skill •


o Added Roman touches to the Greek style o Looks frozen and fixated rather than fluid and in motion o It is a Roman substandard copy to the original Greek • • •

Greve Stele of Hegeso, from the Dipylon Cemetery in Athens, 410-400 B.C. Funerary sculpture Traditional shape of a Greek headstone Hegeso is being waited on in the afterlife by a servant No heaven or hell—only a shade o your former life Without extremes—watered down existence One of the daughters of Niobi Niobi brags about the number of children she has (she has 7 children) Niobi says that she is more fertile than Hera (Hera is vindictive) Hera is unfair and cruel—but Niobi was guilty of the sin of hubris Fertility in a woman is what a woman is made for – her purpose Infertile woman is a shame to a woman First phase of her punishment—Apollo and Diana killed her 7 daughters and 7 sons •

The whole thing is marble

• •

Dying Niobid, from I don't know where! 450-440 BC
• • • •

• • •

This daughter is being killed by an arrow Classical portrayal of death-- even death has to be portrayed as beautiful and graceful (doesn’t look like she is in agony—more like ecstasy) She is practically naked—common in the classical period (age of Pericles when sculpture is at its peak) Praxiteles starts to sculpt the woman as beautiful and sensual (also sculpts a more feminine type of male beauty) Because she is a woman, her nudity has to be explained (because she is dying, her toga falls off as she falls herself)


Sculptor is obligated to excuse her nudity/explain it

Nike Fastening her Sandal, relief sculpture from the Temple of Athena Nike, Acropolis, Athens, 410 B.C. • • • Athena = Nike (awkward actions, but it is still classical) nude)

Toga clings to her body as if wet (way to sculpt the body as if nude, but not The cloth conceals and reveals

Three Goddesses, from the east pediment of the Parthenon, c.438 B.C., marble, overlife size, designed by PHIDIAS
• •

Pediment – the inner triangle within the roof ∆ He is the most famous of the Greek sculptors during the classical Golden Age of Greece Heavily patronized by Pericles (later falls out of favor and is banished) Would do monumental sized sculpture Most of the sculpture in ancient times would be designed by Phidias He was given the commission of the most sacred place in Athens – Parthenon The fabric alternately concealing and revealing

• •

Doryphoros or Spear Bearer, Roman copy of Bronze original that was dated about 450-440 B.C., sculptor: POLYKLEITOS

Original Greek sculptor – Polykleitos Roman themes even though copy of Greek The original is bronze (sometimes bronze sculpture during war is melted down to make weapons)

• •

Hermes and Dionysus, c. 340 B.C., Olympia, sculptor: PRAXITELES? • • • The original of this may have been sculpted by Praxiteles—it was most likely a copy by a Roman sculptor Baby = Dionysus (Hermes would be holding wine or grapes) Roman— hair, baby not realistic, extra support


• •

Statue is in Olympia Know that Praxiteles had something to do with this sculpture because Hermes in this sculpture is a more feminine version of male beauty (not as athletic, thighs more feminine)

• •

Praxiteles made practiced the more sensual, feminine version of the male nude If we knew what he was holding we would know who he was meant to portray

Antikythera Youth, found in the sea off Antikythera, Greece c. 320 B.C.

Hellenistic Period
• • • • • • • • People worried about the future The Greeks have been humbled Think that this humbling experience has made the Greek sculpture more sensitive and better able to express emotions Realization that they are not the best of societies The artwork is not as formal or traditional They are not invulnerable (impervious to attack) Think there was a malaria plague (Pericles died of it) Athens fell under the plague (was a very important city to the Greek people) Death of Socrates—greatest philosophy teacher of the time (Pericles condemns Socrates and the Senate sentenced him to death) was sentenced to death for Nike of Samothrace or (Winged Victory), c. 190 B.C., from the Island of Samothrace • • • • • Looks like an angel because Christians copied the angel from this She is not considered to be classical because of the date (after Greece has already fallen to Alexander and is being threatened by Rome) Not sculpted in the Age of Pericles—sculpted in a time of turmoil She is supposed to stand for an abstract concept She represents the concept of victory—we have survived, overcome, sedition and corruption of the youth


vanquished our enemies • • • • • • • • Large than life size Her wins express—make someone look unfettered—could rise above everything She looks like she has momentum Her arms would have been out to emphasize the effect of the wings The fabric looks like it is being blown back Sculpted out of proportion to look better from below eye level—sculptor knew to sculpt the proportions Eyes are meant to be at the level of the eye Her body is warped—the torso is bigger and the lower body is smaller (the human eye adjusts the difference) Dying Gaul (or Dying Trumpeter), Roman marble copy of a bronze original: exact origin is unknown, c. 240 BC • • • • • • • • • • • France ancient France (southern part more specifically) Know he is a trumpeter because his trumpet is on the ground beside him The trumpeter is very important to an army at this point in history – was the way to communicate to the troops Trumpeter essential to the organization of the army (without trumpeter the battle will be lost in chaos) See the wound—blood is sculpted dripping out of the wound He is not Greek—chopped, barbarian hairstyle and Gaulian jewelry This is not gloating over a victory (not gloating over the fallen enemy) This is sympathetic, compassionate, and honors the enemy Would not be the style for classical sculpture (instead it would have been victory statues) This sympathy only comes from being conquered oneself This is Greek tragedy in a statue

Nike of Samothrace, three-quarters view


The Laocoon Group, (Roman copy dates 1st c. A.D. - exact origin is unknown. Two copies of this statue exist. One is displayed in the Vatican Museum and the other is in the Uffizi in Florence.) Sculptors: Athanadoros, Hagesandros, and Polydoros of not the original Greek sculptors!) • Based on a myth

Rhodes (Thank goodness you don’t have to memorize these names because they are

Laocoon was a priest in Troy

o He was an oracle of Apollo during the Trojan War o Knew Troy would be defeated with a horse o Tried to warn the royal family (goddess against troy sent the serpents down to shut him and his sons up)

o All the muscles tense • • • Twisting and writhing It is very dramatic and emotional Inspired Michelangelo (twisting, writhing, all muscles tense)

Snake biting Laocoon on his hip

Aphrodite of Melos (Venus de Milo), c. 150-100 B.C.), She's from the island of Melos, silly. • • • • • • • • She is from the Greek island of Melos She has a had that is very small in proportion to her body She would have been “covering herself” Deliberately seductive Her trying to cover her body actually brings more attention to it Her toga is way down—just on the border of being too far Very unique—to find a subject of this being worthy of sculpting He beauty is seen through her age and through the toll hard labor and life has taken on her

Old Market Woman, 2nd c. B.C., origin unknown


Drunken Old Woman, 2 c. BC

• • • • • • • • • • •

She is either singing because she is drunk or begging for money to have more drink This is a documentation of the troubles in their society This is a more honest style of art This is an excuse

Sleeping Satyr, c. 230-200 B.C. (found in Rome) This is an example of sculpture only useful for eroticism Not the victorious, youthful boxer of the classical age This is an older, hardened, maybe not victorious He has wrinkles and scars He is a boxer for occupation He is either defeated or just tired It is not the classical view of an athlete

Seated Boxer, c. 80 B.C., sculptor: APOLLONIUS

Greek Architecture
• • • • • • • Usually not talking about domestic architecture Only the things made from stone (religious or civic) Architecture is not thought of as shelter It is monumental art The integrity of the architecture is very important Everything must be the best—no shortcuts, only the best materials The Golden Mean o Perfect proportion of the perfect shape o This is the perfect temple shape o Proportions are almost one by two


o Front of the temple is almost half the length of the sides

o Must be constructed in dry-joint construction last for eternity

Honor the gods with the most perfect, harmonious shape

o There is no mortar in classical Greek architecture– only components that o All the components interlock like legos o Everything has to be carved perfectly will draw schematics of these for the web page. Five representative plans of the Greek temple: ANTIS: one or two columns in front PROSTYLE: columns only in front AMPHIROSTYLE: columns in front and back most popular classical style of temples and specifically with the Pantheon) Illustration of Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian orders of column design. • • • • • • • They are not called periods of columns because they are not specific to one time periods They are instead called orders or styles of columns Doric = the oldest, most classic, purest (holiest temples have them) there are chunkier striations and the most bowing All three styles have fluting (striations) Columns are different in the amount of entasis that each column contains (the bowing of the columns) Ionic order has a scroll-like capital, almost no bowing (this is inspired by the Ionians) Some mainland Greek temples have these capitals only if it is not the most DIPTERAL: double row of columns all around PERIPTERAL: columns all around (only type that we need to know because is the You may need to refer to your text to see what these plans look like. Eventually, I


holy temples and/or is a civic building

Corinthians – people from Corinth, oddity is that it was never really used by the Greeks, but the Romans loved these capitals

_____________________________________________________________________ _________ • • • • • • • • • • • • • The "Basilica", Paestum, Italy, 550 B.C., (also called the Temple of Hera I) On the Western coast of Italy, but in archaic times it was a Greek outpost The oldest Greek temples were restyled to look like classical Greek styles so the oldest Greek temples are outside of Greece Paestum is the place to find the most ancient Doric style temples This temple has not fully evolved—it is not classical yet Used to be called the Basilica and now is called the Temple of Hera I This is an Archaic, Doric temple It has some crudity to it some aspects have not yet been refined The capitals are huge—almost Minoan Called Doric because they are an older Doric style of columns (style not fully evolved) pillowy capitals Everything is chunky and there is very obvious entasis Only reason it survives is that it was not torn down and rebuilt There is a single row of columns running down the center of the temple (will change and be refined later) There would be a cult statue in the temple, and the row of columns would block the view of the cult statue The Basilica, interior view • • Probably covered with terracotta tiles In later temples it would be covered by thin tiles of marble

Plan of the Basilica


Two photos of toppled Greek temple columns at Olympia give a sense of scale and construction technique. •

Destroyed by earthquakes These are massive temples (the drums that made up the columns can be twice the size of a person) There is a square hole where molten iron would be poured to hold the column in place (but iron rusts) Fluting would be carved after all the drums were stacked

• •

Aerial view of the Basilica (Hera I) and the Temple of Hera II at Paestum Temple of Hera II, exterior, c. 460 B.C., Paestum, Italy, (also known as the Temple of Poseidon or Neptune) • •

A little, newer, nicer, and more intact Has a lot of pediment, but the pedimental sculpture is gone Has the triglyphs and metopes Features have changed since the Temple of Hera I A lot of the entasis is gone The fluting is less visible The frieze is fancier Decorated and divided There is now a double row along the inside instead of the one row of columns down the middle

• • • • • •

Interior, side aisle, Temple of Hera II

Drawing of the plan of Hera II •

There is a reflection pool filled with olive oil that would reflect the cult statue People could see the cult statue from some places outside of the temple Inside and outside would be more colorful than white There would be eternal flames outside some temples

Reconstruction rendering of the façade of Hera II • •


There would be doors made out of bronze

• There would be a wall inside of the temple and columns Sacred Sites Theatre at Epidaurus, c. 350 B.C., architect: POLYKLEITOS THE YOUNGER • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Dramatic production were dedicated to Apollo, the god of healing the gods) Would feel a sense of catharsis after the drama (would feel more pure before Epidaurus was a place dedicated for healing This was a huge architecture It was civic architecture, but not truly because it as dedicated to the gods Easy entry, easy exit There are awesome acoustics There was a permanent backdrop that would represent different settings Sat 14,00 people This is dedicated to a choral group (would narrate to the Greek theater) Theater is competitive and important to the Greek people Commissioned by a theater patron (commemorate a choral victory) The choruses would compete to decide which chorus is better choreographed Engaged column o A new innovation o It looks like a column but is truly a half column o Not there for support—only ornamentation o There to look dignified o The column are sculpted into the larger monument o It is in a round shape reminiscent of a temple, but is truly a monument • • This is allowed to be more creative because it is a monument, not a temple There are Corinthian order capitals

Lysikrates Monument, Athens, 334 B.C.


Various slides of Delphi Aerial view of Delphi Aerial view of the Temple of Apollo Rear view of the Temple of Apollo Front view - Temple of Apollo • Various slides of Olympia Passage to the stadium at Olympia Archway entrance to the stadium at Olympia Temple of Hera Still need photo of: Temple of Zeus (home of the famous cult statue by Phidias, one of the 7 Ancient Wonders of the World) • • • This would be a traditional place for the Olympics At first there was no place for the Olympics, but over time it was so important that they fixed up Olympia just for the Olympics There were sculptures of cheaters made to look like buffoons and would dishonor the competitor’s entire village

• • • • • • • • “city on the hill” or “high city” (literally translated) Acropolis is the highest hill in Athens It is a rocky hill First inhabited by Mycenaeans (had a fortress on top) Know Acropolis by the design of Pericles Destroyed by Persians, but rebuilt in the reign of Pericles Athena is the patron goddess of Athens Everything on the Acropolis is dedicated to Athena (Athens way of honoring their goddess)


• • • • • •

When under attack, the people would use this as a last defense Patron goddess of Athens because she won a battle against Poseidon of Athens and make Athens the trade rich city it was) Olive tree = economic stability of Athens Sight of mythical sacred events (battle between Poseidon and Athena) Athena created the sacred olive tree from her spear (Olive tree is the lifeblood

If not for the destruction of man, the Acropolis would still be in great condition

Plan of the Acropolis as it was designed by order of Pericles after the Persian sacking of 480 B.C. Drawing of the completed temples of the Acropolis in the time of Pericles Reconstruction drawing of the entrance to the Acropolis at the time of Pericles IKTINOS & KALLIKRATES, the Parthenon, Acropolis, Athens, 447-438 B.C. • • • This was supposed to be the greatest Greek temple Largest, most holy, goes by the Golden Mean This temple has been desecrated throughout history (every time that Athens was under an enemy)

Worst thing = 1687 (Venetians and Turks) o Greek was a Venetian holding (Venice not always part of Italy) o Venice very powerful with its trade wealth o Athens is the jewel in the dispute between Venice and the Turks o The center of the Venetian stronghold is the Acropolis o The Parthenon is a munitions hold o Under siege, the Parthenon is shot and it completely blows up o Some of the rocks around the Parthenon are blown out from the inside of the temple colonies

Undergone defacement – has been a Christian Church (Venetians) and a


mosque (Turks) (all images are defaced and damaged because there are supposed to be no graven images) • Victorian times – 1800s adventurer Lord Elgin (British ambassador to Turkey) o He is friendly with the Turkish government o Pays the Turkish government to denude the Parthenon of all sculpture o Now all the sculptures are called the Elgin marbles back o It took 22 ships to get the marbles back to England • Building of the Parthenon o By order of Pericles because it had been sacked by Persians o There is a lot of national pride in the Age of Pericles o Pericles manages to make a nation out of Greece (city-states pay taxes to Athens and Pericles) o Taxes are spent in these grand architectural projects (there is a lot of slave labor to make this possible) o He makes the architecture on the Acropolis newer and better than before o The roof was made from marble towers (would be thin enough to have some light shine through—unique) o Relief sculpture recounting the lie of Athena o Massive doors and painted o Inside = double row of columns, cult statue (sculpted by Phidias and was 40 feet tall), reflection pool o Cult statue not made from one block of marble—made in pieces and has semiprecious and precious stones and metals put on o There is a remade version of the cult statue is in Athens o Put them in a dirty warehouse where they were not kept well o Greece wants them back, but the British museum refuses to give them


o Plan of the Parthenon Reconstruction model of the cult statue of Athena from the Parthenon (This model is based on ancient written accounts of what it looked like.) ________ • • • _____________________________________________________________________ MNESIKLES, the Propylaia, Acropolis, Athens, c. 437-432 B.C. Sacred entranceway into the Acropolis This used to be the only entrance into it It is imposing and grand because it is the entrance to a sacred place

Reconstruction drawing of the Propylaia in the time of Pericles Temple of Athena Nike, 427-424 B.C., Acropolis, Athens • • • • This is Athena in her role as the victory goddess It is more creative with the Ionic columns and it has a continuous frieze because it is not as grand and important as the Parthenon Nike fastening her Sandal is a relief from this temple This was used as a treasury – keep valuable there because well protected on the Acropolis The Erechtheion, 421-405 B.C., Acropolis, Athens •

Not a good example of the Golden mean It is built to dodge sacred spots – the sacred olive tree of Athena, could not level the ground because it is sacred, the sacred hole that could have been Poseidon’s spring

Two mythical kings buried there -- Kekrops (judged the battle of Athena and Poseidon) and Erechtheus (was a king that was also buried there Has multiple facades

Plan of the Erechtheion Porch of Maidens (from the Erechtheion, 421-405 B.C.


• • • • • •

Dedicated to Athena Has caryatids Has extended arms that most likely held golden apples Meant to be some kind of priestesses Coffering – Romans will take this and use it everywhere (like a waffle) Would be on the roof (recessed areas)

_____________________________________________________________________ _________ Theatre of Dionysus, from the base of the Acropolis, Athens • • This is the classical version At the base of the Acropolis wall

FOUR MAIN GREEK PERIODS: GEOMETRIC 900-700 B.C. (geometric) ARCHAIC 700-480 B.C. (naive) CLASSICAL 480-323 B.C. (naturalized and idealized) HELLENISTIC 323-30 B.C. (expressive) ARCHITECTURAL TERMINOLOGY (A model of the Greek temple goes here. If you don’t have one see Mrs. Costa) ORDER: refers to the type of capitol that a column bears (Doric, Ionic, or Corinthian) FLUTING: the striations or ridges on the shaft of a column FACADE: the front of a building ENTASIS: slight convex curve of a column CARYATID: a column in the shape of a female

Etruscan (Tuscany prior to the Roman Empire)


Tuscany called Etruria (theory that they are displaced Trojans) Seems like the Etrurians came from the East (have Asian influenced art and mythology) Etruscans gave rights to women (rights passed through matriarch line) men

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The Romans thought the Etruscans primitive for letting the women be equal to Women allowed to vote and have opinions The Romans would spread rumors about the Etruscans because of the dislike of the Etruscan way of life Matriarchal in a time of patriarchy Have independently ruled city-states Have a type of democracy (maybe oligarchy) were the people could vote Seem to borrow mythology from Greece (even take the names or keep the goddess, change the names) At first, the Etruscans dominate the Romans Women lose rights after the domination of Rome The Etruscans lose their lifestyle and culture with the domination (absorbed by Rome completely) Gladiatorial spectacle—from a Etruscan funeral ritual (would have bloody combat in memory of the dead, depending on how rich one is, the more days the fighting would go on) the goal is not for someone to die – warrior against warrior (show of skill)

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The Romans take it to a extreme level (enslave the gladiators) Architecture, statuary, winemaking, cooking are all adopted by the Roman culture Did not appear until 6 or 7 century B.C.
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Model of a typical Etruscan temple, 6th c. BC • Rome is not a dominant power at this point

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This temple looks very ionic (small, proantis temple, has a lot of statues on the roof) Etruscans temples are build from perishable materials (none survive) Influenced by the Ionian Greeks This is a “city of the dead” Tumulus type burial sites Inside the “bubble” insides are made to look like Etruscan homes

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Aerial View of the Etruscan Necropolis at Cerveteri, 7th to 2nd c. BC Tops look like the top of the Mycenaean beehive tombs

Close-up of Etruscan tumuli at Cerveteri Tomb of the Reliefs, exterior and interior, Cerveteri, 3rd c. BC • Shows the influence of o Cult of the dead influence from Egypt     Belief that it is important to bury the dead with wealth Can take the wealth to the afterlife Opulence of the burial has to do with quality of afterlife Frescoes like the Minoans

The Etruscan Home o Columns for the ceiling o Raised areas with padding (bedding) o There are mock hearths, pots, pans (would be painted in imitation of the Etruscan home) o Everyday tools represented

o Mycenaean tumulus

Two Dancers, wall painting from the Tomb of the Leopards, Tarquina, Italy, c. 470 B.C. • Banqueters and Dancers. mural from the Tomb of the Leopards, c. 470 B.C.


• Sarcophagus from Cerveteri, c. 520 B.C., painted terra-cotta • • • • • • Emphasizes equality Joyfulness in death (like Minoans)

Apollo from Veii, c. 510 B.C., painted terra-cotta Archaic except that it tries to represent movement (not stiff like Greek Archaic) Would be at the very peak of a temple above the pediment The Greeks did not sculpt this large in clay We do not know if this was called Apollo or not (just seems like it has the same role as Apollo) Warrior/Mars from Todi, early fourth c. B.C. • • This is as Rome gains strength The armor looks very Roman (already starting to become part of the Roman culture) Etruscan She-wolf (Capitoline Wolf), c. 500 B.C., (the suckling infants were added later)

The wolf is Etruscan and the infants are added during the Late Renaissance/Baroque period (maybe 1500) Orientalizing—exotic, fierce, surface treatment is Oriental Has ensizing (curlicues on neck in fur) Snarling fiercely The babies change the meaning of the sculpture The Etruscans were just sculpting the fierce animal (not anything about Romulus and Remus) Lupis = wolf, lupita – prostitute (has a similar sounds, Romulus and Remus were probably found by a prostitute who nursed them back to health) Adopted by Rome as a mascot

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Chimera of Arezzo, early 4th c. B.C.


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Very Etruscan and Oriental Looks like it is from the Orient history Gives the idea that the Etruscans had some connection to the Orient in their Head of a lion, body of a lion with a spinal ridge, serpent tail that is trying to eat a goat/bird creature, the feet emphasized Chimera is from Oriental mythology

Statue of Aule Metele (Arringatore Orator), early 1st c. B.C., from Sanguine to near Lake Trasimene • • • • Looks like a Roman senator Sculpture of an Etruscan politician Wants to be accepted so portrays himself in the orator position (characteristic of Rome) Best thing to do is to just assimilate with the Romans (only way to survive)

• • • • Rome becomes a superpower (largest empire ever known) Empire from the middle East, up to and including Spain, from North Africa to the coast of Scotland This largeness is a big part of why the empire fell The empire formed through o Conquest—no one could compete against the Roman military  Conquest would keep the support of the people (would be bigger, better, inspire more faith and support from the people)  Would glorify the battles—even ones against weak barbarians or peaceful farmers  As the empire grows, the outpost would pay taxes to Rome and keep Rome strong


Are strong because of great organization (very disciplined training) The army would grow because of including the conquered people

in the army  shields) 

Had better weapons (had better craftsmanship—armor, swords, Engineering- the army could go anywhere they want to because of the ships and roads Could build bridges just to get across a raging river (had engineers in the army for situations like this)

o Administration  Powerful leadership (would appoint generals and governors of each region)   The leaders were directly answerable and linked to Rome Would be covered by roads to connect the empire (makes roads that last today)  Would level the ground and maintain the roadways (would used paving stones to keep the ground smooth)   The armies would build the roads (became experts) Build a navy and ports (to control the parts of the empire across bodies of water)  o Roman forts and military cities  Roman military tents are permanent cities (stone barracks, gateways, baths, theaters)    Would be mater planned (all the roads on a grid system) Every Roman city has the North-South, East-West pattern Rome is not on this grid system (evolved over centuries—some The empire is a well linked network


near marshes)  Would build cisterns to empty the marsh to the Tiber and build on top of the now-dry marshland   Tiber River snakes through and the city followed it remote outposts

Soldiers were given jobs of building to keep them busy in the

Roman women

o Very chauvinistic o Women expected to stay home and bear children o Sometimes there were concubines within their own house and the owners would share them with guests o The concubines would get pregnant and have to give up their child to be sold into slavery o The women were not allowed to have opinions o Arranged marriages (often young girls being married to older men who o Prostitutes were more respected than the wives o Some women are portrayed as clever, but also portrayed as ruthless, unprincipled, and conniving (usually wives/mistresses of politicians) • • • • Ancient Rome is not known for making original innovations in art or architecture Are very innovative in their method of building, but the style and ideas behind the art is from other cultures (mainly Greek) The Romans crave Greek-like art (even though look down on the Greeks as inferior) For the first time in history, roman sculptors attempt to create portrait busts with realistic character (one of the only trul Roman innovations) o Would not idealize portrait sculpture o Homosexuality is condoned were wealthy)


o Portrait sculptures are inspired by ancestor portrait busts (death o Tradition early in roman culture to make portrait masks of a dead person o Portrait Sculpture Four anonymous Roman portrait busts that illustrate character in portraiture • Bust of the Roman Emperor Caligula, (ruled 37-41 A.D.) • Emperor Caligula o Raised by his uncle Tiberius (uncle is sick and both of them isolated in Crete) o The rest of his family was assassinated o Tiberius known for depraved banquets and abusing his subjects (also o Caligula is worse than Tiberius (would have sex with the wife of guests o He has disdain for the Roman Senate (gives his horse a position of o Undermines the authority of the Senate (so worthless that the horse can • • • • • • Very young in this bust Maybe would compliment a little bit because of intimidation, but probably not Historians can trust that it was a good likeness Mounted equestrian statue is popularized by Rome (is the standard to make a country appear powerful) Gives dignity to the person mounted on it Sometimes the way a persons leg is placed can mean if the person died in be one of them) leadership in the Senate) by force and hen talk about it at dinner) known for having sex with young, defenseless boys) masks)

Marcus Aurelius on Horseback, c. 165 A.D., bronze, over life-size


battle or not • • It is uniquely impressive because it is life-size or greater than life-size civilized) Wearing the garb of a politician (is a good general and a good politician—

Augustus of Primaporta or Portrait of Augustus as general, copy of a bronze original from c. 20 B.C. • • • • • • It is another Roman innovation—the statue with the screw-on head (mass produced portrait sculpture) Multiples were made because it is a very impressive statue Emphasizes his power and divinity The heads are mass produced and then stuck on the bodies Could pick the ideal body and then have your head sculpted and attached Divinity o Unique about this statue because he has himself sculpted as divine (temples to himself while he is living) o This is the characteristic of multiple emperors o Cupid is at his knee (son of Venus and Mars) o Saying that Cupid and him are related (of the line of Venus) o Cupid is clinging to the emperor – like Cupid is of lesser importance • STYLES OF ROMAN WALL PAINTING INCRUSTATION- Wall is divided into panels painted to resemble other materials, colors, and textures.

His armor is so beautiful (shows his great militaristic deeds)

Trompe l’œil – attempt to fool the eye that it is not the material it is Look like it looks like has different insets of different materials (encrustation)

ARCHITECTURAL- Architectural features (columns, window frames, moldings) are painted onto a flat wall to appear three-dimensional.

Another type of Trompe l’œil

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Paint architectural features on walls (like Sistine Chapel)

ORNATE- No attempt to disguise the flatness of the wall Stripes, panels, and scrolls • Just decorative

may subdivide the wall but they appear superimposed. Flat areas of color dominate. INTRICATE- Subdivides the wall into many unrelated scenes. Crowded and confused. It resembles a picture gallery. • • Can contain everything or a couple of these things Divided in many panels (different shapes) and they are painted with unrelated subjects Wall Painting Wall painting from the House of Vetti, Pompeii, c. 70 AD • • • • • • • • • • • • • This is intricate These are a uniquely roman innovation Walls of villas have to be decorative because they are entertaining and they need to show wealth and prestige This is a salon in the villa Standard for wealthy Roman villas (encrustation on the walls) Was a room for a cult that worships Dionysus This family favored Dionysus so this room was built to honor him They would do symbolic actions to dedicate to the gods (not really hurt or suffering The wall shows the stages of induction into the cult (initiation rite) Place of worship being like a home is from the Roman pagans Shows architectural style features Romans are the firsts artists to paint landscape or seascape Landscape for the sake of the land was not important to other, earlier cultures

Dionysiac Mystery Cult scene from the Villa of the Mysteries, Pompeii, c. 50 BC

Odysseus in the Underworld, c. 50 B.C.

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It is also a narrative painting of the Laestregonians

Artist’s version of Odysseus in the Underworld, with more clear definition transferred to wood) • • • • • • • • •

Still Life with Peaches from Herculaneum, c. 50 A.D., (detail of wall painting Not other culture painted still life for the sake of still life (considered unworthy) Roman painters are interested in illusionism transparent This still life is an ego piece that shows the skills of the Roman painters Still life is a new innovation and now it is a tradition Realism extends to portrait painting Painted on the coffins Have a lot of character (unique features) Adopt the Egyptian burial methods because the Romans were usually cremated EARLY EMPIRE (ARCHITECTURE) • Model of an insula, Ostia, second c. AD

Want the peaches to seem 3 dimensional and the water and class to seem

Roman mummy portraits from Egypt

When Rom is first growing and becoming an empire Insula is a Roman multi-level apartment building It looks amazingly contemporary When first started making multi-level building in New York City, used this style of architecture Never get beyond four or five stories (because no elevator) There was a great fear of fire in a taller structure and dense population like in Rome (used open fires in the apartment) Vigilis are the first firemen (stand on towers to watch for fire) A lot of the newer architectures in Modern Rome have ancient underground

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levels • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Only civic architecture survives above ground (temples, basilicas...) Was very functional and a nice place to live when it was built slum lords About 50-100 years later, these apartment building become slums and have No laws or restrictions to govern these landlords The bottom level was reserved for retail space They were sanitary and functional near the aqueducts These apartment buildings a re a new roman innovation (for the middle class) This is a monument built for the purpose of boasting There is no purpose to these arches It is not necessarily built to be a gateway Commemorates the conquest of a new region or a specific battle (sometimes in celebration of desecrating Jewish temples) This is a triple triumphal arch (traditional shape with writing above the central arch to tell what it is dedicated to) Has relief sculpture to commemorate what happened and what people conquered Arch of Titus, Rome, after 81 A.D. • • •

At first, they represented a good level of living for the Roman people

Roman Arc de Triomphe, Orange, France, 1st c. BC

Attack the Jewish people in their own temple, take their treasures, bring the Jews in chains to Rome to march them through the forum Generals become famous through propagandizing their victories over foreign countries The Jews had little protection against the Romans Jewish escapees drew lots on whom would be the killers of the others who were hiding on the plateau with them (had to kill the others and then commit


suicide) this was a big sin and would be ashamed—caused a debate within the Jewish community (This creates a very big impression on the Romans— causes shame and a playwright makes a play in memory of these Jews) • • • This is built to honor Titus, the famous roman general Jew-killer Brings a lot of Jewish slaves back to Rome This is in the Roman forum—the center of roman society

Bas relief from the inside or underside of the Arch of Titus, it shows Titus’ soldiers carrying the spoils war from their conquest of Judea. They march down the Via Sacra holding a golden menorah and other sacred objects from the sacking the Temple of Jerusalem. • • • This is the destruction and looting of the Temple of Jerusalem The treasures are being taken by Roman soldiers This one only has a single opening

Arch of Trajan, Benevento, c. 114-118 A.D. Arch of Constantine, Rome near the Coliseum, 312-315 A.D. (This actually dates from the Late Antique of Late Empire period but it shows Constantine’s continuation of the Roman triumphal arch tradition.) • • • • • • • • It is built in a ridiculous place next to the Coliseum He males himself seem to be a true roman emperor It is the biggest arch and it was built very quickly A lot of the pieces of the arch are taken from other arches in order to build it quickly The pictures do not represent his victory It is in the most visible place in Rome Constantine did not care about the integrity of the architecture Take from another arch and put on this one for Constantine

Medallion or roundel from the Arch of Constantine depicting Apollo Pont-du Gard, Orange, France, late 1st c. B.C., (also see figure 7-36)


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Bring water to Rome (almost 200 miles) Has to gradually increase it’s elevation to keep the water automatically flowing Had to use simple told to make this complicated thing (could not make a mistake) It is perfectly made and decorative as well Fall of Rome (armies less effective, Roman empire too large, barbarians damaged the aqueducts and made Rome uninhabitable) The Roman Arch— o makes this 200 mile aqueduct possible (needs massive amount of stone and cement possible) o the arch helps save building material by making less stone necessary (not solid stone) o very solid Barbarian destruction is the final straw in Rome’s destruction

This and a few other aqueducts gave water more that an abundance of water

Early Empire and Civic Architecture Reconstruction models of Roman city planning (the Coliseum, the Forum, and beyond) The Coliseum, (the Flavian Amphitheatre), Rome 70-80 A.D.

Construction of the coliseum was ordered by Vespasian who is of the Flavian family It was finished and dedicated by Titus Was in charge of this because Nero was so horrible Nero built a palace called the Domus Area in the center of Rome that should have been public land (only open because of the Fire that he was blamed for setting)

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He built a very extravagant palace with vast rambling gardens and pools and orchards, a lake (situated where the coliseum is today The public is fed up with Nero and everyone decides to kill him (the praetorian


guard was supposed to protect him but killed him instead—force him to fall on his sword) • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Vespasian knows the perspective of the people so he tears down the palace, drains the lake, and build this civic architecture as a gift for the public of Rome The biggest amphitheater every built upon the site of the lake Coliseum has a sublevel where the lake was coliseum When the coliseum dedicated Titus has the Coliseum filled with water and has naval battles It is the prototype of all later amphitheaters Easily held 40000 spectators, easy entry and easy exit Every archway would have a statue (Greek originals, copies, Roman originals) Would have been sparkling white marble Colored banners around the top In sunny weather, there was a canvas, retractable roof It had bathrooms It had a floor—cedar, wooden floor and red dyed sand to hide the blood Made for public entertainment (Christians could be sentenced here – crucifixions, burnings, fighting) Coliseum would look better if it had been left alone throughout the centuries o Barbarians would try to destroy the greatest monument of a city o Medieval times—took the bronze skeleton from the coliseum o Fire, desecration—from barbarians

Has drainage cisterns under what used to be the lake and kept them for the

Pollution, earthquake

_____________________________________________________________________ _________ Reconstruction model of Circus Maximus, the greatest hippodrome in Rome, date?


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This was a racetrack for chariot races That is why it is so elongated

Panoramic photo of the Roman Forum Forum is a type of town square This is the man forum in Rome (there were others) It is in ruins, but there is still a lot to see in it continues under the streets) There are triumphal arches, temples, Senate house (curio), Via Sacra – the sacred avenue (when a victory the procession goes along the Via and through the city) 17 c. Painting by Giovani Panini contrasted with similar angle in modern times. • • • • • • • •

There are now modern streets that surround the forum (the forum even

Baroque period painting Looks the same as modern day Things with newer facades were adopted by the catholic church and revamped to be catholic churches and structures Cisterns that drained the marshes that used to be part of Rome are still there underground Underground cisterns made with vaulted ceilings with keystones to stabilize (very strong and no need to maintain, only earthquake might damage) The forum was always the city-center since it was built Some of the greatest civic architecture is there (emperors wanted to be on the edge to be near the center of the activity) Build up the hill when no more level land Brutaleschi —goes to the forum when the Roman architecture was not valued or respected (the forum had become a pasture for animas meant to go to auction) the forum also became dumping ground for construction (in Renaissance and Baroque time, the wealthy families are building palaces and


churches so they steal marble from the forum) (because some of the architecture buried under dirt and garbage, not all the architecture could be stripped) • • • • • In 410 AD Alaric a German barbarian who was the first to sack Rome (seemingly impossible feat) Alaric tries to coerce Rome into paying him tribute (Rome refuses and Alaric sacked Rome—only wanted to show Rome how weak it was against him) monument first which means the forum) Land had t be drained—marshy land (will change the land for building purposes) Reconstruction model of the forum in Rome Temple of Fortuna Virilis (Temple of Portunis), Rome, late 2 c BC

After Alaric, Rome is periodically burned, sacked, desecrated (usually greatest

Has been defaced since 410

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Barren women would go to pray for fertility At first glance looks Greek- influence, but not classically greek o There is a wall that has engaged columns o Has a continuous frieze and ionic columns o There were relief carvings at the base o The Romans copied the Greeks to a point, but were not bothered to make sure of the integrity of the architecture o It is not important that the temples truly be Greek—jut reminiscent of Greek in its impressiveness o A lot of this is made from cement—Greek temples did not use cement

Illustration of Roman groin vaulting versus Gothic groin vaulting. • • • Groin vault is from the concept of crossing two single vaults There would be an x-shape where the crossing would be Groin vault is the thought to make on vault and have the effect that one gets


when crossing two vaults • • Was used later by Baroque architects Roman o Not obvious • Gothic

o More rounded o Using pointed arches o Less rounded Illustration of a fenestrated sequence of Roman groin vaulting • • • Continuous effect of groin vaulting Trajan has to order the removal of part of a hillside to make room for his shops Regular groin vaulting and even more complicated curved groin vaulting Reconstruction model of Trajan’s Market in Rome, c. 100-112 A.D. More visible/obvious

Interior of the great hall of Trajan’s Markets. Note the fenestrated sequencing of Roman groin vaults. • • • • • Can see the ribs of the groin vaulting It is an indoor marketplace—very modern Had storefronts Were made of cement mixed with rubble and then faced with brick and then covered with marble _____________________________________________________________________ _________ The Pantheon, Rome, 118-125 A.D. • Would not have been possible without quick-set cement o Very moldable o First time in history—architecture in any shape is possible Civic architecture covered with marble


o This had the biggest dome in history at this point (biggest until about a o In Italy there is volcanic sands in the beaches water thousand years later with the church in Florence)

o This volcanic sand makes the concrete dry quicker and even under o This is even as hard as stone

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Still not sure of how roman builders made it happen Know that they made it stable with certain unique characteristics o Fatter at the bottom than at the top o The oculus (hole) strengthened the dome (like a retention ring) circle outlines the hole and is concrete strengthened with bronze o On a concrete dome the weather is hard on the domes (expand with hot and compacts when cold) o If no oculus the expanding and compressing would happen on a solid center that would cause cracks an weaknesses

The Roman architectures through corked up vases that were filled with air so that there were empty spaces in the concrete and so it was lighter

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Still in good condition because the Vatican owned it and tuned it into a church (best preserved Roman piece of architecture—completely intact) The original bronze doors – each one weighs about 20 tons Would have been a lot brighter when the marbles were polished—all different colors imported from all over the empire (white marble on the outside stripped away)

o The concrete on the dome was made lighter by the coffering as well

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There would have been gold rosettes of the square coffering on the ceiling Would have had a bronze cover for the roof Would have been a processional avenue up to the Pantheon—not it is below street level


Supposed to be a multi-purpose temple o Statues in the interior would be in a circle so as not to have prominence o Romans felt there was a need to remember all the gods and pay them o Pan- many

each their proper due Theos- gods

Niches in the walls— o Oval niches for major gods o Smaller niches for the lesser, but still important gods o Higher up there are smaller niches for even lesser gods

Inscription on the front o Portico is stuck on the big round drum that is the temple o On the frieze there is an inscription that dedicates the temple to Agrippa o This is strange because Hadrian built this temple and he had a great deal to do with the temples design o Built on the site of a previous pantheon – inscription is giving credit to the builder of the previous pantheon (might have been part of the o It is thought that the portico was meant to be taller, but after an accident previous pantheon or just a recognition) they had to shorten where the portico was to be

Raphael and other famous people buried in pantheon

The Pantheon from street level Interior of the Pantheon looking up at the oculus

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As master planned Functional, self-contained city—like Rome only smaller because the wealthy had summer villas to get away from the heat


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At the base of Vesuvius—it was the most substantial city covered by Vesuvius With the eruption of Vesuvius the volcano lost part of it top Pompeii is one of the only places to see a day in Roman life frozen in time and domestic ancient Roman architecture This site has been disturbed in some places (rooters and people who escaped came back to dig and retrieved valuables) Eruption o Erupted August 24, 79 AD o Vesuvius was one of the biggest recorded eruptions in history o Most people got out of the city before the eruption o Most people who died were unable to leave—gladiators chained, servants/slaves have to guard the house, elderly couldn’t leave, Roman soldiers that were imprisoned o Most people suffocated and were poisoned by gas from the volcano— either that or the ash that tore apart the longs/respiratory system of the people Napoleon was the first to excavate Pompeii (tries to imitate Rome in his ruling)

“Bodies” o The ash makes perfect molds of the people’s bodies o Some things might be left, but the body would decay and be surrounded o When excavators find these air pockets they pour plaster to make o Not a lot of people died because of the exodus the day before representations of the people who were covered in the ash by an air pocket mold

View of the Roman ruins at Pompeii with Vesuvius in the distance • Had a smaller version of the Roman forum Typical Roman Street with chariot “speed bumps”


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Wheels of the chariots had to be perfectly spaced to fit through the speed bumps which would keep people from racing There were sidewalks for the pedestrians

Reconstruction of a Roman villa typically excavated in Pompeii In the foyer would be ancestor portrait busts water to be used in the household tasks

Atrium would be the next room a visitor would enter—hole in the roof to collect Then there is a courtyard—Peristyle courtyard that would have the columns (would have fountain, flowering plants, statues) Kitchen would be kept from the main areas of the house and would be small Would have a garden/orchard behind house (fresh herbs are a benefit and they would give good aromas) Roman houses usually only have one entrance and no windows on the exterior walls—security risk (sometimes put bars over hole in the atrium to protect from thieves)

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Villas would share walls between villas Fire would be a great risk with this connectedness Wealthy villas would have atriums, not middle class houses Have a reflection pool that would catch the water

Atrium from the Peristyle House of Vettii, Pompeii, 2nd c. BC

Peristyle garden from the House of Vettii (Remember, peristyle literally means columns all around.) • • Have replanted the original plants (could tell from roots) Wealthy families would have these

Wall paintings from the Peristyle House of Vettii (Which of the four styles of Roman painting are exhibited here?) incrustation, architectural, ornate, intricate) • • This is intricate style—many different picture Red is a very popular color in the Roman villas and Naples yellow


Late Empire

Ruins of the Baths of Caracalla, Rome, 212-216 A.D. o More opulent than temples were networks

Most opulent architecture of Rome was the Roman baths o The temples were big and rectangular shapes, but the Roman baths o Baths of Caracalla is as large as 5 football fields o There would be beautiful, geometric patterned, marble floors o Sculptures, marbles, mosaics o Rome had at least 3 baths of these passive proportions o Close in size to the baths of Diocletian and Trajan

These baths powered from underneath by slaves o Slaves call stokers – would stoke the fire and keep them going to heat o The sublevels had heating and plumbing mechanisms that were very o It was considered hard labor—the stokers would never be seen in the clever for the time but required manual labor sublevels the pools and saunas

Rome had several huge public baths—very rich in water (had in abundance— about 100 gallons of water per person per day) o Way of life for the common Roman people not just the wealthy o Romans expected to have baths readily available for them o Only the slaves did not have access to these baths o The baths are social centers of the roman life o Politicians often went to the baths to speak to a majority of people o Even had libraries and centers for theatrical performances o Many Romans would go every day


The vaults of the baths were as high as 140 feet (very impressive engineering)

Illustration of the opulence of a Roman bath Reconstruction model of the Baths of Trajan • • • Windows high to emit optimum light The baths would be built similarly in what they include—presentation halls, saunas, baths, swimming pools, exercise rooms, libraries Column of Trajan, in the Roman Forum, 113 A.D., (see figure 7-49) • • • • • • • Columns are another type of monument used by generals to publicize their victories and war feats Trajan was the warrior emperor There is a spiral narrative that goes from bottom to top These pictorial narratives go from earliest to latest victories to show his life’s accomplishments There is a staircase inside the column Very detailed and shallow relief The figures in these relief narratives are denatured o Denaturing- artistic representative without regard to accurate proportion o Reaching a point in roman history, when communication becomes more important that artistic finesse o Trajan does not care if it is great sculpture—only wants to show his victories o Early precursor to a thousand year old medieval tradition – International Byzantine Style o Constantine and Christianity destroy the ego and pride of the artist Close-up of the spiral relief from the Column of Trajan Have gardens on the sides to provide walking areas outside

Plan of the Baths of Diocletian


_____________________________________________________________________ _________ Colossal Head of Constantine, c. 325 A.D., (approx 8' 6" high), from the Basilica Nova in Rome, (ask Mrs. Costa to see the photo of Constantine's foot!) • • • • • • There has always been the colossal statue of someone near the Coliseum Constantine makes a colossal statue of himself to replace the one of Nero The scale and proportion is not important, only the communication and size to the people that he is meant to be the emperor of Rome The head is denatured, but that is not important because it represents Constantine and his power to the people Denaturing in favor of communication _____________________________________________________________________ _________ Basilica of Constantine as viewed from a distance (a.k.a. Basilica Nova or Basilica of Maxentius/Massenzio), Rome, c 306-312 AD • •

It is important that he has replaced the statues of heroes before him to prove

Constantine battles the Roman Empire when they refuse to give him the position of tetrarch after his father (the former tetrarch) dies Constantine turns his faithful army against mother Rome He attacks Maxentius—the emperor who controlled the part of the Empire that Rome was in Christianity became more popular especially among the downtrodden Constantine knew the Christians were strong because they refused to back down even in the face of death and torture Constantine made a deal with God because he knew the god was powerful – He sees a vision in the rays of the sun and believes that it is a sign from god and decides to legalize Christianity if he wins this battle

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They paint the pax sign on their armor and became warriors of god


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313 AD Constantine orders the Edict of Milan which makes religious tolerance a legal thing more than a caesar The Christians threatened the Roman people because they worshiped a god Maxentius had been building a basilica for himself, and Constantine decides to complete it and claim it for himself

Basilica of Constantine, looking up at the coffering on the vaulting •

This was not supposed to be called the Basilica of Constantine Italians tend to call it the basilica of Maxentius Only half of the basilica still stands Has rounded, bee-hive looking coffering Mosaics would be on the walls and tiles on the floors There would have bee sculptures Would have been as opulent as a Roman bath The buttress is invented for this architecture o Walls so massive and vaults so heavy o A supporting element that sprouts from the outer wall and stabilizes the o Become popular on Gothic cathedrals concrete walls o Supporting structural extension

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• •

On the edge of the forum Would have clear story windows, geometric floors, and huge scale

Reconstruction drawing of the interior Basilica of Constantine Arch of Constantine, Rome, next to the Coliseum, 312-315 A.D. • • • The biggest Roman arch ever The one where he stole things from other arches and monuments Build it to show his dominance and to gain respect in Rome

The Four Tetrarchs, from the corner of St. Mark's in Venice, c. 305 A.D.


• • • • • • •

Made from periphery It is made to represent solidarity (have all the tetrarchs clinging to each other in strength) They look more like they are clinging to each other in fear

They are very denatured – look like children (very stumpy and stylized faces) With the rule of Constantine it is getting closer to the Byzantine style and the communication if more important that the artistic skill/finesse/integrity Used as a building block in the cathedral (given as a tax) It is the message of the tetrarchs rather than the identity of the tetrarchs


Persecution Period
o Built for burial o Used by Christians to hide and have secret masses

Romans practiced cremation and the burial of bodies was considered unclean so the catacombs outside the city walls (disease and smell)

o If one did not want to be cremated, the person would be buried in the catacombs

Easy to make tunnels because of the tufa is no master plan to them

o Catacombs often have five or six levels and are mazelike because there o Easy to get lost because there is no light source and no plan o Most had between three and six levels • Christians would hide in catacombs o The entrances are naturally hidden o Nobody wanted to go in the catacombs o Eventually some developed secret entrances to lead into the catacombs


to protect the Christians Sample plan of a Roman catacomb •
• •

CATACOMBS OF ST. PRISCILLA, 2nd c. A.D., Rome This is a common corridor in the catacombs There would be capellas to bury whole families in Most are full of narrow corridors and shelves where the bodies would be laid out (loculi)

The loculi would not have been open, but many have been open or desecrated Some of the bones moved to other places if they are known to be of a particular saint Would be sealed with plaster or brick and mortar (would have the names in the front) Wealthy people could have marble fronts for the loculi Almost every loculi is built to the persons exact specifications because there was not a lot of room

• •

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The Gallery on the first level • • Earliest type of Christian art made in the catacombs The persecution period begins with the death of Jesus Christ and ends with Constantine and the Edict of Milan (313) Scenes from the cubicle of the Velatio (Veiling). A private family chapel in the catacombs. Fresco: The Velatio • • • • • • This is from the family chapel of the Velatio (the veil) There was a veneration of a female family member Her life begins when she gets married There is a veil wrapped around bother her and her husband She is then shown with a veil again nursing a baby Her piety is shown as an older women in the orator/most ancient form of


prayer • • • • • • • • • • Out of respect for god she wears a veil on her head The three important phases of her life involve a veil One of the first images of Christ Christ looks very Greek/youthful (beardless with curly, Roman hair) Associated Christ with Apollo He is a youthful good shepherd that is willing to go after his sheep (cares about every dumb, errant sheep and loves them) Fresco: The Madonna and Child and the Prophet Balaam (or Isaiah) Often thought to be the first picture of the Virgin Mary She is clutching a child to her breast (thought to be Isaiah or another prophet) There is a tree growing sideways above them (like prehistoric caves paintings where paintings overlapping) Borrowed from Greek sculpture of shepherds/goatherds

Fresco: Christ as the Good Shepherd

Conversion Period

Two reconstruction drawings of the interior of Old St. Peter's, Rome, begun c. 320 Looks like what Saint Peter’s would have looked like Made the decision to be rebuilt because getting old Constantine ordered the first Christian churches Saint Peters was one of them This was supposed to be the holiest because it marks the spot where Peter martyred Reconstruction drawing of the exterior of Old St. Peter’s • • Know it had clear story windows, side aisles, most likely buttresses, and a wooden roof Would have been made in a Roman temple style of long, rectangular, high ceiling, and opulent

• • •


Like a Roman villa, would have had a courtyard and a baptistery (always separate from the church itself)

_____________________________________________________________________ _________ Interior of Santa Sabina, Rome, 422-432, (this photo gives us some idea of what the interior must have looked like in Old St. Peters.) • • Vast sense of space, carving on capitals Very well preserved

_____________________________________________________________________ ________ Interior of Santa Costanza, Rome, c. 337-351

Built like a baptistery or a tholos (round) The roundness of a sacred space a legacy of both Greece and Rome There is a curved vault around the exterior Constantine’s daughter buried here

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Characterized by the spread of Christianity There is a lot of denaturing In the Middle Ages—about the 5 century to the 15 century
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• • • •

The Byzantine period is from Constantine to the first few hundred years afterward Ravenna is the second Byzantine capital of the west Emperors ruling form Constantinople and Ravenna which are eastern capitals These Byzantine emperors are trying to govern what is left of the Roman


Empire now the Byzantine Empire • • The empire is slipping to the barbarians different, Christian It is very different from the Roman Empire—women have some say, laws

Aerial view of The Church of San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy, c. 526 • • • • • One of the churches built on the order of Constantine The Byzantine churches are not impressive from the outside The inside of a Byzantine church is very impressive and spiritual Humble on the outside, but it what is inside that matters (underlying meaning) It is rustic on the outside, not very ornamented Has the same, circular tholos plan as Santa Costanza Byzantine plan of churches are usually very equilateral o Early ones built like Roman temples o Typical Byzantine church plan has a center dome and then outlying Interior of San Vitale looking up at the curved, columned niches • • • • • • • Mosaics on the undersides of the arches Each columns is carved a little differently (a lot more creative than Greek columns) Very different from the plain outside—very decorated Curved ambulatory—the interior circle around the dome (ambulatory like amble —pilgrims would come to wander and pray in these halls) Very delicate and subtle decoration—feminine and graceful More impressive because it is harder to make than regular groin vaulting Roman architecture was meant to impress, but Byzantine architecture is religious and meant to inspire a spiritual experience Interior of San Vitale, curved ambulatory that is reminiscent of Santa Costanza areas in the shape of a cross

Plan of the Church of San Vitale


• •

It is more subdued, but very elegant Very ornate—intaglio – complex geometric design work (in mosaic, floor, different mediums) o Intaglio is popular method of decorating these churches because it is an Islamic tradition o Muslims can only decorate their mosques in design work because portraiture is a sin o Byzantium is close to the Muslims and so they share tradition of intaglio o Very eastern designs on columns o Intaglio pattern chiseled into stone = tracery (stone lace—looks like lace chiseled out of stone)

• •

Use stone rather than concrete in Byzantine churches (forget how to make concrete/cement) A lot of things lost—books forbidden (Catholicism), techniques forgotten, loss of order in the Roman Empire

Carved capital from interior of San Vitale (one of many creative variations) • Vitale, • • • • • • Apse dome = a half dome Byzantine mosaics are made from ceramic glazes (could have any color they want, unlike the Roman mosaics) The most favored color is metallic gold Setting about ¾ inch stones to make a picture These mosaics never fade and sparkle when clean and well lit (actually shimmers) Because the mosaic pieces are uneven, the light hits them differently and actually makes the mosaics shimmer Becomes even more complex over time Christ between Angels and Saints, (The Second Coming), apse mosaic from San


• • •

Roman mosaics were made from stone chips, Byzantine are made from ceramic Mosaics are the most favored form of ornamentation in Byzantine churches (stain glass in Gothic) This is a representation of Byzantine icons – very important in Eastern Christianity and Orthodox Christians o The higher up one looks, the more divine the people represented are o Holiest icons at tope levels, humans, plant s, animals on the bottom o Western Christians favored holy relics o Some of the icons are paintings with silver and gold around them

Iconoclast movement o Leo III orders the destruction of the icons o Not accepted well in the Eastern part of the empire—a lot destroyed and o Some are not destroyed because they are part of the architecture o People who are against this are called iconodules o This is brought about by the traditionalist Islamic belief against icons a lot hidden

Justinian and Attendants, mosaic from the north wall of the apse, c. 547 • • • Justinian is the greatest Byzantine emperor since Constantine Alaric is the first to sack Rome Justinian resecures the Byzantine empire o Ordered more Byzantine churches to be built o Codifies laws o Presents himself as a holy Christian emperor that rules by divine authority o Schism happens and the Roman Church is more spread (even thought Eastern Orthodox is older) • Constantinople was seen to be the center of Christianity and then


Justinian pictured as holding bread (the Eucharist) Constantine’s pax shield is in the corner indicating he is carrying on Constantine’s work Justinian has a halo around his crown—love symbols because people are becoming illiterate Emphasizes his religious authority by have religious attendants and his ruler ship by the military Wings, angels, halos, crowns, pax symbol, purple and gold (royal and holy colors) Justinian looks like an eastern emperor, not a Roman one – a lot more exotic and colorful A lot of denaturing in Byzantine icons—common signs/features o Almond shaped head o Almond shaped eyes o Everything outlines o Little hands, little feet o Christian symbols

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Christ in the role of pantocrator  Tradition to see god unlike the early Christians (no longer youthful, friendly shepherd)  Jesus is the omnipotent god in the heavens sitting on the world to watch everything one does  Christ seen as making notes of people lives—any wrongdoing recorded (scary image of judgement of god)

o Mary as the queen of heaven – very big elaborate throne • • Empress Theodora and Attendants, mosaic from the south wall of the apse, c. 547 Justinian’s wife Naturalism and idealism from the Greek times are gone


Making a strong statement about her role o She is the holiest first lady o Very elaborate and exotic o Public image of the holiest lady of the empire o She has ladies in waiting on one side and monks on the other side o She is so holy as to be attended by priests o Baptismal font = promise of new life o She holds the chalice for the blood o She is womanly and maternal as well as holy

Controversy over her historical role o Paints her as a bloodthirsty, warmongering tramp  o Was truly an actress and a prostitute in the hippodrome of Rome o Beautiful and smart—becomes the mistress to an older government official o Daughter of a bear trainer—would make the bears fight o She had to survive so she had to be a prostitute to survive o Dumped by the man she was mistress to in Africa o She makes her way to Alexandria—very prosperous at the time o Becomes a wool spinner in a small house near the palace o She meets Justinian there, but there is a law that government officials o He changes the law to marry her o She becomes an amazingly powerful and wise empress o Justinian became depressed and she brought him out of it o She encouraged him to not abdicate when rioters demanded his abdication o She ran the kingdom while he was sick from the Plague cannot marry actresses May be a chauvinistic way to discredit a powerful woman


o She fights for the rights for women and female slaves o Most famous woman in Byzantine history

Usually remembered in history as a very pious, wise woman as a prostitute

o She has to create an image so that she can rise from her lowly status _____________________________________________________________________ ________ • • • • • • • • • • St. Apollinare, Ravenna, Italy, c. 504 Named after an early martyred saint The exterior very plain and unimpressive (unique bell tower/campanile but that’s all) The body of St. Apollonius once rested here There is a dome that cannot be seen from the exterior Looks very much like a Roman basilica with the rectangular shape Clear story windows and Roman arches – Byzantine capitals though The coffering on the ceiling very Roman—motif in the middle of each coffering Pictures Christ with lots of symbols Symbols are important because the illiterate people needed to be able to understand what was shown _____________________________________________________________________ ______ • ANTHEMUS OF TRALLES and ISODORUS OF MILETUS, Hagia Sophia, Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey), c. 532 Lion = mark, ox = Luke, eagle = john, angel = Matthew

Interior of St. Apollinare

Apse Mosaic from St. Apollinare

Byzantine II

107 • •

Hagia Sophia = holy wisdom Architects = Anthemus of Tralles and Isodorus of Miletus Been through a lot

• •

Built within five years after being ordered built by Justinian Vandalized by Crusaders in early 13 century

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Looted everything that was of value

Crusaders promised wealthy by lords Feel like the Christians in Constantinople are not true Christians – they are dressed strangely, have strange customs, and are not joining the Crusaders in the fight against the Muslims


Did a lot of destruction all over Constantinople

Vandalized by Muslims in the 15 century

Transform the Haiga Sophia into a mosque Destroyed or whitewashed to get rid of the images Over the centuries, little side chapels added to all the side The minarets were erected by Muslims – Muslims equivalent of the campanile (muzzin- the Muslim that calls them to prayer and chants to call the prayerful)

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Reconstruction drawing of the Hagia Sophia • • • • • • There are ribs to make the dome stronger It is the biggest dome since the Pantheon Has caved in before and rebuilt it using pedentives (made the block-like shape under the dome heavier in the corners) Also the dome is hollow—there is space between inner and outer dome Never been done before—the spaces between the ribs are left open for windows at the bottom of the dome Very interesting because domes are unstable--- very amazing and risky (had them originally and in the rebuild)


It is still a mosque

Architectural model of the Hagia Sophia Interior of the Hagia Sophia

Illustration of the Hagia Sophia after the minarets were added Interior of the Hagia Sophia after some restoration Mosaic of Christ as Pantocrator from the Hagia Sophia • • • Was whitewashed, but has been cleaned The Byzantine tradition becomes a Greek orthodox tradition Christ takes on More Eastern characteristics (darker hair, darker eyes)

_____________________________________________________________________ ________ St. Mark's, Venice, Italy, begun 1063 • • • Before the Haiga Sophia was desecrated, it is comparative to St. Mark’s Venice is sinking—Venice was manmade (use tree trunks to make islands and then build on top of them) This was modeled after the Haiga Sophia, even thought it is more ornamental and encrusted then the Haiga Sophia would have been. Façade of St. Mark’s with ankle-deep water • • The duke wanted to have a jewel of a building It was a big port city o Put a tax on merchants coming into an out of the Venice port o With pay in gold or in building material o Would rather give a looted item rather than gold—why St. Mark’s so • • Has the cross shape of Byzantine churches, but have five dome instead of one dome and four outcroppings There are eastern elements as well Interior of St. Mark's (black and white photo) funky


• Interior of St. Mark’s (color photo)

Byzantine Iconography
• • • • • Have lost a lot of ability in art Have lost scientific perspective and realistic perspective Painted on a piece of wood prepared with many different layers of primer and paint Symmetrical composition is tradition in Byzantine Iconography Scientific perspective o Trying to imply depth and volume, but very confused • Christ is divine, not picture d as human o Cannot picture him as dead o He is on a shelf—only suffering, but not much Byzantine Madonna • • • • • • • • • It is a little different form most Byzantine icons because there is affection shown Baby still like a little man But the child is hugging Mary—like most babies do Difficult to image the Christ child undignified Strange proportions Older than the previous one Very traditional The baby Jesus is already preaching She is the Queen of Heaven—not compassionate or maternal o Look like above feet, but looking straight at him

Byzantine Crucifixion, panel painting

Enthroned Madonna and Child, tempera on wood panel, 13th c.


• • • •

Her throne is a piece of architecture The purple gown of Mary and the gold background Normally Christ is in the central highest dome of a Byzantine church He is always watching from the heavens

Byzantine pantocrator, dome mosaic

Christ as Pantocrator, mosaic from the dome of the Hagia Sophia

Still in the International Byzantine Style: Madonna Enthroned with Angels and Prophets, panel painting, c. 1280-1290, painter: Giovanni Cimabue • This is an Italian artist


Sample Islamic mosque plan Minaret and Great Mosque at Samarra (three photos), Iraq, (located on the Tigris River), 848-852 _____________________________________________________________________ _________

Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem, Israel, late seventh century Aerial view of the Mosque of Cordoba, Cordoba, Spain , begun in 786 Double-arched columns fro the interior of the Mosque of Cordoba


Elaborate arches near the mihrab in the Mosque of Cordoba The dome over the mihrab at the Mosque of Cordoba Baroque church built inside the Mosque of Cordoba _____________________________________________________________________ _______ Court of the Lions, the Alhambra, Granada, Spain, 1354-1391

Arabesque tracery with script from the frieze of the Alhambra Literal translation of arabesque: “Arabian-like”. Intricate geometric or organic design work often used in Islamic architecture. The overall effect is called horror vacui or “fear of empty spaces” because every surface of the architecture is covered with designs and patterns. Arabesque scrolls, vines, and floral shapes from the Allhambra _____________________________________________________________________ _________

Taj Mahal, Agra, India, 1632-1654


Tomb of Mumtaz Mahal from the interior of the Taj Mahal, (two views)

THE MIDDLE AGES Migration Period

Art of the Germanic Peoples: Frankish fibula, sixth c., silver gilt filigree and gold cloisonné

Sutton Hoo ship burial excavation site in 1939, Suffolk, England. Possible burial site of East Anglian king Anna (or Redwald), who died in the seventh century

Purse cover from the Sutton Hoo ship burial, from Suffolk, England, c. 655, gold and enamel (cloisonné)

Bronze helmet from the Sutton Hoo ship burial

The Franks Casket, c. 700, from Northumbria (the Northernmost of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms) Close-up of a panel of The Franks Casket depicting: Christ as the “King of Terror”


resurrecting the dead King Angolmois while Mars rules happily. Catechism is a bit sketchy for these new Christians! _____________________________________________________________________ _________ Tara Brooch, Ireland (Hiberno-Saxon art), c. 700, bronze and gold filigree with glass and amber settings • • Mixture of Saxon barbarian and Irish styles Meant to hold clothing together

_____________________________________________________________________ _________ Ruins of Lindisfarne Abbey, Lindisfarne is a small island off the eastern coast of England

At certain low tide moments, there is a land bridge of sorts to connect England and Lindisfarne Became the home of monks only Where the monks go, so go the riches The monks became targets for Vikings (between England and Scandinavian warriors) One time home of Saint Cuthbert (his remains in Lindisfarne)—decided to take his body with them The monks are also very proficient in illumination drawing

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_____________________________________________________________________ _________ Ornamental page from the Book of Lindisfarne, from Northumberland, England late seventh century

This is an illuminated page from a Bible from Lindisfarne This is Hiberno-Saxon style (different barbarian cultural style of art)


o Irish style cross o Curliques are snakes and birds—animal style of Saxon art o Celtic knot work and designing • The monks were artists

_____________________________________________________________________ ________ • High Cross of Muiredach, Monasterboice, Ireland, 923, 16 ' high Has a mixture of Christian and pagan imagery o There is the Crucified Christ Diagram of front and side views of the High Cross of Muiredach _____________________________________________________________________ _______ o There is also pagan animal imagery

Viking Art
Oseberg Ship, early 9 c., Viking Ship Museum, Oslo

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Was found below water and restored Was treated to be preserved if in climate controlled environment There were details added There is a lot of thoughtfulness in the making of this ship Have delicately carved the edge with detailing

Prow of the Oseberg Ship, early ninth century Animal-head post from the Oseberg ship, (this once capped a post on the ship) c. 825, wood • • Has the animal style popular of migration period art It is surprising that the Vikings so carefully carved their ships


MIDDLE AGES Carolingian Period •

Charlemagne is going to try to unite central power within Europe During and slightly after his rule is the Carolingian Period (about the 9 to 10
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centuries) •

Charlemagne wants to revive Roman style government and order, Latin (lost texts from antiquity)

classics, a new “roman” alphabet. Takes an interet in the production of books • • 810 • • This shows St. Matthew in the act of writing the Gospel An example of one of the illumination pages made by order of Charlemagne Charlemagne’s goal is to surpass Roman greatness Wants to promote culture and take Europe out of the Dark Ages

St. Matthew, from the Coronation Gospels (the Gospel Book of Charlemagne), c. 800-

Figure 11-15 St. Matthew, from the Ebbo Gospels (the Gospel Book of Archbishop Ebbo of Reims), c. 816-835 • • This shows Matthew as being troubled—almost like too much information and can’t write fast enough Has brought back the roman style of painting _____________________________________________________________________ _________ Interior of the Palatine Chapel of Charlemagne, 792-805, Aachen, Germany • • • • • Builds this chapel on orders of Charlemagne Looks to Byzantine iconography and other previous style There are stripes on the arches (from the east) Copying Roman Corinthian capitals The round tower is the actual chapel

Reconstruction drawing of the Palatine Chapel of Charlemagne


Plan of the Palatine Chapel of Charlemagne • • There is the curved groin vaulting taking from Roman architecture Looking back to previous Byzantine and Roman architecture and monuments

_____________________________________________________________________ _________ Christ in Majesty, Four Evangelists and Scenes from the Life of Christ, cover of the Codex Aureus of St. Emmeram, c. 870, gold set with pearls and precious stones, (probably commissioned by Charles the Bald, Charlemagne's grandson) • • This would have been the cover of a Bible The stone are not faceted—cutting stones developed later

Ottonian Period
• Charlemagne’s heirs cannot hold the Empire together o They fight amongst themselves o Becomes regionally governed after his death • Otto III is German and wants to unify much of Europe o More powerful than Charlemagne o His army the only one that could stop the Vikings o Had many of the same goals of Charlemagne (bring culture to Europe) o Otto has a stronger Christian agenda

o Feudalism reigns even more

Because of Otto, the image of Christ as the pantocrator changes dramatically (Christ more human—can suffer and die)

Otto III Enthroned Receiving the Homage of Four Parts of the Empire (with nobility and clergy), from the Gospel Book of Otto III, 997-1000 • _____________________________________________________________________ Illumination page


_________ Abbey church of St. Michael (restored), Hildesheim, Germany, c. 1001-1031 • • • Built on the order of Otto Starts to look gothic Looks unembellished, geometric, and plain o Long and high

o There is a long central aisle (nave) with two aisles to the sides Plan of the abbey church St. Michael • Nave of the abbey church of St. Michael • • •

o There is a curved ambulatory

Clerestory windows beneath the ceiling There is an ornamented ceiling Ceiling not vaulted Has not been changed over time – has original timber roof (has flat timber ceiling and then a sloping roof with an attic in between) Has an A-B-B-A support system (makes the higher structures possible with side aisles still available) o A = big massive column (weight bearing) o There are then two smaller B columns o Fat column (in rectangular shape like extension of wall and then two skinny, round columns

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Has the eastern patterns of red and white stripes Very elongated and very tall Ceilings coffered like the Romans Foretell Gothic architecture The side aisles are almost like buttresses

Bronze doors of St. Michael’s, commissioned by Bishop Bernward for St. Michael's,


1015 • Otto ordered something that has not happened in a couple centuries – massive bronze doors o In roman monumental architecture there are massive bronze doors o Has become a lost art and Otto revives it with this church • • • • Adam and Eve Reproached by the Lord, panel from the bronze doors Not up to the skill of Roman bas relief, but it is an art that has just started to be revived again The doors are not that 3-D Pantomime important— o God represented by human (revolutionary because God not seen as similar to humans) o God points to Adam o Adam points at Eve while trying to cover himself up o Eve continues by pointing to the serpent while covering herself up as well Doors subdivided into old testament scenes

Romanesque Period
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Romanesque is actually a derogatory title (like Roman architecture, but not as Not used as a derogatory term today, only a descriptive phrase about a certain period There are only regional governments (feudal lords) The only way to leave the feudal life is to join a monastic group (even then there are feudal elements) Crusaders promote Christianity and learning (they get it from the Eastern scholars—medicinal, philosophical, and sciences)

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St. Sernin, Toulouse, France, 1080-1120

Built in late 11 early 12 century
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The exterior is actually pretty and ornamented Built dry joint (stones that have to fit perfectly together) The high pointed tower was probably added later The interior was probably also renovated later The vaulting is called barrel vaulting – added later In Romanesque times the ceiling would have been flat o Concrete has been forgotten since the Roman empire

This is the nave of St. Sernin. Originally the roof was timber. It was later replaced with rib vaults and then groin vaults were added to reduce pressure and facilitate clerestory windows. This is especially impressive when you consider that the ability to mix and mold concrete did not survive into the Middle Ages! These vaults were made of cut stone, rubble, mortar, and heavy buttresses. • • Getting high—gothic feature Ribbed-barrel vaulting (not gothic feature) (Romanesque because very rounded, not pointed or groined like Gothic vaulting) Close-up of nave vaults. Note the alternate rib and groin sequence • Groin sequence, but not true groin vault _____________________________________________________________________ ________ Speyer Cathedral, West Germany, begun 1030 • Oddo’s architecture (1082 is when vaulting dates back) Nave of Speyer cathedral. Again, the roof was originally a flat timber roof. The vaulting here dates as far back as 1082 and may be one of the earliest fully vaulted Romanesque churches. At 45’ wide and 107’ high, the masonry skill of this nave is the most ambitious of the period.


Not as high as Gothic architecture

Sant'Ambrogio, view from the atrium at the front of the church), Milan, Italy, late 11th to early 12th century (the tallest tower was added during the 12 c.) Atriums were once a standard feature on early churches. A tradition that originated church plan. •

with the Roman villa plan. This was one of the last atriums to be incorporated into a Construction lasts hundred or two hundred years past the setting of the foundations Interior of Sant’ Ambrogio (two photos) • • • • Atrium feature from Roman villa architecture One of the lat churches to use this plan Groin vaulting accented (still not true groin vaulting) Very low ceiling (German cathedrals already into the Gothic high ceilings, but not here) _____________________________________________________________________ _________ Façade of St. Etienne, Caen, France, begun 1067 • • Vikings settle down in Northern France and become Normans Normans = great administrators and builders o Built to last forever o Use good stone and do it right • Sets the gothic standard in some features o Triple portal façade (has three doors in the front) o Three-part vertical division o Two tower front (would have had flat top, not spires)

o Build churches to act like fortresses

Ribbed groined vaults (very prevalent in Gothic architecture)  Still barrel vaults


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Have added elaborate groins Later there is a point upward where groins meet

o Cluster piers—look like a cluster of columns though is only one o Often one single engaged column that emerges from the cluster piers • This very ambitious after a time of humbleness (makes the cathedral look higher—rises to the ceiling of the cathedral) supporting column

Interior nave vaults of St. Etienne. Note: the earliest true rib vaults. The ribs and the groins spring from the tops of the alternating compound piers creating a six-part division. • _____ Distant view of Durham Cathedral, England, begun 1093 • • • Built stucco chapel—very humble and small (for Cuthbert’s body) Has true Gothic, pointed vaulting Creative columns o Have massive columns with herringbone designs • • • • It is the greatest Romanesque church ever (William kept his word—promised to the abbot) No pews—would stand in mass Humble tomb in floor Original stucco chapel still intact St. Cuthbert’s tomb o Each set of corresponding columns have an interesting design to it Nave of Durham Cathedral Compound piers = cluster piers _____________________________________________________________________

Choir of Durham Cathedral Aerial view of the cathedral group of Pisa (baptistry, cathedral, and campanile), Pisa,


Italy, 1053-1272 • • • • • • • • • • Does not follow gothic and French building methods Italy has sectional styles of architecture (regional) Romanesque period, but very different

Lombardian – Italian Romanesque (in the Lombardi area of Italy) Transept—looks like a roman Catholic cross A lot of colonnades (makes Lombardi architecture singular because group together and make ornate with many colonnades) Baptistery constructed first and then everything made to match the baptistery Baptistery most ornate Connected by colonnade repetition and white marble Triple portal only Gothic feature

Aerial view of the Cathedral, Baptistry, and Campanile of Pisa.

Aerial view of the Cathedral of Pisa Façade of the Cathedral of Pisa The nave of the Cathedral of Pisa • • • • • • • • Byzantine mosaic Corithian capitals Roman ceiling with coffering Green and white marble stripes—used a lot in Tuscany Would have fallen over if there was not intervention overtime by architects Started to lean even before it was completely built Tried to weight the side that was coming up, but didn’t work because the problems were coming from under the structure Arial view of the Baptistery of San Giovanni, Florence, Italy, in the 11th century but… experts claim that the core of this building dates back to the 7 c.!!!

The leaning campanile or tower of Pisa, (two photos)

Rests on a mud clay and sand surface


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Tuscan architecture Oldest building in Tuscany Lots of stripes that make this areas architecture unique Lots of geometric shapes with colored marble Looks ornamented on the side It is very elaborate

Ground level view of the Baptistery of San Giovanni A lot of different shapes Roman at first, then Christian is built on the foundation

_____________________________________________________________________ ________ West facade of San Miniato al Monte, Florence, Italy, 1062 • • • As old as the baptistery This is a church that was run by monks and still run by monks today The inside is very ancient

_____________________________________________________________________ ________ Bayeux Tapestry, depiction of William the Conqueror’s soldiers killing and trampling King Harold’s men at the Battle of Hastings, embroidered by ladies in the Norman court or perhaps by needlewomen in Kent from 1073-83. It was commissioned by Bishop Odo, Bishop of St. Etienne, half brother to William, and recipient of lands and power in Kent, thanks to his family ties. Due to all these connections there is some dispute as to whether the tapestry was created in Normandy or Kent. Undisputedly, it was created to hang like a continuous frieze around the interior of a Norman cathedral. The dimensions are 20” high x 230’ long! • • • Not truly a tapestry—just a long strip of linen with embroidery on it Made to be to completely surround the church Wants to curry favor with William the conqueror


• •

Don’t know where created, but know who commissioned it Very denatured and not impressive as far as beauty—impressive in the amount of embroidery it contains It is very graphic—it is not the ladies that came up with the subject matters (doing it to please men, not for their own pleasure) Show the Viking ships that the Normans are still using

_____________________________________________________________________ ________ Aerial view of Carcassonne, France (an example of a medieval fortified city) • • • • Have been “frozen” in medieval history Fortified with the original walls The rural areas around it probably look similar to the Have the parapets that guards would use to watch the fortress

Distant view of Carcassonne “Wall-walking” view of Carcassonne towers • _____________________________________________________________________ _________ Distant view of Toledo, Spain, (another example of a medieval fortified city) • • • • Very well preserved Unique character—not only German or French Gothic Medieval Jewish, Muslim, and Christian architecture Was a time when all three religions were there in harmony Kept very clean and the government controls it

French Gothic Period

Gothic was coined as an insult (Gothic as in German-barbarian outdated style)


but is actually the French that made the grand Gothic architectural innovations • Gothic characteristics o Triple portal and division o Two tower façade o Cluster piers with one engaged column going to the ceiling

o Very high—towards 140 feet (one cathedral in France was 157 feet and is now going to cave in) get to be ambitious and sometimes too ambitious o Stained glass windows and a lot of them (in high Gothic) o Pointed arches from the rounded, roman arches (strengthens the arch o Need more strength because they are building higher and bigger • • • • Page 27 of the Annotated Mon Lisa—the difference between Romanesque and Gothic architecture Evolution after Romanesque style begins in France Renaissance architects/artists thought Gothic architecture was dark and uninspiring Cathedra = chair of a bishop (Cathedral = church of a bishop) o Bishop would have been one of the few clergy people that would order the building of a church o Needed a lot of money—bishops are bishops because come from money o Bishops would know how to plan and order people to get their way o Would use holy relics to support their decision for a new cathedral (would draw people to pilgrimage to the cathedrals (would buy trinkets o Community pride would support the building as well (the business people would donate money or trade work) would form guilds to be and give more revenue to the building) and keeps the arches more stable)


acknowledged in their villages—would try to outdo the other guilds o The business people would sponsor parts of the church and put in symbols of their craft

Some people would pay of guilt of sins (restitution) and would contribute to the cathedral (would have images in somewhere in the church—would give them status)

o Some people would give out of the goodness of their own hearts o Only faith and commitment would keep these building projects going o These cathedrals would be records of history in these cathedrals _____________________________________________________________________ _______ Façade of St. Denis, outside Paris, begun 1140, designed by ABBOTT SUGER • • • • • • • • •

(because constantly evolving and growing)

One of the two towers has been lost Rosetta windows (circular stained windows) This is a prototype Gothic cathedral Causes other towns to want to do better things (before San Denis is was the Monastery at Clooney--- and St. Etienne before that) The Bishop of Paris at the time of Louis VII has the dream of San Denis—while the king on Crusade (uses a lot of new innovations) Notre Dame was being built at the same time as San Denis Some of the window arches are still rounded in the Roman tradition The portals are recessed—funnel portals This is a transitional cathedral and it begins the Gothic craze Most of these French Gothic cathedrals are named Notre Dame (for Mary) and then the location afterwards San Denis is actually another Notre Dame Image of the pantocrator was not very fulfilling to Christians (when put Mary as

• •


the Queen of Heaven, there begins that thought of a compassionate Interior of St. Denis, at the crossing of the nave and transept looking towards the altar • • • • • • Rayonnant style (a lot more windows) One tower damaged in fire Early Gothic, but still brighter than the Romanesque style of art Original Roman capitals Where all the noble people would be buried The really important people had tombal effigies (would be the person lying on their back as if peacefully sleeping, are usually pretty accurate because made when person still alive) Funnel portal from a transept entrance • • • • • Sucks one into the cathedral The statues do no look very 3 dimensional—almost like they are just parts of a column The trumeau is a center piece that is decorated with carvings Later the jamb statues become sculpture in the round, like they are alive and very 3 dimensional Sculpture in the round has been lost since the Roman times (later it inspires the Renaissance artists) Detail of Tympanum relief sculpture depicting the weighing of souls on judgment day. • • • • • This is the scary tympanum to the right (about judgment day) The figures are denatured and awkward Everything very skeletal Enough to scare the evil out of the people that are going into the church Would inspire people to sin less intercessor between the sternness of the Father)

Crypt of St. Denis


_____________________________________________________________________ _______ South flank of Notre Dame in Paris, begun in 1163 • There were many Notre Dames built because there was a period of strong need for a compassionate intercessor in heaven that became Mary (she is a mother-figure) • • culture The Plague is going through Europe and is shifting the view of death and the Mary changes from the aloof Queen of Heaven to the Mother of All (starts to become a nursing mother, coddles Baby Jesus, cathedrals dedicated to her out of love) • • • • • The Hail Mary came out of this time—she is becoming necessary to people’s faith life (need to know that someone loves them) Other Notre Dame cathedrals might have smaller saints that they are also dedicated to but were all mainly built for the pleasure of Mary Was meant to be the greatest cathedral in all of France It is the cathedral of the King and has to be the best Was planned in the style of the period because needed to be fashionable (which was Romanesque, not Gothic) o Notre Dame was not planned to have the transept plan of the Gothic style – had an afterthought because of Saint-Denis (because the architects of Notre Dame saw the revolutionary style) o Not a true transept because is really just a side corridor and entrance (in real transept there is room for pews) o The spire was also an afterthought o Pointed windows and arches came later o Flying buttresses came later—became a necessity when Notre Dame saw the number of stain glass windows at Saint-Denis and decided to


add more stain glass o Innovative style of buttresses—not solid, because those would block out light—flying buttresses that look like ribs that extend from the building (one thing about Notre Dame that is not copycat styled) o The buttresses no longer look simply functional—now they are beautiful o Important in Paris to have a state of the art cathedral – difficult because while building going on o Took a couple of times to get the vault right Nave of Notre Dame • • • • Very gloomy—Romanesque rather than Gothic It is very horizontal—in High Gothic is sublimated in certain elements There is a vertical emphasis that takes away from the “soaring-to-heaven” feeling in real Gothic style architecture Apsidal chapels—family chapels that are added later for patrons of the cathedral—cuts out some of the light Nave arcade of Notre Dame This cathedral was not finished until 1250 (more than 100 years to build the body of the church). There was a Roman temple originally on this site. The foundation of the temple was reused for the cathedral. These are clerestory windows right beneath the nave. A gargoyle from Notre Dame Notre Dame has gutters that lead to the mouths of the gargoyles. The gargoyles are pictures as almost satanic creatures—they are leftover from a pagan culture. The logic is that these are symbols of evil that will scare the evil out of you before you enter the cathedral and keep you from the Devil’s evil. This cathedral was seen as crude in the time of Napoleon because it was outdated. Napoleon used it to house o It is technically only superficially Gothic

planned in Romanesque times but built in Gothic times so style changes


horses, a garrison, and prisoners. There was talk of getting rid of Notre Dame because it was an embarrassment. Many Gothic architectures and cathedrals were Dame. Aerial view of Chartres Cathedral, Chartres, France, begun 1145 and rebuilt after fire destruction in 1194 • • Pilgrimage cathedral – housed the veil of the Virgin Mary (wore when gave birth to Christ) now displayed in the back behind glass in the reliquary Can see Chartres from many miles away—it is a hope—the city has not allowed high rise architecture

destroyed during the Reign of Terror. Napoleon’s grandson started repairs on Notre

Would have encouraged the pilgrims because they could see it from miles away Borrows features from Saint-Denis but makes them greater o More fully evolved rayonnant (more light and windows) has 7 acres of windows o Relic- veil of the Virgin Mary o Pointier, flying buttresses, high vault, asymmetrical façade (one tower o Malcolm Miller is the expert on Chartres struck by lightning and built in a different style)

• •

This is a more graceful and evolved type of Gothic architecture because of windows, height Known for its windows (every window tells a story because the people could not read)

View from the southeast Façade of Chartres

Rib vaulting, clerestory windows, some windows missing because destroyed during World War II Cluster piers with the soaring middle column


Plan of Chartres • • Pilgrimage maze and nave of Chartres • • • Pilgrims would go to the cathedral barefoot or on knees repentance Most Christian mazes are modeled after this maze—modeled after a pagan maze before that Pilgrimage maze of Chartres Flying buttresses from Chartres • Not as skeletal as the buttresses from Notre Dame Rose window from Chartres Holy relic from Chartres: the veil of the Virgin Royal Portal of Chartres and jamb statues _____________________________________________________________________ _________ Interior St. Chapelle, Paris, 1243-1248 (more than ¾ of the structure is glass!) • _____________________________________________________________________ ________ Reims Cathedral, Reims, France, begun 1210 • Most famous for o Tracery in the sculpture (very flamboyant Gothic style, part of the high Gothic period—flamboyant like flames) very “crusty,” the funnel portals very exaggerated and decorated o Coronation cathedral of the French kings (Joan of Arc captured here Would travel the maze to symbolize the journey to heaven and journey to Nave arcade and rib vaulting of Chartres Maze only takes about 1/3 of the nave


after she delivered the Dauphin to be coronated) Central portal of the west facade

There are pagan zodiac signs in the tracery of the portals Each portal is flanked by jamb statues that pictured the people the cathedral was dedicated to

Jamb statues from the central portal •

Detail of two jamb statues depicting The Visitation, from the Royal Portal • • • • The virgin Mary and Saint Ann No longer look like they are stiff like a column they are sculpture in the round The statues have detailed drapery and contraposto stance (looking toward the Greeks for inspiration) They are showing inspiration in the face and the pantomime actions of the sculptures

Because of these jamb statues that large scale sculpture in the round appears during the Renaissance

Choir and nave of Reims Cathedral • There would have been no pews at all _____________________________________________________________________ ________ Beauvais Cathedral, Beauvais,France, begun 1247 • • • • • Very beautiful, but too ambitious Never finished because the vaults caved during construction Most impressive—vaults soar to 157 feet It was designed correctly to hold the vault, but the community had to buy inferior cheaper stone because there was not enough money to complete it The back was closed off and they called it finished, supposed to be a longer nave

This cathedral becomes a symbol of hubris (the tower of Babel) reminds the


people that we have limitations • Soaring to the heaven stops after this and a few other cases like it (stops the French Gothic ambition) _________ •

_____________________________________________________________________ St. Maclou, Rouen, France, begun c. 1500

It is an example of the waning Gothic style o Deviates from the St. Etienne plan (façade rounded, two fake portals— blind portals,

The surface treatment is very flamboyant gothic

Not as high or as large; it is very elaborate but not large

English Gothic
• • • •

No not follow the style of French Gothic Neither do the Italian Gothic structures Has French Gothic features Has a double transept

Façade of Salisbury Cathedral, Salisbury England, begun c. 1220

Plan of Salisbury Cathedral (Note the double transept) Nave and rib vaults of Salisbury Cathedral • • • Brighter because they are not as tied to the stain glass Use more clear transparent glass The stone darker in France

_____________________________________________________________________ ________ Aerial view of Canterbury Cathedral, Canterbury, England, built in several different stages starting in 1067


• • • • Nave •

Was a pilgrimage cathedral after the murder of Thomas Beckett There is a shrine to hold Becket’s body Very long, very big

Façade of Canterbury Cathedral

The Becket Window (crafted some time after his martyrdom in 1170) • • • • • • • Made a window dedicated to Becket Looks over the spot he was killed Was supposed to be very brave and a great warrior Not very impressive on outside Has the same type façade as Etienne because built by the Normans as well Tracery in the ceiling All the decoration in the inside unlike the French Gothic which would be on the outside Tomb of Elizabeth I from the Crypt Chapel • • • • It I very detailed She is sculpted in her older years Has all the symbols of royalty in the orb and scepter She still pictured as having the fan collar and fashions of the time

Tomb of the Black Prince: Edward, Prince of Wales (1330-1376) Westminster Abbey, London begun mid 14th c.

Chapel of Henry VII in Westminster Abbey Fan vaults from in the Chapel of Henry VII, 1503

_____________________________________________________________________ _________


German Gothic Cologne Cathedral, Cologne, Germany begun 1248 (nave tower & facade 19th c.) • •

Very tall Damaged in World War II A big part of the cathedral caved in Rebuilt authentically—very good condition today

World War II destruction of Cologne with the cathedral intact _____________________________________________________________________ _______

• • • • • • • • • • •

Not looking for French prototypes Using Tuscan themes in colored marble and geometric shapes Built at a time when didn’t understand the way to actually build the dome Built and a hole where the dome supposed to be—grew to be an embarrassment Was not fixed until the Medici’s encouraged Filipo Brunelleschi to come up with a solution Brunelleschi was looking in the roman forum and sketching to tech himself skills Both Ghiberti and Brunelleschi are chosen to work together on the dome Becomes evident that Ghiberti is not any use to the project, they are both getting the same pay Brunelleschi gets sick and no work gets done because Ghiberti doesn’t know what to do Ghiberti gets fired, but still gets his pay Brunelleschi gets the project to himself

Aerial view of Santa Maria del Fiore (Cathedral of Florence), Italy, 1296-1436


o Manages to build the dome without damaging the insides of the o Was the impossible task 300 years later) cathedral with scaffolding

o This is the biggest dome in the world until St. Peter’s cathedral (about Aerial view of Bruneleschi’s dome for the Cathedral of Florence

Ross King’s Brunelleschi’s Dome terracotta tile on the top layer

• • • •

Cement ribs, bricks interlocked, chains banding the ribs together like a barrel, In the middle of building he decides to put a cupola on top of it (people thought he was crazy for wanted to add more to the already huge heavy dome) Is higher and wider than the Pantheon dome Borrows the coffering from the Pantheon

Illustration of the engineering of the dome Nave of the Cathedral of Florence Arial view of the baptistery is just to remind us that it is part of the cathedral grouping of doumo, campanile, and baptistery. The baptistery predates the cathedral by at least 200 years and is Romanesque in style. _____________________________________________________________________ _______ Orvieto Cathedral, Orvieto, Italy, begun c. 1310 (filled with Luca Signorelli frescoes) Illustration of Orvieto Cathedral interior Nave and timber roof of Orvieto Cathedral as it looks today • • Tuscan stripes on the inside as well Has not been revaulted and is the original timber roof

_____________________________________________________________________ _______ Cathedral of Sienna, Sienna Italy, date_________?


Like a more massive Orvieto

_____________________________________________________________________ _______ • •

Milan Cathedral, Milan, Italy, begun 1386

Very Gothic looking in the tracery and sculpture It does not have the Gothic façade or transept guide Built as recompense for sins (Duke of Milan) Very big but not long

_____________________________________________________________________ _______ Palazzo Vecchio, begun1298, Florence • • Example of civil architecture Looks serviceable not decorated

_____________________________________________________________________ ______ The Doge's Palace, Venice, begun c. 1345 • • Looks eastern because of the closeness to the east Colored brick laid in a diamond shape

_____________________________________________________________________ _______ This photo is drastically out of chronological and geographical sequence but it shows that ambitious architects are still building a cathedral in the Gothic tradition: • • • • Gaudi changed the plans of the Segrada Familia Supposed to be traditional Gothic, but has crushed pottery and ceramic added to the façade to make more colorful and whimsical Has a very rounded, organic style Being built with the same medieval stone mason techniques

Segrada Familia, Barcelona Spain, began c. 1882 by ___________________? and


altered by Antonio Gaudi . Completion is estimated to occur around 2050.

Late Gothic/Proto Renaissance in Italy

DUCCIO, The , SienRucellai Madonna, 1285, Italy

_____________________________________________________________________ _________ CIMABUE, Madonna Enthroned, c. 1285, Florence, Italy

_____________________________________________________________________ _________ GIOTTO, Madonna Enthroned, c. 1310, Florence, Italy

GIOTTO, Frescoes from the Interior of the Arena Chapel, Padua, Italy


GIOTTO, Lamentation , c. 1305, Arena Chapel, Padua, Italy

GIOTTO, The Meeting of Joachim and Anna, c. 1305, fresco, from the Arena Chapel

Giotto frescoes from the Bardi Chapel inside Santa Croce, Florence

Detail of the Death of St. Francis from the Bardi Chapel at Santa Croce, c. 1320,

Photo of the Cathedral of Assisi after the earthquake of 1997. Notice the rubble on the floor and the gaping holes in the vaulting that once held Giotto’s frescoes.

Restoration of the fragmented frescoes from the Cathedral of Assisi. Early Italian Renaissance This item is not Italian but it influenced the production of the first large scale sculpture in Italy since Greco-Roman times: SLUTER & WEVRE, Well of Moses Pulpit, 1395, Monastery of Champmol, Dijon,



_____________________________________________________________________ ________ LORENZO GHIBERTI, Sacrifice of Isaac, 1402, competition panel for the baptistery of Florence

LORENZO GHIBERTI, East Door of the Baptistry of Florence (The Gates of Paradise), 1425, gilded bronze, Florence


Close-up of Ghiberti’s Sacrifice of Isaac panel for his second set of bronze doors, The Gates of Paradise

_____________________________________________________________________ _________ DONATELLO, Saint George, marble,1415, Florence, sculpted for the niches on Or San Michele

DONATELLO, St. Mark, 1411, Marble, Or San Michele, Florence


DONATELLO, prophet figure, 1423, from the campanile of Florence Cathedral, marble, Florence

DONATELLO, David, 1428, bronze, Florence

DONATELLO, Gattamelata (equestrian statue of Erasmo da Narni), c. 1445, bronze, Padua, Italy

DONATELLO, Mary Magdalen, c. 1454, gilded wood, Baptistery, Florence Early Italian Renaissance Painting


GENTILE da FABRIANO, Adoration of the Magi, 1423, altarpiece from Santa Trinita, Florence, tempera on wood panel

_____________________________________________________________________ ______ MASACCIO, Tribute Money (detail), c.1427, fresco from Santa Maria del Carmine, Florence

MASACCIO, Expulsion of Adam and Eve from Eden, c. 1425, fresco from Santa Maria del Carmine, Florence


MASACCIO, Holy Trinity, c. 1428, from Santa Maria Novella, Florence

_____________________________________________________________________ ______ PIERO DELLA FRANCESCA, Flagellation of Christ, c. 1455, tempera on wood, the artist is a Florentine

PIERRO DELLA FRANCESCA, Victory of Constantine, c. 1452

_____________________________________________________________________ ______ FRA ANGELICO, The Annunciation, c. 1435, fresco (from Florence?) moved to the


Prado museum, (he also worked in Rome, Assisi, Perugia, and Orvieto)

FRA ANGELICO, Temptation of St. Anthony, 1430

_____________________________________________________________________ _________ DOMENICO VENEZIANO, St. Lucy Altarpiece, c. 1445, tempera on wood panel, Florence

_____________________________________________________________________ _________ FRA FILIPPO LIPPI, Madonna and Child with Angels, c. 1455, Florence, tempera on wood panel


_____________________________________________________________________ _________ ANTONIO POLLAIUOLO, Battle of Ten Nude Men, c. 1465, (also see his statue of Hercules and Antaeus as an example of this new fascination with tensed muscles)

The High Renaissance



Portrait of a Young Man, c. 1489

Birth of Venus, c. 1482, tempera on canvass, Florence

Primavera, c. 1490, Florence


The High Renaissance Leonardo da Vinci Virgin of the Rocks, c. 1485, oil on wood panel three dimensional use of triangular composition Leonardo perfects Massacio's invention of Chiaroscuro The figures are all part of the same landscape and atmosphere They relate to each other as they gesture towards each other Cartoon for The Virgin and Child with St. Anne and the Infant St. John, c. 1498, charcoal and white on brown paper Emits grace and beauty varied but not complicated, dignified but still looks spontaneous Logical and unified composition but still looks spontaneous Dramatic use of light - figures glow Another virgin and child painting by da Vinci, title?, date? The Last Supper, 1495 - 1498, oil and tempera on plaster, located in the refectory of


Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan This image became a popular prototype for subsequent last suppers. to his experimental techniques singled out as da Vinci's most impressive work although it had deteriorated due depicts a dramatic moment as Christ announces that one of the deciples had betrayed him. he clutches a money bag. lines that Each apostle bears a different expression. Judas is in shadow as

Christ is emphasized by the window behind him and by the use of perspective converge behind his head.

Mona Lisa, c. 1503-1505, oil on wood thought to be a portrait of a banker's wife the canvass has been cut off. masterful use of CHIAROSCURO - it is used to define as well as obscure creates mood and mystery one of Leonardo's favorite paintings - he actually completed very few her identity is the subject of great interest and contraversy Embryo in the Womb, c. 1510, pen and ink inventor, Leonardo was a true Renaissance Man: He was a master painter, architect, scientist and military defense expert. part of the painting has been cut off. She was encased by columns but part of possibly the world's most famous portrait

The High Renaissance



La Belle Jardiniere, 1507, oil on wood

beauty, grace, harmony, color,... Raphael finally depicts the infant as cherubic. The infant St. John the Baptist is cloaked in skins.

Madonna with the Goldfinch, 1505 - 06, oil on wood states that The goldfinch is a symbol of Christ's suffering on the road to Calvary. Legend the goldfinch's breast became red when it was stained with a plucking a thorn from Jesus' brow. drop of Christ's blood after ______ BRIEF INTERRUPTION BY RAPHAEL'S TEACHER, PERUGINO: Christ Delivering Keys to St. Peter, 1481, Sistine Chapel, Vatican City father of the Pope reinforces Christ is bestowing the keys of the kingdom to St. Peter, the first "Pope" or church. This visual depiction of divine appointment directly to the infallible and total Papal authority over the church. When have imagery before? figures and costumes. periods of saints and contemporary patrons and clergy are depicted conversation. Notice that his student, Raphael does this in


we seen this kind of Biblical various

Note the contemporary setting and Renaissance dress in combination with Implementation of the Sacra Conversazione or Sacred Conversation where illogically gathered in the next two paintings. _____________________________________________________________________


_________ The Marriage of the Virgin, 1504, oil on wood Rich use of vibrant color Raphael is praised for his harmonious and strategic compositions Grace, beauty and tenderness School of Athens, 1509 - 11, fresco in the Vatican, Rome His apprenticeship with Perugino is evident here. Can you explain why? He and Michelangelo influenced each other. It is said that Raphael modeled one of the from the Sistine Chapel said to be quite peeved! Pope Leo with Nephews, 1518, panel painting He was patronized by Popes, the Medici, and the Wealthy and powerful. Baldassare Castiglione, 1514, oil on wood transferred to canvass Raphael proves himself to be an excellent portraitist by painting this beloved writer/philosopher and friend with character and incredible naturalism. The High Renaissance Michelangelo Pieta, 1498-1500, St. Peter's Michelangelo's deep faith is evident here in it's tenderness and grace. Michelangelo was first and foremost, a sculptor although he had many other talents. He "freed" the image from the stone with a deductive method. His earlier sculpture is highly polished, refined and idealized. seated figures after a similar figure of Michelangelo's creation before he had unveiled it. Michelangelo was


A maniac attacked it with a sledgehammer in the early 70's, marring it's perfection. David, 1504, marble, 18' high, Florence

The latent power in the sculpture contrasts sharply with the boyish sensuality of Donatello's David.

Bound Slave and Bound Slave, 1513-16, marble, 84" high this time This sculpture is thought to be expressive of Michelangelo's state of mind during of his life when he was pressured and overtaxed with papal requests and commissions.

Moses, 1513-15, marble, 8'4" high, located in St. Peter in Chains, an early Xtian church in Rome Although old and bearded, Moses exudes awesome strength and power. Tomb of Guiliano de Medici, 1520-34, San Lorenzo, Florence

The Sistine Chapel Ceiling, Vatican City, 1508-12, Fresco

Creation of Adam, detail from the center of the ceiling


The Fall of Man and the expulsion From the Garden, 1508-12, detail from the Sistine Chapel Ceiling St. Peter’s Basilica, 1546, Vatican City, Rome Dome of St. Peter’s (designed by Michelangelo but altered somewhat by Giacomo Della Porta after Michelangelo’s death) Palazzo del Senatore and Campidoglio, Rome, designed after plans by Michelangelo

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